WorldWideScience

Sample records for administered radioactive material

  1. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  2. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members

  3. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  4. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE

  5. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  6. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  7. Radioactive material storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a radioactive material storage vessel having a single sealing boundary in the cylindrical portion and a double sealing boundary in the lid portion, and the outer circumference of the vessel being cooled by air, in which difference is made between the pressure in a radioactive material storage chamber and the pressure in an intermediate chamber present between a primary sealing lid and a secondary sealing lid. A valve is disposed to the primary sealing lid, which breaks the sealing between the radioactive material containing chamber and the intermediate chamber when the difference between the pressure of the containing chamber and that of the intermediate chamber is reduced to lower than a predetermined value, and a sensor for detecting pressure change in the intermediate chamber is disposed to the secondary sealing lid. In addition, a shrinkable member having at least a predetermined length and an extensible length is disposed to the primary sealing lid, and a displacement sensor capable of detecting the change of the length of the shrinkable member is disposed to the secondary sealing lid. Then, when the sealing boundary at the cylinder portion of the radioactive material containing chamber should be broken in the radioactive material storage vessel, it can be detected. (N.H.)

  8. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing public concern over the potential hazards of transporting radioactive materials has led to a considerable body of state and local restrictions, including bans in certain jurisdictions. In spite of a good safety record and the acknowledged necessity of many of these shipments, restrictive enactments continue to proliferate. Users of radioactive materials contend that these restrictions impede shipments and contribute to rising costs while, on the other hand, state and local officials are concerned with the health and safety of their citizenry. A showdown between state and local safety interests and federal promoters of unencumbered interstate commerce will occur when the proposed US Department of Transportation (DOT) highway routing rules for the shipment of radioactive materials are implemented February 1, 1982. As proposed, these rules would preempt several restrictive state and local requirements

  9. Introduction to radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide the researcher with basic information on the physics of radioactive materials and the nature and detection of radiations emitted by these materials. A detailed knowledge of nuclear structure and radiation physics is not needed for most radioisotope applications, but a basic understanding of these subjects is essential for proper choice of radiation detection instrumentation and radiation protection methods for a specific experimental procedure. (author)

  10. Material for radioactive protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  11. Radioactive material storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To make a spent fuel accommodating box movable and accommodate spent fuels at a position farther than the side wall of the storage installation and to draw the spent fuel near to the side wall with the lapse of the storage time, thereby attenuating the radiation effectively and increasing the storage capacity. Constitution: A space (box) accommodating radioactive materials is made movable, and the radiation is effectively shielded by the attenuation of the radioactive materials in storage due to the lapse of the storage time and the shielding of the radiation due to the liquefied shielding material up to the shielding wall of the storage installation, whereby the shielding wall of the storage installation is made thin and the capacity in the installation is enlarged, thus the accommodation capacity, that is, the storage capacity being increased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of 57Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free 58Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free 58Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated 57Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived 57Co and 58Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract. - Highlights: • Gastrointestinal (GI) uptake, f1, of inorganic radioactive cobalt varies between 0.007 and 0.043 among humans. • Mean f1 among human volunteers was found to be 0.022 ± 0.003. • More than 95% of the estimated internal absorbed dose occurs within 7 d for the short-lived radionuclides 57Co and 58Co. • More than 60% of the time integrated absorbed dose from ingestion of 60Co occurs within 7 d. • Residence time of cobalt in the human GI-tract strongly influences the time integrated internal absorbed dose

  13. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  14. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Canada, large numbers of packages containing radioactive materials are shipped for industrial, medical and commercial purposes. The nature of the hazards and the associated risks are examined; the protection measures and regulatory requirements are indicated. The result of a survey on the number of packages being shipped is presented; a number of incidents are analyzed as a function of their consequences. Measures to be applied in the event of an emergency and the responsibility for the preparation of contingency plans are considered. (author)

  15. Radioactive materials in metal scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are covered: Dutch law and regulations on radioactive materials; guidelines for the industry; difficulties related to radioactivity in metal scrap; and services provided and experience gained by Roentgen Technische Dienst bv. (P.A.)

  16. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  17. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  18. Safe use of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have become essential tools in much of the research conducted in the biological and medical sciences. Procedures documented in this manual are only examples of the numerous applications of radioactive materials in the field of parasitology. Like many chemical reagents and much of the equipment found in laboratories, radionuclides can be hazardous if used carelessly. Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer in humans and animals, and has been shown to increase the risk of genetic abnormalities in animal studies. Everyone handling radionuclides in a research program has a responsibility to follow safe laboratory practices for use of these materials. Most research institutions will have a radiation safety organization which may include a Radiation Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Committee. Procedures developed by the radiation safety organization must be followed in order to protect personnel working with radioactive material, and the public, from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Investigators must also know and follow regulations established by government agencies for the use and disposal of radioactive materials. In this chapter some basic information on procedures for the safe use of radioactive materials in the laboratory is provided. Greater detail for specific operations and radiation safety concerns may be obtained from documents referred to in the text

  19. Radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report, drawn up at the request of the former Minister of Public Health and Environmental Affairs of the Netherlands, discusses the potential radiological consequences for the population of the Netherlands of using waste materials as building materials in housing construction. (Auth.)

  20. Transport security of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material transport safety is highly regulated and the transport safety regulations have been in effect for decades. Transport security recommendations for many types of radioactive material have just been developed and are now being applied, and the potential impact on transport operations is significant. While the security measures and definition of high consequence radioactive material added to the United Nations Model Regulations for Transport of Dangerous Goods were recognized as a very positive step, the IAEA initiated a review of these provisions to ensure they were technically sound and consistent with other approaches used in nuclear and radioactive material security. Several significant steps have been taken in further defining appropriate security measures to apply during transport and these are reflected in the IAEA guide 'Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material'. These measures can be adopted by countries and international transport modal organizations to provide a consistent approach in security requirements for these materials. However, there is still much to be accomplished before transport security is on par with transport safety. This poster briefly describes the implementation of the IAEA security recommendations. The poster will also present information on the training course 'Security in Transport of Radioactive Material' that has been given at a number of occasions in different parts of the world. This training course, developed cooperatively by the IAEA, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration and The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), is based on the guidance and is intended to educate Member States in how to apply the Recommendations. The poster also will present information on transport security upgrade assistance programs that are now getting started. (author)

  1. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation’s (DOT’s) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  2. HMPT: Basic Radioactive Material Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazardous Materials and Packaging and Transportation (HMPT): Basic Radioactive Material Transportation Live (#30462, suggested one time) and Test (#30463, required initially and every 36 months) address the Department of Transportation's (DOT's) function-specific [required for hazardous material (HAZMAT) handlers, packagers, and shippers] training requirements of the HMPT Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Labwide training. This course meets the requirements of 49 CFR 172, Subpart H, Section 172.704(a)(ii), Function-Specific Training.

  3. Device for encapsulating radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A capsule for encapsulating radioactive material for radiation treatment comprising two or more interfitting sleeves, wherein each sleeve comprises a closed bottom portion having a circumferential wall extending therefrom, and an open end located opposite the bottom portion. The sleeves are constructed to fit over one another to thereby establish an effectively sealed capsule container. 3 figs

  4. Working safely with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In common with exposure to many other laboratory chemicals, exposure to ionising radiations and to radioactive materials carries a small risk of causing harm. Because of this, there are legal limits to the amount of exposure to ionising radiations at work and special rules for working with radioactive materials. Although radiation protection is a complex subject it is possible to simplify to 10 basic things you should do -the Golden Rules. They are: 1) understand the nature of the hazard and get practical training; 2) plan ahead to minimise time spent handling radioactivity; 3) distance yourself appropriately from sources of radiation; 4) use appropriate shielding for the radiation; 5) contain radioactive materials in defined work areas; 6) wear appropriate protective clothing and dosimeters; 7) monitor the work area frequently for contamination control; 8) follow the local rules and safe ways of working; 9) minimise accumulation of waste and dispose of it by appropriate routes, and 10) after completion of work, monitor, wash, and monitor yourself again. These rules are expanded in this article. (author)

  5. 46 CFR 147.100 - Radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (NRC) under 10 CFR parts 30 and 34. (b) Stowage of radioactive materials must conform to the... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive materials. 147.100 Section 147.100 Shipping... Stowage and Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.100 Radioactive materials....

  6. Radioactive material transportation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has thousands of radiation sources and there is an intensive traffic in the region. The number of imported radiation sources for nuclear medicine purposes within a year exceeds 60 000. The number of diagnostic radiology equipment is about 7000, industrial radiography equipment is 353 and therapy equipment is around 120. There are 3 PET machines, 2 Pet cyclotrons, 2 isotope production units, 2 sterilization facilities etc. Besides, in Turkey there is an intensive import of scrap materials as well as export (there are totally around 12 panel detectors, of which 6 are located at customs and 6 are owned by scrap steel operators); 59 online stations are in 24-hrs operation. Some of the radiation protection systems used in Turkey are produced by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) in accordance with the EC standards. The regulatory actions for the issue of the transport of radioactive materials are summarized briefly together with their design approvals of packaging and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Underlined are the great importance given to nuclear and radioactive material security and radiation safety due to the presence of thousands of radiation sources in the country and intensive traffic in the region. (author)

  7. Truck transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models in RADTRAN II are used to calculate risks to population subgroups such as people along transport routes, people at stops, and crewman. The stops model, which calculates the dose to persons adjacent to the transport vehicle while it is stopped, frequently provides the largest contribution to incident-free radiological impacts. Components such as distances from the vehicle containing radioactive material to nearby people at stops, stop duration, and number of crew members are required for the stops model as well as other incident-free models. To provide supporting data for RADTRAN II based on operational experience, selected truck shipments of radioactive material were observed from origin to destination. Other important aspects of this program were to correlate package size to effective shipment transport index (TI) using radiological surveys and to characterize population distributions and proximities of people to the shipment at a generic truck stop

  8. Radioactive substances in the Danish building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building materials as any other materials of natural occurrence contain small concentrations of natural radioactive elements. This natural radioactivity affects people inside buildings. This publiccation refers measurements of the Danish building materials, and radiation doses originating from this source affecting the Danish population are related to the other components of background radioactivity. (EG)

  9. Storage facility for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an underground type storage chamber for horizontally storing storage vessels made of steel having radioactive materials sealed therein and cooling them by spontaneous ventilation, the storage vessels made of steel are stored in multi-layers in vertical direction. In addition, lifts for transferring casks which transfer the storage vessels made of steel from a nuclear power plant are made movable in vertical and horizontal directions in the underground type storage chamber. In addition, the storage chamber is partitioned so that the air for cooling radioactive materials flows in parallel with or perpendicular to the storage vessels made of steel. Since the storage vessels can be stored in multi-layers, the density upon storing the spent fuels and high level radioactive wastes can be increased. In addition, protection against external flying objects such as crush of air crafts can be attained neither increasing the thickness of the walls of a building excessively nor specifying the shape of the construction site. (N.H.)

  10. Radioactive materials transport accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 25 years, one of the major issues raised regarding radioactive material transportation has been the risk of severe accidents. While numerous studies have shown that traffic fatalities dominate the risk, modeling the risk of severe accidents has remained one of the most difficult analysis problems. This paper will show how models that were developed for nuclear spent fuel transport accident analysis can be adopted to obtain estimates of release fractions for other types of radioactive material such as vitrified highlevel radioactive waste. The paper will also show how some experimental results from fire experiments involving low level waste packaging can be used in modeling transport accident analysis with this waste form. The results of the analysis enable an analyst to clearly show the differences in the release fractions as a function of accident severity. The paper will also show that by placing the data in a database such as ACCESS trademark, it is possible to obtain risk measures for transporting the waste forms along proposed routes from the generator site to potential final disposal sites

  11. Safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the Agency redefined its policy for education and training in radiation safety. The emphasis is now on long-term strategic planning of general education and training programmes. In line with this general policy the Agency's Standing Advisory Group for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) in its 7th meeting (April 1989) agreed that increased training activity should be deployed in the area of transport. SAGSTRAM specifically recommended the development of a standard training programme on this subject area, including audio-visual aids, in order to assist Member States in the implementation of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This training programme should be substantiated by a biennial training course which is thought to be held either as an Interregional or a Regional Course depending on demand. This training manual, issued as a first publication in the Training Course Series, represents the basic text material for future training courses in transport safety. The topic areas covered by this training manual and most of the texts have been developed from the course material used for the 1987 Bristol Interregional Course on Transport Safety. The training manual is intended to give guidance to the lecturers of a course and will be provided to the participants for retention. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, R

    1966-01-01

    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  13. Natural Radioactivity in Ceramic Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramics are one of the most important types of the industrial building materials. The raw materials of the ceramic are made of a mixture of clay, feldspar, silica, talc kaolin minerals together with zirconium silicates (ZrSiO4).The ceramic raw materials and the final products contain naturally occurring radionuclide mainly U-238 and, Th-232 series, and the radioactive isotope of potassium K-40. Six raw ceramic samples were obtained from the Aracemco Company at Egypt together with a floor tile sample (final product) for measuring radioactive concentration levels., The activity of the naturally U-238, Th-232, and K-40 were determined as (Bq/kg) using gamma spectroscopy (Hyperactive pure germanium detector). Concentration of U and Th were determined in (ppm) using spectrophotometer technique by Arsenazo 111 and Piridy l-Azo -Resorcinol (PAR) indicators. Sequential extraction tests were carried out in order to determine the quantity of the radionuclide associated with various fractions as exchangeable, carbonate, acid soluble and in the residue. The results evaluated were compared to the associated activity indices (AI) that were defined by former USSR and West Germany

  14. Method of removing material contaminated with radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To effectively remove radioactive materials contaminating the surface of a substrate of the material to be processed by thermal shock. Method: First the radioactive materials adhering to the surface of the material to be processed are frozen using dry ice, liquified nitrogen gas and other suitable materials. Then the surface is heated strongly using steam, hot water, heat radiation or other means. As a result the radioactive materials adhering to the surface of pipes, and equipment get a thermal shock due to temperature differential. This allows the radioactive materials to be delaminated and removed. In addition, by using dryice, liquified nitrogen and other suitable materials which can be liquified at abbient temperatures, the problem of liquid waste has been considerably lowered. Moreover, as the process of removing the above radioactive materials involves mostly connecting nozzles and opening/closing valves etc., these operations can be done by remote control. This reduces the risk of exposure to radioactivity. (Takahashi, M.)

