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Sample records for administered radioactive material

  1. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members

  2. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  3. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE

  4. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  5. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  6. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  7. Radioactive material storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To make a spent fuel accommodating box movable and accommodate spent fuels at a position farther than the side wall of the storage installation and to draw the spent fuel near to the side wall with the lapse of the storage time, thereby attenuating the radiation effectively and increasing the storage capacity. Constitution: A space (box) accommodating radioactive materials is made movable, and the radiation is effectively shielded by the attenuation of the radioactive materials in storage due to the lapse of the storage time and the shielding of the radiation due to the liquefied shielding material up to the shielding wall of the storage installation, whereby the shielding wall of the storage installation is made thin and the capacity in the installation is enlarged, thus the accommodation capacity, that is, the storage capacity being increased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of 57Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free 58Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free 58Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated 57Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived 57Co and 58Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract. - Highlights: • Gastrointestinal (GI) uptake, f1, of inorganic radioactive cobalt varies between 0.007 and 0.043 among humans. • Mean f1 among human volunteers was found to be 0.022 ± 0.003. • More than 95% of the estimated internal absorbed dose occurs within 7 d for the short-lived radionuclides 57Co and 58Co. • More than 60% of the time integrated absorbed dose from ingestion of 60Co occurs within 7 d. • Residence time of cobalt in the human GI-tract strongly influences the time integrated internal absorbed dose

  9. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  10. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  11. Safe use of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have become essential tools in much of the research conducted in the biological and medical sciences. Procedures documented in this manual are only examples of the numerous applications of radioactive materials in the field of parasitology. Like many chemical reagents and much of the equipment found in laboratories, radionuclides can be hazardous if used carelessly. Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer in humans and animals, and has been shown to increase the risk of genetic abnormalities in animal studies. Everyone handling radionuclides in a research program has a responsibility to follow safe laboratory practices for use of these materials. Most research institutions will have a radiation safety organization which may include a Radiation Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Committee. Procedures developed by the radiation safety organization must be followed in order to protect personnel working with radioactive material, and the public, from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Investigators must also know and follow regulations established by government agencies for the use and disposal of radioactive materials. In this chapter some basic information on procedures for the safe use of radioactive materials in the laboratory is provided. Greater detail for specific operations and radiation safety concerns may be obtained from documents referred to in the text

  12. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  13. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  14. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  15. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  16. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSweeney, T.I.; Maheras, S.J.; Ross, S.B. [Battelle Memorial Inst. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites.

  17. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  18. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Extraction of radioactive cesium from ash of flammable radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive materials was released by the hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Suppression of the volume of radioactive materials stored by decontamination works is strongly required since the preparation of storage places is not easy. We are developing the technology for separation and concentration of radioactive cesium using nano-particle, Prussian blue, as a cesium adsorption material which has a high efficiency and good selectivity. We propose a method in which radioactive cesium is extracted from the ash of flammable materials into the water and the Prussian blue nano-particles are added to the water to collect cesium. The volume of radioactive wastes contaminated by cesium is expected to be cut down with these processes. (J.P.N.)

  20. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  1. Management of radioactive wastes produced by users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a document to provide guidance for regulatory, administrative and technical authorities who are responsible for, or are involved in, planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste management programmes related to the safe use of radioactive materials in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and the subsequent disposal of the radioactive wastes produced. It provides information and guidance for waste management including treatment techniques that may be available to establishments and individual users

  2. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items

  3. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  4. Radioactive material accidents in the transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is an important part of the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record for nuclear transport across the world is excellent. The increase in the use of radioactive materials in our country requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user. Despite the number of packages transported, the number of incidents and accidents in which they are involved is low. In Brazil, do not be records of victims of the radiation as a result of the transport of radioactive materials and either due to the accidents happened during the transports. The absence of victims of the radiation as result of accidents during the transports is a highly significant fact, mainly to consider that annually approximately two hundred a thousand packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport throughout the country, of which eighty a thousand are for a medical use. This is due to well-founded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professionalism of those in the industry. In this paper, an overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in the state of Sao Paulo. The applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. It also presents the packages amounts of carried and the accidents occurred during the transport of radioactive materials, in the last five years. The main occurred events are argued, demonstrating that the demanded requirements of security for any transport of radioactive material are enough to guarantee the necessary control of ionizing radiation expositions to transport workers, members of general public and the environment. (author)

  5. Transport regulations for radioactive material in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material in Germany is regulated by the dangerous goods transport regulations and the regulations of the Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. For radioactive material shipments by road, rail, sea and air the modal regulations on the transport of dangerous goods for class 7 of the ADR, RID, ADNR, IMO and ICAO are implemented in Germany and have to be complied with. In parallel with this the Atomic Energy Act requirements and the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance concerning the transport of radioactive material have to be met. They contain provisions regarding the reliability of transport organisations and persons, training of persons involved in transport nuclear liability insurance, physical protection and public interest in addition to the need to fulfil the dangerous goods transport regulations. According to these requirements shipment approvals which are presented in the paper, are necessary for nuclear material, large sources and other radioactive materials. Based on this some practical implications for radioactive material shipments will be discussed as well as some aspects of the future developments. The paper also gives an overview of the responsibilities for approval and inspection of radioactive material shipments in Germany. (author)

  6. Transport security of radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraguay has implemented diverse mechanisms for the safe transport of radioactive material. Among the first of these was the adoption and implementation of national regulations based on the latest edition of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1). The National Regulation for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, in Article 34, states that any transport of radioactive materials must fulfil the IAEA's Transport Regulations. In addition, Resolution No. 4097/00 of the Rector of the National University of Asuncion approved the latest edition of the IAEA's Transport Regulations, as the only instrument to be used by the National Commission of Atomic Energy - the competent authority - in authorizing the safe transport of radioactive material, for exports and especially within MERCOSUR, the Common Market of the South. (author)

  7. Emergency preparedness for radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipments of radioactive waste in the United States are increasing. This paper discusses how the federal government must certify a package design before radioactive materials are allowed to be shipped in the actual package or cask. The certification process and the package provides the first line of defense in assuring that radioactive material will not be released in a transportation accident. If a transportation accident occurs, state, tribal and local governments have the responsibility to protect the health and safety of the public. If those resources are not sufficient, the DOE maintains a network of trained personnel and state- of-the-art equipment to supplement state, tribal and local resources

  8. Decontamination method of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ions leached from plant constituent materials to reactor primary coolants are gradually deposited in primary circuits in a state that metal ions are mixed with iron oxides, to form obstinate oxidized coating layers. In order to remove radioactive materials intruded into such oxide coating layers, the radiation-contaminated materials are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water to make the radioactive materials free and remove them from the surface of the contaminants. That is, if metal oxides such as Fe2O3 are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water, e- is applied to the oxide, and water molecules return to a stable state, as well as Fe2O3 is reduced from Fe+3 to Fe+2, to cause structural change in the tissues of the oxide coating layers. This can change the property of the oxide coating layers and easily remove them by washing, and radioactive materials intruded between oxide particles are removed simultaneously. (T.M.)

  9. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  10. Diffusion of Radioactive Materials in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Wali Ajlouni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The dispersion of radioactive materials in the environment related to escaping of noble gases, halogens and aerosols of non-volatile radioactive materials, from the reactor containment during normal operations, or in the event of a sever reactor accident. Approach: radionuclide dispersion in the environment is demonstrated by mathematical tools which are the partial differential equations, mainly the diffusion equation. A mathematical model to calculate the concentration of nuclear pollutants (radioactivity with certain boundary conditions is constructed. Results: Solving the mathematical model and using some approximations lead to a distribution represents a model for plume of radioactive pollutants dispersed in two dimensions normal to the wind direction in which the plume moves as an entire non-dispersible unit. Conclusion: The obtained result theoretically are very close to those achieved experimentally.

  11. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuo [Building Materials Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  12. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  13. Transport of radioactive materials by post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Seminar was to encourage safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material by post. Adequate, up-to-date regulations for international and domestic shipment of radioactive material by all modes of transport, including by mail, have been published by the IAEA. UPU, ICAO, IATA and other international organizations as well as a majority of the countries of the world have adopted most sections of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Although there is an apparent need for shipping radioactive material by mail, some countries allow only domestic shipments and the postal regulations applied in these countries often differs from the international regulations. Only about 25 countries are known to allow international (as well as domestic) shipments. From the discussions and comments at the Seminar, it appears that the option of shipment by post would be advantageous to enhance both the safety and economy of transporting, as well as to increase availability of, radioactive materials. The Agency's Regulations for transport by post as adopted by the UPU and ICAO are considered to provide a high level of safety and ensure a negligible element of risk. A more uniform application of these regulations within UPU Member States should be encouraged. The competent authority for implementation of the other parts of the Agency's Regulations in each of the Member States should be invited to advise the Postal Administrators and assist in applying the requirements to national as well as international postal shipments

  14. Natural Radioactivity of Some Mongolian Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbish, S; Ganchimeg, G

    2000-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials used in cities of Darkhan, Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet in Mongolia was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with HP-Ge-detector. The radium equivalent concentration and the gamma absorbed dose rate in air, were estimated as the external and internal hazard indices. The results indicate that these materials are not a major source of exposure.

  15. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  16. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  17. Identification of radioactive materials in moving objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control over the transportation of the radioactive materials crossing the borders of Uzbekistan is actually today not like before because of increased threat of terrorism.and urges of terrorist organizations to use radioactive materials in their terrorist activities. There are many companies producing radiation control systems. All such systems existing nowadays are based on the principles of intensity comparison for radiation detected by the system in the absence of control object and the intensity of the radiation when object appears. This method works well only in the conditions of constant or weakly changing background. However, at significant deviation in the value of background the number of false alarms set off by the systems increases. The present work describes the method for radioactive materials detection in the moving objects independent of the significant background deviations and present radiation monitoring establishment based on this principle

  18. Transport regulations for radioactive materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials are taken as a basis for our national regulations to secure the safe transport of radioactive materials in Japan. The requirements for packaging and packages that are used to transport radioactive materials are based on the IAEA Regulations. Furthermore, in addition to the IAEA Regulations, the relative international regulations such as the IMDG code of IMO etc. are reviewed by our national authorities and applied to the conveyance such as the transport vehicle/vessel etc. that is used for the shipment. The transport system such as a transport caravan in Japan is intended to provide even greater safety during transport. The future activities to be discussed in the IAEA are how to adopt the IAEA Regulations to Member States as soon as possible and to evaluate the safety margin of the IAEA Regulations to the assumed accidents. (author)

  19. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials

  20. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  1. Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act came into force on 27 August 1991. It replaces earlier legislation dating from 1948 and enables the United Kingdom to give effect to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) latest recommended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The new Act clarifies and extends the power of the Secretary of State to make regulations regarding, among other things, the design, labelling, handling, transport and delivery of packages containing radioactive material and the placarding of vehicles transporting such packages. The Act gives the Secretary of State the power to appoint inspectors to assist him in enforcing the regulations. (NEA)

  2. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  3. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  4. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  5. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  6. Security of radioactive materials for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used in hospitals throughout the world for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. High activity single sealed sources are used in teletherapy units, although these are becoming less common as they are replaced by linear accelerators, and in blood irradiator units, which are in widespread use. Lower activity sealed sources are used in brachytherapy. High activity unsealed sources are used typically for the treatment of thyroid cancer and neuroblastoma in inpatients while diagnostic doses of unsealed radioactive materials have much lower activities. In the case of a central radiopharmacy producing patient doses of radiopharmaceutical for several Nuclear Medicine departments, however, quite large amounts of radioactive materials may be held. Hospitals are, by their nature, less secure than other licensed nuclear sites and the ever-changing patient /visitor (and staff) population is a further complicating factor. Hitherto, security of radioactive materials in hospitals has tended to be considered from the perspective only of radiation safety but this approach is no longer sufficient

  7. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  8. Completion of the radioactive materials packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance', which will serve as a replacement for the 'Cask Designers Guide'(1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US DOE and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuels). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs) must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet United States and/or international regulations, all of which are covered in the Handbook. One of the primary goals of the Handbook is to provide information which would guide designers of radioactive materials packages to make decisions that would most likely be acceptable to regulatory agencies during the approval process of the packaging. It was therefore important to find those authors who not only were experts in one or more of the areas that are addressed in a SARP, but who also had been exposed to the regulatory process or had operational experience dealing with a wide variety of package types. Twenty-five such people have contributed their time and talents to the development of this document, mostly on a volunteer basis

  9. Security in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Adequate security is an essential concern in the transport of radioactive materials for all the stakeholders involved - the countries producing radioactive materials, the countries across which and to where the radioactive materials are transported, and the transport industry. Indeed, stringent security measures in the movement of radioactive materials have been in place for many years. Regulators have recognised that specific radioactive materials transported require special security controls and measures in order to prevent illicit use of such material. This need for protection is now even greater. No industry is subject to more stringent levels of security. The transport of radioactive materials has traditionally been subject to specific national protection measures, as shown for instance by a State reserving its right to oversee the security measures taken during the transport of such materials originating from or carried through its territory. To prevent theft of radioactive materials during transport, a wide range of protection measures, including access control, employee screening and coordination with local and national security authorities, involving security forces, have been developed. Some of these provisions have a direct and considerable impact on how transports are organised. While State sovereignty on security matters is appreciated, and since international transport of radioactive materials is a common practice, greater harmonisation of security measures within and between countries should be encouraged in the interest both of security and efficiency. For example, a security official at an international border crossing may interpret requirements on the ground in a different way from authorities at the centre. There appears to be a view among some potential transport service providers that the transport safety and security regulatory regimes are onerous or too complicated. It is the operator who experiences at first hand the differences

  10. Safe transport of radioactive material. 4. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been publishing Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material since 1961. Meeting its statutory obligation to foster the exchange and training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training. This training manual is an anchor of the standardized approach to training. It is a compendium of training modules for courses related to the different aspects of safety of transport of radioactive material. Keeping in view the specific needs of the potential users, the manual includes material that can be used for a variety of training programmes of duration ranging from half-a-day to ten days, for specific audiences such as competent authority personnel, public authorities, emergency response personnel and cargo handlers

  11. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Simpson, J. [Class 7 Limited, 9 Irk Vale Drive, Chadderton, Oldham OL1 2TW (United Kingdom); Ghobril, C. N. [Governo de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Economia Agricola, 04301-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, C. F., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2468, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sau Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  12. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  13. Provision of transport packaging for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe transport of radioactive materials is governed by various regulations based on International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations. This code of practice is a supplement to the regulations, its objects being (a) to advise designers of packaging on the technical features necessary to conform to the regulations, and (b) to outline the requirements for obtaining approval of package designs from the competent authority. (U.K.)

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs

  15. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  16. The transport of radioactive materials - Future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, set the standards for the packages used in the transport of radioactive materials under both normal and accident conditions. Transport organisations are also required to implement Radiation Protection Programmes to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public. The industry has now operated under this regulatory regime safely and efficiently for nearly 50 years. It is vital that this record be maintained in the future when the demands on the transport industry are increasing. Nuclear power is being called upon more and more to satisfy the world's growing need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity and there will be a corresponding demand for nuclear fuel cycle services. There will also be a growing need for other radioactive materials, notably large sources such as Cobalt 60 sources for a range of important medical and industrial uses, as well as radio-pharmaceuticals. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support all these industry sectors and the challenge will be to ensure that this can be maintained safely and securely in a changing world where public and political concerns are increasing. This paper will discuss the main issues which need to be addressed. The demand for uranium has led to increased exploration and the development of mines in new locations far removed from the demand centres. This inevitably leads to more transport, sometimes from areas potentially lacking in transport infrastructure, service providers, and experience. The demand for sources for medical applications will also increase, particularly from the rapidly developing regions and this will also involve new transport routes and increased traffic. This raises a variety of issues concerning the ability of the transport infrastructure to meet the future challenge, particularly in an environment where there already exists reluctance on

  17. Radioactive materials and emergencies at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events have heightened awareness of the problems raised by accidents at sea involving radioactive materials. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) noted that, while the transport of radioactive materials at sea is governed by extensive international regulations, deficiencies remained, particularly concerning mechanisms for early accident reporting and the development of generic safety assessments and accident analysises for various kinds of sea transport. As a contribution towards improving international guidance in this field, the NEA appointed a consultant to review the current status of activities carried out by the principal international organizations concerned with the transport of radioactive materials (the IAEA, IMO and the CEC), to identify the various areas where additional work is required and to suggest appropriate improvements. Only the radiation protection aspects of sea transport have been considered here. After having examined the consultant report, the CRPPH felt that its wide distribution to national regulatory authorities in OECD countries would serve a useful purpose. The report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD and does not commit Member Governments or the Organization

  18. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  19. Levels of radioactivity in grit blasting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of the build up of naturally occurring radioactive materials within the scales and silts accumulating in gas and oil production and processing plants are well known. Whilst surveying for these materials it became apparent that very occasionally high survey readings were being produced which could not be associated with elevated levels in scales or silts in the plant being investigated. Further measurements established that the source of these elevated levels was in fact grit from recent cleaning operations which had not been properly cleaned away. It was therefore decided to look at the activity levels in grits more systematically to see if a real problem did or could exist. (author)

  20. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations & Development (PO&D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage.

  1. Corrosion resistant storage container for radioactive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Davis, Mary S.

    1990-01-01

    A corrosion resistant long-term storage container for isolating radioactive waste material in a repository. The container is formed of a plurality of sealed corrosion resistant canisters of different relative sizes, with the smaller canisters housed within the larger canisters, and with spacer means disposed between judxtaposed pairs of canisters to maintain a predetermined spacing between each of the canisters. The combination of the plural surfaces of the canisters and the associated spacer means is effective to make the container capable of resisting corrosion, and thereby of preventing waste material from leaking from the innermost canister into the ambient atmosphere.

  2. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  3. Scintillation material for radioactivity detection in chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation material was developed for radioactivity detection in liquid and gas chromatography. The starting material is crystalline Al-Y perovskite doped with Ce and La ions, which is heat treated at 1100-1700 degC under hydrogen for 1/2 to 8 hrs, ground, and screened to obtain a fraction 20-30 μm in grain size. The grain surface is modified by etching with phosphoric acid at 400-600 degC for 5-60 sec or with NaOH at 100-200 degC for 10 min. For some applications this material can be coated with a monomer (e.g., a styrene-divinylbenzene mixture) and exposed to gamma radiation to achieve complete polymerization of the monomer. The material suggested exhibits a high detection efficiency for β radiation, short luminescence times, a high chemical, mechanical and radiation resistance, and low sorption properties. (P.A.)

  4. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  5. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akashi, Makoto; Shimomura, Satoshi; Hachiya, Misao [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol`s iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs.

  6. Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity graphically, using nomogram of known uranium (226Ra), thorium (232Th), potassium contents is suggested. Nomogram usage permits to replace labour-consuming calculations of radionuclide specific activity by formula with simple rule imposition. Determination errors don't exceed 1-2%. The nomogram may be easily constructed selecting ranges of radionuclide concentration variation ranges, which are the most characteristic for the work region, and calculating scale values for U, Th and K by formula. Distance from uranium activity scale to U and Th total activity scale as well as scale factor of total specific activity are calculated by formula

  7. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third edition of the ANDRA's national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). After a brief historical review of the national inventory and the way it is constructed, the report gives the basics on radioactive wastes, their classification, origins and management processes, followed by a general presentation and discussion of the inventory results (radioactive wastes and materials). Results are then detailed for the different activity sectors using radioactive materials (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). Information is also given concerning radioactive polluted areas (characterization and site management) and radioactive waste inventories in various foreign countries

  8. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  9. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  10. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  11. Cataloging, Processing, Administering AV Materials. A Model for Wisconsin Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Robert D., Ed.

    The objective of this cataloging manual is to recommend specific methods for cataloging audiovisual materials for use in individual school media centers. The following types of audiovisual aids are included: educational games, filmstrips, flat graphics, kits, models, motion pictures, realia, records, slides, sound filmstrips, tapes,…

  12. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  13. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  14. Procedures for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y

    2007-11-15

    This technical report describes the procedure and work responsibility along with the regulation and standard necessary for the safe transport of radioactive or contaminated materials. This report, therefore, can be effectively used to secure the public safety as well as to prevent the disastrous event which might be resulted from the transport process of radioactive materials by establishing a procedure and method on the safe packing, handling and transport of radioactive materials.

  15. Study of radioactive materials with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation brings 3 major improvements compared to other X-ray sources usually used in laboratories. Its high brilliance permits the study of size-reduced samples, the low divergency of the beam gives the possibility to increase the angular resolution of the diffractometer and the spectrum of the X-photons which is continuous, allows the experimenter to chose a particular wavelength. Synchrotron radiation is becoming an important tool to investigate radioactive materials particularly burnt nuclear fuels. Zircon is the corrosion product that appears on fuel clad during irradiation, the use of synchrotron radiation with the right wavelength and a discerning incidence angle has clearly shown a crystallographic change of the zircon induced by heavy ion irradiation. X-ray fluorescence induced by synchrotron radiation can give information on fission products which were till then undetected because of the lack of sensibility of previous methods. (A.C.)

  16. Research with radioactive materials in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the revision of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, for instance in section 41, the author - who can draw on his own experience as a referee for projects planned in the area of research with radioactive materials in man - deals with the following problems: 1. Quantifiable risk-benefit assessment as opposed to qualitative risk-benefit assessment based on medical experience. 2. Delimination of medicine and research by criteria such as application to healthy or sick persons, application of a new method or an already standardized one, application in the hope to achieve an individual benefit or without such hopes, and application with a view to obtaining results suitable to be generalized, in the course of which many borderline cases will crop up. 3. Legal requirements in section 41 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance with the demands for minimization of risks and quality assurance, and 4. application procedure and experience gathered so far. (TRV)

  17. Transportation of radioactive materials in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is designed to calculate the total risk due to shipping radioactive materials in Sweden. The base case developed is the shipment model that is used now or the best estimate for expected shipments. The model for the calculations and the computer program used has been developed at the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA and is the same that was used for the NUREG-0170 study. The results from the calculations show an annual expected population dose of 30 person-rem due to normal transport conditions. The annual expected dose from accidents were calculated to be between 2.3-20.8 person rem. The higher figure represents the case where plutonium is shipped back to Sweden from reprocessing plants abroad in the form of PuO2 and the lower figure represent the case when plutonium is shipped back in the form of mixed oxide fuel. The total additional population dose in Sweden due to both normal and accident conditions in the transportation of radioactive materials will be 30 - 50 person rem/year. Compared to the natural background radiation that is 8x105 person rem per year in Sweden, this figure is very low. If converted to latent cancer fatalities this population dose will add approximately 3.5x103 cancers each year. The consequences due to accidents have been calculated and are discussed separately from their probabilities. The most severe accident that was found was an accident involving PuO2. This accident would give 82 400 rem as a maximum individual dose and 8.1x105 person rem as a population dose. (Auth.)

  18. Emerging issues in radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generates around 16% of the world's electricity and will play an increasingly significant role in meeting the world's need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity. Industry expansion will bring demand for fuel cycle services placing new and greater demands on transport. The demand for other radioactive materials, like Cobalt-60 sources, is also likely to increase. Few countries manufacture gamma sources and sea transport is therefore vital to distribute them globally. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support these industries. The challenge will be ensuring this can be maintained safely and securely in a world where security and other concerns have increased. Sources of nuclear fuel cycle services often are remote from the demand centres. An essential question for future nuclear power generation surely must be: even if availability of fuel can be assured, how can transport to support such a programme be assured? At the front end of the fuel cycle, could existing commercial liner services be relied upon when there are increasing delays and denials of shipments already? Can availability of transport in a commercial environment be assured? Moreover, where will the capacity to transport spent fuel, reprocessed fuel and residues in greater volumes and across expanded routes come from? More transport to areas potentially lacking in infrastructure, service providers and experience raises various issues including compliance with regulation, harmonised standards, security and training. Radioactive materials transport cannot be taken for granted; it faces a variety of challenges, and numerous emerging issues in the wider nuclear industry that have important implications for transport. (author)

  19. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section 177.842 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages...

  20. Data bases concerning the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe two data bases which provide supporting information on radioactive material transport experience in the United States. The Radioactive Material Incident Report (RMIR) documents accident/incident experience from 1971 to the present from data acquired from the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Radioactive Material Postnotification (RAMPOST) data base documents the shipments that have taken place for Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material. HRCQ shipments are post notified (that is, after the shipment) to the DOT

  1. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  2. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  3. Framework for assessing the effects of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials transport may result in environmental effects during both incident-free and accident conditions. These effects may be caused by radiation exposure, pollutants, or physical trauma. Recent environmental impact analyses involving the transportation of radioactive materials are cited to provide examples of the types of activities which may be involved as well as the environmental effects which can be estimated

  4. Perceptions, perspectives, proportions: Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly a hundred years ago in 1893 - when railroads still monopolized land transport, the first set of international rules governing shipments of hazardous materials were issued to cover their movement by rail. Since then, more than a dozen international bodies, and scores of national regulatory agencies, have published regulations directed at the carriage of dangerous goods by road, sea, air, as well as rail. The regulatory network today covers virtually all kinds of substances and commodities that are used for beneficial purposes, but that under certain conditions are potentially harmful to people and the environment. 'The Problems Encountered by International Road Transport in Multimodal Transport Operations', by M. Marmy, paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Transport and Handling of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Associated Modes, Havana, Cuba, 1984. These include the chemical fertilizers farmers spread on their fields, the nuclear fuel now powering electricity plants in some two dozen countries, the drugs physicians use to diagnose and treat illnesses, and the fossil fuels, such as gasoline, routinely used in transport vehicles. All told today, about 21 different international labels are required to identify separate classes of dangerous goods among them, explosives, corrosives, and flammables. Another separate class radioactive materials is the specific subject of feature articles in this issue of the IAEA Bulletin. The evolving regulatory system reflects at once the growth in traffic of hazardous materials, essentially a post-World War II trend. Since the mid-1940s, for example, the transport of all dangerous goods just on the seas has grown 1000%. based on reports at a recent international conference. Overall, years ahead will see further increases

  5. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  6. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  7. Report on current research into organic materials in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary review of relevant recent papers on organic materials in radioactive waste is presented. In particular, the effects of chelating or complexing agents, the influence of bacteria and the role of colloids are assessed. The requirement for further radioactive waste inventory detail is indicated. Potential problem areas associated with the presence of organic materials in radioactive waste are identified and appropriate experimental work to assess their significance is proposed. Recommendations for specific further work are made. A list and diagrams of some of the more important polymer structures likely to be present in radioactive waste and their possible degradation products are appended. (author)

  8. Trasmar: automated vehicle for transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally robots have been used for industrial applications, even though area in which these devices had a deep impact is in the nuclear industry. The ININ is an Institute that must to manage and to work with radioactive substances. The ININ is also responsible of the storage and supervision of radioactive wastes in the country, therefore the applications of the automated systems in the Institute have as the main objective to reduce the exposure and the contact of personnel with the radioactive material. Here to, it has been proposed the project called Assisted Transportation of Radioactive Material (TRASMAR). (Author)

  9. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  10. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any release to the environment. There have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material with no spill of material in any of the incidents. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond and to provide emergency public information in the event of an accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes our commitment to worker safety and public safety. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations

  11. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  12. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States and competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a nuclear security regime for facilities dealing with radioactive material and associated activities. This is to be achieved through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement a legislative and regulatory framework to address the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and associated activities in order to reduce the likelihood of malicious acts involving those materials. These recommendations reflect a broad consensus among States on the requirements which should be met for the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and activities.

  13. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  14. The safety and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the IAEA's programme on the safety and security of radiation sources which is aimed primarily at protecting people's health. This programme finds its origins in the IAEA's statutory function for establishing safety standards and providing for their application. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources provides the basic safety requirements. In spite of the existence of such standards, serious radiological accidents continue to occur, some of these accidents involving 'orphan' sources, that is, they that are not under appropriate control. Concerns about this matter over led, in 1999, to the development of an Action Plan, which is aimed at enabling the IAEA to develop and implement activities that will assist States in maintaining and, where necessary, improving the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials over their life cycle. This paper describes the seven major topics of the Action Plan and the progress in the implementation of the various actions. These topics are: regulatory infrastructures; management of disused sources; categorization of sources; response to abnormal events; information exchange; education and training; and international undertakings. The findings of a Conference held in Buenos Aires in December 2000, while reinforcing the activities in the Action Plan, also identified further actions. One of these was that events where individuals are exposed to radiation because of breaches in radiation source safety or security without malice aforethought should be clearly distinguished from events where there is a criminal intent of exposing people to harmful effects of radiation. (author)

  15. Transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport plays an important role in the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record of nuclear transport across the world is excellent. This is due to well-grounded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professional ability of those in the industry. This paper presents an overview of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP. In particular, the applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described.(author)

  16. Licensing of radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importation, acquisition, possession, use, sale and/ or transfer of radioactive materials need to be regulated and controlled in order to safeguard the importer, possessor, user or seller and the general public as well. The Philippine Atomic Energy Commission pursuant to Republic Act No. 2067, as amended and Republic Act No. 5207, has been charged by the government to control, regulate and license all the radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines. Licensing and control is accomplished through a system of rules and regulations applicable to all importers, possessors, users or sellers of radioactive materials

  17. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is defined under the provisions of the regulations for execution of the aviation law. Terms of exclusive loading and container are explained. Transportable radioactive materials hereunder exclude naturally igniting fluid materials, substances necessary to be contained in vessels which filtrate interior gas with filters or refrigerate contents with cooling devices, etc., or BM loads necessary to be continuously ventilated. Radioactive materials to be conveyed as radioactive loads and L loads are prescribed with tables attached. Technical standards for radioactive loads are stipulated for L, A, BM and BU loads respectively. Confirmation of safety of radioactive loads may be made by examiniation of documents prepared by persons acknowledged proper by the Minister of Transportation. Radioactive materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which include one or more than two of such substances. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. The maximum doses of containers with radioactive loads shall not exceed for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at a distance of 1 meter from the surface. Confirmation of safety of transport, method of loading, prevention of criticality, restriction of mixed shipment, transport index, signals and others are provided for in detail. (Okada, K.)

  18. The Egyptian legislation for safe transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian legislation related the safe transport of radioactive materials, a licence is required for the transport, import and or export these materials. The licence is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the NCNSRC-AEA licence to handle/ transport radioactive materials/wastes have been developed according to the international and Egyptian legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or to refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Suez Canal, in the Egyptian regional waters, in the sea harbours or in the exclusive economic zones of Egypt according to the national and international regulations. (author)

  19. Safe Practice of Transportation of Extremely Hazardous Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About twenty million consignments of all sizes containing radioactive materials are routinely transported worldwide annually on public roads, railways and ships. There have been accidents over the years, but never one in which a container with highly radioactive material has been breached, or has leaked; as these kind of consignments use robust and secure containers. International regulations for the transport of radioactive material have been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These regulations have been widely adopted into national regulations, as well as AELBs Radiation Protection (Transport) Regulations 1989. The objective of these Regulations is to establish requirements that must be satisfied to ensure safety and to protect persons, property and the environment from the effects of radiation in the transport of radioactive material; by requiring containment of the radioactive contents, control of external radiation levels, prevention of criticality, and prevention of damage caused by heat. In order to further expand its expertise in the field of radioactive waste management, Malaysian Nuclear Agency has acquired a Class D (Transport) Licence from AELB in 2014. Prior to performing any transportation of radioactive materials, particularly extremely hazardous Category 1 sources, all safe measures must be taken into account to ensure no problems occur during transport, as well as to comply with the regulations set. (author)

  20. U.S. port commerce in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much attention has focused on the movement of radioactive materials over land transport systems. On the other hand, maritime flow and associated throughput studies of such substances have been neglected. Although several peaks and troughs are evident between 1972 and 1981, radioactive tonnage moving through U.S. port facilities steadily increasing. In the ten-year period assessed, total radioactive materials handled at U.S. ports expanded by over 19,000 tons, which amounts to almost a 173 percent growth rate. The purpose of this exploratory research is threefold. First, it identifies all U.S. ports which were involved in loading or discharging radioactive materials. The major goal of the identification process is to broaden public awareness of these types of movement. Second, it classifies U.S. seaports based on the magnitude of radioactive tonnage handled. The function of the classification is to impose some order on the varied data, while at the same time categorizing large, medium, and small facilities. Finally, it seeks to verify whether or not a long term trend exists. The objective of the verification process is to ascertain if the distribution of radioactive materials handled at individual ports has remained constant. Port safety and contingency planning are clearly within the purview of coastal zone management. The results of this preliminary research should form a foundation for future studies which compare and evaluate local, state, and federal regulatory policy pertaining to port operations involving radioactive materials, including waste

  1. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  2. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference

  3. Transport of radioactive materials and equipment. Requirements. (Provisional)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard is aimed at establishing the procedures that must be followed when transporting radioactive materials and equipment in Venezuelan Territory. The ''Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear'' is responsible for their fulfillment and control

  4. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  5. Quality management in the regulation of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms

  6. Drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: It is important for the safety of the radioactive material containers during transportation. Purpose: In the procedure of reviewing radioactive material containers transportation, it is very important factor to carry a drop impact analysis of container. Methods: This paper presents a drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container. First, do the calculation of several drop cases of the container such as horizontal drop, vertical drip and gradient drop with the famous transient dynamic analysis program LS-DYNA. Second, do the stress evaluation according to the rules in the ASME Section Ⅲ Division I Appendices which are about the fatigue analysis. Results: With this method, we can do the judgment that whether the container's strength is good enough or not. Conclusions: The radioactive material container's strength is good enough by analysis. (authors)

  7. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi; Kelvin Mark Mtei; Ijumba Jasper Nathan; Pawel Jodłowski; Chau Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materia...

  8. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials (PATRAM '86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this volume the following aspects of packaging and transport of radioactive materials are represented as topics: Regulations, codes, standards, research, development, radiation protection, risk assessment, transport experience, transport planning, administrative issues, and emergency response. Road, rail, and maritime transport are considered. Spent fuels and radioactive waste are mentioned often as the materials being transported. Issues of particular interest to the field of safeguards are brought up

  9. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  10. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirwono, Muttaqin Margo; Choi, Kwang Sik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  11. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  12. Contamination with radioactive materials and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of the monograph mainly designed for personnel in nuclear power plants, radiochemical laboratories and laboratories of nuclear medicine departments is basically divided into two parts. In the general part, the contamination of persons and objects with radioactive substances is discussed and the physico-chemical principles of decontamination are presented. The main part of the publication is devoted to concrete practical decontamination procedures. Special attention is devoted to the decontamination of components of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors and to the decontamination of the equipment of radiochemical and radiological laboratories (in-service, after accidents and during decommissioning). Also described is the decontamination of garments, underwear, protective aids, rooms, buildings, terrain and water. Also included is a chapter on the disposal of radioactive wastes generated during decontamination. (A.K.)

  13. Information from the Import/Export of radioactive material Service

    CERN Document Server

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    The radiation protection group reminds you that the import/export of all radioactive material must be declared in advance. In the case of exports, an EDH shipping request form must be completed, ticking the box “radioactive material”. In the case of imports, an electronic form must be completed before the material arrives on the CERN site. Any requests which do not comply with the above procedure will be refused. The import of any radioactive material that has not been declared in advance will be systematically refused. For further information, please consult the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Tél: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00

  14. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  15. Data about shipping of radioactive material for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials implies a risk for the personnel of the team, those members of the public and the environment. While the safety in the transports is based on the designs of the bulks, the programs of radiological protection are important to assure the radiological control to the workers, the public and the environment during the transport of these materials. Although the biggest interest in the transport of radioactive materials it spreads to be centered in the nuclear industry, the transport in great measure it happens for the materials of medical use. These are mainly transported in bulks of the A Type and excepted bulks. The transport ones are forced, by national regulations, to send to the competent authority, in our case the National Comissao of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), all the data of the transported materials. This work has by objective to aim the efforts made to settle down and to manage the data regarding the transported radioactive materials. The existent data in the Radiopharmaceuticals Center, of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations 'IPEN/CNEN' it contains the information on all the radioactive materials consigned for the transport during every year. A statistic of the number of deliveries of the radioactive material for the period from 2001 to 2005 is provided. Based on this statistic its are presented the number of bulks, the quantity of activity and the ways of the transport for the period in study. (Author)

  16. Germany - Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2001 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2001, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2001, some 3 211 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 3 226 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Canada, Russia, and the USA. (orig.)

  17. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2002 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2002, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2002, some 3 070 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 3 052 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Russia, and the USA. (orig.)

  18. Safety of transport of radioactive material. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material has been transported for decades within and between countries as the use of radioactive material to benefit mankind has expanded. The transport can involve many types of materials (radionuclides and radiation sources for applications in agriculture, energy production, industry, and medicine) and all modes of transport (road, rail, sea and waterways, and air). Among the organizations in the United Nations system, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health against exposure to ionizing radiation. Within its statutory mandate and pursuant to this request, in 1961, the IAEA issued Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations). The Transport Regulations were periodically reviewed and, as appropriate, have been amended or revised. The latest version of the Transport Regulations was issued in 2000 by the IAEA as Publication TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). In addition, the IAEA is entrusted by its Statute to provide for the application of its standards at the request of States. The objective of the Conference is to foster the exchange of information on issues related to the safety of transport of radioactive material by providing an opportunity for representatives from sponsoring international organizations and their Member States and from other co-operating and participating organizations to discuss critical issues relating to the safety of transport of radioactive material by all modes and to formulate recommendations, as appropriate, regarding further international co-operation in this area. The following topics have been identified by the Technical Programme Committee as the subjects to be covered in the background briefing sessions: History and Status of the IAEA Transport Regulation Development; Experience in adoption of the IAEA Transport Regulations at the international level; Implementation of the IAEA Transport

  19. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  20. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  1. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  2. Environmental effects associated with the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of this paper has been to describe some of the background information concerning nuclear materials transportation systems, accident statistics, accident severities, and test information - all of which when combined yield an environmental statement of the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive materials. The results of the ultimate risk analysis are expressed in terms of numbers of fatalities and, in that sense at least, tend to be an absolute measure of risk. When these risks are compared with other accepted societal risks, the relative risks associated with radioactive material transportation can be established. This information can be used to make decisions at the governmental level and to inform an interested public about these risks. It can be concluded that the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material are low relative to the other risks that society has already accepted

  3. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a comprehensive review carried out by panels of experts convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency starting in 1979, a revised version of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1984. This edition supersedes all the previous editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. The regulations contain the following sections: introduction, general principles and provisions, activity and fissile material limits, preparation, requirements and controls for shipment and for storage in transit, requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages, test procedures and approval and administrative requirements.

  4. A development of radioactive material tracking and location control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Gwang Tae; Jung Seung Yong; Song, Jung Ho [Korea Industrial Testing Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    As the whole industry fields such as construction, chemistry, machine, medicine including nuclear-related field have extended the range of radioactive material uses, it is tendency that domestic uses of radioactive material have been increased in quantity and number. In addition, as the transportation, transfer and use of radioactive material have been frequent, its loss, robbery, and carelessness of handling may cause not only employees in charge but the public to worry about damage of explosion and put an obstacle to increase trust in nuclear-related industry. At present, though the transportation, use and storage of radioactive material conform to the institution and standard of the atomic energy law, if we tracking radioactive material in real time, we can take immediate actions to prevent its loss, robbery. As our research institute developed a terminal that control location and tracking real time location for gamma-ray projector used in transporting, transferring, and using nondestructive test, we take a good look at utilities by using GPS-Cell ID bases location control.

  5. New materials for the containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos-cement is a new material that can be used in the containment or storage of radioactive waste, because it can act as intermediate storage for high activity waste dispersed in this material or else be used in the shape of definitive storage containers

  6. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  7. Some Experience with Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (orphan sources or disuse sources) is of global concern. Reports on the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Data Base (ITDB) indicates increasing trend of incidents recorded in more than 40 countries on six continents[1]. It is suspected that nuclear trafficking is fueled by nuclear terrorism and is a threat for increasing illegal trade in nuclear and radioactive materials to manufacture Radiological Disposal Devices (RDD)- dirty bombs. As such, the international co-operative efforts are needed to uncover and combat nuclear trafficking in order to minimize its consequences such as external radiation exposure of persons from source to various radiation levels during illicit movement and after seizure; rupture of source leading to internal exposure of persons and environmental contamination. Although accidents with radioactive materials have not occurred in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT), incidents of illicit trafficking and unauthorized possession of radioactive materials has occurred thus prompting the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) to strengthen its nuclear security of nuclear and radioactive material in the URT. Nuclear faclities and radioactive sources lacks adequate physical protection against theft, fire or different forms of unauthorized access. Tanzaniaia has recorded about thirteen (13) illicit trafficking incidents of radioactive between 1996-2006. Caesium-137, Uranium-238; and Uranium oxide standard and Radium-226 with activity ranging from low to significantly high were among the radiounuclides which were intercepted. Most of these incidents had their original outside Tanzania. The incidents were uncovered by informers in cooperation with the police. Despite the fact that the management of these incidents by the police were adequate, it was observed that there is an inadequate radiation protection arrangements during transport of seized sources; lack of precautions for safety when handling seized

  8. The trafficking control of fissile and radioactive materials in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After disintegration of the USSR the problem of control for transfers of radioactive and fissile materials has getting more and more urgent in sovereign Kazakhstan. Fissile materials, which theoretically could be used to creation of nuclear weapons, were available at the following enterprises of Kazakhstan: The Institute of Nuclear Physics - National Nuclear Center - Almaty The Institute of Atomic Energy - National Nuclear Center - Kurchatov Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Combine - Aktau Ulbinskiy Metallurgical Plant - Ust-Kamenogorsk At last time mass-media have reported many incidents of a new type of theft. Individuals are detained, trying to sell fuel pellets made of enriched uranium, radioactive contaminated cables, or various components of technological purposes from the enterprises. A significant problem is the legal and illegal collection of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. This made at places of realization of nuclear tests (former Semipalatinsk nuclear test-site (STS), Azgir, Lyra and others) and at working and closed uranium mines. Nominally, the incidents can be divided into three groups: - heft of materials, hazardous in term of nonproliferation; - heft of materials, non-hazardous in terms of nonproliferation (radioactive scrap metal, sealed radioactive sources); - heft due to an inefficient system of physical protection (the tank for transportation of radioactive waste products at Institute of Atomic Energy of NNC RK)

  9. Quality assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All activities related to the safe transport of radioactive material should be covered by a quality assurance programme. This publication recognizes that a single transport operation often involves several different organizations, each having specific responsibilities. Hence, it is unlikely that the operation will be covered by a single quality assurance programme. Each quality assurance programme should be tailored to the specific organizational structure for which the programme is prepared, with account taken of the particular transport activities of that organization and the interfaces with other organizations. The aim of this publication is to give a detailed interpretation of what must be done by whom to produce a quality assurance programme for radioactive material transport. This publication provides guidance on methods and practical examples to develop QA programmes for the safe transport of radioactive material. It provides information on how to develop the programme, the standards and the common features of a QA programme

  10. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  11. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada

  12. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others

  13. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  14. Aspects of safety in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials behaves to the equal that other chemical products, certain risks that its are necessary to know how to evaluate and to minimize, adopting all kinds of measures technician-administrative, with object of being able to guarantee that this risks stay in an acceptable level for the population potentially affected for the workers of the one sector and for the environment. To be able to evaluate the risk acceptable it is a difficult task, for that, national and international organizations have established a commitment to develop standards of radiological protection, to make every day but sure the transport of radioactive materials

  15. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  16. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials used in Samsun, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, M Çagatay; Disci, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, radioactivity levels of 35 different samples of 11 commonly used building materials in Samsun were measured by using a gamma spectrometry system. The analysis carried out with the high purity Germanium gamma spectrometry system. Radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K range from 6 to 54 Bq kg(-1), 5 to 88 Bq kg(-1) and 6 to 1070 Bq kg(-1), respectively. From these results, radium equivalent activities, gamma indexes, absorbed dose rates and annual effective doses were calculated for all samples. Obtained results were compared with the available data, and it was concluded that all the investigated materials did not have radiological risk.

  17. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA

  18. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  19. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7±9, BDL to 93.0±3 and BDL to 343.1±12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h-1), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials. (author)

  20. Radioactive Materials in Medical Institutions as a Potential Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In numerous health institutions ionizing sources are used in everyday practice. Most of these sources are Roentgen machines and accelerators which produce radiation only when in use. However, there are many institutions, e.g., Nuclear medicine units, where radioactive materials are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This institutions store a significant amount of radioactive materials in form of open and closed sources of radiation. Overall activity of open radiation sources can reach over a few hundred GBq. Open sources of radiation are usually so called short-living isotopes. Since they are used on daily basis, a need for a continuous supply of the radioactive materials exists (on weekly basis). Transportation phase is probably the most sensitive phase because of possible accidents or sabotage. Radiological terrorism is a new term. Legislation in the area of radiological safety is considered complete and well defined, and based on the present regulatory mechanism, work safety with radiation sources is considered relatively high. However, from time to time smaller accidents do happen due to mishandling, loose of material (possible stealing), etc. Lately, the safety issue of ionizing sources is becoming more important. In this matter we can expect activities in two directions, one which is going towards stealing and 'smuggling' of radioactive materials, and the other which would work or provoke accidents at the location where the radiation sources are.(author)

  1. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  2. Development of a wireless radioactive material sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our team at the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has designed and developed a low-power, compact, wireless-networked gamma sensor (WGS) array. The WGS system provides high sensitivity gamma photon detection and remote warning for a broad range of radioactive materials. This sensor identifies the presence of a 1 μCi Cs137 source at a distance of 1.5 m. The networked array of sensors presently operates as a facility and laboratory sensor for the movement of radioactive check sources. Our goal has been to apply this architecture for field security applications by incorporating low-power design with compact packaging. The performance of this radiation measurement network is demonstrated for both detection and location of radioactive material.

  3. The new context for transport of radioactive and nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne, C.; Galtier, J. [Laboratoires and Research Dept., 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-07-01

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials involves all modes of transportation with a predominance for road and for air. It is but a minute fraction dangerous good transportation. Around 10 millions of radioactive packages are shipped annually all over the world of which ninety percent total corresponds to shipments of radioisotopes. In spite of the small volume transported, experience, evolution of transport means and technologies, the trend to constantly improve security and safety and public acceptance have modified the transport environment. During the last few years, new evolutions have applied to the transport of radioactive and nuclear materials in various fields and especially: - Safety - Security - Logistics means - Public acceptance - Quality Assurance. We propose to examine the evolution of these different fields and their impact on transportation methods and means. (authors)

  4. Emergency preparedness and response in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been providing clean, affordable electricity in many parts of the world for nearly half a century. The national and international transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials is essential to support this activity. To sustain the nuclear power industry, fuel cycle materials have to be transported safely and efficiently. The nature of the industry is such that most countries with large-scale nuclear power industries cannot provide all the necessary fuel services themselves and consequently nuclear fuel cycle transport activities are international. The radioactive material transport industry has an outstanding safety record spanning over 45 years; however the transport of radioactive materials cannot and most not be taken for granted. Efficient emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material is an important element to ensure the maximum safety in accident conditions. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), founded by International Nuclear Services (INS) of the United Kingdom, AREVA of France an the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, represents the collective interest of the radioactive material transport sector, and those who rely on safe, effective and reliable transport. As part of its activities, WNTI has conducted two surveys through its members on emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material and emergency exercises. After recalling the International Atomic Energy Agency approach on emergency response, this paper will be discussing the main conclusion of surveys, in particular the national variations in emergency response and preparedness on the national and local levels of regulations, the emergency preparedness in place, the emergency response organisation (who and how), communication and exercises. (author)

  5. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  6. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  7. Qualification test of packages for transporting radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 the Waste Treatment Division of Nuclear Tecnology Development Center has been developed and tested packagings for transporting radioactive materials and wastes. The Division has designed facilities for testing Type A packages in accordance with the adopted regulations. The Division has tested several packages for universities, research centers, industries, INB, FURNAS, etc. (author)

  8. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  9. The new context for transport of radioactive nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne, Catherine; Galtier, Jerome [Transnucleaire, F-75008 Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials, involves all modes of transportation (road, air, sea, rail) with predominance for road and for air (air for radioisotopes). In this paper we examine the impact of new evolutions in the fields of safety, security, logistics means, public acceptance and quality assurance.

  10. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  11. Incident involving radioactive material in steel scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early March of 1996, a wagon with steel scrap heading from the Czech Republic to Italy was returned as a strongly contaminated material. Based on the integral dose (dose rate 650 mGy/h in front of the wagon) and spectrometric measurement and evaluation, it was concluded that an unshielded cobalt-60 source (1.6 TBq) was present. The history of the event (notification, assessment, intervention planning, intervention) is highlighted and the lesson learned from the incident is discussed. (P.A.)

  12. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  13. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE's cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials

  14. Calculations and observations of induced radioactivity in spaceborne materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All material in space becomes radioactive due to nuclear interactions with cosmic rays, radiation belt protons and solar flare particles. This poses a particular problem for gamma-ray detectors as the energy depositions fall in the precise window of interest. On the positive side, samples returned to earth can be monitored to provide information on the primary and secondary radiations experienced. Here, radiation transport calculations are compared with observations of induced radioactivity obtained from the OSSE experiment on the Compton Observatory and the CREAM experiment on Space Shuttle. These results illustrate the importance of secondary particles

  15. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  16. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs

  17. Packaging, carriage and dispatching fuel and radioactive materials, IAEA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to bring fuel and other radioactive substances into a nuclear power plant and to send out irradiated or contaminated materials: spent fuel, activated equipment, used filters, resin and clothing, etc. gives rise to the question: How can these materials be transported safely and economically. The purpose of this paper is to answer that question by providing information on the regulatory requirements that have been developed for packaging, labelling and handling and on the containers which are being employed. (orig./RW)

  18. Radioactive materials in construction projects; Radioaktive Stoffe bei Baumassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank [Baugrund Dresden IGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kaltz, Andrea Christine [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Ref. 53 (Strahlenschutz)

    2014-07-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  20. Training of personnel in the field of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training of personnel in the whole nuclear fuel cycle and also in the other fields of the use of radioactivity is one of the essentials with respect to compliance assurance. The transport of radioactive material is the only activity that takes place outside a facility: on roads, on railways, on the sea or in the air. A high level of safety is therefore an absolute requirement for all transport operations. To ensure this high level the training of the personnel involved in these activities plays an important role. Many studies show that most of the incidents in radioactive materials transport are caused by man-made errors: even so there have been no events with serious radiological consequences anywhere worldwide. There are many requirements in the various national and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material with regard to training. An overview is given of the special regulations, e.g. for road transport drivers, for safety advisers in the whole field of the transport of dangerous goods, for specially educated personnel in sea and air transports. In addition, the newest developments in the European Community in this field are discussed. An evaluation of the present regulations and proposals for further rules are also given. (Author)

  1. New Monitoring System to Detect a Radioactive Material in Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illegal radioactive material transportation detection, by terrorist for example, is problematic in urban public transportation. Academics and industrials systems include Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) to detect radioactive matters transported in vehicles or carried by pedestrians. However, today's RPMs are not able to efficiently detect a radioactive material in movement. Due to count statistic and gamma background, false alarms may be triggered or at the contrary a radioactive material not detected. The statistical false alarm rate has to be as low as possible in order to limit useless intervention especially in urban mass transportation. The real-time approach depicted in this paper consists in using a time correlated detection technique in association with a sensor network. It is based on several low-cost and large area plastic scintillators and a digital signal processing designed for signal reconstruction from the sensor network. The number of sensors used in the network can be adapted to fit with applications requirements or cost. The reconstructed signal is improved by comparing other approaches. This allows us to increase the device speed that has to be scanned while decreasing the risk of false alarm. In the framework of a project called SECUR-ED Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration, this prototype system will be used during an experiment in the Milan urban mass transportation. (authors)

  2. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.

  3. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  4. Competent authority regulatory control of the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this guide is to assist competent authorities in regulating the transport of radioactive materials and to assist users of transport regulations in their interactions with competent authorities. The guide should assist specifically those countries which are establishing their regulatory framework and further assist countries with established procedures to harmonize their application and implementation of the IAEA Regulations. This guide specifically covers various aspects of the competent authority implementation of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. In addition, physical protection and safeguards control of the transport of nuclear materials as well as third party liability aspects are briefly discussed. This is because they have to be taken into account in overall transport regulatory activities, especially when establishing the regulatory framework

  5. The european legislation on the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal basis for the actions of the European Commission in the field of transport of nuclear materials has its origin both in the EC and the EURATOM Treaties. While recommendations on the transport of radioactive materials are drawn up by the IAEA in Vienna and transposed into the national legislation of each country, the European Community must ensure that these provisions are in conformity with its own requirements and that they facilitate the functioning of the internal market. To advise the Commission on issues related to the transport of radioactive materials, a standing working group was established in 1982. The Commission also helps in gathering information by financing studies on various aspects such as surveys of legislation or of events or investigations related to technical matters. (author)

  6. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  7. Radioactive Substances Act 1960. Keeping and use of radioactive materials; list of registrations in England and Wales issued under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 (RSA 60), Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (Radioactive Substances) (HMIP) exercises control, on behalf of the Secretary of State for the Environment, over the keeping and use of radioactive material and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste in England. HMIP also provides technical advice to the Secretary of State for Wales in connection with the enforcement of RSA 60 in Wales. Registrations under RSA 60 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials in England and Wales are issued respectively by the Secretaries of State for the Environment and Wales, following careful assessment of the radiological consequences for members of the public. Registrations impose strict limits and conditions and premises and apparatus are subject to scrutiny by HMIP Inspectors to ensure compliance. A list contains names and addresses of those registered in England and Wales for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile apparatus

  8. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  9. Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and regulatory issues in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycle and reuse of materials have been increasing during recent years, particularly because of recognition of the economic opportunities presented, but also because of an increased societal awareness of the desirability of conserving raw materials and natural resources. Lost, stolen and abandoned sources appearing in recycled metals constitute a world wide problem. Radioactive sources sometimes incorporate into scrap metal for subsequent recycling. Most of these incidents have resulted in significant levels of radioactive contamination with the attendant risks to employees and the general public. During the past decade there have been numerous accidents where these shielded sources have been accidentally mixed with scrap metal, and have been subsequently melted or ruptured particularly in steel making process. For controlling of incoming trucks and trains in case the presence of radioactive sources hidden in the scrap, there is a need to establish a radiation detecting system. In Turkey in addition to pocket sized or hand held radiation monitors, fixed or mobile panel detection systems will also be used in the detection of illicit trafficking of radiation sources and contaminated scrap material. But besides this activity; training courses have been carried out to improve the knowledge and skills of workers and the customs officers dealing with radiation sources and scrap materials

  10. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  12. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12., it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  13. INES scale: French application to radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowinski, S.; Strawa, S.; Aguilar, J. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2004-07-01

    After getting the control of radioactive material transport in June 1997, the French safety Authority (ASN) decided to apply the INES scale to transport events. DGSNR (Directorate General for Nuclear Safety and Radioprotection) requests that radioactive material package consignors declare any event occurring during transportation, and has introduced the use of the INES scale adapted to classify transport events in order to inform the public and to have feedback. This paper deals with DGSNR's feedback during the past seven years concerning the french application of the INES scale. Significant events that occurred during transportation are presented. The French experience was used by IAEA to develop a draft guide in 2002 and IAEA asked countries to use a new draft for a trial period in July 2004.

  14. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materials range from 2.6 to 93.2, 1.3 to 172.8 and 6.3 to 997 Bq/kg, respectively with higher activity concentrations in pozzolan and lower in gypsum. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (excluding some materials from Songwe deposits in Mbeya region are comparative with the worldwide average concentrations of these radionuclides in soil. The average activity concentration of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the cements are 46, 28 and 228 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated values of radiological indices are below 60% of the upper recommended values for building materials. The average annual effective dose to an occupant from use of these materials equals to 0.45 mSv. Average activity concentrations of the mentioned radionuclides in Tanzania cements are in the middle of the variability interval of the national averages.