  15. Extraction of radioactive cesium from ash of flammable radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huge amount of radioactive materials was released by the hydrogen explosion at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Suppression of the volume of radioactive materials stored by decontamination works is strongly required since the preparation of storage places is not easy. We are developing the technology for separation and concentration of radioactive cesium using nano-particle, Prussian blue, as a cesium adsorption material which has a high efficiency and good selectivity. We propose a method in which radioactive cesium is extracted from the ash of flammable materials into the water and the Prussian blue nano-particles are added to the water to collect cesium. The volume of radioactive wastes contaminated by cesium is expected to be cut down with these processes. (J.P.N.)

  16. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  17. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  18. Safe transport of radioactive material [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delivering radioactive material to where it is needed is a vital service to industry and medicine. Millions of packages are shipped all over the world by all modes of transport. The shipments pass through public places and must meet stringent safety requirements. This video explains how radioactive material is safely transported and describes the rules that carriers and handlers must follow. (author)

  19. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  20. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items

  1. Water pollution by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of the definition of a philosophy and politics of waste disposal and site selection, an analysis is made of the main elements of radioactive pollution of waters: sources of radioactivity, radionuclides classified according to their hazard, waste processing, disposal criteria and transfer processes in the compartments: water, suspended sediments, deposited sediments, biomass

  2. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  3. Management of radioactive wastes produced by users of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is intended as a document to provide guidance for regulatory, administrative and technical authorities who are responsible for, or are involved in, planning, approving, executing and reviewing national waste management programmes related to the safe use of radioactive materials in hospitals, research laboratories, industrial and agricultural premises and the subsequent disposal of the radioactive wastes produced. It provides information and guidance for waste management including treatment techniques that may be available to establishments and individual users

  4. A method to encapsule radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to encapsule highly radioactive material is proposed. Pre-formed solid elements of radioactive material (e.g. glass, preferably pressure-sintered silicates) are cladded with corrosion-resistant metallic material, which can also hardly be penetrated by radiation, encapsuled and are subjected to isostatic pressing. Pressure (preferably at least 50 MPa) and temperature (at least 5000C) must be sufficient to form a compact dense cladding. (RB)

  5. Response to Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two response paths are discussed in the presentation. Reactive response follows when an alarm of a border monitor goes off or a notification is received about an incident involving or suspected to involve radioactive materials. The response can also be the result of the finding of a discrepancy between a customs declaration form and the corresponding actual shipment. Proactive response is undertaken upon receipt of intelligence information suggesting the illicit trafficking of radioactive materials, notification about the discovery of non-compliance with transport regulations or if discrepancies are found in an inventory of radioactive materials.

  6. Radioactive material accidents in the transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport is an important part of the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record for nuclear transport across the world is excellent. The increase in the use of radioactive materials in our country requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user. Despite the number of packages transported, the number of incidents and accidents in which they are involved is low. In Brazil, do not be records of victims of the radiation as a result of the transport of radioactive materials and either due to the accidents happened during the transports. The absence of victims of the radiation as result of accidents during the transports is a highly significant fact, mainly to consider that annually approximately two hundred a thousand packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport throughout the country, of which eighty a thousand are for a medical use. This is due to well-founded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professionalism of those in the industry. In this paper, an overview is presented of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material in the state of Sao Paulo. The applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described. It also presents the packages amounts of carried and the accidents occurred during the transport of radioactive materials, in the last five years. The main occurred events are argued, demonstrating that the demanded requirements of security for any transport of radioactive material are enough to guarantee the necessary control of ionizing radiation expositions to transport workers, members of general public and the environment. (author)

  7. Transport regulations for radioactive material in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material in Germany is regulated by the dangerous goods transport regulations and the regulations of the Atomic Energy Act and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. For radioactive material shipments by road, rail, sea and air the modal regulations on the transport of dangerous goods for class 7 of the ADR, RID, ADNR, IMO and ICAO are implemented in Germany and have to be complied with. In parallel with this the Atomic Energy Act requirements and the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance concerning the transport of radioactive material have to be met. They contain provisions regarding the reliability of transport organisations and persons, training of persons involved in transport nuclear liability insurance, physical protection and public interest in addition to the need to fulfil the dangerous goods transport regulations. According to these requirements shipment approvals which are presented in the paper, are necessary for nuclear material, large sources and other radioactive materials. Based on this some practical implications for radioactive material shipments will be discussed as well as some aspects of the future developments. The paper also gives an overview of the responsibilities for approval and inspection of radioactive material shipments in Germany. (author)

  8. Contamination due to radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peaceful exploitation of radioactivity and the expansion of the nuclear power programme ensure that the disposal of radioactive wastes will cause contamination of the marine environment in the foreseeable future. The exposure of marine organisms to radioactivity from wastes has been studied in depth and related to exposure to natural background radiation. Concentrations of natural radionuclides and those from marine waste disposal have been measured at various stations in the oceans and seas around the world. The fate of radionuclides at four representative sites has been studied and the concentrations of radionuclides in oysters, porphyra, plaice in the Windscale discharge area have been measured. The extent of human exposure, particularly with reference to seafood consumption in local fishing communities, has been assessed. Effects of radiation on developing fish embryos and eggs and genetic radiation effects in aquatic organisms has been studied. The above studies reveal that the controls applied to the discharge of radioactive wastes to limit hazards to humans also provide adequate protection for populations of marine organisms. (U.K.)

  9. Traffic accident with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A traffic accident with a package with radioactive contents of the category 'III-YELLOW' remaining undamaged, caused complete confusion among the responsible rescue services. All forces active until professional fire-brigades arrived showed a deficit of tactical radiation protection behaviour. Even a medical unit with an equipped emergency task force in situ and radiation protection equipment did not feel responsible. (DG)

  10. Transport security of radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraguay has implemented diverse mechanisms for the safe transport of radioactive material. Among the first of these was the adoption and implementation of national regulations based on the latest edition of the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1). The National Regulation for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, in Article 34, states that any transport of radioactive materials must fulfil the IAEA's Transport Regulations. In addition, Resolution No. 4097/00 of the Rector of the National University of Asuncion approved the latest edition of the IAEA's Transport Regulations, as the only instrument to be used by the National Commission of Atomic Energy - the competent authority - in authorizing the safe transport of radioactive material, for exports and especially within MERCOSUR, the Common Market of the South. (author)

  11. Emergency preparedness for radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipments of radioactive waste in the United States are increasing. This paper discusses how the federal government must certify a package design before radioactive materials are allowed to be shipped in the actual package or cask. The certification process and the package provides the first line of defense in assuring that radioactive material will not be released in a transportation accident. If a transportation accident occurs, state, tribal and local governments have the responsibility to protect the health and safety of the public. If those resources are not sufficient, the DOE maintains a network of trained personnel and state- of-the-art equipment to supplement state, tribal and local resources

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is disposed below ground at a position adjacent the coast line such that, 1. drainage of any water which has flowed through the disposal volume can be drained to the sea, or 2. the waste is disposed below the foreshore or coastal shallow water. Disposal facilities are described which advantageously include surrounding the waste with absorber to increase protection against migration of radionuclides. An example of a radioactive waste disposal facility is shown and includes a number of cells formed from concrete walls and floors, the cells being loaded successively with drums containing the waste, each cell being roofed with concrete after filling, there being absorber placed beneath the floors between the walls and after complete filling, above the said roof, with a soil mound surmounting. Drainage channels extend to sea via monitoring means. (author)

  13. Security of radioactive sources and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities involving the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials are subject to the control of the national bodies dedicated to the nuclear regulation. The main objective of this control is to assure an appropriate level of radiological protection and nuclear safety. In Argentina, this function is carried out by the 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority' (ARN) whose regulatory system for radiation sources and radioactive materials comprises a registration, licensing and inspection scheme. The system is designed to keep track of such materials and to allow taking immediate corrective actions in case some incident occurs. Due to the appearance of a considerable number of illicit traffic events involving radiation sources and radioactive materials, the specialized national and international community has begun to evaluate the adoption of supplementary measures to those of 'safety' guided to its prevention and detection (i.e. 'security measures'). This paper presents a view on when the adoption of complementary 'security' measures to those of 'safety' would be advisable and which they would be. This will be done through the analysis of two hypothesis of illicit traffic, the first one with sources and radioactive materials considered as 'registered' and the second, with the same materials designated as 'not registered'. It will also describe succinctly the measures adopted by the ARN or under its analysis regarding the 'security' measures to sources and radioactive materials. (author)

  14. Decontamination method of radioactively contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ions leached from plant constituent materials to reactor primary coolants are gradually deposited in primary circuits in a state that metal ions are mixed with iron oxides, to form obstinate oxidized coating layers. In order to remove radioactive materials intruded into such oxide coating layers, the radiation-contaminated materials are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water to make the radioactive materials free and remove them from the surface of the contaminants. That is, if metal oxides such as Fe2O3 are brought into contact with electrostatically charged water, e- is applied to the oxide, and water molecules return to a stable state, as well as Fe2O3 is reduced from Fe+3 to Fe+2, to cause structural change in the tissues of the oxide coating layers. This can change the property of the oxide coating layers and easily remove them by washing, and radioactive materials intruded between oxide particles are removed simultaneously. (T.M.)

  15. Diffusion of Radioactive Materials in the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Wali Ajlouni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The dispersion of radioactive materials in the environment related to escaping of noble gases, halogens and aerosols of non-volatile radioactive materials, from the reactor containment during normal operations, or in the event of a sever reactor accident. Approach: radionuclide dispersion in the environment is demonstrated by mathematical tools which are the partial differential equations, mainly the diffusion equation. A mathematical model to calculate the concentration of nuclear pollutants (radioactivity with certain boundary conditions is constructed. Results: Solving the mathematical model and using some approximations lead to a distribution represents a model for plume of radioactive pollutants dispersed in two dimensions normal to the wind direction in which the plume moves as an entire non-dispersible unit. Conclusion: The obtained result theoretically are very close to those achieved experimentally.

  16. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kazuo [Building Materials Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  17. Natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our study program on environmental radiation levels is buildings, we have undertaken to measure the natural radioactivity, such as radium-226, thorium-232, and potassium-40 in various inorganic building materials. The specimens of their materials include cements, aggregates, concretes, asbestos cement slates, tiles, gypsum boards, rock wool boards, bricks, wall clays, soils, phosphorous ore, zirconia, zircon flower and zircon sand that used in Japan. The ranges and mean values of natural radioactivity concentrations existing in their materials are tabulated and evaluated. (author)

  18. Illicit trafficking of radioactive material in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungary, due to its geographical location is a convenient region for illegal transit of nuclear material between source and target countries. In recent years nine cases have became known and altogether 21.7 kg depleted, 4.6 kg natural, and 2.5 kg low enriched uranium have been confiscated. A brief summary is given of possible origin of the illicitly transported radioactive material. The most important elements of the security of sources including the national and accounting system of radioactive material and the intervention plans are discussed. (author)

  19. Natural Radioactivity of Some Mongolian Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbish, S; Ganchimeg, G

    2000-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of some building materials used in cities of Darkhan, Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet in Mongolia was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with HP-Ge-detector. The radium equivalent concentration and the gamma absorbed dose rate in air, were estimated as the external and internal hazard indices. The results indicate that these materials are not a major source of exposure.

  20. Characterization of unknown objects containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunhofer-INT is going to equip a transportable container with a system for the detection, identification and characterization of radioactive material inside objects with unknown content. This system will be a prototype for a mobile system to detect illicit trafficking of radioactive and especially nuclear material and will thus prohibit nuclear proliferation. This container will be equipped with systems for passive and active nondestructive measurements. For active measurements we use a sealed tube 14 MeV neutron generator with an without a moderating assembly between the interrogating neutron source and the object of interest. Because stolen or diverted radioactive material generally may not have a fixed geometry and will not be packaged in standard containers the main emphasis in this paper is on in-situ gamma measurements taking into account possible shielding around the radioactive source. High-resolution gamma measurements were performed on radioactive material behind different types of shielding. The measured data were evaluated by modeling the different parameters like the wall thickness of the box, matrix and shielding material inside and so on. Comparison with the actual experimental setup of the models showed good agreement and proved the power of this method. In this way significant information was gained on the content of the unknown box, which is important for further actions. (author)

  1. Transport of radioactive materials by post

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Seminar was to encourage safe and efficient carriage of radioactive material by post. Adequate, up-to-date regulations for international and domestic shipment of radioactive material by all modes of transport, including by mail, have been published by the IAEA. UPU, ICAO, IATA and other international organizations as well as a majority of the countries of the world have adopted most sections of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Although there is an apparent need for shipping radioactive material by mail, some countries allow only domestic shipments and the postal regulations applied in these countries often differs from the international regulations. Only about 25 countries are known to allow international (as well as domestic) shipments. From the discussions and comments at the Seminar, it appears that the option of shipment by post would be advantageous to enhance both the safety and economy of transporting, as well as to increase availability of, radioactive materials. The Agency's Regulations for transport by post as adopted by the UPU and ICAO are considered to provide a high level of safety and ensure a negligible element of risk. A more uniform application of these regulations within UPU Member States should be encouraged. The competent authority for implementation of the other parts of the Agency's Regulations in each of the Member States should be invited to advise the Postal Administrators and assist in applying the requirements to national as well as international postal shipments

  2. Detection of radioactive materials at borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By international agreements, the movement of all radioactive materials within and between States should be subject to high standards of regulatory, administrative, safety and engineering controls to ensure that such movements are conducted in a safe and secure manner. In the case of nuclear materials, there are additional requirements for physical protection and accountability to ensure against threats of nuclear proliferation and to safeguard against any attempts at diversion. The results of the terrorist attacks of September 2001 emphasized the requirement for enhanced control and security of nuclear and radioactive materials. In this regard, measures are being taken to increase the global levels of physical protection and security for nuclear materials. Experience in many parts of the world continues to prove that movements of radioactive materials outside of the regulatory and legal frameworks continue to occur. Such movements may be either deliberate or inadvertent. Deliberate, illegal movements of radioactive materials, including nuclear material, for terrorist, political or illegal profit is generally understood to be illicit trafficking. The more common movements outside of regulatory control are inadvertent in nature. An example of an inadvertent movement might be the transport of steel contaminated by a melted radioactive source that was lost from proper controls. Such a shipment may present health and safety threats to the personnel involved as well as to the general public. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements of radioactive materials. The IAEA co-operates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by the provision of relevant advice through technical assistance and documents. As an example, the IAEA and the World Customs Organization (WCO) maintain a Memorandum