  15. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  16. RADTRAN: a computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code is presented which predicts the environmental impact of any specific scheme of radioactive material transportation. Results are presented in terms of annual latent cancer fatalities and annual early fatility probability resulting from exposure, during normal transportation or transport accidents. The code is developed in a generalized format to permit wide application including normal transportation analysis; consideration of alternatives; and detailed consideration of specific sectors of industry

  17. Guide for disposition of radioactive-material sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide has been prepared to assist DOE Energy Technology Centers in disposing of radioactive-material sources. The guide describes the steps and requirements necessary to dispose of unwanted sources. The steps include obtaining approvals, source characterization, source disposition, packaging requirements, and shipment preparation. A flow chart is provided in the guide to assist the user in the necessary sequential steps of source disposition

  18. Emergency room preparation for injuries caused by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing number of nuclear power plants and expanding use of radioactive materials in industry and medicine, the potential for inadvertent exposure of the public and the work force to radiation has increased greatly. The recent experience in Chernobyl underscored the need for the emergency rooms of the nation's largest hospitals to prepare for such disasters. This paper discusses a plan developed at the University of Alabama in Birmingham (UAB) to provide medical care related to such events

  19. Shielding integrity testing of radioactive material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although this Code of Practice is intended primarily to cover shielding integrity test requirements for off-site shielded radioactive material transport packaging, it may also be partly applicable to containers and specialised handling equipment (e.g. fuelling machines) used only on site, and to radiation shielding generally. The code is not concerned with proving adequacy of shielding design or with its absolute shielding value. (author)

  20. Safety and security of radioactive materials - The Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a phenomenal increase in the use of radiation sources in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research and teaching in India and elsewhere. Though the radiation safety record in these applications has been good, there have been a few incidents/accidents during transport/use of radioactive materials. Current status and various aspects of regulatory control to ensure safety and security of radioactive material including incidents of missing/orphan sources in India are discussed in this paper. Regulatory Infrastructure: Government of India enacted the Atomic Energy Act in 1962 to provide a regulatory infrastructure for control and use of radioactive materials and radiation sources. Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, were promulgated under this Act and Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was appointed as the Competent Authority to enforce these rules. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RP and AD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre provides technical and executive support to AERB in implementation of the regulations in the non-nuclear applications of radiation. Under the Rules, the Competent Authority has notified the surveillance procedures for various applications. Various codes and guides on regulatory procedures relating to specific applications of radioactive material have also been issued by the Competent Authority. As per the regulatory procedures, each practice and source requires specific authorisation. The pre-requisites for the procurement of radioactive material for various applications are: (a) Approved source and equipment, (b) Approved installation, (c) Provision of an exclusive safe and secure storage facility for radioactive material when not in use or pending installation, (d) Trained manpower duly approved by the competent authority, (e) Radiation monitoring devices (area and personnel), (f) Emergency preparedness and (g) Commitment from the licensee for safe disposal of disused/decayed sources. In

  1. Over-the-road testing of radioactive materials packagins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has an ongoing program to characterize the environments encountered during normal surface transport of radioactive materials. This effort consists of obtaining experimental data from both road simulator and over-the-road tests and of analyzing the data to obtain numerical models to simulate those environments. These data and models have been used to define the design basis for resistance to shock and vibration and the requirements for tiedowns of truck-transported radioactive materials. This work is in conjunction with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards development for radioactive materials transport. This paper summarizes the data, from a series of over-the-road tests performed with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. equipment near Barnwell, South Carolina. The data include packaging responses to driving over various road types as well as measurements of packaging and trailer responses to hard braking and turning events. The data also include the responses of both flexible and rigid tiedown systems. The results indicate that the tiedown forces for these tests were less than 0.06 g based on packaging weight. (J.P.N.)

  2. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  3. 78 FR 29016 - Establishing Quality Assurance Programs for Packaging Used in Transport of Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. The NRC is issuing for public...), that would amend its regulations for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material in Part... requirements for the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. III. Draft Regulatory Guide The...

  4. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  5. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in... (radioactive) material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to— (1) The impact test and the percussion test of this section provided that the mass of the special form radioactive material is less...

  6. Response to a radioactive materials release having a transboundary impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with an accidental release of radioactive material which is confined to the accident State, a transboundary release has added dimensions which were not fully anticipated in publications dealing with response to accidents at nuclear facilities. The new aspects to the problem may be summarized as follows: (1) A transboundary release of radioactive material, as distinct from a release which affects only the accident State, has international repercussions in the following ways: Potentially at least, the difficulties associated with a transboundary release may be magnified in those States that have no nuclear facilities of their own and may, therefore, have foreseen no need for resources to assess and deal with radioactive contamination of their food supplies, their water and their environment appropriately. International trade, in food commodities particularly, may be severely affected. Issues of compensation may arise for which the dispute settlement mechanisms are weak or non-existent. (2) Many Member States are in such geographic locations that they could be affected by a transboundary release occurring in any of their surrounding neighbour States. Planning for and responding to such an event is necessarily more difficult than planning for an accidental release from a single, identified nuclear facility. (3) Deposits of radioactive material from a distant source are apt to be highly unpredictable. Depending on weather conditions, they may be localized in a random fashion or widespread. Because of the international dimension of the problem and its essentially unpredictable character it is recommended here that planning for such events should be carried at the national or federal government level rather than at provincial government level. 14 refs

  7. A glass-ceramic material for fixation of radioactive waste

    OpenAIRE

    Bozadzhiev L.S.; Georgiev G.T.; Bozadzhiev R.L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a starting mixture for the preparation of glass-ceramic material for radioactive waste (RW), consisting of 85-95 mass % basanite and 5-15 mass % oxides of elements in I-VIII group of the Periodical table of elements imitating RW, is proposed. The glass-ceramic material is obtained by melting the starting mixture in air at 1450°C for 1 hour and by further crystallization of the melts at 950°C for 30 minutes. It has been noticed that the texture of the glass-ceramic mater...

  8. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Nathan, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  9. Denial of shipments of radioactive materials in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Denials, Delays and Abandonment of the Radioactive Materials is a problem at world level that has been increased in the last times with more emphasis starting from the attack of September 11 the 2001 in the USA. From then radioactive materials have been denial or delayed and until abandoned. The materials of short periods used mainly in nuclear medicine as the 99mTc or the 131I, when they are rejected, delayed it usually causes the lost of the material because it has surpassed their useful life and in many cases they are abandoned. The rejections, delays and later abandonment of the materials in special of Medical use have originated serious damages for the nuclear medicine patients as much of diagnoses as of treatments, in Teleterapia for many patients of cancer who could not be treated. In the petroliferous prospecting and Industry has originated numerous economic damages due to the delays since most of the used sources they are of long period but the delay causes an important increase in the cost. (author)

  10. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  11. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  12. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  13. Workplace characterizations in case of rail transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive fuel and wastes are frequently transported for storage and/or reprocessing purposes. The main part of this transport is generally done by train. Before, during and after the journey, operators and drivers, who work directly in contact with and in the vicinity of the wagons, are exposed to external irradiations due to the radioactive materials that are confined inside the containers. In order to evaluate the dose that its personnel is liable to receive during such transports, the French National Railway Company (SNCF) has requested to the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) a series of workplaces characterizations for convoys of different types, that are considered to be representative of all types of possible transports. Each one is associated to a given radioactive material (low and medium activity wastes, new and used fuel, MOX, uranium fluoride, etc... ), involving photon or mixed neutron-photon fields. This measurement campaign has started in May 2004 and by the end of 2004 at least four types of radioactive convoys will have been investigated (three have already been measured). By using survey meters and spectrometers, the study consists in measuring the external exposure for different stages of the work that is done beside the wagons (for example coupling / decoupling two wagons, or checking the brakes) and inside the locomotive (driving). For each one of these workplaces, the exposure is estimated in terms of the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) by summing the dose all along the different phases carried out by the operator. In addition, a dosimetric characterization of each convoy is made by performing measurements along the wagons and spectrometric information about the photon and/or neutron fields are collected. This study provides helpful data to predict the dose that the operators are liable to integrate over long periods, typically one year. (author)

  14. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Li, Nan

    2013-08-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings.

  15. Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides practical information needed for evaluating the radiation dose to the general public and workers caused by materials containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides. The report presents criteria, exposure scenarios and calculations used to assess dose with respect to the safety requirements set for construction materials in accordance with the Finnish Radiation Act. A method for calculating external gamma exposure from building materials is presented in detail. The results for most typical cases are given as specific dose rates in table form to enable doses to be assessed without computer calculation. A number of such dose assessments is presented, as is the corresponding computer code. Practical investigation levels for the radioactivity of materials are defined. (23 refs.)

  16. Characterisation of natural occurring radioactive materials in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (U,Th and K) are known to be present in significant amounts in soil, building materials and recycled industrial waste products. These findings are of our concern since we are continuously being exposed to radiations from such radionuclides, be it at home or workplace. In the study, we have chosen several commonly used building materials such as; cement brick, roof asbestos, red-clay brick, ceiling asbestos and also cement produce which form a vital component in the construction industry. The gamma gross counting method was used to analyse gamma rays at energies 609 keV, 583 keV and 1460 keV using hyperpure germanium counter with 20% efficiency. The radium equivalent activity, Raeq were computed and our findings have shown that some of the samples exhibit a high level of radium equivalent activity, exceeding those of the normal limit recommended by UNSCEAR. (Author)

  17. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues; Material radiactivo en residuos de servicios de salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rua General Severiano, 90- Botafogo, Rio de janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  18. Development of simple and rapid radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Ryong; Park, Se Young; Yoon, Seok Won; Ha, Wi Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Kook; Kim, Kwang Pyo [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is necessary to analyze radioactivity of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in products to ensure radiological safety required by Natural Radiation Safety Management Act. The pretreatments for the existing analysis methods require high technology and time. Such destructive pretreatments including grinding and dissolution of samples make impossible to reuse products. We developed a rapid and simple procedure of radioactivity analysis for thorium series in the products containing NORM. The developed method requires non-destructive or minimized pretreatment. Radioactivity of the product without pretreatment is initially measured using gamma spectroscopy and then the measured radioactivity is adjusted by considering material composition, mass density, and geometrical shape of the product. The radioactivity adjustment can be made using scaling factors, which is derived by radiation transport Monte Carlo simulation. Necklace, bracelet, male health care product, and tile for health mat were selected as representative products for this study. The products are commonly used by the public and directly contacted with human body and thus resulting in high radiation exposure to the user. The scaling factors were derived using MCNPX code and the values ranged from 0.31 to 0.47. If radioactivity of the products is measured without pretreatment, the thorium series may be overestimated by up to 2.8 times. If scaling factors are applied, the difference in radioactivity estimates are reduced to 3-24%. The developed procedure in this study can be used for other products with various materials and shapes and thus ensuring radiological safety.

  19. Trade in radioactive materials - Potential problems and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of radiation protection regulations (including border controls) in consumer countries may potentially lead to the partial or complete loss of market for some mineral producers, and the resulting economic and logistical constraints have become a serious consideration for individual industries. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1) and Advisory Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-G-1.1) provide detailed instructions on the transport of material with elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides. However, these documents are somewhat complex for a common user and this paper presents an overview of a simplified step by step guideline developed for both the minerals industry and the appropriate regulatory authorities. Also presented are considerations for the regulatory control of natural radioactivity in international transport and trade and the potential radiation protection and regulatory problems that may arise during transport and at international border crossings. Solutions for these problems are offered in the conclusion. (author)

  20. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  1. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  2. A glass-ceramic material for fixation of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozadzhiev L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a starting mixture for the preparation of glass-ceramic material for radioactive waste (RW, consisting of 85-95 mass % basanite and 5-15 mass % oxides of elements in I-VIII group of the Periodical table of elements imitating RW, is proposed. The glass-ceramic material is obtained by melting the starting mixture in air at 1450°C for 1 hour and by further crystallization of the melts at 950°C for 30 minutes. It has been noticed that the texture of the glass-ceramic material is microgranular. The main mineral is pyroxene, while a mixture phases are magnetite, hematite and residual glass. It was shown that the RW elements are fixed in the pyroxene and partly in the admixture phases.

  3. Compliance assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to assist competent authorities in the development and maintenance of compliance assurance programmes in connection with the transport of radioactive material, and to assist applicants, licensees and organizations in their interactions, with competent authorities. In order to increase co-operation between competent authorities and to promote uniform application of international regulations and recommendations it is desirable to adopt a common approach to regulatory activities. This book is intended to assist in accomplishing such uniform application by laying down most of the actions that competent authorities need to provide for in their programmes for ensuring regulatory compliance. 23 refs, figs and tabs

  4. Application of radiation protection programmes to transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The principles for implementing radiation protection programmes (RPP) are detailed in the draft IAEA safety guide TS-G-1.5 'Radiation protection programmes for transport of radioactive material'. The document is described in this paper and analysis is made for typical applications to current operations carried out by consignors, carriers and consignees. Systematic establishment and application of RPPs is a way to control radiological protection during different steps of transport activity. The most widely transported packages in the world are radiopharmaceuticals by road. It is described an application of RPP for an organization involved in road transport of Type A packages containing radiopharmaceuticals. Considerations based on the radionuclides, quantities and activities transported are the basis to design and establish the scope of the RPP for the organizations involved in transport. Next stage is the determination of roles and responsibilities for each activity related to transport of radioactive materials. An approach to the dose received by workers is evaluated considering the type, category and quantity of packages, the radionuclides, the frequency of consignments and how long are the storages. The average of transports made in the last years must be taken into account and special measures intended to optimize the protection are evaluated. Tasks like monitoring, control of surface contamination and segregation measures, are designed based on the dose evaluation and optimization. The RPP also indicates main measures to follow in case of emergency during transport taking account of radionuclides, activities and category of packages for different accident scenarios. Basis for training personnel involved in handling of radioactive materials to insure they have appropriate knowledge about preparing packages, measuring dose rates, calculating transport index, labelling, marking and placarding, transport documents, etc, are considered. The RPP is a part

  5. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), for NRC Approved Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, is applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  6. Economic effects of detecting and confiscating illicitly trafficked radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development smuggling and confiscation of illicit radioactive materials demands taking into account its financial implications. The real beneficiaries of smuggling are often difficult to identify. Generally the violation cases are impossible to solve. Who would pay? How the costs of detection, analysis and decontamination could be covered. One of the primary solutions could be better charge of different parties (prisoners). It could as well be the responsibility of involved parties (transporters, enterprises, etc.). Another possibility would be to apply the principle of responsibility for payment by the party responsible for contamination

  7. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass

  8. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices

  9. Doses to road transport workers from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year approximately 750,000 packages of radioactive materials are shipped throughout Canada. Regulatory controls on these shipments are designed to keep radiation doses received by transport workers well within acceptable limits. Since many of these workers are not monitored for radiation exposure, however, little factual information has been available in Canada to support theoretical estimates. A study to document actual radiation doses received by a select group of transport workers that is actively involved in the shipment of radioactive materials, was carried out in 1987 and 1988. This study involved the monitoring of 31 candidates from nine transport companies from across the country that handle medical isotopes, industrial isotopes, uranium fuel cycle materials and associated radioactive wastes. Each of the candidates (consisting of driver, dock workers, sorters, and supervisors) was issued personal thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges that were worn each day during the six month monitoring period. Some of the candidates were also issued cab or area dosimeters that were left in the cabs of the vehicles or in work areas so that the dose received in these areas could be differentiated from total personal exposure. During the monitoring program, the candidates filled out reporting sheets at the end of each working day to document information such as the quantity of materials handled, handling times and vehicle size. This information and the dosimetry data were used in the development of correlations between materials handled and doses reported so that doses for other handling similar materials could be estimated. Based on the results of the study, it was learned that while most of the transport workers receive doses that are at or near background levels, other (particularly those handling medical isotopes) are exposed to levels of radiation that may result in their receiving doses above the 5 mSv per annum limit set for members of the general public. On

  10. State surveillance of radioactive material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this final report on the state surveillance of the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) is to suggest the most cost-effective inspection areas where enforcement actions might be taken by the states during their participation in the State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development (SHMED) Program. On the basis of the lessons learned from the surveillance program, these actions are enforcement at low-level radioactive burial sites by means of civil penalties and site use suspension; enforcement at airports and at terminals that forward freight; and enforcement of courier companies. More effective and efficient enforcement can be achieved through instrumented police patrol cars and remote surveillance because they require the least amount of time of enforcement personnel. In addition, there is a strong relationship between effective emergency response and enforcement because the appropriate shipping papers, placarding and knowledge of appropriate emergency response procedures lead to improved emergency response. These lessons originate from a ten-state surveillance program from 1977 through 1981 jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and DOT. The states give recommendations in the categories of education, training, expanded surveillance, coordination and enforcement. The topics of special interest covered include low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, airports, cargo terminals, highways, ports, and accidents and incidents. The three most common problems in compliance with RAM transportation regulations reported by the states are incorrect package labeling; improper shipping papers; and incorrect or missing placards. Other common problems reported by the states are summarized. The relationship to other studies, the status of the SHMED Program, a synopsis of state RAM surveillance reports, and NRC/DOT expenditures are given

  11. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first edition in 1961, the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the IAEA (IAEA Regulations) have served as the basis of safety for the transport of radioactive material worldwide. In the discussions leading to the first edition of the IAEA Regulations, it was realized that there was need for a publication to supplement the Regulations which could give information of individual provisions as to their purpose, their scientific background and how to apply them in practice. In response, the Agency published Safety Series No. 7, entitled, in its first edition in 1961, 'Notes on Certain Aspects of the Regulations'. An additional source of information on the Regulations, providing advice on 'how' the user should comply with them which could be augmented from time to time in the light of latest experience, was provided by the Agency, initially in relation to the 1973 edition of the Regulations. This was entitled 'Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' and designated Safety Series No. 37. This document is the result of combining the two Safety Series in a single publication. Thus the primary purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to users on proven and acceptable ways of complying with the Regulations. This Advisory Material is not a stand-alone text and it only has significance when used as a companion to the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. ST-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996 edition)

  12. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site's suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling

  13. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This issue is the special number on the radioactive survey data of dietary materials collected in 1996. The samples sent from 46 prefectures in Japan were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 by Japan Chemical Analysis Center. The collection of dietary materials were conducted as follows. A full one-day ordinary diet including three meals, water, tea and snack between meals was collected semiyearly from 5 persons as a total diet sample and ashed at 450degC in an electric muffle furnace. Polished rice was yearly collected in producing districts and consumer`s areas followed by ashing in a porcelain dish. Raw milk is producing districts and commercial one were collected semiyearly. Spinach and Japanese radish were chosen as the representatives for left vegetables and for non-starch roots, respectively. Yearly collected fish, shellfish and seaweed were ashed in an electric muffle furnace after carbonization. All samples were analyzed for strontium-90 and cesium-137 after radiochemical separation by the precipitation method with sodium carbonate. Counting of radioactivity was conducted by low background {beta}-counter and based on those results, the concentrations of the nuclides were estimated. The detail data are presented in this report. (M.N.)

  14. Detection of environmental radioactive microparticles bearing fissile material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborini, G.; Dequincey, O.; Betti, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute of Transuranium Elements, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Dispersion of actinides and/or fission products in the environment is mainly due to radioactive micro-particles. The determination of the isotopic composition of the major constituents and fissile material in environmental micro-particles is a fundamental fingerprint for the detection of their source term. In order to facilitate the localisation of interesting particles on samples with low density of actinide containing particle and their successive isotopic composition analysis, complementary techniques based on the fission track method and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (FT-TIMS) are being developed. The main purpose is to use the solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) method for the localisation of interesting particles as well as a first estimation of their activity and content of fissile material. In the present work a procedure of rapid recognition of {sup 235}U-enriched particles using this technique is presented as a first step of an analytical procedure for environmental particle survey. (orig.)

  15. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1997. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1994 to Mar. 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: (1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, (2) Preparation of samples for analysis, (3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, (4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, (5) Counting, (6) Results, and (7) Contents of Figure. (G.K.)

  16. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1995 to Mar. 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part 2. Dietary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1999. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from October, 1996 to March, 1997. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  18. Natural radioactive materials at the Arco Reactor Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singlevich, W; Healy, J W; Paas, H J; Carey, Z E

    1951-05-28

    At the request of the Division of Biology and Medicine of the AEC, the Biophysics Section of the Radiological Sciences Department at Hanford undertook the task of conducting a background survey for naturally occurring radioactive materials in the environs of the Arco Reactor Test Site in Central Idaho. This survey was part of an overall study which included meteorological measurements by the the Air Weather Service, Geological Studies by the USGS, and an ecological survey of plants and animals by members of the Idaho State College at Pocatello. In general, the measurements at Arco followed the pattern established for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site with some additional measurements made for natural isotopes not normally of concern at Hanford. A number of analysis included materials such as plutonium and I-131 which were carried out for the purpose of establishing analytical backgrounds for the procedures used. 20 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary legislation governing safety in uses of ionizing radiation in Ireland is the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. This Act provided for the establishment in 1992 of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, and gives the Institute the functions and powers which enable it to be the regulatory body for all matters relating to ionizing radiation. A Ministerial Order made under the Act in 2000 consolidates previous regulations and, in particular, provides for the implementation in Irish law of the 1996 European Union Directive which lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. Under the legislation, the custody, use and a number of other activities involving radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus require a licence issued by the Institute. Currently some 1260 licences are in force. Of these, some 850 are in respect of irradiating apparatus only and are issued principally to dentists and veterinary surgeons. The remaining licences involve sealed radiation sources and/or unsealed radioactive substances used in medicine, industry or education. A schedule attached to each licence fully lists the sealed sources to which the licence applies, and also the quantities of radioactive substances which may be acquired or held under the licence. It is an offence to dispose of, or otherwise relinquish possession of, any licensable material other than in accordance with terms and conditions of the licence. Disused sources are returned to the original supplier or, where this is not possible, stored under licence by the licensee who used them. Enforcement of the licensing provisions relies primarily on the programme of inspection of licensees, carried out by the Institute's inspectors. The Institute's Regulatory Service has a complement of four inspectors, one of whom is the Manager of the Service. The Manager reports to one of the Institute's Principal

  20. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  1. Combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material. Reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended for individuals and organizations that may be called upon to deal with the detection of and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material. It will also be useful for legislators, law enforcement agencies, government officials, technical experts, lawyers, diplomats and users of nuclear technology. This manual emphasizes the international initiatives for improving the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is recognized that effective measures for controlling the transfer of equipment, non-nuclear material, technology or information that may assist in the development of nuclear explosive devices, improvised nuclear devices (INDs) or other radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) are important elements of an effective nuclear security system. In addition, issues of personal integrity, inspection and investigative procedures are not discussed in this manual, all of which are essential elements for an effective overall security system. The manual considers a variety of elements that are recognized as being essential for dealing with incidents of criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material. Depending on conditions in a specific State, including its legal and governmental infrastructure, some of the measures discussed will need to be adapted to suit that State's circumstances. However, much of the material can be applied directly in the context of other national programmes. This manual is divided into four main parts. Section 2 discusses the threat posed by criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the policy and legal bases underlying the international effort to restrain such activities. Sections 3 and 4 summarize the major international undertakings in the field. Sections 5-8 provide some basic technical information on radiation, radioactive material, the health consequences of radiation

  2. Workplace characterisation in case of rail transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRSN has been asked by SNCF (French Railways) to carry out measurements in order to establish the values of ambient dose equivalents H*(10) in the vicinity of shipments of radioactive materials to assess the external exposure to ionising radiation to which employees may be subjected during the carriage of radioactive goods. Detailed dosimetric characterisations of the wagons have been made and the external exposure at different stages of the work that is done by the employees have been measured in terms of H* (10). For the study presented in this paper, and corresponding to a used fuel shipment composed of UO2 and UO2-PuO2, it has been observed that the photon and neutron doses are very similar. In addition, the order of magnitude of the total dose integrated by an employee who would carry out 100 times the series of essential operational tasks, has been found to be ∼250 μSv. This value is compared with those observed for other previously investigated shipments involving the exposure to photon fields only. (authors)

  3. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN SOME BUILDING MATERIALS USING A GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER

    OpenAIRE

    AKKURT, Iskender; Betül MAVİ

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for the natural radioactivity in the earth is decay series of 40K, 238U and 232Th radionuclides. Because all building materials are soil product, they contain these radionuclides as natural so that building materials have different amounts of radioactivity. In this study the concentrations of natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used natural building materials in Isparta region have been determined. The samples have been analysed using a NaI(Tl) ƒ×-ray spectrometer sy...

  4. Radioprotection from design to exploitation of radioactive material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives an overview of the various aspects, methods and trends related to the design, test and use of packaging used for the transportation of radioactive materials. He evokes the currently existing calculation methods and codes which are used to assess irradiation sources and to study the propagation of such irradiation through matter. He discusses the qualification process of a radioprotection calculation scheme and gives and comments comparison between computed and measured results of effective dose flow rate about packaging. He presents the 'Transportability' tool which uses a database of fuel assembly characteristics, a code to assess neutron and gamma sources, a packaging model used to compute the different contributions to effective dose flow rates, a validation stage, and a fixed margin

  5. Natural Radioactivity in Clay and Building Materials Used in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of natural radionuclide concentration and activity index study in materials used for construction in Latvia. Special attention is given to clay and clay ceramics. Concentrations of K-40 and Th- 232, U-238 radioactivity were determined using gamma-spectrometry method. In some building ware, maximal concentration of K-40 was 1440 Bq/kg, and of U-238 - 175 Bq/kg. In granite, the determined maximum concentration of Th-232 was 210 Bq/kg. It was found that radionuclide content in different period clay deposits can differ by more than two times, and up to five times in different clay ceramics. The results obtained are compared with analogous data from the other Baltic and North European countries.

  6. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T. [Consultant, Pinawa, MB, R0E 1L0 (Canada); Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan); Naghiyev, Jalal A. [Institute of Radiation Problems of ANAS, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mehdiyeva, Afat A. [National Aerospace Agency of Ministry of Defense Industry, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  7. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  8. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  9. Data assimilation on atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin

    2006-01-01

    During a nuclear accident in which radionuclides are released to the atmosphere, off-site dose assessment using atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in facilitating optimized interventions, i.e. for mitigating the radiological consequences. By using data assimilation methods......, radiological observations, e.g. dose rate measurements, can be used to improve these model predictions and to obtain real-time estimates of the atmospheric dispersion parameters. This thesis examines data assimilation in the context of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. In particular, it presents...... a new method for on-line estimation of the radionuclide source term, i.e. the amount and composition of the released radionuclides, and the main dispersion parameters, based on radiation monitoring data obtained in the vicinity of the release. The method is based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF...

  10. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  11. Transportation of radioactive materials issued from the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the context of radioactive material transportation (types of transported materials, applicable constraints), the author describes the different kinds of packaging used during the different stages of the fuel cycle in the case of light water reactors: ore concentrates, UF4 and UF6, low enriched uranium oxide, impoverished uranium oxide, plutonium oxide, new UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies, irradiated fuel assemblies aimed at processing-recycling, uranyl nitrate, warehousing of irradiated fuels before final storage, wastes (high, very low, low and medium activity). He briefly evokes packaging for the case of fast neutron or fusion reactors. He discusses the various aspects of packaging design: safety function, applicable constraints and tests, design and material choice with respect with various issues (criticality, confinement, biological protection, heat transfer, mechanical resistance and shock damping properties, radiolysis and thermolysis, interfaces with transportation installations and means). He describes how packaging is exploited: life cycle management, fabrication, exploitation, maintenance and spare parts, end of life, documentation. He addresses how transportation is organised by evoking transport means and modes, and transport commissioning

  12. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  13. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1988. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  14. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  15. Development of a sampler to characterize radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to find a method of decontamination for nuclear contaminated objects without generating large amounts of radioactive waste. In order to develop an appropriate method it's necessary to know how much the object is contaminated and what the contaminant is. The project focus was to develop a sampler that may give this information with high precision, generating few waste and easy to operate. The sampler used a pulsed Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) laser in its fundamental wavelength of 1064nm to ablate the materials surface, then the particulates generated by the ablation were sucked by a vacuum pump, collected by a filter and then analyzed in a gamma spectrometer to determine which contaminants were present in the sample. A set of two mirrors attached to two DC motors was controlled by a computer interface using the software LabView to make the laser beam scan and ablate a determined area of the materials surface. (author)

  16. Radiation and Radioactivity Levels Survey of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) at PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is the largest oil company sharing contractor with Pertamina, located in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, employs about 6,800 employees and works together with 28,000 business partner employees. Currently CPI produces about 510,000 bbls crude oil. The production process mobilizes the naturally occurring radionuclides from deep reservoir rock that are deposited as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in well tubes, surface pipes, vessels and other processing equipment. NORM has a potential to be externally exposed during production process due to the accumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides and internal exposure to employees/business partners particularly during maintenance, sludge processing and decontamination of equipment. Understanding of the possible NORM hazards to human life, CPI initiated a NORM survey in order to obtain a clear picture of the magnitude of NORM in CPI operations. The survey has been conducted in 2001 and 2002 involved experts from Chevron Texaco USA, BATAN and BAPETEN Jakarta. The survey covered the determination of gamma exposure rates and the concentration of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K in several samples taken from scale, sludge, tank bottom and sand. To safely management of NORM, the Industrial Health Team of Corporate Health, Environment and Safety in coordination with Training Center Team and BATAN have conducted a NORM training for Industrial Hygienist and employees exposed to NORM, developed Standard Operating Procedure for NORM Handling and Disposal and continuously performed NORM survey and mapping of all suspected areas. (author)

  17. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  18. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A., E-mail: A.Shakhashiro@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTP, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhoefer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Former collaborator) (Korea, Republic of); Kis-Benedek, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary); Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-01-15

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  19. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Safety Series No 6 and SAGSTRAM have gone - long live ST-1 and TRANSSAC. Yes, the styles remain the same but improvements have occurred and should continue. At IAEA, transport safety previously had a senior advisory group SAGSTRAM (Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material). With the establishment of the Department of Nuclear Safety at IAEA, a review of supporting advisory committees was undertaken. There are now four Safety Standards Advisory Committees, one each for transport, waste, radiation and nuclear safety. An advisory Commission on Safety Standards has also been established as an overseeing commission. The Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC) currently has 18 members together with observers from international organisations and advisers: it had its second meeting in March 1997. IAEA publications are now known as the 'Safety Standards Series' and those related to transport safety are in the category 'safe transport' with publication numbers prefixed by 'ST'. The 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations is ST-1. There are some major changes, with a new high integrity package (Type C), radionuclide-specific exemption values and a new material category of low dispersible material (LDM). In addition, there are revisions relating to criticality safety and to packages containing uranium hexafluoride. There is a register of UN numbers linked to the Schedules of Requirements for Specified Consignments. The regulations remain complex with extensive cross-referencing. Names and numbers are a useful means of identification but policy and content are the important matters. With the recent publication of the latest edition of the IAEA transport regulations, TRANSSAC had the opportunity to review the draft revisions of the supporting documents. The explanatory and advisory material have been combined into one document (ST-2) and transport emergency response information will be published as ST-3. TRANSSAC agreed

  20. Instrumentation, Equipment and Methods for the In Vivo Measurement of Radioactive Material in the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current applications for the in vivo measurement of radioactive material can be divided into three broad categories: (1) occupational exposure monitoring, (2) monitoring of the public, and (3) medical monitoring. The focus of this chapter is on occupational exposure monitoring that is part of an internal dosimetry program for monitoring workers for intakes and assessing the dose consequences of an intake. In the 1920's when electroscopes were first used to measure radium in the body of dial painters issues affecting the measurement accuracy were identified related to external contamination interferences, properly measuring the instrument background, need for measurement QC, microphonic interferences, shielding and others. The sophistication of the radiation detection instrumentation has evolved to the point where most systems today employ one or more detectors primarily either sodium iodide or germanium. Many different styles of detectors and cryostat designs are used at different facilities. However, the same issues identified in the 1920's are still issues today. The in vivo measurement systems are calibrated with anthropometric phantoms that simulate the body or parts of the body. Whole body phantoms, torso phantoms, lung phantoms, thyroid phantoms and skeletal phantoms are just some of the different types used.The systems are typically shielded with low background materials such as pre-World War II steel from battleships. Interferences can come from naturally occurring radioactive material, medically administered radiopharmaceuticals, equipment instability, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and other sources. These contribute to the uncertainties in measurement results that can range from 10% to 1000% or more depending on the measurement system, the energy of the radiation associated with the radionuclide to be measured, the accuracy of the phantom versus the person especially how well the distributions of activity match.

  1. Software Development of Display Interface in Walk-Through Metal and Radioactive Materials Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yong; WANG; Qiang; GAO; Qi; TIAN; Li-jun; YANG; Lu; ZHENG; Yu-lai; GUO; Feng-mei

    2012-01-01

    <正>With the advanced digital detecting technology, Walk-through metal and radioactive materials detector (MRMD) was specifically designed for detecting metal and radioactive materials carried on a person. It has advantages of safe, high sensitivity, fine anti-interference capability, 24 h continually working, sound and light alarming.

  2. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  3. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  4. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  5. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  6. International measures needed to protect metal recycling facilities from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In almost every major city and region of every country, there is a recycling facility that is designed to process or consume scrap metal. These same countries will probably have widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. This material and equipment will have metal as a primary component of its housing or instrumentation. It is this metal that will cause these sources of radioactivity, when lost, stolen or mishandled, to be taken to a metal recycling facility to be sold for the value of the metal. This is the problem that has faced scrap recycling facilities for many years. The recycling industry has spent millions of dollars for installation of radiation monitors and training in identification of radioactive material. It has expended millions more for the disposal of radioactive material that has mistakenly entered these facilities. Action must be taken to prevent this material from entering the conventional recycling process. There are more than 2,300 known incidents of radioactive material found in recycled metal scrap. Worldwide, more than 50 smeltings of radioactive sources have been confirmed. Seven fatal accidents involving uncontrolled radioactive material have also been documented. Hazardous exposures to radioactive material have plagued not just the workers at metal recycling facilities. The families of these workers, including their children, have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of radioactivity. The threat from this material does not stop there. Radioactive material that is not caught at recycling facilities can be melted and the radioactivity has been found in construction materials used to build homes, as well as shovels, fencing material, and furniture offered for sale to the general public. The time has come for the international community to address the issue of the uncontrolled sources of radioactive material. The following are the key points that must be addressed. (i) Identification of sources

  7. Sorption-reagent materials in liquid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the factors causing ecological problems at nuclear power units functioning is a large quantity of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) formed. LRW treatment and, in particular, removal of long-lived radionuclides comprise a serious problem from the ecological safety point of view. Good prospects of using selective sorbents and new sorption-reagent materials (SRM) developed in the Institute of Chemistry (Far East Department, Russian Academy of Sciences) in LRW management have been shown. Mechanism of sorption and factors affecting the strontium sorption efficiency has been analyzed with using SRM on the basis of inorganic hydroxides as an example. The principal difference between sorption-reagent systems (SRS) and other sorbents is that in the former, simultaneously with ion exchange reactions, takes place the formation of insoluble precipitate inside the sorbent porous matrix. This process results in increasing selectivity of strontium removal from high-salinity solutions. Such a mechanism combining ion exchange and chemical reactions (RIEX) enables one to benefit on precipitation process advantages (removal of radionuclide non-ionic forms) without excessive complication of the process technological setup at large. It is possible to use SRM successfully in the simplest and the best in economical terms dynamic regime (filtration of solution through a stationary sorbent layer). Application of SRM in real LRW management is considered on the example of pilot-plant tests of the sorption installation Barrier at the Russian Pacific Navy facilities and LRW decontamination unit used at decommissioned nuclear submarines. Technological setups and test results are presented. They show that use of sorption-reagent materials enables one to achieve LRW decontamination factors up to 106 and, therefore, provide a reliable decontamination of LRW from submarines to be decommissioned. (Author)

  8. Over the border--the problems of uncontrolled radioactive materials crossing national borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duftschmid, K E

    2002-03-01

    Cross-border movement of radioactive materials and contaminated items, in particular metallurgical scrap, has become a problem of increasing importance. Radioactive sources out of regulatory control, now often called 'orphan sources', have frequently caused serious, even deadly, radiation exposures and widespread contamination. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission reported over 2,300 incidents of radioactive materials found in recycled metal scrap and more than 50 accidental smeltings of radioactive sources. A further potentially serious problem is illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials. In 1995 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a programme to combat illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, which includes an international database on incidents of illicit trafficking, receiving reports from some 80 member states. For the period 1993-2000 the IAEA database includes 345 confirmed incidents. While from 1994-1996 the frequency declined significantly, this trend has been reversed since 1997, largely due to radioactive sources rather than nuclear material. This paper compares monitoring techniques for radioactive materials in scrap applied at steel plants and scrap yards with monitoring at borders, a completely different situation. It discusses the results of the 'Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program', a large international pilot study, conducted in cooperation between the IAEA, the Austrian Government and the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. The aim of this exercise was to derive realistic and internationally agreed requirements for border monitoring instrumentation. Finally the present extent of border monitoring installations is discussed. PMID:11929111

  9. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States and competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a nuclear security regime for facilities dealing with radioactive material and associated activities. This is to be achieved through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement a legislative and regulatory framework to address the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and associated activities in order to reduce the likelihood of malicious acts involving those materials. These recommendations reflect a broad consensus among States on the requirements which should be met for the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and activities.

  10. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States and competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a nuclear security regime for facilities dealing with radioactive material and associated activities. This is to be achieved through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement a legislative and regulatory framework to address the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and associated activities in order to reduce the likelihood of malicious acts involving those materials. These recommendations reflect a broad consensus among States on the requirements which should be met for the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and activities.

  11. Forum on impact of radioactive materials on the atmospheric pollutant inventory and on the radioactivity uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 6 separately documented lectures about the following topics of the meeting: 1) Radiation exposure of plants caused by the reactor accident of Chernobyl; 2) Tritium and radiocarbon concentrations in trees; 3) Energetics of the atmospheric trace materials cycle; 4) Phenomenology of formation and decomposition of ozone in the lower atmosphere, and 5) Comparison of radioactivity levels and trace materials in the air. (PW)

  12. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials (from production to disposal), experience with criminal acts involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper takes the position that prevention of breaches in the security of radioactive materials is the most important element in combating illicit trafficking in those materials. It outlines the main requirements for ensuring that the three most important elements in preventing uncontrolled movement of radioactive materials - accounting, control and physical security - are in good order. It emphasizes that these aspects all ultimately derive from appropriate national laws and regulations and from the presence of an effective national regulatory body. Uncontrolled movement, if it occurs, must of course be detected, e.g., at border crossings, and such incidents must be responded to appropriately: Germany's recent record in this regard is described. (author)

  13. Guidance on radioactive waste management legislation for application to users of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, addressed primarily to developing countries, is restricted to management of radioactive wastes arising from uses of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. It does not deal with wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. Safeguards and physical protection are also outside the scope even though in some special cases it may be relevant; for instance, when fissile material is handled at research establishments. Information on nuclear fuel cycle waste management and waste transport can be found in a number of IAEA publications. The main aim of this document is to give guidance on legislation required for safe handling, treatment, conditioning and release or disposal of radioactive waste. It covers all steps from the production or import of radioactive material, through use, treatment, storage and transport, to the release or disposal of the waste either as exempted material or in special repositories. Management of radioactive wastes as a whole is optimized and kept at acceptable levels in accordance with the basic ICRP recommendations and the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. As a result of the new ICRP recommendations of 1991, the Agency is revising its Basic Safety Standards, the results of which may have some impact on the national regulations and necessitate updating of this document. 16 refs, 1 fig

  14. Discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Curti, A R

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is creating a database of information on radioactive discharges to atmospheric and aquatic environments from nuclear and radioactive installations, and from facilities using radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. The database is expected to facilitate the analysis of worldwide trends in discharge levels and provide a basis for assessing the impact of the discharges on humans and on the environment. In November 2002 took place the first meeting of national contact points and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN in Spanish) was present as the counterpart for the provision of discharge data from Argentina. This paper, presented in the above mentioned meeting, is a general overview of the radioactive discharges control in Argentina including the legal infrastructure, the population dose assessment methodology and the main characteristics of the facilities in the country with radioactive discharges to the environment. It is mentioned their location, release...

  15. Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations on achieving and demonstrating compliance with IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, establishing safety requirements to be applied to the national and international transport of radioactive material. Transport is deemed to comprise all operations and conditions associated with and involved in the movement of radioactive material; these include the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging, and the preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt at the final destination of packages. This publication supersedes IAEA Safety Series No. TS-G-1.1, 2002 Edition

  16. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, M A; El Samad, O; Zahraman, K; Milky, S; Bahsoun, F; Abumurad, K M

    2008-08-01

    Using gamma-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (226)Ra, (222)Rn, (214)Bi, (228)Ac, (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (40)K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. gamma-spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2+/-0.4 to 60.8+/-2.2 Bq kg(-1) and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8+/-1.0 to 74.3+/-9.2 Bq kg(-1). The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2+/-3.0 and 76.3+/-3.0 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2+/-1.0 and 31.7+/-1.4 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 27.5+/-1.3 Bq kg(-1). Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average (222)Rn concentration ranged between 291+/-69 and 1774+/-339 Bq m(-3) among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704+/-139 Bq m(-3). For gravel, the range was found to be from 52+/-9 to 3077+/-370 Bq m(-3) with an average value of 608+/-85 Bq m(-3). Aerial and mass exhalation rates of (222)Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44+/-7 and 2226+/-267 mBq m(-2)h(-1), and between 0.40+/-0.07 and 20.0+/-0.3 mBq kg(-1)h(-1), respectively.

  17. Radioactive materials in biosolids : national survey, dose modeling, and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Received for publication March 1, 2004. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) announced the availability of three new documents concerning radioactive materials in sewage sludge and ash from publicly owned treatment works (POTW). One of the documents is a report presenting the results of a volunteer survey of sewage sludge and ash samples provided by 313 POTWs. The second document is a dose modeling document, using multiple exposure pathway modeling focused on a series of generic scenarios, to track possible exposure of POTW workers and members of the general public to radioactivity from the sewage sludge or ash. The third document is a guidance report providing recommendations on the management of radioactivity in sewage sludge and ash for POTW owners and operators. This paper explains how radioactive materials enter POTWs, provides criteria for evaluating levels of radioactive material in sludge and ash, and gives a summary of the results of the survey and dose modeling efforts

  18. Analysis of generic exemption levels for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In essence, exemption may be considered a generic authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the practice or source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. After presenting the basic exemption criteria for limited quantities of radioactive materials this paper describes and analyses the exposure scenarios utilized, namely: 1- Normal use (workplace) scenario; 2- Accidental ( workplace) scenario; 3- Disposal (public) scenario. Each one has different exposure pathways, summing up a total of 24, covering external exposure, ingestion and inhalation. These scenarios were used to calculate both, exempted activity concentrations (Bq/g) and total activity (Bq), though in the first case exemption applies to limited masses of low concentration activity materials. For each radionuclide, the generic exemption level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity (Bq) or activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose per unit (Bq or Bq/g, as applicable) was calculated by a formula that was adjusted, for each scenario and pathway, through different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors and geometric factors. In general, the critical pathways for α emitters were inhalation of dust and aerosols in workplace for activity concentration scenario and inhalation of dust and volatiles from an accidental fire in the workplace for total activity scenario. For β emitters the critical pathways were ingestion of an object from a landfill site by a member of the public for activity concentration

  19. Strategies to reduce illicit uses of radioactive materials: The Ethiopian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Ethiopia, attempts/incidents of illegal use of radioactive sources have, so far, been limited. However, in Ethiopia's perspective, preventing and controlling illicit uses and trafficking of radioactive materials includes strengthening national systems of control and protection; achieving co-ordination between regulators, law enforcement bodies and customs; developing effective information systems; and training responsible parties in prevention, detection and response. (author)

  20. Accounting and control of sources of ionising radiation and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the various elements of the state accounting and control system of radioactive materials and radioactive waste in the Russian Federation, and some of the tasks to be carried out for the development and improvement of the system. A list and short description of documents of this system and structure and the organisation scheme of the system are also presented. (author)

  1. Accounting and control of sources of ionising radiation and radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shatalov, V.V. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: shatalov@vniiht.ru; Brykin, S.N.; Serebryakov, I.S. [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N.; Glushak, N.S. [Emergency Response Center of Rosatom, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes the various elements of the state accounting and control system of radioactive materials and radioactive waste in the Russian Federation, and some of the tasks to be carried out for the development and improvement of the system. A list and short description of documents of this system and structure and the organisation scheme of the system are also presented. (author)

  2. National Plan for radioactive material and waste management, 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents radioactive materials and wastes (definition, origins, and classification), principles to take into account when defining management pathways, and the legal and institutional framework of waste management in France. It gives an assessment of the existing and developing management practices: warehousing, long term management of valuable materials, long term waste management for different kinds of radioactive materials (low, intermediate or high level of activity). It describes how to improve these different practices. Two annexes give information on realizations and researches in foreign countries, and on the adequacy between storage capacities and prospective radioactive waste volumes

  3. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg-1, respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  4. Illegal handling of radioactive and nuclear materials. Threats and suggestions for measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project deals with threats from smuggling or other illegal transportation of radioactive or nuclear materials across the borders to Sweden, and with the security of handling such materials in Sweden. The project has included studies of relevant documentation; visits and interviews at industries, hospitals, research institutes and military institutions in Sweden that handle radioactive materials; a pilot study at the Stockholm freeport, where equipment for detection of radioactive materials has been tested for six months; an analysis of incidents reported to the IAEA database; and an analysis of Swedish incidents. The following conclusions are drawn: Stricter rules regarding the physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive materials should be implemented in Sweden. The recommendations recently issued by IAEA should serve as a point of departure for working out such rules

  5. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material: Content and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides a set of requirements for the packaging and transport of radioactive material, known as the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. These serve as the model for other international organizations as they develop regulatory documents relating to dangerous goods, and for individual IAEA Member States for their domestic regulations. This paper briefly discusses the IAEA Transport Regulations and elaborates on how they are applied in Argentina, which both exports and imports radioactive material and which is coastal with some sections of society concerned about the transport of large amounts of such material. From a technical perspective, Argentina understands that the transport of radioactive material, done in compliance with the existing regulations, is safe. (author)

  6. Forecasting of the radioactive material transport demand for the Brazilian Nuclear Program and the security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, a lot of radioactive materials are produced. These radioactive materials must be transported in order to promote the integration of the fuel cycle units. Considerations about the transport characteristics of radioactive material were made for each section of the fuel cycle. These considerations were based on the experience of several countries and in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations. A prediction of transport demands for the Brazilian Nuclear Program until year 2.010 was made. The prediction refers mainly to the quantity of radioactive material produced in each section of the cycle the quantity of vehicles needed for the transport of these materials. Several safety aspects were considered specially, the accidents predictions for years 2.000 and 2.010. The accident probability in Brazilian railroads and highways was compared with that of the USA. (author)

  7. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ratifying the inexistence of terrorist groups operating in these areas, but confirming the existence of strong evidence of the remittance of foreign currency to extremist Arab groups. Illegal activities in this area are notorious: weapons trafficking, money laundering, drug trafficking, and other types of traffic (nuclear and radioactive materials) cannot be dismissed. The problem is that authorities from no country would wish to have nuclear or radiological materials stolen or misplaced in them and then used to fabricate a 'dirty' bomb to perpetrate attacks. This document analyzes the situation of sector policies (international binding and non-binding agreements legal instruments, internal security policies, defence programs and plans, etc.); global and national threats; the nature of actions taken by the Paraguayan Government through effective mechanisms for coordination including planning, implementation and monitoring, and relevant collaborative actions implemented with the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. (author)

  8. Education and training in transport of radioactive material; Educacao e treinamento em transporte de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Bruno Natanael; Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva; Mattar, Patricia; Dias, Carlos R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport.

  9. Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential

  10. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy, preservation of the environment, providing

  11. Natural radioactivity measurements in building materials in Southern Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobeissi, M.A.; El Samad, O.; Zahraman, K. [Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Milky, S.; Bahsoun, F. [Department of Physics, Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences (I), Hadeth, Beirut (Lebanon); Abumurad, K.M. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, P.O. Box 566, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)], E-mail: abumurad@yu.edu.jo

    2008-08-15

    Using {gamma}-spectroscopy and CR-39 detector, concentration C of naturally occurring radioactive nuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi and {sup 40}K, has been measured in sand, cement, gravel, gypsum, and paint, which are used as building materials in Lebanon. Sand samples were collected from 10 different sandbank locations in the southern part of the country. Gravel samples of different types and forms were collected from several quarries. White and gray cement fabricated by Shaka Co. were obtained. {gamma}-Spectroscopy measurements in sand gave Ra concentration ranging from 4.2 {+-} 0.4 to 60.8 {+-} 2.2 Bq kg{sup -1} and Ra concentration equivalents from 8.8 {+-} 1.0 to 74.3 {+-} 9.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The highest Ra concentration was in gray and white cement having the values 73.2 {+-} 3.0 and 76.3 {+-} 3.0 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Gravel results showed Ra concentration between 20.2 {+-} 1.0 and 31.7 {+-} 1.4 Bq kg{sup -1} with an average of 27.5 {+-} 1.3 Bq kg{sup -1}. Radon concentration in paint was determined by CR-39 detector. In sand, the average {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged between 291 {+-} 69 and 1774 {+-} 339 Bq m{sup -3} among the sandbanks with a total average value of 704 {+-} 139 Bq m{sup -3}. For gravel, the range was found to be from 52 {+-} 9 to 3077 {+-} 370 Bq m{sup -3} with an average value of 608 {+-} 85 Bq m{sup -3}. Aerial and mass exhalation rates of {sup 222}Rn were also calculated and found to be between 44 {+-} 7 and 2226 {+-} 267 mBq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, and between 0.40 {+-} 0.07 and 20.0 {+-} 0.3 mBq kg{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively.

  12. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H.J.; Hartenstein, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy

  13. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  14. Savannah River Site Experiences in In Situ Field Measurements of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, F.S.

    1999-10-07

    This paper discusses some of the field gamma-ray measurements made at the Savannah River Site, the equipment used for the measurements, and lessons learned during in situ identification and characterization of radioactive materials.

  15. RADTRAN II: revised computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised and updated version of the RADTRAN computer code is presented. This code has the capability to predict the radiological impacts associated with specific schemes of radioactive material shipments and mode specific transport variables

  16. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  17. Scanning electron microscope facility for examination of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AMRAY model 1200B scanning electron microscope was modified to permit remote examination of radioactive specimens. Features of the modification include pneumatic vibration isolation of the column, motorized stage controls, improvements for monitoring vacuum, and a system for changing filaments without entering the hot cell

  18. Induced Radioactivity in Recovered Skylab Materials. [gamma ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four radioactive isotopes found in aluminum and stainless steel samples from Skylab debris were recovered in Australia. The low-level activity was induced by high-energy protons and neutrons in the space environment. Measurements of the specific activities are given.

  19. Application of partitioning/transmutation of radioactive materials in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Multiple recycling of plutonium in critical FRs is the most economic way to reduce the accumulated plutonium inventory of LWR-MOX. This option asks for the development of new reprocessing technologies. Pyrochemical reprocessing techniques appear as almost indispensable to carry out multiple recycling of high burn up FR fuel within short cooling times. Critical fast reactors with an adapted coolant system could also be used as storage reactors for Minor Actinides and reduce significantly their inventory during a long irradiation period in a thermalized blanket. Separated Minor Actinides can theoretically be incinerated in accelerator driven transmutation systems (ADS). But a long range R and D effort will be necessary to develop the system from its present conceptual design stage to an industrial reality. The connection between the proton accelerator operating under vacuum and the subcritical reactor core operating under cover-gas pressure requires the development of a replaceable beam window. The subcritical core design implies a lot of investigations on the homogeneity of the neutron flux, the burn up reactivity swing, the criticality control and the in-core actinide fuel management. Dedicated transmutation facilities will have to be erected near the large reprocessing plants in order to reduce as much as possible fuel recycling and transportation of highly radioactive materials. Development of dedicated transmutation facilities may take at least 25 years to reach the mature industrial level. The operation of a combined P and T prototype facility on a single site may possibly start in the second quarter of the 21st century

  20. Development of Innovative Technology for Detection and Identification of Radioactive Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pino Andrades, Felix Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    During the last 20 years, 2477 incidents related with the smuggling of radioactive materials have been reported to the IAEA. The implementation of systems for detection of radioactive materials at borders, ports, airports, etc. is a critical issue to contrast the contraband and prevent further consequences. The neutron detector based in 3He has been a common component in radiation portals, but the increasing demand of 3He has caused its shortage with a very large cost increase. This situation...

  1. Data about shipping of radioactive material for medical use; Datos sobre los envios de material radioactivo para uso medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN/SP, Av.Professor Lineu Prestes No. 2242, Zip Code 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: msanches@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The transport of radioactive materials implies a risk for the personnel of the team, those members of the public and the environment. While the safety in the transports is based on the designs of the bulks, the programs of radiological protection are important to assure the radiological control to the workers, the public and the environment during the transport of these materials. Although the biggest interest in the transport of radioactive materials it spreads to be centered in the nuclear industry, the transport in great measure it happens for the materials of medical use. These are mainly transported in bulks of the A Type and excepted bulks. The transport ones are forced, by national regulations, to send to the competent authority, in our case the National Comissao of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), all the data of the transported materials. This work has by objective to aim the efforts made to settle down and to manage the data regarding the transported radioactive materials. The existent data in the Radiopharmaceuticals Center, of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations 'IPEN/CNEN' it contains the information on all the radioactive materials consigned for the transport during every year. A statistic of the number of deliveries of the radioactive material for the period from 2001 to 2005 is provided. Based on this statistic its are presented the number of bulks, the quantity of activity and the ways of the transport for the period in study. (Author)

  2. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Management of individuals accidentally exposed to radiation or radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of ionizing radiation are being used with increasing frequency in a wide spectrum of applications in society. These uses are accompanied by the possible occurrence of accidents resulting in persons exposed to radiation and contaminated with radioactivity. These persons pose a risk to facilities and attending personnel upon their arrival at the hospital. This risk can be minimized without compromising the quality of patient care only if careful planning for such patients has been conducted by the hospital. Planning should include identification of a radiation emergency area within the hospital, delineation of a radiation emergency response team of individuals knowledgeable about radiation and radioactivity, and development of protocols for the medical care and decontamination of patients involved in radiation accidents. Various agencies, including the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, have stressed the need for preparation and periodic testing of radiation emergency response plans for hospitals

  4. Quantification of risks at the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirement of the risks which are coherent with the transport of hazardous elements are for the time being drawn up in a joint project by the Netherlands Ministries of SZW and VROM. In this project 'Requirements of risk for the transport of hazardous elements' (RNVGS) the transport of radioactive elements is not considered. To reach requirements for such a transport, the Directorate of Elements, Safety and Radiation of VROM has provided an assignment to ECN to make a quantitative analysis on the risks of transport of radioactive elements on the road. At the same time, they requested to examine in this performance study whether there are needed additional criteria specific for transport, along the criteria used for individual risk and group-risks. 55 refs., 1 fig., 16 refs

  5. The experience of implementation and improving import-export control for nuclear and radioactive material in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Malaysia, nuclear, radioactive and radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry and research. Malaysia has initiated new or improved measures to combat illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials through enforcement of a strengthened Act 304 and its regulations. The paper discusses the experience of implementing and improving import and export control for nuclear and radioactive material in Malaysia. (author)

  6. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60Co≤4.6%, 134Cs≤4.7%, 137Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  7. ASN: regional day of information and exchange on transport of radioactive materials - 4 February 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers Power Point presentations made during a meeting on the transport of radioactive materials. The contributions addressed the following topics: results of a survey based on questionnaires sent to actors of this sector, regulatory framework and radioprotection plan, case of parcels not submitted to the authority concerned, declaration of transport interesting or significant events, ASN inspections, the transport of radioactive products by the IBt Bebig company in France, the activities of the Institut de Soudure Industrie (industry welding institute), the activities of the ISO Life company specialized in health product transportation, the activities of the Securidis company (a consulting company for activities related to hazardous materials transportation, and notably radioactive materials), the activities a the ACE Environnement company (specialized in building diagnosis), the point of view of an academic research unit on radioactive material transportation, the experience of the hospital sector in radioactive source transportation, the experience of the Advanced Accelerator Applications company in radioactive material transportation, and a discussion on regulation application

  8. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hoertkorn, T.R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  9. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  10. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  11. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques for identifying the origin and composition of found radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials and sources have been used worldwide for the last 100 years - for medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial imaging and process monitoring, consumer applications, materials and biological research, and for generating nuclear energy - among other peaceful purposes. Many of the radioactive materials have been produced, and the associated nuclear science and technology developed, at major research sites such as the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. Sometimes undocumented radioactive materials associated with production, development or use are found, usually in the context of a legacy setting, and their composition and origin needs to be determined in order for these materials to be safely handled and securely dispositioned. The novel applications of nuclear analytical techniques, including mass spectroscopy, gamma and x-ray spectroscopy and neutron beam irradiation techniques, is presented in the context of some recent investigations. (author)

  12. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  13. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  14. Security in the transport of radioactive material: Implementing guide. Spanish edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks

  15. French National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) - 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faced with the high diversity of radioactive materials and waste, it may be difficult to grasp the relevance and consistency of the installed management framework. The purpose of the National Plan for the Management of Radioactive Materials and Waste (PNGMDR) is to clarify this management framework and improve it. To this end, it draws up an assessment of the management policy, evaluates the needs and determines the objectives to be attained in the future. The PNGMDR's usefulness was confirmed by Parliament. The evaluation report of the PNGMDR 2007-2009 by the Parliamentary Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options thus indicates that 'the interest of a summary document exposing all the problems and the solutions related to the management of radioactive waste was underlined a number of times by the Office. Since such a plan can allow achieving exhaustiveness and introducing a consistency in the management of radioactive waste, the Office deemed it necessary that it be linked to the law in one way or another. Conforming to the Office's recommendations, the Act of 28 June 2006 related to the sustainable management of radioactive waste stipulated that such a plan must be elaborated, updated every three years and published, extending its scope to reusable radioactive materials'. Thus, the PNGMDR provides the public with a global vision of the management of radioactive materials and waste, concerning both topics 'in the news' and those less publicised. Some waste, in fact, attracts momentarily particular attention, for example, on the occasion of a search for a disposal site, such as in 2008-2009, for so-called low level and long lived ('LL-LL') waste. The media also broadcast in 2008 and 2009 special enquiries on the management of mining residues and on reprocessed uranium; all these topics are discussed in detail in the PNGMDR. Other waste topics attract less attention, such as sealed radioactive sources, which are more dispersed throughout France

  16. Low-level radioactive material information management system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) has designed and tested a monitoring system for reporting and tracking the movement of low-level radioactive waste from generator through transporter or broker to disposal site. This demonstration project has been an attempt to show the feasibility of a system with wider regional and national scope. In conjunction with the development of this closed-loop system, a low-level waste generators' survey has been conducted in 10 pilot states to collect, analyze and present low-level waste data for state management purposes. These states are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

  17. Application of Generic Exemption Levels for Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In essence, exemption is an authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the user of the radioactive source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. This paper briefly describes and analyses these scenarios and also, describes the status of an implementation guide of these levels in the Argentinean Regulatory System. (authors)

  18. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Geographical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geographical inventory of the radioactive wastes present on the French territory (as recorded until the 31 of december, 2007) is presented, region by region. The various types of waste sites (production, processing, conditioning and storage sites, Uranium mines, ANDRA storage centers, historical storage sites and polluted sites where wastes are stored) are listed and located on maps. Details are given on the nature and origin of these wastes (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). A total of 1121 sites have been recorded, among which 163 are presented with details and charts

  19. Response to events involving the inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  20. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2000-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  1. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    1999-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  2. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1994 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last two complete calendar years. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material

  3. Prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  4. IMPACLIB: a material property data library for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-12-01

    The paper describes the structural data library and graphical program for impact and stress analyses of radioactive material transport casks. Four kinds of material data, structure steels, stainless steels, leads and woods are compiled. These materials are main structural elements of casks. Structural data such as, coefficient of thermal expansion, modulus of longitudinal elasticity, modulus of transverse elasticity, Poisson`s ratio and stress-strain relationship have been tabulated. Main features of IMPACLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature or strain rate, (2) thirteen kinds of polynominal fitting for stress-strain curve are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for structural data and (4) the IMPACLIB is able to be used on not only main frame computers but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computers (OS Windows 3.1). In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides a user`s guide for computer program and input data for the IMPACLIB. (author)

  5. THERMLIB: a material property data library for thermal analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The paper describes an heat conduction data library and graphical program for analysis of radioactive material transport casks. More than 1000 of material data are compiled in the data library which was produced by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Thermal data such as, density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, phase-change or solid-state, transition temperature and latent heat have been tabulated. Using this data library, a data library processing program THERMLIB for thermal analysis has been developed. Main features of THERMLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature, (2) more than 1000 material data are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for thermal data and (4) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows) are available for use of THERMLIB. In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides an user`s guide for computer program and input data for THERMLIB. (author)

  6. IMPACLIB: a material property data library for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the structural data library and graphical program for impact and stress analyses of radioactive material transport casks. Four kinds of material data, structure steels, stainless steels, leads and woods are compiled. These materials are main structural elements of casks. Structural data such as, coefficient of thermal expansion, modulus of longitudinal elasticity, modulus of transverse elasticity, Poisson's ratio and stress-strain relationship have been tabulated. Main features of IMPACLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature or strain rate, (2) thirteen kinds of polynominal fitting for stress-strain curve are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for structural data and (4) the IMPACLIB is able to be used on not only main frame computers but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computers (OS Windows 3.1). In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides a user's guide for computer program and input data for the IMPACLIB. (author)

  7. THERMLIB: a material property data library for thermal analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes an heat conduction data library and graphical program for analysis of radioactive material transport casks. More than 1000 of material data are compiled in the data library which was produced by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Thermal data such as, density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, phase-change or solid-state, transition temperature and latent heat have been tabulated. Using this data library, a data library processing program THERMLIB for thermal analysis has been developed. Main features of THERMLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature, (2) more than 1000 material data are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for thermal data and (4) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows) are available for use of THERMLIB. In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides an user's guide for computer program and input data for THERMLIB. (author)

  8. Emergency response planning and preparedness for transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Guide is to provide assistance to public authorities and others (including consignors and carriers of radioactive materials) who are responsible for ensuring safety in establishing and developing emergency response arrangements for responding effectively to transport accidents involving radioactive materials. This Guide is concerned mainly with the preparation of emergency response plans. It provides information which will assist those countries whose involvement with radioactive materials is just beginning and those which have already developed their industries involving radioactive materials and attendant emergency plans, but may need to review and improve these plans. The need for emergency response plans and the ways in which they are implemented vary from country to country. In each country, the responsible authorities must decide how best to apply this Guide, taking into account the actual shipments and associated hazards. In this Guide the emergency response planning and response philosophy are outlined, including identification of emergency response organizations and emergency services that would be required during a transport accident. General consequences which could prevail during an accident are described taking into account the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 43 refs, figs and tabs

  9. Material Not Categorized As Waste (MNCAW) data report. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, C.; Heath, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, requested all DOE sites storing valuable materials to complete a questionnaire about each material that, if discarded, could be liable to regulation. The Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program entered completed questionnaires into a database and analyzed them for quantities and type of materials stored. This report discusses the data that TSP gathered. The report also discusses problems revealed by the questionnaires and future uses of the data. Appendices contain selected data about material reported.