  3. ALTERNATE MATERIALS IN DESIGN OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  4. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material embraces the carriage of radioisotopes for industrial, medical and research uses, and the movement of waste, in addition to consignments of nuclear fuel cycle material. It has been estimated that between eighteen and thirty-eight million package shipments take place each year. On the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), which enjoys wide representations from the Agency's Member States and international organizations, the Secretariat is preparing a training kit comprising this training manual and complementary visual aids. The kit is intended to be the basis for an extensive course on the subject and can be used in whole or in part for inter-regional, regional and even national training purposes. Member States can thus benefit from the material either through training courses sponsored by the Agency, or, alternatively, organized by themselves. As a step towards achieving that goal, the current training manual was compiled using material from the first Inter-Regional Training Course on the Safe Transport of Radioactive material that was held in co-operation with the Nuclear Power Training Centre of the then Central Electricity Generating Board at Bristol, United Kingdom. This Manual was initially published in 1990. On the recommendation of the Agency's Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Manual has since been expanded and updated in time for the second Inter-Regional Training Course, that will in 1991 similarly be held in Bristol. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials

  6. Transport regulations for radioactive materials in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials are taken as a basis for our national regulations to secure the safe transport of radioactive materials in Japan. The requirements for packaging and packages that are used to transport radioactive materials are based on the IAEA Regulations. Furthermore, in addition to the IAEA Regulations, the relative international regulations such as the IMDG code of IMO etc. are reviewed by our national authorities and applied to the conveyance such as the transport vehicle/vessel etc. that is used for the shipment. The transport system such as a transport caravan in Japan is intended to provide even greater safety during transport. The future activities to be discussed in the IAEA are how to adopt the IAEA Regulations to Member States as soon as possible and to evaluate the safety margin of the IAEA Regulations to the assumed accidents. (author)

  7. Identification of radioactive materials in moving objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control over the transportation of the radioactive materials crossing the borders of Uzbekistan is actually today not like before because of increased threat of terrorism.and urges of terrorist organizations to use radioactive materials in their terrorist activities. There are many companies producing radiation control systems. All such systems existing nowadays are based on the principles of intensity comparison for radiation detected by the system in the absence of control object and the intensity of the radiation when object appears. This method works well only in the conditions of constant or weakly changing background. However, at significant deviation in the value of background the number of false alarms set off by the systems increases. The present work describes the method for radioactive materials detection in the moving objects independent of the significant background deviations and present radiation monitoring establishment based on this principle

  8. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  9. Denials and Delays of Radioactive Material Shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    delays of shipments of radioactive materials forms an important issue today. Radioactive materials need to be transported using all modes of transport for use in different applications such as public health, industry, research and production of nuclear power. The transport of radioactive materials is governed by national and international regulations, which are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (TS-R-1). These regulations ensure high standards of safety. Recently there were increasing numbers of instances of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive materials even when complying with the regulations. The denials and delays can result in difficulties to patients and others who rely on products sterilized by radiation. Therefore there is an urgent need for a universally accepted approach to solve this problem. In response, the IAEA has formed an International Steering Committee (ISC) on denials and delays of radioactive materials. Also, it designate the National Focal Points (NFP) representative to help the ISC members and the IAEA by informing about denial operations and how they can help. The Steering Committee developed and adopted an action plan which includes the action to be taken. This plan is based on: Awareness, Training, Communication, Lobbying for marketing, Economic and Harmonization among member states. It is important to work within the mandate of the ISC and in the line of action plan on denials and delays. It identified the following network members such as: National Focal Points, Regional Coordinators, National Committee, National Representative for different modes of transport and similar bodies, Carriers, Producers and Suppliers, Different civil societies, NGO's, Ministry of transport and others.

  10. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch

  11. Radioactive Material (Road Transport) Act 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act came into force on 27 August 1991. It replaces earlier legislation dating from 1948 and enables the United Kingdom to give effect to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) latest recommended Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The new Act clarifies and extends the power of the Secretary of State to make regulations regarding, among other things, the design, labelling, handling, transport and delivery of packages containing radioactive material and the placarding of vehicles transporting such packages. The Act gives the Secretary of State the power to appoint inspectors to assist him in enforcing the regulations. (NEA)

  12. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of transport by road, rail, sea and air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to ordinary members of the public and in most cases they are loaded and unloaded by transport workers who have no special training or experience in the handling of radioactive substances. The materials being transported cover a wide variety - ranging from small batches of short-lived radionuclides used in medical practice which can be transported in small sealed lead pots in cardboard boxes, to large, extremely radioactive consignments of irradiated nuclear fuel in flasks weighing many tons. With the growing development of nuclear power programmes the transport of irradiated fuel is likely to increase markedly. It is clear that unless adequate regulations concerning the design and assembly of the packages containing these materials are precisely set down and strictly carried out, there would be a high probability that some of the radioactive contents would be released, leading to contamination of other transported goods and the general environment, and to the delivery of a radiation dose to the transport workers and the public. An additional requirement is that the transport should proceed smoothly and without delay. This is particularly important for radioactive materials of short half-life, which would lose significant amounts of their total activity in unnecessary delays at international boundaries. Therefore, it is essential that the regulations are also enforced, to ensure that the radioactive material is contained and the surrounding radiation level reduced to a value which poses no threat to other sensitive goods such as photographic film, or to transport workers and other passengers. These regulations should be as uniform as possible on an international basis, so that consignments can move freely from one country to another with as little delay as possible at the frontiers. (author)

  13. Radioactive research of building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides in 31 pieces of ground bricks from different sources were determined by using the γ spectrometry. The spectra were resolved by the least square method. The contents of U, Th, Ra and 40K in them spread in a wide range. Values of some bricks products were above the limits of the state standard for radiahazards in building materials

  14. Radioactive substances in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report reviews all activity measurements performed on building materials at SSI during 1962 and 1972-1984. The content of 232-Th, 226-Ra and 40-K was determined. The measuring method and the accuracy is discussed. Comparisons are made to measurements from the 1950:s. (L.E.)

  15. Environment - sustainable management of radioactive materials and radioactive - report evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic affairs commission evaluated the report of M. Henri Revol on the law project n 315 of the program relative to the sustainable management of the radioactive materials and wastes. It precises and discusses the choices concerning the researches of the three axis, separation and transmutation, deep underground disposal and retrieval conditioning and storage of wastes. The commission evaluated then the report on the law project n 286 relative to the transparency and the security in the nuclear domain. It precises and discusses this text objectives and the main contributions of the Senate discussion. (A.L.B.)

  16. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS IN BIOSOLIDS: DOSE MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) has recently completed a study of the occurrence within the United States of radioactive materials in sewage sludge and sewage incineration ash. One component of that effort was an examination of the possible tra...

  17. Recycling and Reuse of Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dou, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Radiochemistry Program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has a Radiation Protection Program that was designed to provide students with the ability to safely work with radioactive materials in quantities that are not available in other academic environments. Requirements for continuous training and supervision make this unique…

  18. The air transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulatory requirements and philosophy pertaining to the transport of radioactive materials are outlined. A study to determine the exposures arising from this transport is described and estimates of individual and collective doses for aircrews and passengers are given and reviewed. (author)

  19. Licensing of radioactive material (CPR Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of PAEC Regulations (CPR) part 2 sets forth the rules and regulations applicable to all persons in the Philippines governing the licensing of radioactive materials by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). The following are the parts of the CPR, 1) General provisions, 2) Exceptions, 3) Licenses, 4) Records, reports, inspections and tests, and 5) Enforcement. (ELC)

  20. Natural radioactivity in building materials at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for determination of natural radioactivity content in building materials arises from the growing attention paid to its potential radiation effects and consequent concern of many producers of such materials These materials have been analyzed for natural radioactivity due to presence of primordial radionuclide 238U, 232Th and 40K using gamma spectrometry. The activity of different building material obtained in this study ranged from 1-72 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 4-148 Bq/kg for 232Th and 38-1288 for 40K respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) values of all the building materials are lower than the limit of 370 Bq/kg which will produce an exposure of 1.5 mSv/yr to the inhabitants. In all cases both External hazard index Hex and Internal hazard index Hin in all the building materials collected and analysed in this paper is below unity. Based on the criterion formula for gamma activity the results presented indicate that the commonly used building materials in Kalpakkam could be used in building construction without exceeding the proposed radioactivity criterion level. (author)

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material. 3. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training as a means of helping Member States to implement the Transport Regulations. The training manual is an anchor of this standardized approach to training: it contains all the topics presented in the sequential order recommended by the IAEA for the student to gain a thorough understanding of the body of knowledge that is needed to ensure that radioactive material ranked as Class 7 in the United Nations' nomenclature for dangerous goods - is transported safely. The explanations in the text refer, where needed, to the appropriate requirements in the IAEA's Transport Regulations; additional useful information is also provided. Thus, the training manual in addition to the Transport Regulations and their supporting documents is used by the IAEA as the basis for delivering all of its training courses on the safe transport of radioactive material. Enclosed with the training manual is a CD-ROM that contains the text of the manual as well as the visual aids that are used at the IAEA's training courses. The following topics are covered: review of radioactivity and radiation; review of radiation protection principles; regulatory terminology; basic safety concepts: materials and packages; activity limits and material restrictions; selection of optimal package type; test procedures: material and packages; requirements for transport; control of material in transport; fissile material: regulatory requirements and operational aspects; quality assurance; national competent authority; additional regulatory constraints for transport; international liability and insurance; emergency planning and preparedness; training; services provided by the IAEA

  2. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  3. Security of radioactive materials for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both sealed and unsealed radioactive sources are used in hospitals throughout the world for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. High activity single sealed sources are used in teletherapy units, although these are becoming less common as they are replaced by linear accelerators, and in blood irradiator units, which are in widespread use. Lower activity sealed sources are used in brachytherapy. High activity unsealed sources are used typically for the treatment of thyroid cancer and neuroblastoma in inpatients while diagnostic doses of unsealed radioactive materials have much lower activities. In the case of a central radiopharmacy producing patient doses of radiopharmaceutical for several Nuclear Medicine departments, however, quite large amounts of radioactive materials may be held. Hospitals are, by their nature, less secure than other licensed nuclear sites and the ever-changing patient /visitor (and staff) population is a further complicating factor. Hitherto, security of radioactive materials in hospitals has tended to be considered from the perspective only of radiation safety but this approach is no longer sufficient

  4. Import/export Service of Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export service of radioactive material (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-shipping@cern.ch Radioactive Sources Service Please note that the radioactive sources service (24/E-024) is open from Monday to Friday, 8:00 to 11:00. No request will be treated the afternoon. Moreover, the service being reduced, transports between Swiss and French sites (and vice versa) will now be achieved by internal transport. Web site : http://cern.ch/service-rp-sources Tel.: 73171 E-mail: service-rp-sources@cern.ch

  5. Completion of the radioactive materials packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance', which will serve as a replacement for the 'Cask Designers Guide'(1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US DOE and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuels). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs) must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet United States and/or international regulations, all of which are covered in the Handbook. One of the primary goals of the Handbook is to provide information which would guide designers of radioactive materials packages to make decisions that would most likely be acceptable to regulatory agencies during the approval process of the packaging. It was therefore important to find those authors who not only were experts in one or more of the areas that are addressed in a SARP, but who also had been exposed to the regulatory process or had operational experience dealing with a wide variety of package types. Twenty-five such people have contributed their time and talents to the development of this document, mostly on a volunteer basis

  6. Safe transport of radioactive material. 4. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been publishing Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material since 1961. Meeting its statutory obligation to foster the exchange and training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA has developed a standardized approach to transport safety training. This training manual is an anchor of the standardized approach to training. It is a compendium of training modules for courses related to the different aspects of safety of transport of radioactive material. Keeping in view the specific needs of the potential users, the manual includes material that can be used for a variety of training programmes of duration ranging from half-a-day to ten days, for specific audiences such as competent authority personnel, public authorities, emergency response personnel and cargo handlers

  7. Security in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Adequate security is an essential concern in the transport of radioactive materials for all the stakeholders involved - the countries producing radioactive materials, the countries across which and to where the radioactive materials are transported, and the transport industry. Indeed, stringent security measures in the movement of radioactive materials have been in place for many years. Regulators have recognised that specific radioactive materials transported require special security controls and measures in order to prevent illicit use of such material. This need for protection is now even greater. No industry is subject to more stringent levels of security. The transport of radioactive materials has traditionally been subject to specific national protection measures, as shown for instance by a State reserving its right to oversee the security measures taken during the transport of such materials originating from or carried through its territory. To prevent theft of radioactive materials during transport, a wide range of protection measures, including access control, employee screening and coordination with local and national security authorities, involving security forces, have been developed. Some of these provisions have a direct and considerable impact on how transports are organised. While State sovereignty on security matters is appreciated, and since international transport of radioactive materials is a common practice, greater harmonisation of security measures within and between countries should be encouraged in the interest both of security and efficiency. For example, a security official at an international border crossing may interpret requirements on the ground in a different way from authorities at the centre. There appears to be a view among some potential transport service providers that the transport safety and security regulatory regimes are onerous or too complicated. It is the operator who experiences at first hand the differences

  8. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  9. Multimedia instructions for carriers of radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, A.; Sordi, G. M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Simpson, J. [Class 7 Limited, 9 Irk Vale Drive, Chadderton, Oldham OL1 2TW (United Kingdom); Ghobril, C. N. [Governo de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Economia Agricola, 04301-903 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Perez, C. F., E-mail: adelia@atomo.com.br [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2468, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sau Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    For some operators the transport regulations for transporting radioactive material are considered to be complicated and not user friendly and as a result for some operators it is difficult to identify all the transport regulatory requirements they must comply with for each type of package or radioactive material. These difficulties can result in self-checking being ineffective and as a consequence the first and important step in the safety chain is lost. This paper describes a transport compliance guide for operators that is currently under development for the South American market. This paper describes the scope and structure of the guide and examples of the information provided is given, which will be available in English, Portuguese and Spanish. It is intended that when the guide is launched before the end of 2013 it will be accessed using a bespoke software program that can run on Pc platform to provide a checklist for the operator before the shipment begins By identifying the regulatory requirements the guide is also intended to provide operators with an understanding of the structure of the transport regulations and an appreciation of the logic behind the regulatory requirements for each Un numbered package and material type listed in the transport regulations for radioactive material. It is foreseen that the interactive program can be used both operationally on a day-to-day basis and as a training tool, including refresher training, as the guide will be updated when the transport regulations are periodically changed. (Author)

  10. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material

  11. Provision of transport packaging for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe transport of radioactive materials is governed by various regulations based on International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations. This code of practice is a supplement to the regulations, its objects being (a) to advise designers of packaging on the technical features necessary to conform to the regulations, and (b) to outline the requirements for obtaining approval of package designs from the competent authority. (U.K.)