  10. New approaches for the treatments of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To restrict the quantities of radioactive wastes from non-nuclear industries that have to be stored in repositories for nuclear waste, new legislation on leaching of radionuclides must be developed. Within this regulation, the leachability framework for inorganic components can be used as a base for the development of tests for the leachability of radionuclides. Preliminary results showed that most concentrations of radionuclides in the leachates were below or just slightly above the detection limits of the method used. However, these low concentrations do not necessarily indicate that there are no risks involved with this rate of leaching. In cases where the leachate rate exceeds the risk limits, the detection limit must be lowered. Based on the composition of the Sillamaee waste, it is expected that similar strength and durability properties can be reached using the cold-bonded immobilisation method. Immobilisation could also be an economic solution for the Sillamaee problem, depending on local price levels for landfill and logistics

  11. Method of surface decontamination for radioactive contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To attain decontamination neither causing accidents due to corrosions or cold brittleness nor environmental contaminations. Method: Ice particles containing an oxidizing agent such as H2O2, an anti-refrigerant such as alcohols and a corrosion inhibitor such as a hydrazine are respectively sent to and mixed in a mixing tank and the mixed liquid is jetted out from a nozzle to wash radioactive contaminated portions such as in a nuclear power plant. The discharge liquid is returned to a drain tank. In this way, effective decontamination can be attained in combination with mechanical elimination by ice particles without using chemicals such as acids and alkalis tending to attack the structures or chemicals such as dry ice tending to cool the structures excessively to introduce cold brittleness. (Sekiya, K.)

  12. Preparation of technical support material for radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK Government is considering the introduction of a regulatory regime to address the legacy of sites that are radioactively contaminated due to historical activities. The Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) consulted on the principles of this regime in 1998, although no specific plans are yet in place to introduce the regime. The consultation paper envisaged that the Environment Agencies would have a major role in regulating the investigation and assessment of potentially contaminated sites and, where appropriate, their remediation. This work was commissioned by the Environment Agency, with support from DETR and SNIFFER (Scottish and Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research) to provide information on the techniques available allow the Environment Agencies to fulfil their envisaged regulatory requirements, and to assist DETR in the preparation of Statutory Guidance. The work was carried out by Entec UK Ltd, in conjunction with the NRPB

  13. Control of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its creation in 1950, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) of Argentina, was established as the competent authority in the control of nuclear applications in relation to the protection against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation and the safety of installations. In 1958, the Executive issued Decree 842 approving the Regulation for Using Radioisotopes and Ionising Radiations, to control use and application of radioactive materials and radiation emitted by them or from nuclear reactions. A part of the CNEA, the Regulatory Branch, was then formed and very rapidly established itself as the national authority in the areas of radiation and nuclear safety, safeguards and non-proliferation assurances, and physical protection. In the present paper, only the control of radioactive sources will be presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is empowered to establish standards and enforce their application to the possession and use of radiation sources. The regulatory goals are: ensure that the radioactive materials are imported, exported produces, transferred, stored, used, or disposed of, only by registrants or licensed persons in authorised or licensed installations, as required by Argentine regulations; ensure that registrants or licensees do everything reasonable and compatible with their possibilities regarding safety and security of radiation sources; ensure that the radioactive materials are handed over to another user, or are disposed of as radioactive waste, only when transfer or disposal was specifically authorised by the Regulatory Authority; keep an updated database of all the sealed radioactive sources in use in the country; prevent the illicit traffic of radiation sources; ensure safety and security of disused radioactive sealed sources, doing whatever necessary to maintain the required control; ensure that technical characteristics of imported of locally produced radioactive sources comply with Argentine safety requirements

  14. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the 4400 Piehl Road Site, Ottawa Lake, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the 4400 Piehl Road site in Ottawa Lake, Michigan. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the 4400 Piehl Road site should not exceed 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and plausible future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which applies the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation

  15. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Ventron site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, C.; Yu, C.; Jones, L.

    1992-03-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Ventron site in Beverly, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The derivations for the single radionuclides and the total uranium guidelines were based on the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Ventron site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following remedial action. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  16. Safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This International Conference, hosted by the Government of France and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) and the World Customs Organization (WCO), was the first one devoted to the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials and - for the first time - brought together radiation safety experts, regulators, and customs and police officers, who need to closely co-operate for solving the problem of illicit trafficking. The technical sessions reviewed the state of the art of twelve major topics, divided into two groups: the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials. The safety part comprised regulatory control, safety assessment techniques, engineering and managerial measures, lessons from experience, international cooperation through reporting systems and databases, verification of safety through inspection and the use of performance indicators for a regulatory programme. The security part comprised measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials, detection and identification techniques for illicit trafficking, response to detected cases and seized radioactive materials, strengthening awareness, training and exchange of information. The Conference was a success in fostering information exchange through the reviews of the state of the art and the frank and open discussions. It raised awareness of the need for Member States to ensure effective systems of control and for preventing, detecting and responding to illicit trafficking in radioactive materials. The Conference finished by recommending investigating whether international undertakings concerned with an effective operation of national systems for ensuring the safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials

  17. Pilot project for control and prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive material in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croatia has a very long and complex border (2.373 km on land, 972 km on sea) with more than 170 land border crossings. Illicit trafficking in people and drugs is very probably occurring daily. Number of international airports and sea ports, intensive nautical tourism, volume of goods in transit between Greece and the rest of EU, great number of border crossings on east south borders (Serbia and Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) are just the most obvious reasons adding to complexity and expensiveness of full and reliable detection system. Croatia signed several international instruments calling for comprehensive national system of control of nuclear material as well as special equipment and non-nuclear materials. Project for control of nuclear and radioactive materials on Croatian borders was initiated at the beginning of 2002 based on IAEA standards and recommendations. The objective of the project is development and implementation of nuclear and other radioactive material control system on the borders of the Republic of Croatia. The scope is to build up capacity for automatic control of border crossings and efficient response to detected nuclear and radioactive materials. the goals accomplished up to now are: Established coordination of all the issues related to control of nuclear and other radioactive materials through national coordination body (customs, police, nuclear safety and security, radiation protection, consultants from university and consulting firms, etc.) and national program setting up general strategy, responsibilities, procedures etc. and education of border crossing officers through seminars and hand on training

  18. Final environmental statement on the transportation of radioactive material by air and other modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is presented of the environmental impact from transportation of shipments of radioactive material into, within, and out of the United States. It is intended to serve as background material for a review by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of regulations dealing with transportation of radioactive materials. The impetus for such a review results not only from a general need to examine regulations to ensure their continuing consistency with the goal of limiting radiological impact to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable, but also from a need to respond to current national discussions of the safety and security aspects of nuclear fuel cycle materials. Chapters are included on regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials, radiological effects, transport impact under normal conditions, impacts of transportation accidents, alternatives, and security and safeguards. A standard shipments model is also included along with a demographic model, excerpts from federal regulations, data on Pu, Population dose formulas, a list of radioactive material incidents, accident analysis methodology, and an analysis of risk assessment sensitivity

  19. Changes in the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to describe and to analyze the relevant changes, dealing with the design, operation and administrative requirements, to be introduced in the Revision 1 of the AR 10.16.1 standard 'Transport of radioactive material' that will be put into force on July, 1st 2001 by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (competent authority of Argentina). In that way, the Revision 1 of the mentioned standard will be coincident with the 1996 edition (revised) of the 'Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material', Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, revised) issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  20. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material

  1. Safety and security in transportation of radioactive material- the perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the event of September 11, 2001, the way most people look at transportation risk has changed. There is now a lot more focusing on the security concerns related to the transportation of radioactive material. Most people are now more concerned about the risk of terrorist actions or sabotage than of accidents. This is probably due to the fact that the safety record for transportation of radioactive material has so far been very good and that most people experience terrorism and sabotage more scaring and less controllable than general accidents. This paper will compare the safety and the security regulations and discuss synergies and contradictions between the sets of regulations

  2. The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management. 2010-2012 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This short presentation, given by the nuclear safety authority (ASN) at the meeting of January 26, 2010 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the different stages of the elaboration of the new edition of the French national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (PNGMDR). The plan comprises 3 parts: the principles and objectives of the radioactive materials and wastes management, the status of existing procedures and of procedures still under development by the end of 2009, the improvements made. The topics concern: the interim storage, the long-term management and the global consistency of the plan. (J.S.)

  3. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials: The UK position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the organizations involved in the regulation of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials across the UK. The safety of radiation sources is within the regulatory remit of the Health and Safety Executive, under the Health and safety of Work Act 1974 and associated regulations. Any employer using radiation sources has a statutory duty to comply with this legislation, thereby protecting workers and the public from undue risk. From a radioactive waste management perspective, the storage and use of radioactive materials and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste are regulated by the environment agencies of England and Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland, under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. Special regulatory arrangements apply to nuclear sites, such as power stations and fuel cycle plants, and some additional bodies are involved in the regulation of the security of fissile materials. An explanation is given in the paper as to how these organizations to work together to provide a comprehensive and effective regulatory regime. An overview of how these regulators have recently started to work more closely with other enforcement bodies, such as the Police and Customs and Excise is also given, to illustrate the approach that is being applied in the UK to deal with orphan sources and illicit trafficking. (author)

  4. Development of hotcell transportation system technology for high radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first stage of the research, the transportation and storage characteristics analysis of the pyroprocess materials, the development of horizontal type hot cell transportation system, and the design of interim storage system for the pyroprocess material are conducted. The optimized capacity, transportation frequency and operation period of pyroprocess facility are found using the logistics analysis program developed in this project. A new hot cell transportation system was designed. Through the safety analysis and test for the hot cell transportation system, the design license has been approved. A new type hot cell docking system with superior performance has been developed with a patented rotating lid system. We have reached to a unique concept of interim storage of pyroprocess materials and selected a system through a comparative evaluation of existing ones. In the second stage of the research, transportation/storage/sealing devices for PRIDE recovered material/wastes were developed. And test model for the devices in engineering scale facility were also developed. The design requirements for a vertical docking system were evaluated and the performance assessment using a scaled mock-up was conducted. Integrated storage management technology was evaluated for an efficient management of process materials. A heat transfer simulation and characteristics analysis for the storage system were conducted. The derivation of design requirements, design and fabrication of a canister test model, and preliminary safety assessment were conducted

  5. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities

  6. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  7. Natural minerals and synthetic materials for sorption of radioactive anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Mun Ja; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Seung Soo

    1998-07-01

    Technetium-99 and iodine-129 are fission products with long half-lives, and exist as highly soluble anionic species. Studies on natural and synthetic materials sorbing TcO{sub 4} and/or I have been performed by several researchers. The application of these materials as an additive in the high-level waste disposal has been considered. The iron- or sulfide-containing minerals such as metal iron, iron powder, stibnite and pyrrhotite show a high capacity for TcO{sub 4} sorption. And the small amounts of activated carbon are reported to have high distribution coefficients recently. In the iodine sorption studies, sulfide-, copper-, lead- or mercury-containing minerals can be a candidate. Pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, Cu{sub 2}S and CuS reveal a high capacity for I sorption. The synthetic materials were found to have high sorption capacity and compensate the defects of natural minerals, which contain hydrous oxides such as zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide and mercarbide. The mercarbide has the high distribution coefficients for the sorption of TcO{sub 4} and I. Recently it was proposed that the synthetic clay, hydrotalcite, could be useful for the fixation of anion. However, to determine the applicability of those natural and synthetic materials as an additive to a buffer or backfill material for sorption of TcO{sub 4} and/or I, the sorption behavior of the anions on those materials under the repository conditions should be identified. (author). 32 refs., 21 tabs., 10 figs

  8. Combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material. Technical guidance. Reference manual. (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended for individuals and organizations that may be called upon to deal with the detection of and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material. It will also be useful for legislators, law enforcement agencies, government officials, technical experts, lawyers, diplomats and users of nuclear technology. This manual emphasizes the international initiatives for improving the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is recognized that effective measures for controlling the transfer of equipment, non-nuclear material, technology or information that may assist in the development of nuclear explosive devices, improvised nuclear devices (INDs) or other radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) are important elements of an effective nuclear security system. In addition, issues of personal integrity, inspection and investigative procedures are not discussed in this manual, all of which are essential elements for an effective overall security system. The manual considers a variety of elements that are recognized as being essential for dealing with incidents of criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material. Depending on conditions in a specific State, including its legal and governmental infrastructure, some of the measures discussed will need to be adapted to suit that State's circumstances. However, much of the material can be applied directly in the context of other national programmes. This manual is divided into four main parts. Section 2 discusses the threat posed by criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the policy and legal bases underlying the international effort to restrain such activities. Sections 3 and 4 summarize the major international undertakings in the field. Sections 5-8 provide some basic technical information on radiation, radioactive material, the health consequences of radiation

  9. Onsite transportation of radioactive materials at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R.

    2015-03-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Transportation Safety Document (TSD) defines the onsite packaging and transportation safety program at SRS and demonstrates its compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) transportation safety requirements, to include DOE Order 460.1C, DOE Order 461.2, Onsite Packaging and Transfer of Materials of National Security Interest, and 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management (Subpart B).

  10. DOE materials program supporting immobilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented of the DOE program for developing waste-form criteria, immobilization processes, and generation and evaluation of performance characterization data. Interrelationships are discussed among repository design, materials requirements, immobilization process definition, quality assurance, and risk analysis as part of the National Environmental Policy Act and regulatory processes

  11. Loading, moving, and shipping radioactive waste in reusable radioactive material containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the dismantlement of systems and components at the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant was a monumental task, the loading, movement, temporary storage, and shipping of over 2 1/2 million pounds of contaminated and/or activated material was nearly as difficult. Close coordination and teamwork between such diverse groups as craft labor, health physics, radiation controls, trucking companies and waste volume reducers were crucial elements in performing this work safely, cost effectively, and with particular attention to the station's very aggressive ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goals. This paper discusses the actual work that was involved from the time the contaminated component was removed from its location in the plant through actual shipment offsite

  12. Materials and Security Consolidation Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Security Consolidation Center facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  13. Materials and Fuels Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-09-01

    Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Materials and Fuels Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool for developing the radioactive waste management basis.

  14. Remote monostatic detection of radioactive material by laser-induced breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Joshua; Miao, Chenlong; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates a concept for remotely detecting the presence of radioactivity using electromagnetic signatures. The detection concept is based on the use of laser beams and the resulting electromagnetic signatures near the radioactive material. Free electrons, generated from ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive material, cascade down to low energies and attach to molecular oxygen. The resulting ion density depends on the level of radioactivity and can be readily photo-ionized by a low-intensity laser beam. This process provides a controllable source of seed electrons for the further collisional ionization (breakdown) of the air using a high-power, focused, CO2 laser pulse. When the air breakdown process saturates, the ionizing CO2 radiation reflects off the plasma region and can be detected. The time required for this to occur is a function of the level of radioactivity. This monostatic detection arrangement has the advantage that both the photo-ionizing and avalanche laser beams and the detector can be co-located.

  15. Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

    2012-08-01

    Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl [U(VI)] ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

  16. Using radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  17. Legal aspects of the maritime transport of radioactive materials: its regulation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has the object to analyse the International as much as National legal frameworks, the scopes and limits of the instruments which form it as well as the congruous that exist between them and the situation which actually prevails in the maritime transport field of radioactive materials in worldwide level and in Mexico taking into account the technical advances, the operational experience and radiological protection principles. In the chapter 1, the background on the uses of nuclear energy are described and its development by more of fifty years. The chapter 2 analyses about the establishment of nuclear technologies in Mexico as well as their evolution in medicine, agriculture, research and electric power generation areas. In chapter 3 it was analysed the role what the International Organizations have been playing for the establish of an International legal framework in the maritime transport of radioactive materials field. In the chapter 4, the International legal framework was analysed which is applied to the transport of radioactive materials. Finally, the chapter 5 analyses and poses the requirements and necessities which lead Mexico to legislate broadly the transport of radioactive materials taking as basis International instruments from which the state is part also from some other agreements is analysed its adhesion to them. (Author)

  18. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre of Minatom of Russia' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy.

  19. 10 CFR 835.405 - Receipt of packages containing radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....405 Section 835.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of...) Measurements of the radiation levels, if the package contains a Type B quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4) of... containing quantities of radioactive material in excess of a Type A quantity (as defined at 10 CFR 71.4)...

  20. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package-railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1983-10-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Cask Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations. 1 reference, 18 figures.

  1. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1981-12-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Casks Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations.

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2. Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This volume contains all certificates of compliance for radioactive material packages effective Nov. 30, 1977

  3. Proposals for radioactive material by rail (packaging, labelling and carriage) regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Radioactive Material by Rail (Packaging, Labelling and Carriage Regulations (Northern Ireland) are presented in this consultation document. The proposals establish a new system of safety controls which implement the requirements of two European Directives. These are the ADR and RID Framework Directives which relate to the transport of dangerous goods by road and rail respectively. (UK)

  4. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of organic materials which are present in some intermediate level wastes on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  5. Status of Philippine regulatory infrastructure for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some regulatory practices and experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) in ensuring safe transport of radioactive materials. The regulation and licensing the use of radioactive materials started in 1958. The number of packages containing radioactive materials transported into and within the country has increased with the increase number of licensees. During the period 2000-2002, the total number of licensees is 293, 311 and 311 respectively. The PNRI issues certificates of release and certificate of transport/authority to transport. Based on the data of certificates, the topmost sealed source shipments from abroad, mostly in type A package, are 192Ir and 125I for brachytherapy. For unsealed sources, also mostly in type A package, the topmost radioactive materials are 99mTc (generators), 131I, 201Tl mainly for medical diagnosis. From the data on certificates of transport, the total number of packages inspected for the period 2000-2002 is 464, 577 and 747 respectively. The experiences in the enforcement of the transport regulations and the implication of issuing certificates of release and transport are discussed and recommendations are presented. (Authors)

  6. Construction and commissioning of workrooms for handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements prescribed for planning, design and construction of type II and III workrooms for handling of unsealed sources are outlined. The 'Guide Concerning Construction and Equipment of Rooms for Handling of Radioactive Materials' is explained and supplemented in part. Furthermore, problems of radiation protection organization and measuring techniques are discussed. (author)

  7. Natural Radioactivity in some building materials from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro, C. [Universidad de Extremadura (UEX), 10071-Caceres (Spain); Madruga, M.J.; Reis, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    Studies of natural radiation are of great importance because it is the main source of exposure of human kind. Building materials is one of the sources which cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. The aim of this work is to measure gamma activity due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in samples of commonly used as a building materials in Spain. Cement, gypsum, plaster, marble, slates, granite and wood had been analysed. These materials are used for private and public building. Radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}) and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. Results were also compared with the data available in the literature for other countries of the world. Cement, gypsum and plaster samples were collected from hardware stores. Marble, slates and granite samples were taken from different quarries. And the wood samples were taken from eucalyptus trees from forest. Activity concentrations {sup 40}K-, {sup 226}Ra- and {sup 232}Th-activity was determined by gamma spectrometry using a HPGe coaxial detector. The results show that the range of average values of the activity concentrations due to {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were found between 37 and 1340 Bq/kg, 0.007 and 104 Bq/kg, and <0.005 and 75 Bq/kg, respectively. Maxima values were obtained in granite. Radium equivalent activities range from 3.7 Bq/kg to 283 Bq/kg, calculated in wood and granite, respectively. Therefore all the samples showed Raeq activities within the limit, 370 Bq/kg, set by UNSCEAR. Values of external hazard index for all samples under investigation are below the unity, while the internal hazard index for granite exhibits a value around the unity. Acknowledgements to the financial support of the Junta de Extremadura (project PRI09A092 and FEDER-group GRU09053). (authors)

  8. Intervention of hydrogen analysis laboratory for radioactive materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the practice was the measurement of the hydrogen concentration on structural material from the Central Nuclear Atucha I (CNA-I) cooling channels using a LECO gas analyser. Original samples were previously separated into fractions at the Laboratiorio para Ensayos de Post-Irradiacion (LAPEP), Centro Atomico Ezeiza. The practice and the preliminary conditions of the laboratory and equipment to reduce the occupational dose for personnel and the work area contamination are described in this paper. In addition to the training activity for workers, the radiological control performed during the intervention and procedure followed to decontaminate LECO and the laboratory are summarized here. (authors)

  9. Radioactivity of building materials and the gamma radiation in dwellings in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials are known to contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The radionuclides which contribute to the external exposure are 40 K and the gamma emitters members of the natural decay series 238U, 235U and 232Th. Samples of the statistically more important buildings materials utilized in the Metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte were collected and their uranium and thorium concentration were determined by INAA. The gamma emitters were spectrometrically determined by solid state detectors HPGe in a very low background laboratory. A model room was used for calculating the indoor mean exposure in dwellings. Due to the lack of regulation for radioactivity in buildings in Brazil, the measured activity concentration was compared with those of other countries. A discussion about the utilization of building material containing TENORM industrial residues is presented. (author)

  10. Investigation of natural radioactivity concentration in building materials and the impact to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Human health is burdened by the everyday exposure in natural radioactivity caused by materials used for the construction and decoration of their houses. This study focus on the determination of the natural radioactivity concentration of various building materials used for interior and exterior constructions located in Greece. Natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232 and K-40) concentration in specially prepared samples of these materials is measured utilizing the direct gamma-counting method. These values are presented as specific activities (Bq Kg-1) for each radionuclide in every constructing material while the overall results are tabulated, analyzed and compared with similar data from other studies. Additionally, the radiobiological impact to humans exposed to this specific radiation is investigated by estimating the probable radiation dose uptake (in mSv per year) and comparing it with the maximum permissible absorbed dose to humans as given by the world standards. (authors)

  11. The dose from radioactivity of covering construction materials in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor dose due to the radiation of ceramic and granite tiles, marble, granite and travertine plates, as well as some components of covering materials, produced in Serbia or imported from other countries, was estimated in the work. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured by the standard gamma-spectrometry system. The lowest content of the radionuclides was found in white marble (ARa = 2 Bq/kg, ATh < 2 Bq/kg, and AK < 3 Bq/kg, while the highest activities were in some granite samples (Balmoral red: ARa = 200 Bq/kg, ATh = 378 Bq/kg, and AK = 1679, and Madura Gold: ARa = 273 Bq/kg, ATh = 20 Bq/kg, and AK = 1456 Bq/kg. The indoor absorbed dose rate in air due to the gamma radiation from covering materials was determined based on the specific absorbed dose rate computed in this work. Concentration of 222Rn that emanated into the indoor space was also calculated from the known 226Ra content. The radiation hazard estimated from the usage of each sample was expressed through the evaluated effective dose. Almost all samples, except one, fulfil the dosimetric criterion for safe use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. 171021 i br. 171025

  12. Remote Detection of Concealed Radioactive Materials by Using Focused Powerful Terahertz Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2016-06-01

    This review paper summarizes the results of studies of a novel concept of the remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by using focused high-power terahertz (THz) radiation. The concept is based on the known fact that the ambient electron density in air is low (one to three free electrons per cubic centimeter). These electrons can serve as seed electrons from which an avalanche breakdown in strong electromagnetic fields starts. When a powerful THz radiation is focused in a small spot, the breakdown-prone volume can be much smaller than a cubic centimeter. So, the probability of having some free electrons in this volume and, hence, the probability of breakdown are low in the absence of additional sources of air ionization. However, in the vicinity of radioactive materials (10-20 m), the electron density can be higher, and, hence, there are always some seed free electrons from which the avalanche ionization will start. Thus, the breakdown rate in this case can be close to 100 %. Realization of this concept requires studies of various physical and technical issues. First, it is necessary to develop a high-power source of (sub-) THz radiation whose power, frequency, and pulse duration are sufficient for realizing this goal. Second, it is necessary to analyze numerous issues important for realizing this concept. Among these issues are (a) enhancement of the ionization level of air molecules in the presence of hidden radioactive materials, (b) estimating the minimum detectable mass of radioactive material, (c) formation of breakdown-prone volumes in focused THz wave beams, and (d) effect of atmospheric conditions on the propagation and focusing of THz wave beams and on the optimal location of the breakdown-prone volume between a container with hidden radioactive material and a THz antenna. The results of these studies are described below.

  13. Safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in co-operation with the European Commission (EC), International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) and the World Customs Organization (WCO) organized an International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, in Dijon, France, from 14 to 18 September 1998. The Government of France hosted this Conference through the Commissariat a l'energie atomique, Direction des applications militaires (CEA/DAM). This TECDOC contains the contributed papers dealing with the topics of this Conference which were accepted by the Conference Programme Committee for presentation. The papers written in one of the two working languages of the Conference, English or French are presented here each by a separate abstract. Ten technical sessions covered the following subjects: the regulatory control of radiation sources, including systems for notification, authorization and inspection; safety assessment techniques applied to radiation sources and design and technological measures including defense in depth and good engineering practice; managerial measures, including safety culture, human factors, quality assurance, qualified experts, training and education; learning from operational experience; international co-operation, including reporting systems and databases; verification of compliance, monitoring of compliance and assessment of the effectiveness of national programmes for the safety of sources; measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials, experience with criminal acts involving radioactive materials; detection and identification technologies for illicitly trafficked radioactive materials; response to detected cases and seized radioactive materials, strengthening of the awareness, training and exchange of information. The IAEA plans to issue the proceedings of this Conference containing the invited presentations, rapporteurs and Chairpersons overviews and summaries

  14. Assessment of the application of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, working with the individual Member States, undertook to examine the manner in which domestic, import, export and through-country shipments of radioactive materials are controlled and regulated worldwide. The information to be examined was collected by a questionnaire, which was sent to Member States in July 1984. Copies of the letter and the questionnaire are in Appendix I of this document. The follow-up letters, repeating the request to provide the IAEA with data and asking authorization to publish the data obtained through the questionnaire, were sent in February 1985 (Appendix II and III). By the end of June 1986 completed questionnaires had been received from 53 Member States. These Member States are listed in Appendix IV. The results of the examination are summarized in this report. The results indicate the important role the international organizations play in the transport of radioactive material. All the Member States involved in this examination regulate the transport of radioactive material within their country on the basis of international agreements, regulations and recommendations. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No. 6, is the ultimately controlling document since it serves as the basis for the radioactive material portions of other international transport documents (Appendix V) and since it is made directly binding in the regulations of many countries. In addition to the questions concerning the adoption of the regulations, some questions on the implementation of the transport regulations, e.g. on competent authorities and other regulatory bodies as well as quality assurance, were presented in the questionnaire. This report concerns only the adoption of the regulations

  15. TRASMAR 2: improved tele operated mobile robot for the radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research of Mexico (ININ), a new robot version for the radioactive material transport was developed trying to diminish the radiation quantity to which the ININ personnel is exposed taking it away by this way of the radioactive substance. The robot is operated by means of a remote control, for that which two data transmission modules by radiofrequency are used. As much the remote control as the vehicle control system were implemented with the help of micro controllers. Presently document the main characteristics of this mobile robot are explained, which is a more economic and functional version that it predecessor. (Author)

  16. Transportation of radioactive materials issued from the fuel cycle; Transport des matieres radioactives du cycle du combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartenstein, M. [TN International (groupe AREVA), 78 - Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2011-01-15

    After a presentation of the context of radioactive material transportation (types of transported materials, applicable constraints), the author describes the different kinds of packaging used during the different stages of the fuel cycle in the case of light water reactors: ore concentrates, UF{sub 4} and UF{sub 6}, low enriched uranium oxide, impoverished uranium oxide, plutonium oxide, new UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel assemblies, irradiated fuel assemblies aimed at processing-recycling, uranyl nitrate, warehousing of irradiated fuels before final storage, wastes (high, very low, low and medium activity). He briefly evokes packaging for the case of fast neutron or fusion reactors. He discusses the various aspects of packaging design: safety function, applicable constraints and tests, design and material choice with respect with various issues (criticality, confinement, biological protection, heat transfer, mechanical resistance and shock damping properties, radiolysis and thermolysis, interfaces with transportation installations and means). He describes how packaging is exploited: life cycle management, fabrication, exploitation, maintenance and spare parts, end of life, documentation. He addresses how transportation is organised by evoking transport means and modes, and transport commissioning

  17. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials. Vietnam Standard (TCVN 4985-89)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulations were prepared in line with the Safety Regulation for Ionizing Radiations 1988 of Vietnam. Its purpose is to provide requirements in transport of radioactive materials. The exposure levels of transport personnel are determined. The package for different types of materials is regulated. The orders and procedures in transport are defined. In addition, specific requirements for each mean of transport are given. (N.H.A)

  18. Safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in details. Hazards and potential threat, material control and responsible parties, in addition to management and the technical requirements, are the main topics that are discussed. Some interest is given to the responsibilities of the regulatory authority, with special emphasis on the role of King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology as a national competent authority. (author)

  19. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications

  20. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  1. Applying commercial robotic technology to radioactive material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasz, E.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sievers, R.H. Jr. (Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The development of robotic systems for glove box process automation is motivated by the need to reduce operator radiation dosage, minimize the generation of process waste, and to improve the security of nuclear materials. Commercial robotic systems are available with the required capabilities but are not compatible with a glove box environment. Alpha radiation, concentrated dust, a dry atmosphere and restricted work space result in the need for unique adaptations to commercial robotics. Implementation of these adaptations to commercial robotics require performance trade-offs. A design and development effort has been initiated to evaluate the feasibility of using a commercial overhead gantry robot for glove box processing. This paper will present the initial results and observations for this development effort. 1 ref.

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: summary report of NRC approved quality-assurance programs for radioactive-material packages. Volume 3, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages. Volume 3, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  4. Evaluation of using synthetic zeolite as a backfill material in radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental safety concept for the disposal of radioactive wastes is to isolate the waste from the accessible environment for a period sufficiently long to allow substantial decay of the radionuclides and to limit release of residual radionuclides into the accessible environment. The underground disposal of radioactive waste is based upon a multi barrier concept. Backfill material is an important component of a multi-barrier disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. For long-term performance assessment of radioactive repositories, knowledge concerning the migration of radionuclides in the backfill material is required. Radionuclide migration through porous media (backfill materials) is governed by diffusion, advection, dispersion, retardation, and radionuclide decay. The work presented in this thesis is an examination of the feasibility of using synthetic zeolite NaA-X blend prepared from fly ash (FA) as backfill material in the proposed radioactive waste disposal facility in Egypt. The migration behavior of cesium and strontium ions, as two of the most important radionuclides commonly encountered in the Egyptian waste streams, through the proposed backfill material is studied using mathematical models. This approach considers the advective and dispersive transport of solutes dissolved in groundwater, which may undergo linear sorption (i.e retardation) and simple first order decay. To achieve these goals, the following investigations were carried out:1- Review of the materials most commonly used as engineered backfill to identify the important features to be considered in the examination of the proposed backfill material (zeolite Na A-X blend).2- Sorption experimental investigation aimed to study the sorption properties of the candidate backfill material towards the concerned radionuclides, cesium and strontium. Such studies are performed to establish clear understanding of the principle factors that control the sorption process, i

  5. Protocol to treat people with wounds contaminated with radioactive material standpoint of radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Amanda Gomes; Tauhata, Luiz; Reis, Arlene Alves; Cruz, Paulo Alberto Lima da, E-mail: amandglird@gmail.com, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.br, E-mail: prof.arlenealves@gmail.com, E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bertelli Neto, Luiz, E-mail: lbertelli@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Health Physics Measurements, Radiation Protection, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    People who work in research laboratories, radioisotope production center or nuclear artifacts, nuclear medicine center, or allocated in the vicinity of nuclear facilities that suffered accidents or bombardment, may be subject to wound with radioactive material should have special treatment and follow a protocol of care. If insoluble, much of the material will be retained at the wound site and the treatment is based on human anatomical structure and need to be evaluated the deposition, retention, and release for dosimetric purpose. The incorporation of soluble material may enter in the blood stream, distributed through the body and be deposited in organs, causing committed dose of ionizing radiation, before being excreted. The behavior and the assessment of radiation exposure mechanism are described with the use of biokinetic models. Upon the occurrence of these events, the first aid care of these people should follow a well-established procedure according to the scenario, the degree of severity of each case and type of radioactive material involved. This paper seeks to establish a protocol for first care of people with wounds containing radioactive material as part of the preparation for their care in specialized medical center. Measurements were made with radionuclides, characteristic of each occurrence scenario, appropriate detectors for each situation, with the performance expected for each type or model for the depth of location, activity and committed dose rates involved, using tissue-equivalent material. Moreover, the estimated the activity and internal dose were made using the conversion factor obtained with AIDE software for radionuclide of interest. (author)

  6. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, revision 1. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory contains a Summary Report of NRC approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, and index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory

  7. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1987. This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Summary Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  8. Explanatory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 2. ed. (as amended 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is an updated version of the Second Edition of the Explanatory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1985 Edition) and replaces all previous versions of Safety Series No. 7. This publication includes the changes to Safety Series No. 7 contained in the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 Edition, Supplement 1988, as well as modifications adopted by the Review Panel that was convened in Vienna, 10-14 July 1989. For the convenience of the user, the old Safety Series style adopted in the original publication has been retained, although the old style has now been superseded by a new one, affecting the structure, the format and the cover of the Safety Series. It should be noted, however, that future editions will be published in the new style.

  9. Removal of Cs from the soil contaminated with radioactive materials by heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop a method of heat treatment for removal of Cs from the contaminated soil. This development can reduce the concentration of Cs in the soil to acceptable levels for the use as civil work materials. In a simulative experiment using clay (Bentonite) containing non-radioactive Cs for evaluating Cs removal, heightened CaO/SiO2 ratio effectively prevent the soil from melting thereby achieving dramatically higher Cs removal rate under the conditions of high temperatures with the addition of chloride as a reaction accelerator. Based on this finding, we carried out heat treatment tests using actually contaminated soil which contained 10,000 Bq/kg of radioactive Cs and a chloride as an accelerator. Through this practice, Cs in the samples of higher Cao/SiO2 ratio successfully volatilized showing much lower residual radioactive Cs concentration than the clearance level (100 Bq/kg). (author)

  10. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  11. Cementitious materials for the immobilisation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical and physical properties of cements are influenced by the microstructure which changes significantly going from the plastic state of freshly mixed cement, to the hardened state. The microstructure is highly complex containing many phases and many differing morphological features. Before setting, the rheology of cement is, technologically, of prime importance. The porosity of a set cement varies widely depending on many factors and produces pore size distributions in a range extending from a few tens of angstroms to a few millimetres. An understanding of techniques to investigate porosity is vital before the effects of microstructure on the mechanical or physical properties of cement can be appreciated. Although the strength of a cement monolith is not necessarily of prime concern in the radwaste context, a low value is often indicative of other poor physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Standard techniques for the measurement of strength are discussed and, as cements act as brittle materials, the strength is considered using Griffith's criterion. Alterations in the microstructure (and hence porosity) in cements leads to highly complex changes in both permeability and leach rate. Some recent work highlighting the effects of water/cement ratio and curing regimes is outlined in an effort to indicate this complexity. (author)

  12. Radiation damage in natural materials: implications for radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term effect of radiation damage on waste forms, either crystalline or glass, is a factor in the evaluation of the integrity of waste disposal mediums. Natural analogs, such as metamict minerals, provide one approach for the evaluaton of radiation damage effects that might be observed in crystalline waste forms, such as supercalcine or synroc. Metamict minerals are a special class of amorphous materials which were initially crystalline. Although the mechanism for the loss of crystallinity in these minerals (mostly actinide-containing oxides and silicates) is not clearly understood, damage caused by alpha particles and recoil nuclei is critical to the metamictization process. The study of metamict minerals allows the evaluation of long-term radiation damage effects, particularly changes in physical and chemical properties such as microfracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and solubility. In addition, structures susceptible to metamictization share some common properties: (1) complex compositions; (2) some degree of covalent bonding, instead of being ionic close-packed MO/sub x/ structures; and (3) channels or interstitial voids which may accommodate displaced atoms or absorbed water. On the basis of these empirical criteria, minerals such as pollucite, sodalite, nepheline and leucite warrant careful scrutiny as potential waste form phases. Phases with the monazite or fluorite structures are excellent candidates

  13. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  14. Vectorization of nuclear codes for atmospheric transport and exposure calculation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three computer codes MATHEW, ADPIC of LLNL and GAMPUL of JAERI for prediction of wind field, concentration and external exposure rate of airborne radioactive materials are vectorized and the results are presented. Using the continuous equation of incompressible flow as a constraint, the MATHEW calculates the three dimensional wind field by a variational method. Using the particle-in -cell method, the ADPIC calculates the advection and diffusion of radioactive materials in three dimensional wind field and terrain, and gives the concentration of the materials in each cell of the domain. The GAMPUL calculates the external exposure rate assuming Gaussian plume type distribution of concentration. The vectorized code MATHEW attained 7.8 times speedup by a vector processor FACOM230-75 APU. The ADPIC and GAMPUL are estimated to attain 1.5 and 4 times speedup respectively on CRAY-1 type vector processor. (author)

  15. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications

  16. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  17. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the ? field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  18. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  19. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control: Recommendations (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  20. Adhesive property of radionuclides on material surface in high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination technology in a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility is important from the viewpoint of radiation exposure and waste disposal. Actually, the decontamination of the equipment for reprocessing plant is reported to be available in several facilities, the radioactive contamination on the material surface includes the following processes, that is, (1) adhesion of particle, (2) adsorption and ion exchange of radioisotope, and (3) diffusion and penetration. Types of contamination are classified as adhesive contamination, surface contamination, and depth contamination. The corrosion of material is a main factor of depth contamination. In case of reprocessing process, the equipment material is exposed to corrosive environment caused by nitric acid solution containing a variety of radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium and fission products. The corrosive environment may further complicate the mechanism of radioactive contamination on material surface. In this study, the adhesive property of radionuclides, in particular gamma emitters, was investigated to develop the decontamination technology for materials contaminated in high level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW). (J.P.N.)

  1. APPLICATION FO FLOW FORMING FOR USE IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING DESIGNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.; Abramczyk, G.

    2012-07-11

    This paper reports on the development and testing performed to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing containment vessels for use in radioactive material shipping packaging designs. Additionally, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Subsection NB compliance along with the benefits compared to typical welding of containment vessels will be discussed. SRNL has completed fabrication development and the testing on flow formed containment vessels to demonstrate the use of flow forming as an alternate method of manufacturing a welded 6-inch diameter containment vessel currently used in the 9975 and 9977 radioactive material shipping packaging. Material testing and nondestructive evaluation of the flow formed parts demonstrate compliance to the minimum material requirements specified in applicable parts of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II. Destructive burst testing shows comparable results to that of a welded design. The benefits of flow forming as compared to typical welding of containment vessels are significant: dimensional control is improved due to no weld distortion; less final machining; weld fit-up issues associated with pipes and pipe caps are eliminated; post-weld non-destructive testing (i.e., radiography and die penetrant tests) is not necessary; and less fabrication steps are required. Results presented in this paper indicate some of the benefits in adapting flow forming to design of future radioactive material shipping packages containment vessels.

  2. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values). Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: August 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002); IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  3. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2003 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fourteenth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC). It supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1302 'Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2002 Edition'. Through the database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information provided by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The PACKTRAM database only contains information that has been provided to the IAEA. The data are not complete nor guaranteed to be accurate. If detailed information is required, the original package approval certificates must be consulted. If information is required about package approval certificates that are not contained in the database, the issuing competent authority must be consulted

  4. The Role of Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Control of Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic radiation monitoring in Slovenia comprises monitoring of external gamma radiation, aerosol radioactivity, radon progeny concentration, and radioactive deposition measurements. The officer on duty has an important part in assuring proper and undisturbed functioning of our automatic radiation monitoring. He is the one who gets the first alert message on radiation levels when exceeded pre-set values in the territory of Slovenia. Together with continuous control over the functioning of automatic radiation monitoring, the officer on duty has been also assigned for receiving messages from users, who carry the 'Radiation pager' (it is a trade mark for Sensor Technology Engineering, inc. from USA). All valuable experiences of the officer on duty who has been accepting reports from customs officers, police officers, from Slovenian radiation and nuclear safety inspectors, are described in this article. The officer on duty with his new role contributes to prevention of the illicit trafficking and inadvertent movement of radioactive materials over the territory of Slovenia. In the last year there where many different causes of emergency calls: from many cases of patient after radioisotopes medical treatment to serious rejected shipment with exceeded radiation. This is only a beginning of responsible task how to introduce and assure the control of the inadvertent movement of radioactive materials in Slovenia. (author)

  5. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2004 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PACKTRAM database contains administrative and technical information provided annually by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. This is the fifteenth PACKTRAM annual report to being published by the IAEA. It is distributed worldwide mainly to designated competent authorities, as well as to registered interested parties. The database itself is maintained at www.packtram.org and can be accessed by the general public

  6. Application of Nuclear Forensics in Combating Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a scientific discipline, nuclear forensics poses formidable scientific challenges with regard to extracting information on the history, origin, movement and processing of nuclear and other radioactive material found to be out of regulatory control. Research into optimized techniques is being pursued by leading nuclear forensic research groups around the world. This research encompasses areas including evidence collection, analytical measurements for rapid and reliable categorization and characterization of nuclear and radioactive material, and interpretation using diverse data characteristics or the 'science of signatures' from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. In this regard, the IAEA recently concluded the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled Application of Nuclear Forensics in Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material. The CRP seeks to improve the ability of Member States to provide robust categorization and characterization of seized material, reliable techniques for the collection and preservation of nuclear forensic evidence, and the ability to interpret the results for law enforcement and other purposes. In accordance with broader IAEA objectives, the CRP provides a technical forum for participating institutes from Member States to exchange technical information to benefit national confidence building as well as to advance the international discipline of nuclear forensics. This CRP was initially planned in 2006, commenced in 2008 and was completed in 2012. Three research coordination meetings (RCM) were convened at the IAEA in Vienna to review progress. The leadership of the chairpersons was essential to establishing the technical viability of nuclear forensics at the IAEA and with the Member States

  7. Modelling of motorway tunnels scenario for utilization of conditionally released radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable amount of solid radioactive waste with radioactivity slightly above the limits for unconditional release is generated during the decommissioning of the nuclear installations. Conditional release deals with precisely this type of materials with activity slightly above limits in order to save considerable financial resources, which would be otherwise spend on treatment, conditioning and disposal of these materials at appropriate repository. The basic principles of conditional release as well as possibilities of reusing of the conditionally released materials are described. One of these possibilities of the reusing was chosen and application proposal of conditional release of metal waste - steel reinforcement in the concrete, which could be used for construction of motorway tunnels, was created. The computer code Visiplan 4.0 3D ALARA planning tool software was used for the calculation of effective individual dose for personnel constructing the tunnel and for critical group related to scenario. Particular models for individual scenarios of conditional release have been developed within the scope of this software code. The aim of the paper is to determine a level of the radioactivity of conditional released materials to avoid over exceeding the value of annual individual effective dose 10μSv/year established by international recommendations. (author)

  8. Safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials: A case of Zambia - least developed country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)

  9. Standard Guide for Unrestricted Disposition of Bulk Materials Containing Residual Amounts of Radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the techniques for obtaining approval for release of materials encountered in decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) from restricted use. This would be addressed in the decommissioning plan (E 1281). It applies to materials that do not meet any of the requirements for regulatory control because of radioactivity content. Fig. 1 shows the logic diagram for determining the materials that could be considered for release. Materials that negotiate this logic tree are referred to as “candidate for release based on dose.” 1.2 The objective of this guide is to provide a methodology for distinguishing between material that must be carefully isolated to prevent human contact from that that can be recycled or otherwise disposed of. It applies to material in which the radioactivity is dispersed more or less uniformly throughout the volume of the material (termed residual in bulk form) as opposed to surface contaminated objects. 1.3 Surface contaminated objects are materials externally co...

  10. Radioactive materials transportation by motorbike in entire Brazil territory; Transporte de material radioativo por motocicletas em todo o territorio nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    This Regulation refers to the interpretation of the term vehicle in the Chapter 3 of the CNEN-NE.5.01 'Vehicle: road vehicle (including articulated vehicle, i.e., combination of tractor and semi-trailer), car or railway wagon. Each wagon should be considered a separate vehicle'. This definition does not include the possibility of radioactive material transportation by motorbike

  11. Legal aspects of the maritime transport of radioactive materials its regulation in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, S

    2001-01-01

    This work has the object to analyse the International as much as National legal frameworks, the scopes and limits of the instruments which form it as well as the congruous that exist between them and the situation which actually prevails in the maritime transport field of radioactive materials in worldwide level and in Mexico taking into account the technical advances, the operational experience and radiological protection principles. In the chapter 1, the background on the uses of nuclear energy are described and its development by more of fifty years. The chapter 2 analyses about the establishment of nuclear technologies in Mexico as well as their evolution in medicine, agriculture, research and electric power generation areas. In chapter 3 it was analysed the role what the International Organizations have been playing for the establish of an International legal framework in the maritime transport of radioactive materials field. In the chapter 4, the International legal framework was analysed which is appli...

  12. A model for absorption determination of radioactive materials: application in the radio dosimetry and nutrition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-parameter model of the sigmoidal relationship is proposed to explain the food passage by intestinal tube. These parameters are: U = intestinal non-absorbed radioactivity; d parameter related to intestinal food dispersion; and t50 = time to maximal appearance of material from the intestinal lumen. In order to illustrate the applications of this model and its validity, the absorption of 65Zn from casein semi-purified diet was evaluated in rats. There was a good agreement between the predicted values and the experimental data when the sigmoidal component was added to the conventional multicompartimental equations. With this kind of model the time to maximal appearance (hours), the true absorption level, the fecal concentration and the intestinal dispersion of the ingested radioactivity material may be determined. (author)

  13. Promoting the safe transport of radioactive material: Activities of the ISO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards help to make life simpler and to increase the reliability and effectiveness of goods and services. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) plays a key role in developing standards at the international level, including those that apply to the packaging and transport of radioactive material. Such standards can have positive effects, not only on engineers and manufacturers, but also on society as a whole. ISO standards are useful to industrial and business organizations of all kinds, to governments and other regulatory bodies, to trade officials, to conformity-assessment professionals, to suppliers and customers of products and services both in the public and private sectors, and, ultimately, to consumers and end-users in general. The paper outlines the role ISO is playing in this field and summarizes the status of standards that apply to the packaging and transport of radioactive material. (author)

  14. Status of transport events involving radioactive materials which occurred in France between 1999 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents transport events involving radioactive materials, occurred on French territory from 1999 to 2011, listed in the IRSN's database. 1,304 events have been recorded. For each of them, many parameters have been collected and analysed from information listed in the notifications and reports of the events sent by users (type of event, purpose, package design, level on the INES scale...). The numbers of events notified in 2010 and 2011 are slightly higher than the average of 100 events per year. The two main causes of notification concern documentation errors (in transport documents or labeling) and handling mishaps. The downward trend of frequency of package or conveyance contaminations has been confirmed. A short description of the outstanding events occurred in 2010 and 2011 is proposed. This synthesis also gives an outline of the actions recommended by IRSN to avoid recurrence of the notified events and improve the safety of the transports of radioactive materials

  15. Economics of radioactive material transportation in the light-water reactor nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimates of certain transportation costs, in 1979 dollars, associated with Light-Water Reactor (LWR) once-through and recycle fuel cycles. Shipment of fuel, high-level waste and low-level waste was considered. Costs were estimated for existing or planned transportation systems and for recommended alternate systems, based on the assumption of mature fuel cycles. The annual radioactive material transportation costs required to support a nominal 1000-MW(e) LWR in a once-through cycle in which spent fuel is shipped to terminal storage or disposal were found to be approx. $490,000. Analogous costs for an average reactor operating in a fuel cycle with uranium and plutonim recycle were determined to be approx. $770,000. These results assume that certain recommended design changes will occur in radioactive material shipping systems as a mature fuel cycle evolves

  16. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2, Revision 17: Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  17. Emergency planning and preparedness for accidents involving radioactive materials used in medicine, industry, research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Series book should be considered as a technical guide aimed at the users of radioactive materials and the appropriate local and national authorities. It does not represent a single solution to the problems involved but rather draws the outlines of the plans and procedures that have to be developed in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident, should one occur. The preparation of local and national plans should follow the technical recommendations provided in this publication, with due consideration given to local factors which might vary from country to country (e.g. governmental systems, local legislation, quantities of radioactive materials involved). Several types of accidents are described, together with their possible radiological consequences. The basic principles of the protective measures that should be applied are discussed, and the principles of emergency planning and the measures needed to maintain preparedness for an operational response to an accident are outlined

  18. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. PMID:15238660

  19. Analysis of residual organic materials in aqueous radioactive streams from the Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New solid phase extraction methods have been developed to allow determination of residual normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in aqueous radioactive streams from the Purex process. The techniques concentrate organic materials and separate them from radioactive species for analysis by gas chromatography. TBP and NPH have good radiolytic and chemical stability and have low aqueous solubility. However, they can contaminate aqueous streams and cause processing difficulties. Knowledge of the concentration of organic materials in aqueous waste is useful in assessing impact on pollution control equipment. The storage quality of diluent-washed aqueous plutonium product solution can be determined by a gas chromatographic analysis for residual TBP. 4 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  20. Strategies to reduce illicit uses of radioactive materials. The Ethiopian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The illicit uses of radioactive sources can impose a direct danger to public health and safety. A number of cases worldwide have resulted in ionizing radiation exposures to individuals. Although the incident of illicit trafficking is greatly influenced by the national system of protection of radioactive materials at their use and storage location this alone may not ensure an absolute guarantee against such occurrence. The challenges of preventing illicit uses of radioactive sources and activities are more complex in the face of more integrated global economic environment. The national system of control, the cross border involvement, multiplicity of participants in the supply to end-use chain, diversity of systems and instruments are factors contributing to this complexity. Smooth interplay and overall systemic effectiveness of the national system of regulatory control, the strategic coordination of responsible parties and the systemic tie of such bodies, the efficiency of information flow and the pattern of know-how and training is what ensure the effectiveness of preventing, detecting and responding to any illicit activities and trafficking of radioactive sources. In Ethiopia, the attempts/incidents of illegal use were so far limited. However, the possibility of such occurrence cannot be ruled out and due attention should be paid as the activity is complex and is a global problem of general concern. Therefore, in addressing these issues the following strategies are believed appropriate in Ethiopia's perspective for preventing and controlling illicit uses and trafficking of radioactive materials: Strengthening the national system of control and protection including boarder controlling; Achieving effective coordination within and among regulators, law enforcement bodies and customs; Developing and maintaining effective system of information handling and flow; Training of principally responsible parties in the prevention, detection and response to illicit

  1. Strategies to reduce illicit uses of radioactive materials (the Ethiopian perspective)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The illicit uses of radioactive sources can impose a direct danger to public health and safety. A number of cases worldwide have resulted in ionizing radiation exposures to individuals. Although the incident of illicit trafficking is greatly influenced by the national system of protection of radioactive materials at their use and storage location this alone may not ensure an absolute guarantee against such occurrence. The challenges of preventing illicit use of radioactive sources and activities are more complex in the face of more integrated global economic environment. The national system of control, the cross border involvement, multiplicity of participants in the supply to end-use chain, diversity of systems and instruments are factors contributing to this complexity. Smooth interplay and overall systemic effectiveness of the national system of regulatory control, the strategic coordination of responsible parties and the systemic tie of such bodies, the efficiency of information flow and the pattern of know-how and training is what ensure the effectiveness of preventing, detecting and responding to any illicit activities and trafficking of radioactive sources. In Ethiopia, the attempts /incidents of illegal use were so far limited. However, the possibility of such occurrence cannot be ruled out and due attention should be paid as the activity is complex and is global problem of general concern. Therefore, in addressing these issues the following strategies are believed appropriate in Ethiopia's perspective for preventing and controlling illicit of use and trafficking of radioactive materials. Strengthening the national system of control and protection including boarder controlling; achieving effective coordination within and among regulators, law enforcement bodies and customs; developing and maintaining effective system of information handling and flow; training of principally responsible parties in the prevention, detection and response to illicit

  2. An intelligence led approach to intercepting the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing the actuality and importance of nuclear material illicit trafficking problems, the Security Service of Ukraine pays great attention to the security and theft prevention of nuclear materials in Ukraine. For this purpose the state system, which includes organizational and legislative measures, has been established and is functioning. Within the frame of this system the detection and perception of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances take an important place in the work of law enforcement authorities, including Security Service, in Ukraine. The Laws of Ukraine nuclear power utilization and radioactive safety, sanitary and epidemiological population control, the respective articles of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (art. 228-2, 228-3, 228-4, 228-5) and the statement of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine no. 207 on 04.03.1997 which determines the interaction procedure between executive authorities in case of illicit trafficking of radiation source detection, are its legislative basis. The analysis of the situation shows that this problem became the most pressing after the USSR collapse in 1991 due to some objective and subjective causes. Some criminals and common staff of the enterprises and organizations which were responsible for the above mentioned materials as well as former military men were involved in illegal activity associated with illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Although after the USSR collapsed the Ukraine had the nuclear arsenal which was the third in the world, it did not become the source of nuclear weapons material proliferation. It shows the effectiveness of the measures undertaken by the government within the system of nuclear material physical protection provision. It is evident that nuclear weapon removal from the territory of Ukraine was performed without any case of its loss or theft. Therefore, currently in Ukraine there is only the necessary amount of nuclear material

  3. A United States perspective on long term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The United States has far-reaching experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. The events resulting from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the Marshall Islands, follow-up from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, accidents, and the environmental cleanup of our weapons complex have resulted in an extensive body of lessons learned and best practices. The lack of trust created in the affected population, regardless of cause of the spread of radioactive material, creates the working environment for long-term management of the situation. The extent of advanced planning for such an event will define and bound your ultimate success in reaching a conclusion acceptable to the affected parties. The two key issues to be addressed in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials are the two 'T's' - technical and trust. The technical issues to be resolved include: access to the affected area; infrastructure to support operations; local and imported staffing; health care for the affected population; and payment to name a few. In addressing the issue of trust it is critical to establish open, honest and inclusive communications and decision making with the affected population and stakeholders, with clear roles and responsibilities defined. Actions must be sensitive to local cultural issues and agreements reached with affected populations prior to actions being taken. Establishment of an alternative views resolution process helps build trust and allow actions to taken. Government to government relations and agreements must be established with an acceptance and understanding of the long term investment in time and resources needed. Planning ahead for such an eventuality and putting in place procedures, agreements and resources needed to address the technical and trust issues associated with the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials enhances success. (author)

  4. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1991, Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  5. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1993. Volume 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1993 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1974 through 1992 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1993 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 13, Annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Lucadamo, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1992 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1973 through 1991 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1992 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Volume 11: Annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Doty, K.; Congemi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1989: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1989 have been compiled and reported. The summary data for the years 1970 through 1988 are included for comparison. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1989 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  9. Technical committee meeting on evaluation of radioactive materials release and sodium fires in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Technical Committee Meeting was to review the activities of research on radioactive materials release and sodium fires in fast reactors in each of the participating countries. It covered: out-of-pile experiments and analysis codes on source term; in-pile experiments on source term; core disruptive accidents; sodium leak experience in liquid metal fast reactors; evaluation of sodium fire; and aerosol behaviour

  10. Review of international normatives for natural radioactivity determination in building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mossini Eros; Macerata Elena; Giola Marco; Mariani Mario

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities, such as high-altitude flights and living in buildings, have enhanced the public exposure to natural radiation. In particular, 40K and radionuclides belonging to 232Th and 238U decay chains are present even in building materials, and they may be considered as partially responsible for the effective dose coming from natural radioactivity. Scientists and governments have devoted great attention to the evaluation of the effects produced on the public by naturally occurri...