  12. Safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities involving the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials must be subject to the control of national authorities dedicated to their regulation. Nuclear regulatory bodies should be established with an adequate infrastructure, independence and technical competence and knowledge to provide the people with an appropriate to level of protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. In Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control all nuclear activities with regard to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and non proliferation matters. Its regulatory system for radiation sources and radioactive materials comprises a registration, licensing and inspection regime. Due to the appearance of a considerable number of illicit traffic events involving radiation sources and radioactive materials in several countries and at their borders, the specialized national and international community identified and adopted supplementary measures to those of 'safety' aim at preventing and responding to such events. These measures are known as 'security measures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the main international forum in which its Member States are discussing the problems associated with the illicit traffic of radioactive materials and radiation sources. A main product of these discussions is the implementation of an Action Plan that includes 'security' measures. The objective of this article is to analyze when the adoption of additional 'security' measures is indispensable. The analysis considers two cases of illicit trafficking: one involving radiation sources under regulatory control; and the other involving 'orphan sources'. Orphan sources constitute the most important challenge to be addressed since these radiation sources are out of adequate control. The absence of additional measures (named 'security measures') to prevent and detect such sources, reduce the possibility of

  13. Transportaton of radioactive materials by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian regulations for air transportation of radioactive materials are based on the IAEA regulations. The Atomic Energy Control Board is responsible for enforcement. The IAEA regulations are summarized in this report. A review of 402 210 shipments by air, road, rail, and sea in Canada between 1957 and 1975 reveals 61 incidents. Of the 36 incidents involving air transportation, one resulted in package failure and an increase in radiation and two resulted in package contents being spilled. (LL)

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1990 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1990 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  15. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs

  16. Criteria for onsite transfers of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general description of the requirements for making onsite transfers of radioactive material is provided in Chapter 2, along with the required sequencey of activities. Various criteria for package use are identified in Chapters 3-13. These criteria provide protection against undue radiation exposure. Package shielding, containment, and surface contamination requirements are established. Criteria for providing criticality safety are enumerated in Chapter 6. Criteria for providing hazards information are established in Chapter 13. A glossary is provided

  17. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1991 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1991 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data Covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  18. The transport of radioactive materials - Future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, TS-R-1, set the standards for the packages used in the transport of radioactive materials under both normal and accident conditions. Transport organisations are also required to implement Radiation Protection Programmes to control radiation dose exposure to both workers and the public. The industry has now operated under this regulatory regime safely and efficiently for nearly 50 years. It is vital that this record be maintained in the future when the demands on the transport industry are increasing. Nuclear power is being called upon more and more to satisfy the world's growing need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity and there will be a corresponding demand for nuclear fuel cycle services. There will also be a growing need for other radioactive materials, notably large sources such as Cobalt 60 sources for a range of important medical and industrial uses, as well as radio-pharmaceuticals. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support all these industry sectors and the challenge will be to ensure that this can be maintained safely and securely in a changing world where public and political concerns are increasing. This paper will discuss the main issues which need to be addressed. The demand for uranium has led to increased exploration and the development of mines in new locations far removed from the demand centres. This inevitably leads to more transport, sometimes from areas potentially lacking in transport infrastructure, service providers, and experience. The demand for sources for medical applications will also increase, particularly from the rapidly developing regions and this will also involve new transport routes and increased traffic. This raises a variety of issues concerning the ability of the transport infrastructure to meet the future challenge, particularly in an environment where there already exists reluctance on

  19. Radioactive materials and emergencies at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events have heightened awareness of the problems raised by accidents at sea involving radioactive materials. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) noted that, while the transport of radioactive materials at sea is governed by extensive international regulations, deficiencies remained, particularly concerning mechanisms for early accident reporting and the development of generic safety assessments and accident analysises for various kinds of sea transport. As a contribution towards improving international guidance in this field, the NEA appointed a consultant to review the current status of activities carried out by the principal international organizations concerned with the transport of radioactive materials (the IAEA, IMO and the CEC), to identify the various areas where additional work is required and to suggest appropriate improvements. Only the radiation protection aspects of sea transport have been considered here. After having examined the consultant report, the CRPPH felt that its wide distribution to national regulatory authorities in OECD countries would serve a useful purpose. The report is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD and does not commit Member Governments or the Organization

  20. Integration of Radioactive Material with Microcalorimeter Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. P.; Bond, E. M.; Hoover, A. S.; Kunde, G. J.; Moody, W. A.; Rabin, M. W.; Bennett, D. A.; Hayes-Wehle, J.; Kotsubo, V.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2014-09-01

    Microcalorimeter detectors with embedded radioactive material offer many possibilities for new types of measurements and applications. We will discuss the designs and methods that we are developing for precise deposition of radioactive material and its encapsulation in the absorber of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter detectors for two specific applications. The first application is total nuclear reaction energy (Q) spectroscopy for nuclear forensics measurements of trace actinide samples, where the goal is determination of ratios of isotopes with Q values in the range of 5-7 MeV. Simplified, rapid sample preparation and detector assembly is necessary for practical measurements, while maintaining good energy resolution. The second application is electron capture spectroscopy of isotopes with low Q values, such as Ho, for measurement of neutrino mass. Detectors for electron capture spectroscopy are designed for measuring energies up to approximately 6 keV. Their smaller heat capacity and physical size present unique challenges. Both applications require precise deposition of radioactive material and encapsulation in an absorber with optimized thermal properties and coupling to the TES. We have made detectors for both applications with a variety of designs and assembly methods, and will present their development.

  1. Levels of radioactivity in grit blasting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of the build up of naturally occurring radioactive materials within the scales and silts accumulating in gas and oil production and processing plants are well known. Whilst surveying for these materials it became apparent that very occasionally high survey readings were being produced which could not be associated with elevated levels in scales or silts in the plant being investigated. Further measurements established that the source of these elevated levels was in fact grit from recent cleaning operations which had not been properly cleaned away. It was therefore decided to look at the activity levels in grits more systematically to see if a real problem did or could exist. (author)

  2. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  3. Perception of risks in transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework for relating the variables involved in the public perception of hazardous materials transportation is presented in which perceived risk was described in six basic terms: technical feasibility, political palatability, social responsibility, benefit assessment, media interpretation, and familiarity as a function of time. Scientists, the media and public officials contribute to the discussion of risks but ultimately people will decide for themselves how they feel and what they think. It is not sufficient to consider the public of not being enlightened enough to participate in the formulation of radioactive material transport policy. The framework provides the technologist with an initial formulation to better inform the public and to understand public perception

  4. Transport of radioactive materials; Transporte de materiais radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-11-15

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material.

  5. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  6. Scintillation material for radioactivity detection in chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation material was developed for radioactivity detection in liquid and gas chromatography. The starting material is crystalline Al-Y perovskite doped with Ce and La ions, which is heat treated at 1100-1700 degC under hydrogen for 1/2 to 8 hrs, ground, and screened to obtain a fraction 20-30 μm in grain size. The grain surface is modified by etching with phosphoric acid at 400-600 degC for 5-60 sec or with NaOH at 100-200 degC for 10 min. For some applications this material can be coated with a monomer (e.g., a styrene-divinylbenzene mixture) and exposed to gamma radiation to achieve complete polymerization of the monomer. The material suggested exhibits a high detection efficiency for β radiation, short luminescence times, a high chemical, mechanical and radiation resistance, and low sorption properties. (P.A.)

  7. Safe transport of radioactive material. Second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the International Atomic Energy Agency published Training Course Series No. 1 (TCS-1), a training manual that provides in 20 chapters a detailed discussion of the background, philosophy, technical bases and requirements and implementation aspects of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. The Transport Regulations are widely implemented by the IAEA's Member States and are also used as the bases for radioactive material transport requirements of modal organisations such as the International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation Organization. This document is a supplement of TCS-1 to provide additional material in the form of learning aids and new exercises, that have been developed with the use of TCS-1 at succeeding IAEA training courses. The learning aids in the first part of the supplement are hitherto unpublished material that provide detailed guidance useful in solving the exercises presented in the second part. Solutions to the exercises are on field at the IAEA Secretariat and are available by arrangement to lectures presenting IAEA training courses. 4 refs, 1 fig., 6 tabs

  8. Handling of disused radioactive materials in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the handling of disused radioactive sources. It also shows graphic information of medical and industrial equipment containing radioactive sources. This information was prepared as part of a training course on radioactive wastes. (The author)

  9. Decontamination of radioactive materials (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drifting agents accelerate the exchange process and thus promote to eliminate radioactive materials from human body. The earlier is the administration of the agent, the more effective is the elimination. Against the uptake of radioiodine by thyroid, anti-thyroid drug like NaI, Lugol's iodine solution, propylthiouracil and methimazole are recommended. Ammonium chloride can be a solubilizer of radioactive strontium. Diuretics may be useful for excretion of radioisotopes of sodium, chlorine, potassium and hydrogen through diuresis. Efficacy of expectorants and inhalants is not established. Parathyroid extract induces decalcification and thus is useful for elimination of 32P. Steroids are used for compensating adrenal function and for treatment of inflammation and related symptoms. Chelating agents are useful for removing cations and effective when given early after contamination. EDTA and, particularly, DTPA are useful for elimination of heavy metals. For BAL (dimercaprol), its toxicity should be taken into consideration. Penicillamine is effective for removing copper and deferoxamine, for iron. Drugs for following radioisotopes are summarized: Am, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cf, C, Ce, Cs, Cr, Co, Cm, Eu, fission products, F, Ga, Au, H, In, I, Fe, Kr, La, PB, Mn, Hg, Np, P, Pu, Po, K, Pm, Ra, Rb, Ru, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, S, Tc, Th, U, Y, Zn and Zr. Lung and bronchia washing are effective for treatment of patients who inhaled insoluble radioactive particles although their risk-benefit should be carefully assessed. The present review is essentially based of NCRP Report No.65. (K.H.) 128 refs

  10. Radioactive materials transportation emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro transports radioactive material between its nuclear facilities, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories and Radiochemical Company in Kanata, on a regular basis. Ontario Hydro also occasionally transports to Whiteshell Laboratories, Hydro-Quebec and New Brunswick Electric Power Commission. Although there are stringent packaging and procedural requirements for these shipments, Ontario Hydro has developed a Radioactive Materials Transportation Emergency Response Plan in the event that there is an accident. The Transportation Emergency Response plan is based on six concepts: 1) the Province id divided into three response areas with each station (Pickering, Darlington, Bruce) having identified response areas; 2) response is activated via a toll-free number. A shift supervisor at Pickering will answer the call, determine the hazards involved from the central shipment log and provide on-line advice to the emergency worker. At the same time he will notify the nearest Ontario Hydro area office to provide initial corporate response, and will request the nearest nuclear station to provide response assistance; 3) all stations have capability in terms of trained personnel and equipment to respond to an accident; 4) all Ontario Hydro shipments are logged with Pickering NGS. Present capability is based on computerized logging with the computer located in the shift office at Pickering to allow quick access to information on the shipment; 5) there is a three tier structure for emergency public information. The local Area Manager is the first Ontario Hydro person at the scene of the accident. The responding facility technical spokesperson is the second line of Corporate presence and the Ontario Hydro Corporate spokesperson is notified in case the accident is a media event; and 6) Ontario Hydro will respond to non-Hydro shipments of radioactive materials in terms of providing assistance, guidance and capability. However, the shipper is responsible

  11. Facilities for reducing radioactive material release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon occurrence of an accident, temperature is elevated by the heat from exothermic materials in an building to cause expansion of the air in the building till the time an emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation. Further, external air leaks into the building during the time lag depending on the rate of the leakage of the building. They cause lowering of the negative pressure in the building to bring about a worry that the air in the building containing radioactive materials in leaked and released. Then, in the present invention, an ordinary ventilation system comprising an air supply blower, an air exhaustion blower, an air supply isolation valve and an air exhaustion isolation valve, and an emergency gas processing system for exhausting the air in the building by removing radioactive materials upon occurrence of accident are disposed. Upon occurrence of accidents, the operation of the ordinary ventilation system is continued till the emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation. In view of the above, the lowering of the negative pressure in the building till the emergency gas processing system reaches a rated operation can be prevented. (T.M.)

  12. Liability in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the application of the IAEA-sponsored 1963 Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage to the maritime transport of radioactive materials. The paper refers also to the regime for civil liability created by other Conventions, including the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, concluded under the auspices of the OECD and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, also an IAEA sponsored Convention. The paper will primarily focus on the Vienna Convention. (author)

  13. Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid technique for determining building material radioactivity graphically, using nomogram of known uranium (226Ra), thorium (232Th), potassium contents is suggested. Nomogram usage permits to replace labour-consuming calculations of radionuclide specific activity by formula with simple rule imposition. Determination errors don't exceed 1-2%. The nomogram may be easily constructed selecting ranges of radionuclide concentration variation ranges, which are the most characteristic for the work region, and calculating scale values for U, Th and K by formula. Distance from uranium activity scale to U and Th total activity scale as well as scale factor of total specific activity are calculated by formula

  14. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Third edition of the ANDRA's national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). After a brief historical review of the national inventory and the way it is constructed, the report gives the basics on radioactive wastes, their classification, origins and management processes, followed by a general presentation and discussion of the inventory results (radioactive wastes and materials). Results are then detailed for the different activity sectors using radioactive materials (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). Information is also given concerning radioactive polluted areas (characterization and site management) and radioactive waste inventories in various foreign countries

  15. Decommissioning strategies for facilities using radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planning for the decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is similar in many respects to other typical engineering projects. However, decommissioning differs because it involves equipment and materials that are radioactive and therefore have to be handled and controlled appropriately. The project management principles are the same. As with all engineering projects, the desired end state of the project must be known before the work begins and there are a number of strategies that can be used to reach this end state. The selection of the appropriate strategy to be used to decommission a facility can vary depending on a number of factors. No two facilities are exactly the same and their locations and conditions can result in different strategies being considered acceptable. The factors that are considered cover a wide range of topics from purely technical issues to social and economic issues. Each factor alone may not have a substantial impact on which strategy to select, but their combination could lead to the selection of the preferred or best strategy for a particular facility. This Safety Report identifies the factors that are normally considered when deciding on the most appropriate strategy to select for a particular facility. It describes the impact that each factor can have on the strategy selection and also how the factors in combination can be used to select an optimum strategy

  16. Decontamination of radioactive materials. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials to which an individual may be exposed are not rare. These potential sources of accidental radiation include medical and food sterilizers, therapeutic devices, industrial radiography sources, research laboratories, transportation accidents, nuclear medicine laboratories, and nuclear power plants. While radiation accidents occur infrequently, one of the problems is that ionizing radiation cannot be detected by the human senses. Contamination accidents involve not only some exposure to radiation as the individuals carry the radioactive materials either internally or externally, and are thus continually exposed to radiation until the contaminant is removed. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has published ''''Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated with Radionuclides'''' as report No. 65. One of the chapters, entitled ''''Therapy Procedures and Drugs,'''' details the decontamination of radionuclides. It is the goal of this article to outline and establish procedures and resources for the decontamination of contaminated individuals. Here, we review the treatment of contamination and describe drugs for internal decontamination in Japan. (author). 56 refs

  17. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  18. Dry-type radioactive material storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A plurality of container tubes containing a plurality of canisters therein are disposed in a canister storage chamber. High level radioactive materials are filled in the canisters in the form of glass solidification materials. The canister storage chamber is divided into two cooling channels by a horizontal partition wall. Each of the container tubes is suspended from a ceiling slab and pass through the horizontal partition wall. Namely, each of the container tubes vertically traverses the cooling channel formed between the ceiling slab and the partition wall and extends to the cooling channel formed between the partition wall and a floor slab. Cooling gases heated in the cooling channel below the partition wall are suppressed from rising to the cooling channel above the partition wall. Therefore, the container tubes are efficiently cooled even in a cooling channel above the partition wall to unify temperature distribution in the axial direction of the container tubes. (I.N.)