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains all Certificates of Compliance for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory

  12. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design and shipment of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authorization of packages and shipments of radioactive materials are issued in the form of certificates by the national competent authority of the IAEA Member State in which the package is designed or from which a shipment originates, and may be validated or endorsed by the corresponding authority of other Member States as the need arises. This directory summarizes in tabular form the key information on existing package approval certificates contained in PACKTRAM database. 5 tabs

  13. Bentonite-like material sealing to high-level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most used materials for sealing of radioactive waste storage, bentonite shows a high number of advantages because of its plasticity, thermal and hydraulic conductivity, etc. The paper makes a review on different Spanish deposits of bentonite and their stability. Most of studies are focussed on the volcanic region at Cabo de Gata (Almeria). That area offers the most productive hydrothermal bentonite deposits in Spain

  14. Licensing of LLW final storage casks as transport casks of type IP for fissile radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 Siemens AG decided to stop the manufacture of fuel assemblies in Hanau and to decommission the Uranium and MOX plant. Since this time about 70.000 tons of radioactive contaminated materials have either been recycled or prepared for final storage in the planned repository Konrad. In the case of Siemens AG Hanau essentially two types of containers were used, which are called Steel Container Type IV and Type VI

  15. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  16. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1981. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1981 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1981 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  17. The role of the airline industry in the safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the transport of dangerous goods, including radioactive material, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) - representing its member airlines - works towards greater standardization, streamlining of traffic-handling procedures, more automation, reduced government-clearance procedures and documentary requirements, improved handling at airports, and adequate terminal facilities. The paper provides an overview of how IATA works with other international agencies to accomplish these goals and how it reflects the IAEA Transport Regulations in the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations. (author)

  18. 77 FR 65220 - Certain Licensees Requesting Unescorted Access to Radioactive Material; Order Imposing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... 8.1 Cs-137 1 27 Gd-153 10 270 Ir-192 0.8 22 Pm-147 400 11,000 Pu-238 0.6 16 Pu-239/Be 0.6 16 Ra-226... amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, authorizes NRC to regulate Ra-226 and NRC is in the process of amending its regulations for discrete sources of Ra-226. \\4\\ Radioactive materials are to be...

  19. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This volume contains all Certificates of Compliance for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory.

  20. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Xhixha, Gerti; Baldoncini, Marica; Callegari, Ivan; Colonna, Tommaso; Hasani, Fadil; Mantovani, Fabio; Shala, Ferat; Strati, Virginia; Kaçeli, Merita Xhixha

    2015-01-01

    Because potential Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed without regulatory criteria in many decades, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) has been performed. Among 52 gamma-ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples, we discover that relatively low activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K, which are 23 +/- 2 Bq/k...

  1. Study on effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity of betavoltaic nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badrianto, Muldani Dwi; Riupassa, Robi D.; Basar, Khairul, E-mail: khbasar@fi.itb.ac.id [Nuclear Physics and Biophysics Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Nuclear batteries have strategic applications and very high economic potential. One Important problem in application of nuclear betavoltaic battery is its low efficiency. Current efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery reaches only arround 2%. One aspect that can influence the efficiency of betavoltaic nuclear battery is the geometrical configuration of radioactive source. In this study we discuss the effect of geometrical configuration of radioactive source material to the radiation intensity in betavoltaic nuclear battery system. received by the detector. By obtaining the optimum configurations, the optimum usage of radioactive materials can be determined. Various geometrical configurations of radioactive source material are simulated. It is obtained that usage of radioactive source will be optimum for circular configuration.

  2. Worker safety for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study group under the auspices of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) Labor Committee and the High-level Radioactive Waste/Hazardous Materials Transportation Task Force examined worker protection and safety programs for occupations affected by the use, transportation and storage of radioactive and hazardous materials. Concern about the risks posed to people who live along spent nuclear fuel transportation routes has led to demands for redundant inspections of the transported spent fuel. It would also be prudent to examine the radiological risk to the inspectors themselves before state of federal regulations are promulgated which require redundant inspections. Other workers may also come close to a spent fuel cask during normal operations. The dose rate to which these inspectors and handlers are exposed is higher than the dose rate to which any other group is exposed during incident-free truck transportation and higher than the dose rate to the drivers when they are in the truck cab. This report consists of miscellaneous papers covering topics related to determining radiation doses to workers involved in the transport of radioactive materials

  3. A regulatory analysis on emergency preparedness for fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question this Regulatory Analysis sought to answer is: should the NRC impose additional emergency preparedness requirements on certain fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees for dealing with accidents that might have offsite releases of radioactive material. To answer the question, we analyzed potential accidents for 15 types of fuel cycle and other radioactive material licensees. An appropriate plan would: (1) identify accidents for which protective actions should be taken by people offsite; (2) list the licensee's responsibilities for each type of accident, including notification of local authorities (fire and police generally); and (3) give sample messages for local authorities including protective action recommendations. This approach more closely follows the approach used for research reactors than for power reactors. The low potential offsite doses (acute fatalities and injuries not possible except possibly for UF6 releases), the small areas where actions would be warranted, the small number of people involved, and the fact that the local police and fire departments would be doing essentially the same things they normally do, are all factors that tend to make a simple plan adequate. This report discusses the potentially hazardous accidents, and the likely effects of these accidents in terms of personnel danger

  4. Impact stress reduction by shell splitting in cask for transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High impact stress in shell of a container for transporting radioactive material. • Reduction of impact stress by splitting shell into multiple parts. • Impact simulations on simple objects to prove benefits of shell splitting. • Explanation based on theory of bending of simply supported beam. • Impact simulations on a simple cask showing up to 21% reduction in maximum stress. - Abstract: Casks designed for transporting radioactive material are mandated to withstand drop from specific heights on hard ground. The maximum internal stress in the shell of the cask after such an impact needs to be as low as possible to ensure safety of the material being transported. This paper investigates the concept of splitting the shell of the radioactive transport container into multiple layers to reduce these stresses after impact. Different geometrical configurations which are likely to be encountered while designing such containers have been studied through plane 2D and 3D finite element analysis and the efficacy of this idea has been explored on each of them. Considerable reduction of stress has been reported and an explanation based on elastic deformation of layered beams has been suggested. Simulations on a cask with the currently prevalent design also show the benefit of implementing this idea

  5. Determination of the probability for radioactive materials on properties in Monticello, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, under the authority of the Atomic Energy Act, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) to manage the maintenance and surveillance of numerous DOE-owned, radioactively contaminated facilities that have been declared surplus and to conduct a program leading to the ultimate disposition of those facilities. The primary responsibility of SFMP is to protect public health and the environment from potentially harmful radioactive contamination contained within or derived from DOE-owned facilities. Management of SFMP is directed by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Washington, DC. Prior to mill site remediation, Monticello properties surrounding the site and designated privately owned are being assessed for inclusion in the SFMP. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was directed by DOE in July 1988 to assess the radiological condition of privately owned properties in Monticello that have been identified as possibly containing Monticello mill-related materials. Properties containing Monticello mill-related materials and with associated radiation levels that exceed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and DOE standards are eligible for cleanup under SFMP. The objective of this study was to determine the probability that a property which contained Monticello mill-related residual radioactive material in excess of the guidelines would not be assessed under the current protocol. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials and Cobald-60 contaminated ferrous scraps from steel industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the occurrence of radioactively contaminated rebar incident in 1992, steel industries in Taiwan were encouraged by Atomic Energy Council (AEC) to install portal monitor to detect the abnormal radiation in shipments of metal scrap feed. From 1994 through 1999, there were 53 discoveries of radioactivity in ferrous scraps by steel companies. These include 15 orphan radioactive sources, 16 cobalt-60 contaminated rebars, 20 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) contaminated scraps, and two unknowns. Most NORM-contaminated scraps were from abroad. The NORM and cobalt-60 contaminated scraps were taken from the steel mills and analyzed in laboratory. The analytical results of scales and sludge sampled from NORM-contaminated scraps combining with the circumstantial evidences indicate that five possible industrial processes may be involved. They are oil production and treatment, heavy mineral sand benefication and rare earth processing, copper mining and processing, recovery of ammonium chloride by lime adsorption in Ammonium-soda process, and tailing of uranium enrichment process. The cobalt-60 activity and trace elements concentrations of contaminated rebars confirm that all of them were produced domestically in the period from Oct. 1982 to Jan. 1983, when the cobalt-60 sources were lost and entered the electric arc furnace to produce the contaminated rebars. (author)

  7. Research on the additives to reduce radioactive pollutants in the building materials containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several kinds of functional additives such as barite, zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement were introduced to prepare a low-radiation cement-based composite to reduce radioactive pollutants contained in fly ash. The effect of content and granularity of the functional additives on the release of radioactive pollutants were investigated. Composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Scan electron microscopy. The results indicate that the radioactive pollutants contained in the fly ash can be reduced by adding a proper amount of zeolite, ferric oxide, gypsum, and high alumina cement. The release of radon from fly ash decreases with a decrease in the granularity of additives. Compared with traditional cement-based composite containing fly ash, the release of radon can be reduced 64.8% in these composites, and the release of γ-ray is decreased 45%. Based on the microstructure and phase analysis, we think that by added functional additives, there are favorable to form self-absorption of radioactivity in the interior composites. This cement-based composite will conducive to fly ash are large-scale applied in the field of building materials.

  8. Property Valuation and Radioactive Materials Transportation: A Legal, Economic and Public Perception Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, J. A.; Thrower, A. W.; Widmayer, D. A.; Portner, W.

    2003-02-26

    The shipment of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico raised a serious socioeconomic issue - the potential devaluation of property values due to the transportation of TRU waste from generator sites to the disposal facility. In 1992, the New Mexico Supreme Court held in City of Santa Fe v. Komis that a loss in value from public perception of risk was compensable. This issue has become an extremely important one for the development of the Yucca Mountain repository in Nevada for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much research has been conducted about the potential impacts of transportation of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This paper examines the pertinent studies conducted since the Komis case. It examines how the public debate on radioactive materials transportation continues and is now focused on transportation of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Finally, the paper suggests a path forward DOE can take to address this issue.

  9. N.590 National assembly. Law project of program relative to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the different articles of the law text n. 590 on the management of the radioactive wastes and materials. It concerns the obligations and the liabilities of producers and users of radioactive spent fuels and wastes. (A.L.B.)

  10. Schedules of Provisions of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2012 Edition). Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide aims to aid users of radioactive material and regulators by providing a listing of relevant requirements of the regulations (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR 6) as applicable to the type of radioactive material, package or shipment. Once a consignor has properly classified the radioactive material to be shipped (following the recommendations provided in Section 2 and Fig. 1 of this Safety Guide), the appropriate UN number can be assigned and the paragraph numbers of specific requirements for shipment can be found in the corresponding schedule

  11. Novel methods for estimating 3D distributions of radioactive isotopes in materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Taya, T.; Okochi, H.; Ogata, H.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, various gamma-ray visualization techniques, or gamma cameras, have been proposed. These techniques are extremely effective for identifying "hot spots" or regions where radioactive isotopes are accumulated. Examples of such would be nuclear-disaster-affected areas such as Fukushima or the vicinity of nuclear reactors. However, the images acquired with a gamma camera do not include distance information between radioactive isotopes and the camera, and hence are "degenerated" in the direction of the isotopes. Moreover, depth information in the images is lost when the isotopes are embedded in materials, such as water, sand, and concrete. Here, we propose two methods of obtaining depth information of radioactive isotopes embedded in materials by comparing (1) their spectra and (2) images of incident gamma rays scattered by the materials and direct gamma rays. In the first method, the spectra of radioactive isotopes and the ratios of scattered to direct gamma rays are obtained. We verify experimentally that the ratio increases with increasing depth, as predicted by simulations. Although the method using energy spectra has been studied for a long time, an advantage of our method is the use of low-energy (50-150 keV) photons as scattered gamma rays. In the second method, the spatial extent of images obtained for direct and scattered gamma rays is compared. By performing detailed Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4, we verify that the spatial extent of the position where gamma rays are scattered increases with increasing depth. To demonstrate this, we are developing various gamma cameras to compare low-energy (scattered) gamma-ray images with fully photo-absorbed gamma-ray images. We also demonstrate that the 3D reconstruction of isotopes/hotspots is possible with our proposed methods. These methods have potential applications in the medical fields, and in severe environments such as the nuclear-disaster-affected areas in Fukushima.

  12. Management of waste from the use of radioactive material in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education safety guide

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on the > fulfilment of the safety requirements established in Safety Standards > Series No. WS-R-2, Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, > Including Decommissioning. It covers the roles and responsibilities of > different bodies involved in the predisposal management of radioactive > waste and in the handling and processing of radioactive material. It > is intended for organizations generating and handling radioactive > waste or handling such waste on a centralized basis for and the > regulatory body responsible for regulating such activities.  > Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the > environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety > considerations; 5. Predisposal management of radioactive waste; 6. > Acceptance of radioactive waste in disposal facilities; 7. Record > keeping and reporting; 8. Management systems; Appendix I: Fault > schedule for safety assessment and environmental impact assessment; > Ap...

  13. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive-Materials Packages. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume I), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective December 31, 1982. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volumes 1 and 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Summary Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  14. Establishment and utilization of radiological protection programs for the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has by objective to indicate rules for the establishment and the use of the Radiological Protection Programs (PPR) that are of application to the transport of radioactive materials according to that required by the Transport Regulation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The PPR are established and applied in systematic form for remittent, transport and addressees, to consider the measures of radiological protection and its appropriately control during the transport stages of radioactive material. In particular, in the work it is analyzed the PPR applied to the operative stage, in the one that can be considered as one of the more important documents to use since it summarizes the evaluations and the necessary controls of radiological protection. Also it is analyzed the importance that this document gets ready on the base that it converges in the the analyses, evaluations and data that have been kept in mind during the previous stages of design of bundles and production of packings, the types and quantities of involved bundles, as well as of considering the quantities of expeditions and its frequencies, the ways of transport, etc. It is included a brief description of the parts that the PPR conforms on the base of that suggested in the advanced draft of the TS-G-1.5 Guide 'Radiation Protection Programmes for Transport of Radioactive Material', of October, 2005, of the IAEA: objectives. necessity, scope, basic elements of a PPR in function of the occupational dose. assignment of functions and responsibilities for the establishment of a PPR, evaluation and dose optimization, surface contamination, segregation and other protection measures, responses in emergencies. training and administration systems for baled and transport of radioactive material. Next an example of PPR for the transport of bundles of the A Type by lorry with content of radiopharmaceuticals that are the bundles more used worldwide in the expeditions of radioactive

  15. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  16. US nuclear regulatory commission quality assurance roles and responsibilities for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations include requirements for quality assurance (QA) programs for entities that engage in activities involving the transportation of radioactive materials in Type B and fissile material packages. Prior to commencing activities subject to the QA requirements, a QA program description must be submitted to the NRC for review and approval. The QA program user must also develop implementing procedures for the user's QA program to ensure compliance with the NRC's QA requirements. The NRC conducts independent periodic inspections of QA program users to assess the adequacy of program implementation

  17. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission quality assurance roles and responsibilities for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations include requirements for quality assurance (QA) programs for entities that engage in activities involving the transportation of radioactive materials in Type B and fissile material packages. Prior to commencing activities subject to the QA requirements, a QA program description must be submitted to the NRC for review and approval. The QA program user must also develop implementing procedures for the user's QA program to ensure compliance with the NRC's QA requirements. The NRC conducts independent periodic safety and compliance inspections of QA program users to assess the adequacy of program implementation. (author)

  18. International conference on security of material. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers cover the subjects relating to the trafficking of highly enriched nuclear materials, less radioactive, radioactive materials, radiations sources, prevention of crime, capabilities of preventing smuggling, radiation detection devices that are or should be applied on borders. Different aspects of physical protection, security and safety of nuclear materials in a number of countries are discussed. A number of papers are devoted to detectors, and measuring methods

  19. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry in the USA is being criticized now for its impact on the environment. One claim against the petroleum industry is the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) coproduced with oil and gas. The oil industry has been accused of disturbing environmental balance by bringing radioactive materials to the surface. Studies indicate that low concentrations of NORM, mostly radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222, are sometimes carried from geologic formation into oil-field equipment. The radium isotopes being water soluble remain in the liquid phase while radon being a gas is transported to gas plant equipment. Under surface conditions the radium isotopes coprecipitate with other salts as scales in tubulars or accumulate in sludges in production equipment. Radon-222 decays into more stable lead-210 which coats the gas plant equipment. Number of alternatives have been identified for the disposal of production wastes and equipment containing NORM. Most of them are still in the development wastes and equipment containing NORM. Most of them are still in the development stages. The radioactivity level due to NORM in production operations rarely exceeds the background level. Therefore the human exposure to NORM is of concern only in case of direct contact. The safety precautions routinely taken in the daily production operations are sufficient to avoid risks from the exposure to NORM. (author). 6 refs

  20. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD); Sistema de Materiales Radiactivos del ININ (SMATRAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero G, E.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Valdivia R, D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  1. Potential nuclear material safeguards applied to the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the U.S. Department of Energy is charged with the responsibility of safe and efficient disposal of this Nation's civilian high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. Part of this responsibility includes providing for the application of both domestic and international safeguards on nuclear material at facilities of the Civilian Waste Management System. While detailed safeguards requirements for these disposal facilities have yet to be established, once established, they could impact facility design. Accordingly, OCRWM has participated in efforts to develop safeguards approaches for geologic repositories and will continue to participate actively with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) Offices in efforts to resolve safeguards issues related to spent fuel disposal, to minimize any potential design impacts and to support effective nuclear material safeguards. The following paper discusses current plants and issues related to the application of safeguards to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS)

  2. Illicit Trafficking in Radiological and Nuclear Materials. Lack of Regulations and Attainable Disposal for Radioactive Materials Make Them More Vulnerable than Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive materials is far from a new issue. Reports of nuclear materials offered for sale as well as mythical materials such as red mercury date back to the 1960's. While such reports were primarily scams, it illustrates the fact that from an early date there were criminal elements willing to sell nuclear materials, albeit mythical ones, to turn a quick profit. In that same time frame, information related to lost and abandoned radioactive sources began to be reported. Unlike reports on nuclear material of that era, these reports on abandoned sources were based in fact - occasionally associated with resulting injury and death. With the collapse of the Former Soviet Union, illicit trafficking turned from a relatively unnoticed issue to one of global concern. Reports of unsecured nuclear and radiological material in the states of the Former Soviet Union, along with actual seizures of such material in transit, gave the clear message that illicit trafficking was now a real and urgent problem. In 1995, the IAEA established an Illicit Trafficking Data Base to keep track of confirmed instances. Illicit Trafficking is deemed to include not only radioactive materials that have been offered for sale or crossed international boarders, but also such materials that are no longer under appropriate regulatory control. As an outcome of 9/11, the United States took a closer look at illicit nuclear trafficking as well as a reassessment of the safety and security of nuclear and other radioactive materials both in the United States and Globally. This reassessment launched heightened controls and security domestically and increased our efforts internationally to prevent illicit nuclear trafficking. This reassessment also brought about the Global Threat Reduction Initiative which aims to further reduce the threats of weapons usable nuclear materials as well those of radioactive sealed sources. This paper will focus on the issues related to a subset

  3. Innovative technologies for recycling and reusing radioactively contaminated materials from DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) major goals is to clean up its contaminated facilities by the year 2019. The primary contaminants at DOE sites are radioactive materials, organic compounds, and heavy metals. The most common radioactive materials are isotopes of uranium and plutonium, although lesser quantities of thorium, technetium, neptunium and americium are also found. Organic contamination includes lubricating oils, cutting fluids, kerosene, solvents, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Heavy metal contaminants include mercury, arsenic, chromium, lead, and cadmium. The Office of Technology Development (OTD) within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is charged with developing innovative technologies to clean up DOE facilities. The DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center is assisting the OTD by procuring and managing research projects to develop the innovative technologies. These innovative technologies promise to be faster, better, cheaper and safer than the current suite of environmental remediation technologies. With sufficient decontamination, much of the materials from the DOE facilities could be released as scrap to the commercial sector or reused within the DOE complex. The potential for recycling or reusing materials, including strategic metals such as nickel, is enormous if the materials are properly decontaminated. This paper will discuss innovative technologies to decontaminate and recycle or reuse scrap metal, concrete, and process equipment

  4. Impact limiters for radioactive materials transport packagings: a methodology for assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at establishing a methodology for design assessment of a cellular material-filled impact limiter to be used as part of a radioactive material transport packaging. This methodology comprises the selection of the cellular material, its structural characterization by mechanical tests, the development of a case study in the nuclear field, preliminary determination of the best cellular material density for the case study, performance of the case and its numerical simulation using the finite element method. Among the several materials used as shock absorbers in packagings, the polyurethane foam was chosen, particularly the foam obtained from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a non-polluting and renewable source. The case study carried out was the 9 m drop test of a package prototype containing radioactive wastes incorporated in a cement matrix, considered one of the most severe tests prescribed by the Brazilian and international transport standards. Prototypes with foam density pre-determined as ideal as well as prototypes using lighter and heavier foams were tested for comparison. The results obtained validate the methodology in that expectations regarding the ideal foam density were confirmed by the drop tests and the numerical simulation. (author)

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity in major building materials of Xiangyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tingting; Lu, Xinwei [Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China). School of Tourism and Environment

    2014-10-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the commonly used building materials collected from Xiangyang were measured using NaI (Tl) gamma spectrometer. The radioactivity values of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the studied samples ranged from 130.5 to 1006.3, 8.4 to 164.0, and 8.7 to 145.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides have been compared with the typical published world values. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indexes, external and internal exposure indexes, indoor air absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose rate have been calculated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with natural radionuclides in the studied materials. The calculated values of all the assessed indices in the analyzed building materials except for fly ash are below the internationally accepted limits indicating that these building materials can be safely used in dwellings construction and do not lead to any significant radiation exposure to occupants. Nevertheless, the annual effective dose rate values of all fly ash samples, external and internal hazard indexes values in most fly ash samples exceed the recommended values. It is, therefore, desirable to regularly monitor the natural radioactivity level of the building materials products made from fly ash.

  6. National inventory of radioactive materials and wastes for 2012: Abstract, Synthesis report, geographical inventory, Descriptive catalogue of families, The essentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extremely voluminous report first proposes an abstracted overview of the inventory of radioactive materials and wastes in France in 2012. This first part addresses the radioactive wastes globally and then their different categories (very low activity, low and medium activity and short lifetime, low activity and long lifetime, medium activity and long lifetime, high activity, wastes related to radon, wastes with historical management modes). It gives an assessment of already produced wastes and of future wastes. It describes how radioactive wastes are managed, presents the various storage centres, proposes an overview of current investigations for long lifetime or high activity wastes, indicates waste localizations, and addresses the valuable materials. Then a synthesis report addresses the radioactive wastes and their management, gives some general results, proposes a waste inventory with respect to the economic sector (electronuclear, defence, research, non-electronuclear industry, medicine), presents the various historical situations (different types of storage, mining sites, contaminated sites) and proposes fives thematic files (immersed wastes, management of used radioactive sources, wastes with a strengthened natural radioactivity, existing and projected solutions for the management of radioactive wastes in France, foreign inventories of radioactive wastes). The third part is a geographical inventory which proposes sheets of information and data for the different concerned sites in France. The fourth part proposes a presentation of radioactive wastes (classification, origin, and management, families defined with respect to lifetime and activity level, origins, parcels and packaging, production data). A last part evokes the challenges and principles of the management of radioactive materials and wastes, recalls some data from the 2010 inventory, proposes predictions of radioactive waste production by 2020 and 2030, gives a prospective assessment with

  7. BRC dosposal alternatives for NORM [naturally-occurring radioactive materials] wastes in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has investigated low-cost, alternative disposal methods for certain wastes containing small quantities of NORM. This paper presents a multipathway safety analysis of various scenarios for disposing of wastes containing limited quantities of naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in Texas. The wastes include pipe scales and sludges from oil and gas production, residues from rare-earth mineral processing, and water treatment resins, but exclude large-volume, diffuse waste. The purpose of the safety analysis to the define concentration and quantity limits for the key nuclides of NORM what will avoid dangerous radiation exposures under different waste disposal scenarios. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Proposed format and content of environmental reports for deep geologic terminal repositories for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has not yet issued a format guide for the preparation of an environmental impact statement for radioactive waste repositories, Rockwell Hanford operations has developed an annotated outline which will serve as the basis for the environmental evaluation activities until replaced by an appropriate NRC regulatory guide. According to the outline, the applicant should summarize the major environmental effects that are expected to occur during the construction, operation, and terminal isolation phases of the radioactive material repository. Compare these environmental effects with the possible effect of continued use of interim storage facilities. Unless unforeseen environmental effects become apparent, the summary should be a positive statement indicating that the short-term environmental effects are outweighed by the long-term benefits of the repository

  9. Report of consultants to the IAEA on requirements for the safe transport of low hazard radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper changes are recommmended to certain definitions given in the 2nd draft revision of the IAEA 'regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials (safety series no. 6)'. (orig./RW)

  10. The need for a greater commitment to america region to prevent denials of shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources are used worldwide in a wide range of applications in industry health care, industrial applications, manufacturing materials, exploration and technological development, as well as basic scientific research. The ability to use such radioactive material in these sectors depends on both its safe transport within a country and between different countries, for developed and developing countries can have access to this technology, in a timely manner and in conditions economically acceptable. In this paper the issue of denials and restraints of shipment of radioactive material and the need for greater commitment that Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) must assume to facilitate the transport of radioactive materials for the benefit of society is analyzed

  11. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddow, H. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: h.l.beddow@reading.ac.uk; Black, S. [Geoscience Building, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, PO Box 227, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Enterpris Ltd., Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AB (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Old Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by {sup 238}U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations ({<=}8.8 Bq/g) of {sup 238}U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels ({<=}11 Bq/g) of {sup 226}Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  12. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, Richard R [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low

  13. Corrosion behaviour of container materials for geological disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of high level radioactive waste in geological formations, based on the multibarrier concept, may include the use of a container as one of the engineered barriers. In this report the requirements imposed on this container and the possible degradation processes are reviewed. Further on an overview is given of the research being carried out by various research centres in the European Community on the assessment of the corrosion behaviour of candidate container materials. The results obtained on a number of materials under various testing conditions are summarized and evaluated. As a result, three promising materials have been selected for a detailed joint testing programme. It concerns two highly corrosion resistant alloys, resp. Ti-Pd (0.2 Pd%) and Hastelloy C4 and one consumable material namely a low carbon steel. Finally the possibilities of modelling the corrosion phenomena are discussed