  19. The safety and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency has two complementary programmes relating to the security of radioactive materials. One finds its origins in the General Conference resolution in 1994, GC(XXXVIII)/RES/DEC(1994), on measures against illicit trafficking in nuclear materials. This resolution was undoubtedly an expression of the concern on the matter that arose following the break-up of the Soviet Union. The other is an integral part of the broader programme of radiation safety, which, in essence, finds its origins in the statutory functions of the Agency. Article III, part A. 6 of the Statute states that the Agency is authorized 'to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property ... and to provide for the application of these standards ...'. The objectives of the first programme are to improve Member State's ability to protect nuclear materials and other radioactive material from sub-national, terrorist or unlawful activities that could impose a non-proliferation threat, or that could endanger health and safety, and to provide Member States with the knowledge and tools for detecting and responding to such unlawful incidents. Specifically, with radioactive materials, the objective is to assist Member States in their efforts to prevent, detect and respond to illicit trafficking in such materials. The statutory function regarding the establishment of safety standards and providing for their application has been taken seriously by the Agency since its inception, the first part being expressed particularly in the Basic Safety Standards. The Board of Governors first approved radiation protection and safety measures in March 1960 and the first basic safety standards in June 1962. Since then, there has been a number of revisions; the latest

  20. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  1. Natural Radioactivity of Quarry Raw Material in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decades Natural Occurring Radioactive Material has been receiving growing attention by radiation protection agencies, including chronic exposure to radon and radiation from building materials. A new Israeli Standard (IS 5098)(1) which limits the radionuclide concentration in building material entered into force in 2003. Building materials are made of natural raw materials which contain natural radionuclides from the 238U-226Ra decay series, 232Th decay series and 40K. The radionuclide concentration in the building material depends on the source of the raw material, manufacturing process and the addition of technically enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Material like fly ash, phospho-gypsum, etc. The radioactivity in building materials in Israel have been investigated, but not the raw materials from local quarries. In this paper we present the natural radioactivity in quarries substances in Israel and an assessment of the radioactivity in concrete according to IS 5098

  2. Radioactive materials' transportation main routes in Brazil. Radiation protection aspects about radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy transportation in Brazil is generally done by highways. The radioactive material transportation follow this same rule. Whenever a radioactive material is carried by the road, by the sea or by the air, in some cases, a kind of combination of those transportation ways, the transport manager has to create a Transportation Plan and submit it to CNEN. Only after CNEN's approval, the transportation can be done. The plan must have the main action on Radiation Protection, giving responsibilities and showing all the directing that will be take. Although, the Brazilian's highways are not in good conditions, one could say that some of them are not good enough for any kind of transportation. But we are facing radioactive material use increase but the hospitals and industries, that the reason it's much more common that kind of transportation nowadays. So, because of that, a special attention by the governments must be provide to those activities. This paper goal is to show the real conditions of some important highways in Brazil in a radioactive protection's perspective and give some suggestions to adjust some of those roads to this new reality. (author)

  3. Storage facility for high level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A disk-like covering slab is supported on a pit by a numbers of elastic support members (earthquake proof device) disposed on the upper surface in the vicinity of an opening of a pit. Upper ends of containing tubes containing high level radioactive materials formed by vitrifying radioactive liquid wastes are buried at the lower side of the covering slab. Air ventilation tubes are vertically disposed on the outer side of the containing tubes at a portion situated in the pit at a space of circulation channels. A portion between the outer side of the air ventilation tubes and the inner circumference of the pit is entirely isolated all over by a lower plenum forming plate and an upper plenum forming plate. Pleats-like flexible portions are each formed at the circumference of the lower plenum forming plate and the upper plenum forming plate in the vicinity of the inner circumference of the pit. With such a constitution, failure of containing tubes due to earthquakes or the like can be prevented by a simple constitution. (I.N.)

  4. Radioactive emissions study in radioluminescent composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we analyze radioactive emissions from the selfradiolytical processes in radioluminescent composite materials based on tritium labeled polymers. We studied tritium labelled siloxanic polymers obtained by hydrolysis of: ethyl-T2-SiCl3+SiCl4; ethyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3+SiCl4; ethyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3; ethyl-T2-phenyl-SiCl2+SiCl4; propyl-T2-SiCl3+SiCl4; propyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3+SiCl4; propyl-T2-SiCl3+phenyl-SiCl3; propyl-T2-phenyl-SiCl2+SiCl4 and tritiated oligomers 1,4-diphenyl-butane-T8; 1,4-diphenyl-2-butene-T6; 1,4-diphenyl-butadiene-T4, oligomers poly-1,4-diphenyl-butadiene. Radioactive emissions analysis was carried out by storage activity loss determination in conditions similar to those of radioluminescent pigments. The results obtained were compared with the results obtained by ESR spectroscopy on inactive polymeric structures and by quantum mechanical simulation. (authors)

  5. Gamma emitting radioactive materials in household dinnerware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Fawzia Ahmad

    A variety of commonly available household and tableware items and some specialty glass materials commonly found in everyday life were examined for their radioactivity content with two different detection and measurement methods. Dinnerware is produced mainly from clay and sand at high temperatures. Therefore, it should be expected to have some degree of radioactivity. It is also stored in confined places, which permits radon accumulation. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of 238U, 232Th and 40K in dinnerware used in houses was measured. Many dinnerware items from various origins that are sold on the open market were studied. Measurements of specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclide for the samples were carried out. The measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry having a high-purity germanium (HpGe) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer and a computer system. The average values of specific activities were (6.03 ± 0.54 to 223.67 ± 22.37 for 238U; 2.87 ± 0.14 to 513.85 ± 15.42 for 232Th; 28.67 ± 2.01 to 2726.70 ± 54.53 for 40K; and 0.592 ± 0.037 to 3.549 ± 0.248 for 137Cs) Bq kg-1, respectively. The glazed samples seemed to contribute most of the activity, although also unglazed samples showed some activity. The absorbed dose rates, radium equivalent and external hazard index were also calculated and tabulated. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to measure the radon track density, exhalation rate and effective radium content for the investigated samples. The exhalation rate was found to vary from 4.376 to 8.144 Bq m-2 d-1. It appears that foreign ceramic products, especially Chinese ones with high uranium content, eventually enter the country. The results from the two methods are compared and their combined uncertainties were estimated from the relation of relative combined variance. In Egypt, no special regulations exist concerning radioactivity in glazed earthenware. On the basis of the previous

  6. Import/Export Service of Radioactive Material and Radioactive Sources Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Import/Export Service of radioactive material (http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping/ - e-mail : service-rp-shipping@cern.ch) and the Radioactive Sources Service (http://cern.ch/service-radioactive-sources - e-mail : service-radioactive-sources@cern.ch) at bldg. 24/E-024 will be closed on FRIDAY 10 SEPTEMBER 2004. Tel. 73171

  7. Study of radioactive materials with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation brings 3 major improvements compared to other X-ray sources usually used in laboratories. Its high brilliance permits the study of size-reduced samples, the low divergency of the beam gives the possibility to increase the angular resolution of the diffractometer and the spectrum of the X-photons which is continuous, allows the experimenter to chose a particular wavelength. Synchrotron radiation is becoming an important tool to investigate radioactive materials particularly burnt nuclear fuels. Zircon is the corrosion product that appears on fuel clad during irradiation, the use of synchrotron radiation with the right wavelength and a discerning incidence angle has clearly shown a crystallographic change of the zircon induced by heavy ion irradiation. X-ray fluorescence induced by synchrotron radiation can give information on fission products which were till then undetected because of the lack of sensibility of previous methods. (A.C.)

  8. Research with radioactive materials in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the revision of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, for instance in section 41, the author - who can draw on his own experience as a referee for projects planned in the area of research with radioactive materials in man - deals with the following problems: 1. Quantifiable risk-benefit assessment as opposed to qualitative risk-benefit assessment based on medical experience. 2. Delimination of medicine and research by criteria such as application to healthy or sick persons, application of a new method or an already standardized one, application in the hope to achieve an individual benefit or without such hopes, and application with a view to obtaining results suitable to be generalized, in the course of which many borderline cases will crop up. 3. Legal requirements in section 41 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance with the demands for minimization of risks and quality assurance, and 4. application procedure and experience gathered so far. (TRV)

  9. Procedures for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y

    2007-11-15

    This technical report describes the procedure and work responsibility along with the regulation and standard necessary for the safe transport of radioactive or contaminated materials. This report, therefore, can be effectively used to secure the public safety as well as to prevent the disastrous event which might be resulted from the transport process of radioactive materials by establishing a procedure and method on the safe packing, handling and transport of radioactive materials.

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is designed to calculate the total risk due to shipping radioactive materials in Sweden. The base case developed is the shipment model that is used now or the best estimate for expected shipments. The model for the calculations and the computer program used has been developed at the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA and is the same that was used for the NUREG-0170 study. The results from the calculations show an annual expected population dose of 30 person-rem due to normal transport conditions. The annual expected dose from accidents were calculated to be between 2.3-20.8 person rem. The higher figure represents the case where plutonium is shipped back to Sweden from reprocessing plants abroad in the form of PuO2 and the lower figure represent the case when plutonium is shipped back in the form of mixed oxide fuel. The total additional population dose in Sweden due to both normal and accident conditions in the transportation of radioactive materials will be 30 - 50 person rem/year. Compared to the natural background radiation that is 8x105 person rem per year in Sweden, this figure is very low. If converted to latent cancer fatalities this population dose will add approximately 3.5x103 cancers each year. The consequences due to accidents have been calculated and are discussed separately from their probabilities. The most severe accident that was found was an accident involving PuO2. This accident would give 82 400 rem as a maximum individual dose and 8.1x105 person rem as a population dose. (Auth.)

  11. Emerging issues in radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generates around 16% of the world's electricity and will play an increasingly significant role in meeting the world's need for sustainable, clean and affordable electricity. Industry expansion will bring demand for fuel cycle services placing new and greater demands on transport. The demand for other radioactive materials, like Cobalt-60 sources, is also likely to increase. Few countries manufacture gamma sources and sea transport is therefore vital to distribute them globally. A reliable transport infrastructure is essential to support these industries. The challenge will be ensuring this can be maintained safely and securely in a world where security and other concerns have increased. Sources of nuclear fuel cycle services often are remote from the demand centres. An essential question for future nuclear power generation surely must be: even if availability of fuel can be assured, how can transport to support such a programme be assured? At the front end of the fuel cycle, could existing commercial liner services be relied upon when there are increasing delays and denials of shipments already? Can availability of transport in a commercial environment be assured? Moreover, where will the capacity to transport spent fuel, reprocessed fuel and residues in greater volumes and across expanded routes come from? More transport to areas potentially lacking in infrastructure, service providers and experience raises various issues including compliance with regulation, harmonised standards, security and training. Radioactive materials transport cannot be taken for granted; it faces a variety of challenges, and numerous emerging issues in the wider nuclear industry that have important implications for transport. (author)

  12. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section 177.842 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages...

  13. Construction module protecting against emissions from radioactive material and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A construction module is described for use in protecting personnel against emissions from radioactive material comprising: a shaped member suitable for assembly with other shaped members to form a structure for shielding personnel; said shaped members being formed from suitable shielding material capable of excluding passage of emissions from radioactive material and having adjoining surfaces for reception closely adjacent complementary surfaces of other shaped members; and a synthetic polymeric material having been formed by molding to engage and extend over an exterior surface of said shaped member forming a hardened coating layer protecting the shielding material from contamination by exposure to radioactive material and serving as a readily decontaminated surface to avoid exposure of personnel to emissions from radioactive material; whereby an encapsulated construction module is formed suitable for assembly as a structure to shield personnel and which is easily decontaminated avoiding exposure to emissions from radioactive material

  14. Data base about the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe two data bases which provide supporting information on radioactive material transport experience in the United States. The Radioactive Material Incident Report (RMIR), a mature data base, documents accident incident experience from 1971 to the present from data acquired from the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Radioactive Material Postnotification (RAMPOST) data base documents the shipments that have taken place for Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material. HRCQ shipments are post notified (that is, after the shipment) to the DOT

  15. Data bases concerning the transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe two data bases which provide supporting information on radioactive material transport experience in the United States. The Radioactive Material Incident Report (RMIR) documents accident/incident experience from 1971 to the present from data acquired from the US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Radioactive Material Postnotification (RAMPOST) data base documents the shipments that have taken place for Highway Route Controlled Quantities (HRCQ) of radioactive material. HRCQ shipments are post notified (that is, after the shipment) to the DOT

  16. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. Some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose-based standards. So when is TENORM a problem? Where is it a problem? That depends on when, where, and whom you talk to exclamation point We will start by reviewing background radioactivity, then we will proceed to the geology, mobility, and variability of these

  17. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  18. Perceptions, perspectives, proportions: Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly a hundred years ago in 1893 - when railroads still monopolized land transport, the first set of international rules governing shipments of hazardous materials were issued to cover their movement by rail. Since then, more than a dozen international bodies, and scores of national regulatory agencies, have published regulations directed at the carriage of dangerous goods by road, sea, air, as well as rail. The regulatory network today covers virtually all kinds of substances and commodities that are used for beneficial purposes, but that under certain conditions are potentially harmful to people and the environment. 'The Problems Encountered by International Road Transport in Multimodal Transport Operations', by M. Marmy, paper presented at the 8th International Symposium on the Transport and Handling of Dangerous Goods by Sea and Associated Modes, Havana, Cuba, 1984. These include the chemical fertilizers farmers spread on their fields, the nuclear fuel now powering electricity plants in some two dozen countries, the drugs physicians use to diagnose and treat illnesses, and the fossil fuels, such as gasoline, routinely used in transport vehicles. All told today, about 21 different international labels are required to identify separate classes of dangerous goods among them, explosives, corrosives, and flammables. Another separate class radioactive materials is the specific subject of feature articles in this issue of the IAEA Bulletin. The evolving regulatory system reflects at once the growth in traffic of hazardous materials, essentially a post-World War II trend. Since the mid-1940s, for example, the transport of all dangerous goods just on the seas has grown 1000%. based on reports at a recent international conference. Overall, years ahead will see further increases

  19. State summary of radioactive material transport sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this work is the scientific cooperation with the CNEA (Argentina) in the area of safe transport of radioactive materials, intending to find solutions to some rural problems and, also, to standardize the transport of radioactive materials between Brazil and Argentina. (E.O.)