  14. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  15. THE NEED FOR A NEW JOINING TECHNOLOGY FOR THE CLOSURE WELDING OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS CONTAINERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the activities associated with cleanup throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is packaging radioactive materials into storage containers. Much of this work will be performed in high-radiation environments requiring fully remote operations, for which existing, proven systems do not currently exist. These conditions demand a process that is capable of producing acceptable (defect-free) welds on a consistent basis; the need to perform weld repair, under fully-remote operations, can be extremely costly and time consuming. Current closure welding technology (fusion welding) is not well suited for this application and will present risk to cleanup cost and schedule. To address this risk, Fluor and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), are proposing that a new and emerging joining technology, Friction Stir Welding (FSW), be considered for this work. FSW technology has been demonstrated in other industries (aerospace and marine) to produce near flaw-free welds on a consistent basis. FSW is judged capable of providing the needed performance for fully-remote closure welding of containers for radioactive materials for the following reasons: FSW is a solid-state process; material is not melted. As such, FSW does not produce the type of defects associated with fusion welding, e.g., solidification-induced porosity, cracking, distortion due to weld shrinkage, and residual stress. In addition, because FSW is a low-heat input process, material properties (mechanical, corrosion and environmental) are preserved and not degraded as can occur with 'high-heat' fusion welding processes. When compared to fusion processes, FSW produces extremely high weld quality. FSW is performed using machine-tool technology. The equipment is simple and robust and well-suited for high radiation, fully-remote operations compared to the relatively complex equipment associated with the fusion-welding processes. Additionally, for standard wall thicknesses of radioactive materials

  16. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  17. Case study: occupational exposures in the transport of radioactive material - REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the optimization process of radiation protection at REM Industria e Comercio in Brazil, the operational procedures in the transport of radioactive materials were accompanied regularly to evaluate if effective doses could be decreased. The company has 5 drivers and 4 adapted vehicles dedicated to the transport of radioactive materials. These drivers wear thermoluminescent dosimeters throughout 30 days to monitor the radiation effective dose during the practice. Each vehicle has also dosimeters in the driver's cabin. The results of these dosimeters are analyzed and compared with type of transported materials, transport index, routes of transportation and time for each transport. If levels exceed the limited effective dose allowed in Brazilian legislation, actions are taken to minimize the doses. The first actions taken to minimize the effective doses were written procedures and instructions for the drivers and train them in protection and safety. In general, the effective doses decreased except for 2 drivers. For these drivers, data of accumulated effective dose for the year 2006 was analyzed and related to material and radiation exposure in the vehicles. It has been detected a need of coordination with radiation protection and logistics, which is responsible for routes of transport, to minimize the effective doses and achieve the goal of 15 mSv per year. (author)

  18. Dose assessment in the transport of radioactive material - REM Industria e Comercio ltd. Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As part of the optimization process of radiation protection at REM Industria e Comercio in Brazil, the operational procedures in the transport of radioactive materials were accompanied regularly to evaluate if effective doses could be decreased. The company has 4 drivers and 4 adapted vehicles dedicated to the transport of radioactive materials. Each vehicle has dosimeters located in the driver's cabin to verify the effective dose in the cabin. The results of these dosimeters were analyzed and compared to the number of transported materials, the driver's cabin survey and itinerary as well to determine the potential effective dose for the drivers. Under the seven types of medical radioisotopes that REM Industria e Comercio transports every day the calculations were done based on the correlation for the higher energy materials, 131I and 99Mo(technetium generators), and for transports on Mondays and Fridays. The results for the calculations of potential effective dose confirmed that the coordination of driver's work scale and itineraries is essential for decreasing the effective dose for these workers. (author)

  19. The application of fracture mechanics to the safety assessment of transport casks for radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zencker, U.; Mueller, K.; Droste, B.; Roedel, R.; Voelzke, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    BAM is the German responsible authority for the mechanical and thermal design safety assessment of packages for the transport of radioactive materials. The assessment has to cover the brittle fracture safety proof of package components made of potentially brittle materials. This paper gives a survey of the regulatory and technical requirements for such an assessment according to BAM's new ''Guidelines for the Application of Ductile Cast Iron for Transport and Storage Casks for Radioactive Materials''. Based on these guidelines higher stresses than before can become permissible, but it is necessary to put more effort into the safety assessment procedure. The fundamentals of such a proof with the help of the methods of fracture mechanics are presented. The recommended procedure takes into account the guidelines of the IAEA Advisory Material which are based on the prevention of crack initiation. Examples of BAM's research and safety assessment practices are given. Recommendations for further developments towards package designs with higher acceptable stress levels will be concluded.

  20. Laboratory methods applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of seized nuclear materials and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The smuggled nuclear or radioactive material can be spotted in the following ways: on-site investigation by the National Radiation Hygiene Preparedness Service following a warning signal of an installed monitor system at a border station; notification from bodies of the police or national security services. The monitoring process used for spotting of illicit trafficking of nuclear materials or lost radioactive sources can be divided into two main steps: on-site detection of the presence of nuclear or radioactive substances (hand-held or portable measuring device, installed monitors, etc.); identification of the type, activity, quantity of material (in-situ or laboratory analysis). According to the Hungarian regulations the first investigation of the seized or lost and found radioactive material shall be performed at the NRIRR, later on the material is transported to the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for further analysis and storage. The main goal of the first investigation is the identification of the main nuclear and other characteristics of the seized radioactive substance to decide whether it is within the scope of the Act on the Atomic Energy. It means that the first investigation shall be reliable and fast, i.e. on routine basis there is no time for sophisticated radioanalytical methods as alpha-spectrometry. The main investigation method used for the identification of the seized radioactive material at our laboratory is gamma-spectrometry. Instead of the usual gamma-spectrometric measuring equipment for environmental or other small samples a totally shielded whole-body counter was applied to ensure a more flexible geometry or even an only possible measuring arrangement for sources of big sizes or very high activities. The main types of seized nuclear or radioactive substances investigated at our laboratory were non-irradiated uranium fuel element pellets with different enrichment of 235U and closed 226Ra radioactive

  1. Refuses and delays in the transportation by ship of radioactive material; Recusas e demoras no transporte maritimo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Clarice; Sobreira, Ana Celia [REM Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Some Class 7 materials can only be transported by ship, making that load and unload activities can be done in a port. In the Brazil, the port of Santos posses the most volume of cargo manipulation, and cargoes which contain radioactive material are always present with all manipulation requisites according to applicable regulations. The transport and manipulation operations of radioactive material are performed in accordance with national and international requisites but, some individuals posses yet a high risk perception according to our experience, involving members of Brazilian port authorities, the Navy and cargoes handlers at the ports. So, exist yet a high quantity of refuses and delays during the transport by ship. Therefore, a communication strategy was developed and applied, to inform the risk perception, supplying information on the very principles of ionizing radiation, legislation and uses of radiation, and so, diminishing the quantity of refuses and delays. From that initial communication strategy on, it becomes evident the necessity of training and conscience making a movement for the problem of refuses and delays be diminished

  2. Transportation legislative data base: State radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The TLDB has been operated by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) under cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management since 1992. The data base system serves the legislative and regulatory information needs of federal, state, tribal and local governments, the affected private sector and interested members of the general public. Users must be approved by DOE and NCSL. This report is a state statute compilation that updates the 1989 compilation produced by Battelle Memorial Institute, the previous manager of the data base. This compilation includes statutes not included in the prior compilation, as well as newly enacted laws. Statutes not included in the prior compilation show an enactment date prior to 1989. Statutes that deal with low-level radioactive waste transportation are included in the data base as are statutes from the states of Alaska and Hawaii. Over 155 new entries to the data base are summarized in this compilation

  3. Opening statement at the international conference on security of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Stockholm, 7 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening statement highlights activities of the IAEA in ensuring that nuclear technologies and materials are used only for peaceful purposes; in prevention of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radioactive material; in assistance in development of security measures for these materials; in training of customs officers from Member States in radiation monitoring. It also briefly describes the IAEA safeguards programme

  4. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Shpack site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.J.; Yu, C.; Monette, F.; Jones, L.

    1991-08-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Shpack site in Norton, Massachusetts. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Shpack site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Three potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium (including uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) within 1000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234 and uranium-238) at the Shpack site does not exceed the following levels: 2500 pCi/g for Scenario A (recreationist: the expected scenario); 1100 pCi/g for Scenario B (industrial worker: a plausible scenario); and 53 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using a well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234 and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr. In setting the actual uranium guidelines for the Shpack site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors, such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the Aliquippa Forge site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monette, F.; Jones, L.; Yu, C.

    1992-09-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the Aliquippa Forge site in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the Aliquippa Forge site should not exceed a dose of 100 mrem/yr following decontamination. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Four potential scenarios were considered for the site; the scenarios vary with regard to time spent at the site, sources of water used, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded for uranium within 1,000 years, provided that the soil concentration of combined uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238) at the Aliquippa Forge site does not exceed the following levels: 1,700 pCi/g for Scenario A (industrial worker: the expected scenario); 3,900 pCi/g for Scenario B (recreationist: a plausible scenario); 20 pCi/g for Scenario C (resident farmer using well water as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario), and 530 pCi/g for Scenario D (resident farmer using a distant water source not affected by site conditions as the only water source: a possible but unlikely scenario). The uranium guidelines derived in this report apply to the combined activity concentration of uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 and were calculated on the basis of a dose of 100 mrem/yr.

  6. Radioactivity concentration measurement and analysis in construction floor materials of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, H. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the radioactive concentrations contained in samples of commonly used building floor materials were measured. This result can be used as basic information for public health and the environment. Among building floor materials, samples of induction blocks, cement bricks, artificial granite blocks and compact high-pressure blocks were chosen and used. A detailed gamma nuclide analysis was performed with a multichannel analyzer by putting these samples on a high-purity germanium detector which is a semiconductor detector. In order to measure the concentration of radionuclides, a spectrum file was obtained by analyzing the concentration of gamma radionuclides and setting the measurement time as 1000, 4000, 7000 and 10,000 s. According to the study results, K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and U-235 were detected in the induction blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Th-230, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and Na-22 were detected in the cement bricks measured at 10,000 s. K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, U-235 and Ra-223 were detected in the artificial granite blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, Ra-226, Ra-223 and Mn-54 were detected in the compact high-pressure blocks. In conclusion, low-level radioactivity was detected in building floor materials, so it is thought that measures to reduce radioactivity and further studies on this will be needed.

  7. Prevention of smuggling (contraband) during legal shipments of fissionable and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of illicit trafficking of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) across borders can be minimized by the implementation of two tasks: (a) carrying out constant radiation control at customs checkpoints and (b) preventing smuggling (contraband) during legal shipments of radioactive sources and nuclear materials. In practically all countries, the customs control of legal shipments of radioactive sources and nuclear materials has been limited to the following: (a) within the framework of export control, the customs inspector formally verifies the licence for FRM import/export against the information provided in the cargo customs declaration and (b) FRM customs examination is limited to cargo package recalculation and verification of seals. Problems are (1) containers of foreign manufacture are not included in the transport container electronic database of the gamma spectrometers and (2) the format of the IAEA PACTRAM transport container database is not appropriate for Russian customs purposes. In this connection, the Russian Customs Service has addressed the IAEA with the proposal to organize work on the creation of an international transport container database and its maintenance in an up-to-date condition. Such a database will allow the accuracy of parameter measurements and the reliability of FRM identification to be increased in the case of shipments in foreign transport containers. The Russian Customs Service has offered to distribute technology for performing FRM customs examination without opening the container. Such technology should become an instrument for prevention of smuggling (contraband) during legal FRM shipments. The Russian Customs Service has further offered to cooperate with efforts of the IAEA and national organizations on modernization of the PACTRAM international transport container database with the aim of entering into the database information useful for customs purposes. The electronic version of this database should be suited

  8. Experience in the analysis of accidents and incidents involving the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some half a million packages containing radioactive materials are transported to, from and within the UK annually. Accidents and incidents involving these shipments are rare. However, there is always the potential for such an event, which could lead to a release of the contents of a package or an increase in radiation level caused by damaged shielding. These events could result in radiological consequences for transport workers. As transport occurs in the public environment, such events could also lead to radiation exposures of members of the public. The UK Department for Transport (DfT), together with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) have supported, for almost 20 years, work to compile, analyse and report on accidents and incidents that occur during the transport of radioactive materials. Annual reports on these events have been produced for twelve years. The details of these events are recorded in the Radioactive Materials Transport Event Database (RAMTED) maintained by the National Radiological Protection Board on behalf of the DfT and HSE. Information on accidents and incidents dates back to 1958. RAMTED currently includes information of 708 accidents and incidents, covering the period 1958 to 2000. This paper presents a summary of the data covering this period, identifying trends and lessons learned together with a discussion of some examples. It was found that, historically, the most significant exposures were received as a result of accidents involving the transport of industrial radiography sources. However, the frequency and severity of these events has decreased considerably in the later years of this study due to improvements in training, awareness and equipment. The International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Energy Agency, have established the international nuclear event scale (INES), which is described in detail in a users' guide. The INES has been revised to fully include transport events, and the information in RAMTED has been reviewed

  9. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine; Gestion de los residuos radiactivos generados en medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz Perez, P.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  10. Methods for determining the release of radioactive material into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current policy on the discharge of radioactive effluents calls for the containment of radioactive wastes in most instances. The resulting doses to individuals and populations have been shown by many surveys to be very small (UNSCEAR Report, 1972). Nevertheless, small amounts of radioactive releases are made to the environment during normal operation of nuclear facilities. Whenever discharge of radioactive effluents to the environment is permitted, careful consideration is made of all the relevant factors which might lead to exposure of man. However, with the expansion of nuclear power programmes, more sophistication is required in setting discharge limits to the environment, taking into consideration future sources as well as present sources. The IAEA's recommendations conform to the dose limitation system set out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The system implies that the individual dose limits should never be exceeded. Furthermore, the ICRP guidelines require that doses be kept as low as reasonably possible, taking social and economic considerations into account. This second objective, usually called optimization, implies the use of differential cost-benefit analysis. At present, decisions are still made by other procedures, for example, by applying safety factors to release limits derived only from the dose limits. However, the ICRP system of dose limitation, including optimization, appears to be a more rational approach to the establishment of release limits. Thus, it is necessary to provide basic material on concepts which are intended for use and decision making by national authorities, and the Agency plans to publish a series of complementary documents on the application of these concepts to various specific cases. (author)

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2, Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  12. Natural radioactivity level and radiological hazard assessment of commonly used building material in Xining, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity of the commonly used building materials in Xining of China was measured using gamma-ray spectrometer system comprising a NaI(Tl) detector. Radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied samples range from 11.6 to 120.6, 10.2 to 107.1 and 228.0 to 1,036.2 Bq kg-1, respectively. The concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and the mean value for soil. Radium equivalent activity, indoor air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate as well as external and internal hazard indices were calculated to assess radiological hazards for people living in dwelling made of the building materials. The radiological hazard assessment results show that the studied building materials, except for some aerated concrete block samples, are safe for use in construction of dwellings in the study area and do not pose any significant source of radiation hazard. (author)

  13. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: certificates of compliance. Volume 2, Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  14. The Use of Digital Radiography in the Evaluation of Radioactive Materials. Packaging Performance Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New designs of radioactive material shipping packages are required to be evaluated in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, ''Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''. This paper will discuss the use of digital radiography to evaluate the effects of the tests required by 10 CFR 71.71, Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT), and 10 CFR 71.73, Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). One acceptable means of evaluating packaging performance is to subject packagings to the series of NCT and HAC tests. The evaluation includes a determination of the effect on the packaging by the conditions and tests. That determination has required that packagings be cut and sectioned to learn the actual effects on internal components. Digital radiography permits the examination of internal packaging components without sectioning a package. This allows a single package to be subjected to a series of tests. After each test, the package is digitally radiographed and the effects of particular tests evaluated. Radiography reduces the number of packages required for testing and also reduces labor and materials required to section and evaluate numerous packages. This paper will include a description of the digital radiography equipment used in the testing and evaluation of the 9977 and 9978 packages at SRNL. The equipment is capable of making a single radiograph of a full-sized package in one exposure. Radiographs will be compared to sectioned packages that show actual conditions compared to radiographic images

  15. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance. Volume 2. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1). Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volumes 3). The purpose of this directory is make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  16. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals incorporating adjacent blocks of swelling clay and bitumen. It is shown that the interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents water penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. A review of the swelling properties of highly compacted bentonite and magnesium oxide is presented, and the characteristic sealing properties of bituminous materials are described. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that bentonite is the preferred candidate material for use in composite clay/bitumen seals for intermediate-level radioactive waste repositories. However, it is thought that magnesium oxide may have other sealing applications for high-level waste repositories. A programme of laboratory experiments is described in which relevant swelling and intrusion properties of highly compacted bentonite blocks and the annealing characteristics of oxidised and hard-grade industrial bitumens are examined. The results of composite sealing experiments involving different water penetration routes are reported, and factors governing the mechanism of self-sealing are described. The validation of the sealing concept at a laboratory scale indicates that composite bentonite/bitumen seals could form highly effective barriers for the containment of radioactive wastes. Accordingly, recommendations are made concerning the development of the research, including the implementation of full-scale demonstration experiments to simulate conditions in an underground repository. 13 tabs., 41 figs., 62 refs

  17. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages. Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  18. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U

    2011-01-01

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...

  19. Labelling and marking of packages, for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the responsibility of the consignor, even when he is also the carrier, to ensure that every package of dangerous materials is correctly labelled and marked before dispatch. The purpose of this Code of Practice is to amplify the provisions, embodied in various regulations and codes for the safe transport of radioactive materials, relating to the labelling of packages of such materials, and to provide detailed instructions that will ensure fulfilment of the relevant requirements. The model regulations published by the International Atomic Energy Agency are referred to in this Code as 'the IAEA regulations'. It has been assumed that those using the Code will be familiar with the international and national transport regulations, which are based on the IAEA regulations and that they will have experience of transport procedures. (author)

  20. The German system to prevent, detect and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German system to prevent, detect and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources was implemented in parallel to the German nuclear programme which started in the mid-fifties. Whereas prevention was the prevailing element until 1992, detection and response received particular interest after a significant increase of cases of illicit trafficking in radioactive materials had been experienced. The system consists out of international and national regulations pertaining to physical protection and safeguards of nuclear material, to security of radioactive sources, and to import/export control, of a licensing and regulatory supervision regime for all activities related to nuclear material and radioactive sources, of sanctions in case the licensee does not meet his responsibilities, of criminal investigations by law enforcement authorities and penalties for illegal acts, of technical detection and analysis capabilities for radioactive materials, of organizational response arrangements between the various authorities involved in hazard prevention in cases of illegal use of radioactive substances, and of the participation in international programmes and PoC-systems. The responsibilities for licensing and regulatory supervision of activities related to nuclear material and radioactive sources have been assigned to various authorities on the State ('Laender') and on the Federal level of the Federal Republic of Germany; for safeguards measures IAEA and EURATOM both are responsible. Law enforcement and criminal investigation in most cases are taken care of by State authorities, as well as measures for hazard prevention in cases of illegal use or transportation of radioactive substances. Ways have been found to integrate support from Federal authorities to State authorities into the State organization in severe cases of illegal use, and to ensure mutual and timely distribution of relevant information between all authorities involved in hazard

  1. Study of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in soil using low background gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increasing concern in the state of Punjab arising due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) after high concentration levels of uranium was observed in ground water besides nails and hair of children. The concentration levels of 238U, 232 Th and 40K in top soil were measured using low background gamma ray spectrometric setup. The concentration of NORM was found to be similar to what is expected as a result of their normal abundance but was found to be lower than what has been observed in the state of Jharkhand. In addition to NORM the fall out radionuclide 137Cs was also observed in soil samples. (author)

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  3. The Risoe model for calculating the consequences of the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of the model used at Risoe for calculating the consequences of releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere. The model is based on the Gaussian plume model, and it provides possibilities for calculation of: doses to individuals, collective doses, contamination of the ground, probability distribution of doses, and the consequences of doses for give dose-risk relationships. The model is implemented as a computer program PLUCON2, written in ALGOL for the Burroughs B6700 computer at Risoe. A short description of PLUCON2 is given. (author)

  4. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1987. This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of radiation streaming from a radioactive material shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulated detection of gamma radiation streaming from a radioactive material shipping cask have been performed with the Monte Carlo codes MCNP4A and MORSE-SGC/S. Despite inherent difficulties in simulating deep penetration of radiation and streaming, the simulations have yielded results that agree within one order of magnitude with the radiation survey data, with reasonable statistics. These simulations have also provided insight into modeling radiation detection, notably on location and orientation of the radiation detector with respect to photon streaming paths, and on techniques used to reduce variance in the Monte Carlo calculations. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Kalman filtration of radiation monitoring data from atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, M.; Lauritzen, B.; Madsen, H.;

    2004-01-01

    A Kalman filter method using off-site radiation monitoring data is proposed as a tool for on-line estimation of the source term for short-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. The method is based on the Gaussian plume model, in which the plume parameters including the source term...... exhibit a ‘random walk’ process. The embedded parameters of the Kalman filter are determined through maximum-likelihood estimation making the filter essentially free of external parameters. The method is tested using both real and simulated radiation monitoring data. For simulated data, the method...

  7. Development of supporting system for emergency response to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Maritime Research Institute has developed a supporting system for emergency response of competent authority to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material. The supporting system for emergency response has functions of radiation shielding calculation, marine diffusion simulation, air diffusion simulation and radiological impact evaluation to grasp potential hazard of radiation. Loss of shielding performance accident and loss of sealing ability accident were postulated and impact of the accidents was evaluated based on the postulated accident scenario. Procedures for responding to emergency were examined by the present simulation results

  8. The status of safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1993, the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) has been empowered by the 'Radiation Protection Proclamation no. 79/1993' to authorize and inspect regulated activities, issue guidelines and standards and enforce the legislation and regulations. The report describes the status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia and the progress made towards building a sound and effective national regulatory infrastructure. Also, the report highlights the challenges and difficulties encountered and concludes by indicating the way forward towards the strategic goals. (author)

  9. Experimental determination of the shipboard fire environment for simulated radioactive material packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koski, J.A.; Bobbe, J.G.; Arviso, M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A series of eight fire tests with simulated radioactive material shipping containers aboard the test ship Mayo Lykes, a break-bulk freighter, is described. The tests simulate three basic types of fires: engine room fires, cargo fires and open pool fires. Detailed results from the tests include temperatures, heat fluxes and air flows measured during the fires. The first examination of the results indicates that shipboard fires are not significantly different from fires encountered in land transport. 13 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Use of a Gantry robot in the assay of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large industrial robot has been installed in our plutonium processing facility to speed the assay of materials in process. The robot routinely transports radioactive items weighing 20 lbs or more between an automated inventory system and the analytical instruments. Because the system operates unattended under computer control, assays are now performed around-the-clock instead of just 8 hrs per day, thereby greatly increasing the utilization of our instruments. (When the system becomes fully operational, we except a four-fold increase in productivity.) In addition, recordkeeping has improved, the plutonium is better protected from theft, and our personnel are exposed to less radiation than before. 4 figs

  11. Technology for the storage of radioactive materials packagings during maritime transport. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the accident of the M/S Mont Louis on August 25, 1984 carrying UF6 cylinders, this report is a preliminary study of bibliographic data to help to define recommendations on packaging stowing for sea transport. Data on acceleration to take into account for normal or accidental transport conditions, safe areas on board that should be reserved for radioactive materials and accidents statistics are collected. Main information concerns: number of serious casualities or total losses to ships in European waters, accident causes, collision probability in function of mean distance between ships in the British Channel, selection of 8 reference accidents for future studies

  12. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  13. Hydrological dispersion of radioactive material in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide discusses the dispersion of normal and accidental releases of radioactive materials from nuclear power plants into surface water, including the washout of airborne radionuclides, and gives recommendations on information to be collected during the various stages of the siting procedure, a minimum measurement programme and the selection and validation of appropriate mathematical models for predicting dispersion. Guidelines are also provided for the optimal use of models for a specific site situation and for defining the necessary input parameters. Results of existing validation studies are given

  14. Transport of radioactive material in Brazil: Authority and environmental protection agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the efforts undertaken by two Brazilian Institutions involved with the transport of radioactive material (Nuclear Energy Commission and Institute for Environment and Renewable Resource) to make a single process by which both the IAEA's requirements for safe control and environmental protection can coexist. The paper includes evaluation of international practices as well as the assistance from a consultation among experts around the world. A single set of Terms of Reference with requirements from different regulations and the profile for a Memorandum of Understanding between authorities are among the results and identified future actions. (author)

  15. Applying the International Nuclear Event Scale to radioactive materials transport events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expanding the scope of its activities to include controlling the safe transport of radioactive materials, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) has decided to apply the INES scale to transport events, following a wide-ranging debate bringing together experts, industry and the Conseil Superieur de la Surete et de l'Information Nucleaire (Higher Council for Nuclear Safety and Information). International interest in French experience has gradually raised the question of harmonised application of the INES scale to transport events by the competent international authorities. (author)

  16. A monitoring programme for the detection of illicit radioactive materials entering UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tattersall, P.; Macdonald, A.; Mccoll, N. [Health Protection Agency, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    A trial of 'portal' monitoring systems for the detection of radioactive materials entering the UK was undertaken at three seaports in 20 02. This was project Cyclamen, co-ordinated by the Home Office and operated by H M Customs and Excise officers. Following the trial Operation Cyclamen commenced in 2004 extending the detection capabilities to different types of traffic and utilising both fixed and mobile detection systems. This paper considers the radiological protection aspects, both regulatory and operational, of Cyclamen operations and reviews some detection events. Risk assessment, training provision and the development of scenarios for multi-agency table-top exercises are considered in greater detail.

  17. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Haruo [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs.

  18. Advisory material for the IAEA Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 Edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide advice on the application of the provisions of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6 (concerning the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material) in order to help achieve compliance with the regulatory standards. This document also reflects the corrections and changes implemented by the 1986 Supplement to the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Its intent is to describe methods, techniques and practices (citing any appropriate national and international standards) which can be considered a means of satisfying certain requirements. It should always be read as offering 'a way' or 'ways' rather than 'the unique way' of achieving compliance. The information provided is to be considered purely advisory and never mandatory, except where a competent authority may require use of any part or parts of the text. This document provides information about the technical requirements of the Regulations and about the methods and technology which may be employed to satisfy them, for the benefit of designers and manufacturers of packagings, consignors, carriers, competent authorities and others, i.e. it provides 'how' information

  19. Development of a new neutron shielding material, TN trademark Resin Vyal for transport/storage casks for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TN trademark Resin Vyal, a patent pending composite, is a new neutron shielding material developed by COGEMA LOGISTICS for transport/storage casks of radioactive materials (spent fuel, reprocessed fuel,..). This material is composed of a thermosetting resin (vinylester resin in solution of styrene) and two mineral fillers (alumine hydrate and zinc borate). Its shielding ability for neutron radiation is related to a high hydrogen content (for slowing down neutrons) and a high boron content (for absorbing neutrons). Source of hydrogen is organic matrix (resin) and alumine hydrate; source of boron is zinc borate. Atomic concentrations are equal to 5.1022 at/cm3 for hydrogen and 9.1020 at/cm3 for boron. Due to the flame retardant character of components, the final material has a good fire resistance (it is auto-extinguishable). Its density is equal to 1,8. The manufacturing process of these material is easy: it consists in mixing the fillers and pouring in-situ (in cask); so, the curing of this composite, which leads to a three-dimensional structure, takes place at ambient temperature. Temperature resistance of this material was evaluated by performing exposition tests of samples at different temperatures (150 C to 170 C). According to tests results, its maximal temperature of use was confirmed equal to 160 C

  20. Development of a new neutron shielding material, TN trademark Resin Vyal for transport/storage casks for radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, P. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group), Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France)

    2004-07-01

    TN trademark Resin Vyal, a patent pending composite, is a new neutron shielding material developed by COGEMA LOGISTICS for transport/storage casks of radioactive materials (spent fuel, reprocessed fuel,..). This material is composed of a thermosetting resin (vinylester resin in solution of styrene) and two mineral fillers (alumine hydrate and zinc borate). Its shielding ability for neutron radiation is related to a high hydrogen content (for slowing down neutrons) and a high boron content (for absorbing neutrons). Source of hydrogen is organic matrix (resin) and alumine hydrate; source of boron is zinc borate. Atomic concentrations are equal to 5.10{sup 22} at/cm{sup 3} for hydrogen and 9.10{sup 20} at/cm{sup 3} for boron. Due to the flame retardant character of components, the final material has a good fire resistance (it is auto-extinguishable). Its density is equal to 1,8. The manufacturing process of these material is easy: it consists in mixing the fillers and pouring in-situ (in cask); so, the curing of this composite, which leads to a three-dimensional structure, takes place at ambient temperature. Temperature resistance of this material was evaluated by performing exposition tests of samples at different temperatures (150 C to 170 C). According to tests results, its maximal temperature of use was confirmed equal to 160 C.