  20. Framework for assessing the effects of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials transport may result in environmental effects during both incident-free and accident conditions. These effects may be caused by radiation exposure, pollutants, or physical trauma. Recent environmental impact analyses involving the transportation of radioactive materials are cited to provide examples of the types of activities which may be involved as well as the environmental effects which can be estimated

  1. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. In short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet gives a summary of the national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). Intended for public information, the booklet explains the basics of radioactive materials and wastes and waste management, and gives some data on present and future waste volumes, information about radioactive waste classification, the geographical distribution of waste sites in France, etc. The various types of radioactive wastes are described (classified by their lifetime and activity level) as well as historical storage sites, polluted areas where wastes are stored, radioactive objects, etc. and their respective management approaches are presented

  2. Verification of declared content in the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials during legal transport (in the presence of a licence and other certified documents) across borders by substituting the quantity or quality of the declared materials poses a serious problem for customs authorities at border checkpoints. To prevent such cases of illicit trafficking, the parameters of the declared nuclear or other radioactive materials must be compared to the actual measured parameters of the material being transported. The paper describes procedures and methods for carrying out a customs control of nuclear and other radioactive materials during their legal transport across borders. (author)

  3. Transport of radioactive materials: the need for radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in the use of radioactive materials worldwide requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user or in the case of radioactive waste, from the waste generator to the repository. Tens of millions of packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport each year throughout the world. The amount of radioactive material in these packages varies from negligible quantities in shipments of consumer products to very large quantities of shipments of irradiated nuclear fuel. Transport is the main way in which the radioactive materials being moved get into the public domain. The public is generally unaware of the lurking danger when transporting these hazardous goods. Thus radiation protection programmes are important to assure the public of the certainty of their safety during conveyance of these materials. Radioactive material is transported by land (road and rail), inland waterways, sea/ocean and air. These modes of transport are regulated by international 'modal' regulations. The international community has formulated controls to reduce the number of accidents and mitigate their consequences should they happen. When accidents involving the transport of radioactive material occur, it could result in injury, loss of life and pollution of the environment. In order to ensure the safety of people, property and the environment, national and international transport regulations have been developed. The appropriate authorities in each state utilise them to control the transport of radioactive material. Stringent measures are required in these regulations to ensure adequate containment, shielding and the prevention of criticality in all spheres of transport, i.e. routine, minor incidents and accident conditions. Despite the extensive application of these stringent safety controls, transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will continue to occur. When a transport accident occurs, it

  4. Low radioactivity material for use in mounting radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Marshall; Metzger, Albert E.; Fox, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    Two materials, sapphire and synthetic quartz, have been found for use in Ge detector mounting assemblies. These materials combine desirable mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties with the radioactive cleanliness required to detect minimal amounts of K, Th, and U.

  5. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  6. Report on current research into organic materials in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary review of relevant recent papers on organic materials in radioactive waste is presented. In particular, the effects of chelating or complexing agents, the influence of bacteria and the role of colloids are assessed. The requirement for further radioactive waste inventory detail is indicated. Potential problem areas associated with the presence of organic materials in radioactive waste are identified and appropriate experimental work to assess their significance is proposed. Recommendations for specific further work are made. A list and diagrams of some of the more important polymer structures likely to be present in radioactive waste and their possible degradation products are appended. (author)

  7. Lessons learned by southern states in transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared under a cooperative agreement with DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and is a summary of the lessons learned by southern states regarding the transportation of radioactive materials including High-Level Radioactive Wastes (HLRW) and Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). Sources used in this publication include interviews of state radiological health and public safety officials that are members of the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) Advisory Committee on Radioactive Materials Transportation, as well as the Board's Transuranic (TRU) Waste Transportation Working Group. Other sources include letters written by the above mentioned committees concerning various aspects of DOE shipment campaigns

  8. Trasmar: automated vehicle for transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally robots have been used for industrial applications, even though area in which these devices had a deep impact is in the nuclear industry. The ININ is an Institute that must to manage and to work with radioactive substances. The ININ is also responsible of the storage and supervision of radioactive wastes in the country, therefore the applications of the automated systems in the Institute have as the main objective to reduce the exposure and the contact of personnel with the radioactive material. Here to, it has been proposed the project called Assisted Transportation of Radioactive Material (TRASMAR). (Author)

  9. Transporting radioactive materials: Q ampersand A to your questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 2 million packages of radioactive materials are shipped each year in the United States. These shipments are carried by trucks, trains, ships, and airplanes every day just like other commodities. Compliance with Federal regulations ensures that radioactive materials are transported safely. Proper packaging is the key to safe shipment. Package designs for radioactive materials must protect the public and the environment even in case of an accident. As the level of radioactivity increases, packaging design requirements become more stringent. Radioactive materials have been shipped in this country for more than 40 years. As with other commodities, vehicles carrying these materials have been involved in accidents. However, no deaths or serious injuries have resulted from exposure to the radioactive contents of these shipments. People are concerned about how radioactive shipments might affect them and the environment. This booklet briefly answers some of the commonly asked questions about the transport of radioactive materials. More detailed information is available from the sources listed at the end of this booklet

  10. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any release to the environment. There have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material with no spill of material in any of the incidents. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond and to provide emergency public information in the event of an accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes our commitment to worker safety and public safety. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations

  11. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States and competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a nuclear security regime for facilities dealing with radioactive material and associated activities. This is to be achieved through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement a legislative and regulatory framework to address the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and associated activities in order to reduce the likelihood of malicious acts involving those materials. These recommendations reflect a broad consensus among States on the requirements which should be met for the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and activities.

  12. State statutes and regulations on radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material is controlled by numerous legislative and regulatory actions at the federal, state, and local levels. This document is a compilation of the state level laws and regulations. The collected material is abstracted and indexed by states. Each state section contains three divisions: (1) abstracts of major statutes, (2) legislative rules, and (3) photocopies of relevant paragraphs from the law or regulation. This document was prepared for use by individuals who are involved in the radioactive material transportation process. This document will not be updated. The legislative rules section contains the name of the state agency primarily responsible for monitoring the transport of radioactive materials

  13. Method to fabricate bodies containing radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure the ultimate storage of highly radioactive wastes, it is suggested to transfer the radioactive substances enclosed in glass in the known manner, into a glass ceramic by tempering in a metal bath. The glass particles are brought to crystallize in a specific manner in a metal melt (lead and its alloys or aluminium and its alloys). It is preferable to temper directly the container for ultimate storage. (UWI)

  14. The safety and security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is concerned with the IAEA's programme on the safety and security of radiation sources which is aimed primarily at protecting people's health. This programme finds its origins in the IAEA's statutory function for establishing safety standards and providing for their application. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources provides the basic safety requirements. In spite of the existence of such standards, serious radiological accidents continue to occur, some of these accidents involving 'orphan' sources, that is, they that are not under appropriate control. Concerns about this matter over led, in 1999, to the development of an Action Plan, which is aimed at enabling the IAEA to develop and implement activities that will assist States in maintaining and, where necessary, improving the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials over their life cycle. This paper describes the seven major topics of the Action Plan and the progress in the implementation of the various actions. These topics are: regulatory infrastructures; management of disused sources; categorization of sources; response to abnormal events; information exchange; education and training; and international undertakings. The findings of a Conference held in Buenos Aires in December 2000, while reinforcing the activities in the Action Plan, also identified further actions. One of these was that events where individuals are exposed to radiation because of breaches in radiation source safety or security without malice aforethought should be clearly distinguished from events where there is a criminal intent of exposing people to harmful effects of radiation. (author)

  15. The use of radioactive residues as building material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes the use of radioactive residues consisting of metal and/or concrete, particularly in the form of removed or dismantled radioactive core plant, as building material for shielding in nuclear technology, also in the form of equipment having a shielding function. The method used ensures that the specific radioactivity equivalent to cobalt 60 is below 100 Bq/gram. (orig./PW)

  16. Dossier: transport of radioactive materials; Dossier: le transport des matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignon, H. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Direction du Cycle du Combustible; Niel, J.Ch. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Canton, H. [CEA Cesta, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Brachet, Y. [Transnucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Turquet de Beauregard, G.; Mauny, G. [CIS bio international, France (France); Robine, F.; Plantet, F. [Prefecture de la Moselle (France); Pestel Lefevre, O. [Ministere de l`Equipement, des transports et du logement, (France); Hennenhofer, G. [BMU, Ministere de l`environnement, de la protection de la nature et de la surete des reacteurs (Germany); Bonnemains, J. [Association Robin des Bois (France)

    1997-12-01

    This dossier is entirely devoted to the transportation of radioactive and fissile materials of civil use. It comprises 9 papers dealing with: the organization of the control of the radioactive materials transport safety (safety and security aspects, safety regulations, safety analysis and inspection, emergency plans, public information), the technical aspects of the regulation concerning the transport of radioactive materials (elaboration of regulations and IAEA recommendations, risk assessments, defense in depth philosophy and containers, future IAEA recommendations, expertise-research interaction), the qualification of containers (regulations, test facilities), the Transnucleaire company (presentation, activity, containers for spent fuels), the packages of radioactive sources for medical use (flux, qualification, safety and transport), an example of accident during radioactive materials transportation: the Apach train derailment (February 4, 1997), the sea transport of radioactive materials (international maritime organization (OMI), international maritime dangerous goods (IMDG) code, irradiated nuclear fuel (INF) safety rules), the transport of radioactive materials in Germany, and the point of view from an external observer. (J.S.)

  17. The safety transport of the radioactive materials in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials (RAM) is a very important problem considering the potential risks and radiological consequences in carrying-out this activity. Romania as a Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency has implemented national regulations for a safe transport of RAM in accordance with the Agency's recommendations as well as other international specialized organizations. Based on the IAEA's Safety Standard-TS-R-1 (ST-1), Romanian National Nuclear Regulatory Body - CNCAN adopted and implemented, by Act no. 374/October 2001, the safety regulations for the transport of radioactive materials in Romania under the title: 'Fundamental Regulations for a Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, in Romania'. The paper presents the main sources of radioactive materials in Romania their transportation routes with a particular interest paid to the radioactive wastes (low level radioactive materials), isotopes and radioactive sources, uranium ore. Starting from the fact that the safety in the transport of radioactive materials is dependent on appropriate packaging for the contents being shipped, rather than operational and/or administrative actions required for the package, the paper presents, briefly the main packages used for transport and storage of such RAM in Romania. There are presented hypothetical scenarios for specific problems related to the identification and evaluation of the risks and potential radiological consequences associated with the transport of radioactive materials in Romania, for all these three situations: routine transport (without incidents), normal transport (with minor incidents) and during possible accidents. As a conclusion, it is ascertained that the evaluated annual collective dose for the population due to RAM transport is less than that received by natural radiation sources. At the same time it is concluded that Romanian made packages are safe and prevent loss of their radioactive contents into the environment

  18. Inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes the content of the inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. It covers accidents and losses resulting in the actual release of radioactive materials into the marine environment and also those which have the potential for release. For completeness, records of radioactive materials involved in accidents but which were recovered intact from the sea are also reported. Information on losses of sealed sources resulting in actual or potential release of activity to the marine environment nad of sealed sources that were recovered intact is also presented

  19. Ionising radiations, radioactive materials and the fire services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive experience has shown that ionizing radiations and radioactive materials can be used safely in a wide variety of applications, provided a number of precautions are implemented. Transport of radioactive materials is common and regulations designed to ensure safety in such transport have resulted in an excellent safety record. Pre-planning for fire situations in buildings where radioactive materials are known to be present is very desirable. An Australian Standard, AS2243, recommends that Station Officers of the local fire brigade be appraised of the hazards and the need to take particular care in areas marked with ionizing radiation warning signs

  20. Natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BfS report on the natural radioactivity in construction materials and the resulting radiation exposure covers the following topics: Procedures of sampling. Measuring methods: measurement of the specific activity (gamma spectrometry, determination of the radon exhalation). Radiation exposure estimation: radon exposure, external radiation exposure. Measuring results: specific activity, radon exhalation, total exposure. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity of construction materials: overview on the existing requirements of the radiation protection law, EU recommendations ''Radiation Protection 112'', Austrian norm S 5200 ''radioactivity on construction materials (OeNORM). EU basic norm draft, requirements according building laws. BfS evaluation proposal.

  1. Transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport plays an important role in the worldwide nuclear industry and the safety record of nuclear transport across the world is excellent. This is due to well-grounded regulations developed by governmental and intergovernmental organizations and to the professional ability of those in the industry. This paper presents an overview of the activities related to the transport of radioactive material at IPEN-CNEN/SP. In particular, the applicable legislation, the responsibilities and tasks of the competent authorities are discussed. The categories of radioactive materials transported and the packaging requirements for the safe transport of these radioactive materials are also described.(author)

  2. Licensing of radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importation, acquisition, possession, use, sale and/ or transfer of radioactive materials need to be regulated and controlled in order to safeguard the importer, possessor, user or seller and the general public as well. The Philippine Atomic Energy Commission pursuant to Republic Act No. 2067, as amended and Republic Act No. 5207, has been charged by the government to control, regulate and license all the radioactive materials and facilities in the Philippines. Licensing and control is accomplished through a system of rules and regulations applicable to all importers, possessors, users or sellers of radioactive materials

  3. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document states the general functional requirements for systems and procedures for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials from facilities administered by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The following issues are addressed in this document: lg-bullet definition of the program objectives lg-bullet selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples lg-bullet sampling equipment design lg-bullet sampling equipment maintenance and quality assurance issues. The following issues are not addressed in this document: lg-bullet air sampling in work areas or containments lg-bullet selection of specific on-line sample monitoring instrumentation lg-bullet analyzing collected samples lg-bullet reporting and interpreting results. The document provides equipment design guidance that is performance based rather than prescriptive. Locations from which samples are obtained should exhibit mixing of the contaminants with the airstream and acceptable air flow characteristics. Sample collection equipment and effluent and sample flow elements should meet defined performance standards. Quality control and assurance requirements specific to sample collection, equipment inspection, and calibration are presented. Key sample collection performance requirements are summarized in Section 5.4. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance

  4. Field guide for Ontario Hydro shipments involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field guide consists of two parts. Part I deals with the packages used by Ontario Hydro for shipment of its radioactive materials. Highly radioactive material must be transported in rugged containers which will survive a severe transportation accident. These containers are known at Type B Packages. Each container used by Ontario Hydro for shipments of highly radioactive material has been allotted a single page in this field guide with specific information for quick reference. Each package identification card includes a description of the package and contents and the required safety marking. Photographs of both the container and the vehicle as well as a cross-sectional diagram will assist Ontario Hydro personnel as well as emergency response personnel in quick identification of containers and contents. Containers used for transportation of material will low levels of radioactivity are also briefly discussed. These containers could fail in the event of an accident but the radioactivity is limited to low levels. Part I of this field guide also summarizes general emergency response instructions which are applicable to any transportation accident involving a package with radioactive material. Part II of this field guide provides information about the requirements which must be met by Ontario Hydro prior to any shipment of radioactive material in Ontario

  5. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is defined under the provisions of the regulations for execution of the aviation law. Terms of exclusive loading and container are explained. Transportable radioactive materials hereunder exclude naturally igniting fluid materials, substances necessary to be contained in vessels which filtrate interior gas with filters or refrigerate contents with cooling devices, etc., or BM loads necessary to be continuously ventilated. Radioactive materials to be conveyed as radioactive loads and L loads are prescribed with tables attached. Technical standards for radioactive loads are stipulated for L, A, BM and BU loads respectively. Confirmation of safety of radioactive loads may be made by examiniation of documents prepared by persons acknowledged proper by the Minister of Transportation. Radioactive materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which include one or more than two of such substances. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. The maximum doses of containers with radioactive loads shall not exceed for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at a distance of 1 meter from the surface. Confirmation of safety of transport, method of loading, prevention of criticality, restriction of mixed shipment, transport index, signals and others are provided for in detail. (Okada, K.)

  6. The Egyptian legislation for safe transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Egyptian legislation related the safe transport of radioactive materials, a licence is required for the transport, import and or export these materials. The licence is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the NCNSRC-AEA licence to handle/ transport radioactive materials/wastes have been developed according to the international and Egyptian legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or to refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Suez Canal, in the Egyptian regional waters, in the sea harbours or in the exclusive economic zones of Egypt according to the national and international regulations. (author)

  7. Safe Practice of Transportation of Extremely Hazardous Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About twenty million consignments of all sizes containing radioactive materials are routinely transported worldwide annually on public roads, railways and ships. There have been accidents over the years, but never one in which a container with highly radioactive material has been breached, or has leaked; as these kind of consignments use robust and secure containers. International regulations for the transport of radioactive material have been published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These regulations have been widely adopted into national regulations, as well as AELBs Radiation Protection (Transport) Regulations 1989. The objective of these Regulations is to establish requirements that must be satisfied to ensure safety and to protect persons, property and the environment from the effects of radiation in the transport of radioactive material; by requiring containment of the radioactive contents, control of external radiation levels, prevention of criticality, and prevention of damage caused by heat. In order to further expand its expertise in the field of radioactive waste management, Malaysian Nuclear Agency has acquired a Class D (Transport) Licence from AELB in 2014. Prior to performing any transportation of radioactive materials, particularly extremely hazardous Category 1 sources, all safe measures must be taken into account to ensure no problems occur during transport, as well as to comply with the regulations set. (author)

  8. U.S. port commerce in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much attention has focused on the movement of radioactive materials over land transport systems. On the other hand, maritime flow and associated throughput studies of such substances have been neglected. Although several peaks and troughs are evident between 1972 and 1981, radioactive tonnage moving through U.S. port facilities steadily increasing. In the ten-year period assessed, total radioactive materials handled at U.S. ports expanded by over 19,000 tons, which amounts to almost a 173 percent growth rate. The purpose of this exploratory research is threefold. First, it identifies all U.S. ports which were involved in loading or discharging radioactive materials. The major goal of the identification process is to broaden public awareness of these types of movement. Second, it classifies U.S. seaports based on the magnitude of radioactive tonnage handled. The function of the classification is to impose some order on the varied data, while at the same time categorizing large, medium, and small facilities. Finally, it seeks to verify whether or not a long term trend exists. The objective of the verification process is to ascertain if the distribution of radioactive materials handled at individual ports has remained constant. Port safety and contingency planning are clearly within the purview of coastal zone management. The results of this preliminary research should form a foundation for future studies which compare and evaluate local, state, and federal regulatory policy pertaining to port operations involving radioactive materials, including waste

  9. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahyun, Adelia; Sordi, Gian-Maria A.A. [ATOMO Radioprotecao e Seguranca Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: atomo@atomo.com.br; Sanches, Matias P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  10. Regulations related to the transport of radioactive material in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive material has raised great interest on the part of national regulatory authorities, thus resulting in a safety measures improvement for all kinds of transportation. The transport of radioactive material is regulated by safety criteria much more than those applied to conventional hazardous material. All radioactive material transportation run in Brazilian territory must be in accordance with what is established by the CNEN-NE 5.01 - Transport of Radioactive Material. There are other national and international regulations for radioactive material transportation, which have to be accomplished with and adopted during the operation of radioactive material transportation. The aim of this paper is to verify the criteria set up in the existing regulations and propose a consensus for all the intervening organizations in the regulation process for land, air or sea transportation. This kind of transportation can not depend on the efforts of only one person, a group of workers or even any governmental body, but must be instead a shared responsibility among workers, transport firms and all regulative transportation organizations. (author)

  11. Transport of radioactive materials and equipment. Requirements. (Provisional)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard is aimed at establishing the procedures that must be followed when transporting radioactive materials and equipment in Venezuelan Territory. The ''Consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Industria Nuclear'' is responsible for their fulfillment and control

  12. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations and rules for the safe transport of radioactive materials by all kinds of conveyance are offered. Different types of packages and the conditions associated with the methods of safe packaging are given

  13. Drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: It is important for the safety of the radioactive material containers during transportation. Purpose: In the procedure of reviewing radioactive material containers transportation, it is very important factor to carry a drop impact analysis of container. Methods: This paper presents a drop impact analysis method of radioactive material container. First, do the calculation of several drop cases of the container such as horizontal drop, vertical drip and gradient drop with the famous transient dynamic analysis program LS-DYNA. Second, do the stress evaluation according to the rules in the ASME Section Ⅲ Division I Appendices which are about the fatigue analysis. Results: With this method, we can do the judgment that whether the container's strength is good enough or not. Conclusions: The radioactive material container's strength is good enough by analysis. (authors)

  14. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference

  15. Handbook for structural analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described structural analysis method of radioactive material transport casks for use of a handbook of safety analysis and evaluation. Safety analysis conditions, computer codes for analyses and stress evaluation method are also involved in the handbook. (author)

  16. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  17. Quality management in the regulation of radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the quality management procedure used by the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority to establish the regulations concerning the safe transport of radioactive materials. The quality management system is based on the family of the ISO 9000 norms

  18. Estimation of global inventories of radioactive waste and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of nuclear activities have been carried out in the second part of the twentieth century for different purposes. Initially the emphasis was on military applications, but with the passage of time the main focus of nuclear activities has shifted to peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research. Regardless of the objectives, the nuclear activities generate radioactive waste. It was considered worthwhile to produce a set of worldwide data that could be assessed to evaluate the legacy of the nuclear activities performed up to the transition between the twentieth and the twenty first century. The assessment tries to cover the inventory of all the human produced radioactive material that can be considered to result from both military and civilian applications. This has caused remarkable difficulties since much of the data, particularly relating to military programmes, are not readily available. Consequently the data on the inventory of radioactive material should be considered as order-of-magnitude approximations. This report as a whole should be considered as a first iteration in a continuing process of updating and upgrading. The accumulations of radioactive materials can be considered a burden for human society, both at present and in the future, since they require continuing monitoring and control. Knowing the amounts and types of such radioactive inventories can help in the assessment of the relative burdens. Knowledge of the national or regional radioactive waste inventory is necessary for planning management operations, including the sizing and design of conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. A global inventory, either of radioactive waste or of other environmental accumulations of radioactive material, could be used to provide a perspective on the requirements and burdens associated with their management, by means of comparisons with the burdens caused by other types of waste or other

  19. Natural Radioactivity in Tanzania Cements and their Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Aloyce Isaya Amasi; Kelvin Mark Mtei; Ijumba Jasper Nathan; Pawel Jodłowski; Chau Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the study of natural radioactivity in Tanzania Portland cements and their raw materials. Samples collected as raw materials were pozzolan, sandstone, limestone, clay, gypsum and cement as finished products. The natural radioactivity due to the presence of radium 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K were measured by means of gamma spectrometer coupled with HPGe detector. The mean measured activity concentrations of 226Ra, thorium 232Th and potassium 40K in the raw materia...

  20. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials (PATRAM '86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this volume the following aspects of packaging and transport of radioactive materials are represented as topics: Regulations, codes, standards, research, development, radiation protection, risk assessment, transport experience, transport planning, administrative issues, and emergency response. Road, rail, and maritime transport are considered. Spent fuels and radioactive waste are mentioned often as the materials being transported. Issues of particular interest to the field of safeguards are brought up

  1. Transport regulations for radioactive and nuclear materials in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Slovenia, transport of radioactive and nuclear materials is regulated by the Act on carriage of dangerous goods including all international conventions and agreements concerning transport of dangerous goods. This paper will also cover some practical experience, past events, co-operation among national regulatory bodies and bilateral and multilateral programmes. The paper also gives an overview of responsibilities for approval and inspection of radioactive and nuclear material shipments in Slovenia. (author)

  2. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nirwono, Muttaqin Margo; Choi, Kwang Sik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  3. Regulation of Transportation of Radioactive Material in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.1. Background Indonesia is a biggest archipelago country with 17,508 islands in 33 provinces. In transportation Indonesia has large number of airports, railways, roadways, waterways, and merchant marines. Since nuclear and radiation utilizations are expanding on whole country, the mobilization of these is usually placed outside of controlled facilities, in the public domain, and often entails movement between countries. The Indonesian Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) is responsible for supervision and also authorization of the transport of radioactive material (TRM). TRM is the specific movement of a radioactive material consignment from origin to destination by public transportation (road or rail, water and air). This study aims to determine whether national regulation is harmonized with international practice in ensuring safety and security of TRM. The finding of this study will provide recommendation for enhancement of regulation on TRM. 1.2. Regulation of TRM in Indonesia Government Regulation (GR) No. 26, 2002 on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material is implemented pursuant to Act 10, 1997 on Nuclear Energy. This GR was repealed GR 13, 1975 on TRM. The GR 26 consist of 16 chapters and 39 articles, included licensing: authority and responsibilities: packaging: radiation protection programme; training: quality assurance programme: type and activity limit of radioactive materials: radioactive materials with other dangerous properties: emergency preparedness: administrative sanction: and penal provisions. Principally, this GR adopted IAEA-TS-R-1, 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', 1996's Edition

  4. The safety of radioactive materials transport; La surete des transports de matieres radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The rule of the radioactive materials transport contains two different objectives: the safety, or physical protection, consists in preventing the losses, the disappearances, the thefts and the diversions of the nuclear materials (useful materials for weapons); the high civil servant of defence near the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry is the responsible authority; the safety consists in mastering the risks of irradiation, contamination and criticality presented by the radioactive and fissile materials transport, in order that man and environment do not undergo the nuisances. The control of the safety is within the competence of the Asn. (N.C.)

  5. Electrohydraulic pulse grinding of radioactive solid NF waste simulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique used for the grinding of radioactive waste simulation materials using water spark discharges has been proposed. Two modes of the material grinding have been specified. The mass loss of grinded materials versus the amount of pulses and the work volume of electrohydraulic reactor has been compared

  6. Contamination with radioactive materials and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of the monograph mainly designed for personnel in nuclear power plants, radiochemical laboratories and laboratories of nuclear medicine departments is basically divided into two parts. In the general part, the contamination of persons and objects with radioactive substances is discussed and the physico-chemical principles of decontamination are presented. The main part of the publication is devoted to concrete practical decontamination procedures. Special attention is devoted to the decontamination of components of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors and to the decontamination of the equipment of radiochemical and radiological laboratories (in-service, after accidents and during decommissioning). Also described is the decontamination of garments, underwear, protective aids, rooms, buildings, terrain and water. Also included is a chapter on the disposal of radioactive wastes generated during decontamination. (A.K.)

  7. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  8. Data about shipping of radioactive material for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials implies a risk for the personnel of the team, those members of the public and the environment. While the safety in the transports is based on the designs of the bulks, the programs of radiological protection are important to assure the radiological control to the workers, the public and the environment during the transport of these materials. Although the biggest interest in the transport of radioactive materials it spreads to be centered in the nuclear industry, the transport in great measure it happens for the materials of medical use. These are mainly transported in bulks of the A Type and excepted bulks. The transport ones are forced, by national regulations, to send to the competent authority, in our case the National Comissao of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), all the data of the transported materials. This work has by objective to aim the efforts made to settle down and to manage the data regarding the transported radioactive materials. The existent data in the Radiopharmaceuticals Center, of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations 'IPEN/CNEN' it contains the information on all the radioactive materials consigned for the transport during every year. A statistic of the number of deliveries of the radioactive material for the period from 2001 to 2005 is provided. Based on this statistic its are presented the number of bulks, the quantity of activity and the ways of the transport for the period in study. (Author)

  9. Permissible state and local regulation of radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Congressionally-mandated construction of a nuclear waste repository by the year 1998 has focused attention on the development of a safe transportation system for radioactive materials. While numerous state and local governments have enacted laws to regulate the movement of radioactive materials, shippers and carriers have successfully challenged some of these laws. More challenges can be expected in the future when more regulations are passed as state and local governments prepare for the greatly increased numbers of shipments associated with the operation of a high level radioactive waste repository. Therefore, state and local governments need guidance as to the criteria used to determine the validity of their regulations. Examination of the Department of Transportation's inconsistency rulings and federal court cases reveals three approaches a state or local government may choose in regulating radioactive materials transportation: conservative, moderate, or activist

  10. Information from the Import/Export of radioactive material Service

    CERN Document Server

    DGS Unit

    2010-01-01

    The radiation protection group reminds you that the import/export of all radioactive material must be declared in advance. In the case of exports, an EDH shipping request form must be completed, ticking the box “radioactive material”. In the case of imports, an electronic form must be completed before the material arrives on the CERN site. Any requests which do not comply with the above procedure will be refused. The import of any radioactive material that has not been declared in advance will be systematically refused. For further information, please consult the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Yann Donjoux / Radioactive Shipping Service Tél: +41 22 767.31.71 Fax: +41 22 766.92.00

  11. Contamination detection device for radioactive material transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a device for detecting leakage of radioactive materials and clogging of a vial in a radioactive material transporting device. Namely, a transporting tube pneumatically transports the vial containing a sample of radioactive materials. A fine flow tube is laid in adjacent with and along the transporting tube. A pump flows a detection liquid prepared by a preparation device to the fine flow tube. A flow-cell type spectrophotometer is disposed to the fine flow tube. The detection liquid is preferably containing elements having a valency changeable by undergoing radiation irradiation, which is a type used, for example, for a Fricke dosimeter. With such a constitution, the position of the radioactive contamination of the inside of the pneumatic tube and clogging of a vial can be detected only by flowing radiation sensitive detection liquid to the fine flow tube. In addition, the detection liquid is not activated only changing the valency of the contained elements. (N.H.)

  12. Germany - Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2001 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2001, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2001, some 3 211 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 3 226 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Canada, Russia, and the USA. (orig.)

  13. Statistics of foreign trade in radioactive materials 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German Federal Office for Industry and Foreign Trade Control (BAFA) keeps annual statistics of the imports and exports of radioactive materials, nuclear fuels included. The entries, some of them with precise details, cover the participating countries and the radionuclides concerned as well as all kinds of radioactive materials. The tables listed in the article represent the overall balance of the development of imports and exports of radioactive materials for the years 1983 to 2002 arranged by activity levels, including the development of nuclear fuel imports and exports. For the year 2002, an additional trade balance for irradiated and unirradiated nuclear fuels and source materials differentiated by enrichment is presented for the countries involved. In 2002, some 3 070 t of nuclear fuels and source materials were imported into the Federal Republic, while approx. 3 052 t were exported. The chief trading partners are countries of the European Union, Russia, and the USA. (orig.)

  14. Estimation of radioactivity in structural materials of ETRR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise knowledge of the thermal neutron flux in the different structural materials of a reactor is necessary to estimate the radioactive inventory in these materials that are needed in any decommissioning study of the reactor. ETRR-1 is a research reactor that went critical on 2/1691. In spite of this long age of the reactor, the effective operation time of this reactor is very short since the reactor was shutdown for long periods. Because of this long age one may think of reactor decommissioning. For this purpose, the radioactivity of the reactor structural materials was estimated. Apart from the reactor core, the important structural materials in the ETRR-1 are the reactor tank, shielding concrete, and the graphite thermal column. The thermal neutron flux was determined by the monte Carlo method in these materials and the isotope inventory and the radioactivity were calculated by the international code ORIGEN-JR. 1 fig

  15. Safety of transport of radioactive material. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material has been transported for decades within and between countries as the use of radioactive material to benefit mankind has expanded. The transport can involve many types of materials (radionuclides and radiation sources for applications in agriculture, energy production, industry, and medicine) and all modes of transport (road, rail, sea and waterways, and air). Among the organizations in the United Nations system, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the statutory function to establish or adopt standards of safety for protection of health against exposure to ionizing radiation. Within its statutory mandate and pursuant to this request, in 1961, the IAEA issued Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (the IAEA Transport Regulations). The Transport Regulations were periodically reviewed and, as appropriate, have been amended or revised. The latest version of the Transport Regulations was issued in 2000 by the IAEA as Publication TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). In addition, the IAEA is entrusted by its Statute to provide for the application of its standards at the request of States. The objective of the Conference is to foster the exchange of information on issues related to the safety of transport of radioactive material by providing an opportunity for representatives from sponsoring international organizations and their Member States and from other co-operating and participating organizations to discuss critical issues relating to the safety of transport of radioactive material by all modes and to formulate recommendations, as appropriate, regarding further international co-operation in this area. The following topics have been identified by the Technical Programme Committee as the subjects to be covered in the background briefing sessions: History and Status of the IAEA Transport Regulation Development; Experience in adoption of the IAEA Transport Regulations at the international level; Implementation of the IAEA Transport

  16. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period April 1, 1993--August 31, 1993. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. A copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  17. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, November 1992--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the sixth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the November 1992 Legislative and Legal Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation report and describes activities for the period November 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. NCSL is working to bring on-line a data base that contains abstracts of state laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of July 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. Hard copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains summaries of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness and general nuclear waste issues are described. Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation. A recent court decision is also summarized

  18. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  19. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  20. Using computer technology to identify the appropriate radioactive materials packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) database is designed to store and retrieve information on all non-classified packages certified for the transport of radioactive materials within the boundaries of the US. The information in RAMPAC is publicly available, and the database has been designed so that individuals without programming experience can search for and retrieve information using a menu-driven system. RAMPAC currently contains information on over 650 radioactive material shipping packages. Information is gathered from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of transportation (DOT), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RAMPAC is the only tool available to radioactive material shippers that contains and reports packaging information from all three Federal Agencies. The DOT information includes package listings from Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Japan, which have DOT revalidations for their certificates of competent authority and are authorized for use within the US for import and export shipments only. RAMPAC was originally developed in 1981 by DOE as a research and development tool. In recent years, however, RAMPAC has proven to be highly useful to operational personnel. As packages become obsolete or materials to be transported change, shippers of radioactive materials must be able to determine if alternative packages exist before designing new packages. RAMPAC is designed to minimize the time required to make this determination, thus assisting the operational community in meeting their goals

  1. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  2. Environmental effects associated with the transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary aim of this paper has been to describe some of the background information concerning nuclear materials transportation systems, accident statistics, accident severities, and test information - all of which when combined yield an environmental statement of the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive materials. The results of the ultimate risk analysis are expressed in terms of numbers of fatalities and, in that sense at least, tend to be an absolute measure of risk. When these risks are compared with other accepted societal risks, the relative risks associated with radioactive material transportation can be established. This information can be used to make decisions at the governmental level and to inform an interested public about these risks. It can be concluded that the risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material are low relative to the other risks that society has already accepted

  3. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. 1985 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a comprehensive review carried out by panels of experts convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency starting in 1979, a revised version of the Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (Safety Series No. 6) was approved by the Board of Governors in September 1984. This edition supersedes all the previous editions of the Regulations issued under Safety Series No. 6. The regulations contain the following sections: introduction, general principles and provisions, activity and fissile material limits, preparation, requirements and controls for shipment and for storage in transit, requirements for radioactive materials and for packagings and packages, test procedures and approval and administrative requirements.

  5. New materials for the containment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos-cement is a new material that can be used in the containment or storage of radioactive waste, because it can act as intermediate storage for high activity waste dispersed in this material or else be used in the shape of definitive storage containers

  6. Security of radioactive sources and nuclear materials in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Bangladesh, different type s of radioactive sources and nuclear materials are being used in various fields, such as medicine, industry, agriculture, industrial gauges and well logging, construction works, research, irradiation of medical products and food etc. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been operating 14 Nuclear Medical institutes and 04 research centres, in addition to other research and educational institutes. There is one 3MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor for production of radioisotopes and research activities. There are also 12 Nuclear Medical/Radiotherapy centres working in Government and 2 in private sectors. Several other users are using sealed radioactive sources for industrial purposes as well. Planning is in progress for a much larger irradiator for material processing plant of BAEC. The country is also considering building a nuclear power plant. The safety and security of radioactive and nuclear materials have long been a matter of national and international concern. Presently, BAEC is working with the USDOE for upgrading the physical/nuclear security system for different radioactive and nuclear facilities in the country to prevent the possibility of radiological threats. The same principles of physical protection to the security management of nuclear material, radioactive sources and the facilities are applied. The physical protection system consists of three elements of detection, delay and response. In order to protect the security of nuclear material, radioactive sources and nuclear facilities effectively, BAEC set up several protection layers for different locations. The detection is the first line of defence technical measures of perimeter detection, access control, video camera assessment, personnel identification are applied. Physical barriers is the second line of defence to delay adversary to reach the targets effectively, the technical measures such as fences, hardened doors, meshed windows, locks, fixed devices

  7. Natural radioactivity levels in building materials used in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fawzia

    All building materials contain various amounts of radioactive nuclides. The levels of natural radioactivity in 43 selected typical building materials used in the construction of walls, windows and doors were determined. For the first time, the radioactivity of iron was measured, revealing the existence of 60Co. A shielded high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the abundance of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The materials examined in this work showed radioactivity levels below the limit estimated from radium equivalent activity for acceptable radiation doses attributable to building materials, except for the fact that one gypsum sample showed higher levels of activity than average world levels. The studied building materials were classified according to the radium equivalent activities, which varied from highest to lowest levels as follows: clay, cement, brick, gypsum except from Abu-Zaabal, sand, wood, iron, glass and hydrated lime The existence of the 137Cs isotope in some building materials was confirmed and its concentration levels were determined (ranging from 0.04 to 21.156 Bq kg-1). The alpha-activity of radon was measured in a number of building materials using CR-39 detectors.

  8. Some Experience with Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials (orphan sources or disuse sources) is of global concern. Reports on the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Data Base (ITDB) indicates increasing trend of incidents recorded in more than 40 countries on six continents[1]. It is suspected that nuclear trafficking is fueled by nuclear terrorism and is a threat for increasing illegal trade in nuclear and radioactive materials to manufacture Radiological Disposal Devices (RDD)- dirty bombs. As such, the international co-operative efforts are needed to uncover and combat nuclear trafficking in order to minimize its consequences such as external radiation exposure of persons from source to various radiation levels during illicit movement and after seizure; rupture of source leading to internal exposure of persons and environmental contamination. Although accidents with radioactive materials have not occurred in the United Republic of Tanzania (URT), incidents of illicit trafficking and unauthorized possession of radioactive materials has occurred thus prompting the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC) to strengthen its nuclear security of nuclear and radioactive material in the URT. Nuclear faclities and radioactive sources lacks adequate physical protection against theft, fire or different forms of unauthorized access. Tanzaniaia has recorded about thirteen (13) illicit trafficking incidents of radioactive between 1996-2006. Caesium-137, Uranium-238; and Uranium oxide standard and Radium-226 with activity ranging from low to significantly high were among the radiounuclides which were intercepted. Most of these incidents had their original outside Tanzania. The incidents were uncovered by informers in cooperation with the police. Despite the fact that the management of these incidents by the police were adequate, it was observed that there is an inadequate radiation protection arrangements during transport of seized sources; lack of precautions for safety when handling seized

  9. The trafficking control of fissile and radioactive materials in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After disintegration of the USSR the problem of control for transfers of radioactive and fissile materials has getting more and more urgent in sovereign Kazakhstan. Fissile materials, which theoretically could be used to creation of nuclear weapons, were available at the following enterprises of Kazakhstan: The Institute of Nuclear Physics - National Nuclear Center - Almaty The Institute of Atomic Energy - National Nuclear Center - Kurchatov Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Combine - Aktau Ulbinskiy Metallurgical Plant - Ust-Kamenogorsk At last time mass-media have reported many incidents of a new type of theft. Individuals are detained, trying to sell fuel pellets made of enriched uranium, radioactive contaminated cables, or various components of technological purposes from the enterprises. A significant problem is the legal and illegal collection of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. This made at places of realization of nuclear tests (former Semipalatinsk nuclear test-site (STS), Azgir, Lyra and others) and at working and closed uranium mines. Nominally, the incidents can be divided into three groups: - heft of materials, hazardous in term of nonproliferation; - heft of materials, non-hazardous in terms of nonproliferation (radioactive scrap metal, sealed radioactive sources); - heft due to an inefficient system of physical protection (the tank for transportation of radioactive waste products at Institute of Atomic Energy of NNC RK)

  10. Quality assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All activities related to the safe transport of radioactive material should be covered by a quality assurance programme. This publication recognizes that a single transport operation often involves several different organizations, each having specific responsibilities. Hence, it is unlikely that the operation will be covered by a single quality assurance programme. Each quality assurance programme should be tailored to the specific organizational structure for which the programme is prepared, with account taken of the particular transport activities of that organization and the interfaces with other organizations. The aim of this publication is to give a detailed interpretation of what must be done by whom to produce a quality assurance programme for radioactive material transport. This publication provides guidance on methods and practical examples to develop QA programmes for the safe transport of radioactive material. It provides information on how to develop the programme, the standards and the common features of a QA programme

  11. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured

  12. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  13. The preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains the situation of legislation, practical border-control and equipment of different relevant authorities dealing with the control of radioactive materials in Estonia. The overview of legislation concerning radiation and radiation protection is given. The roles of Estonian Customs Authority, Estonian border Guard, National Rescue Board and Police Authority in the preventing of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are shown. The incidents of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials are listed. Also the most important border-crossing points and the types of equipment used there are shown. Finally the problems of controlling the borders in Estonia and the future plans in order to make the controlling system more efficient are discussed. (author)

  14. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada

  15. Natural radioactivity in Algerian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected from Algiers have been analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using a high-resolution HPGe spectrometry system. The specific concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, for the selected building materials, were ranging from (12 - 65 Bq.kg-1), (7 - 51 Bq.kg-1) and (36 - 675 Bq.kg-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared to the reported data of other countries and to the world average activity of soil. Radium equivalent activities were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in construction of dwellings. All building materials showed Raeq activities lower than the limit set up in the OECD report (370 Bq.kg-1), equivalent to external gamma dose of 1.5 mSv.y-1. (author)

  16. Raising students and educators awareness of radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public is concerned about how the shipping and handling of radioactive materials affects them and their environment. Through exhibit showings doing professional education conferences and smaller, focussed workshops, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has found teachers and students to be an especially interested audience for hazardous and radioactive materials transportation information. DOE recognizes the importance of presenting educational opportunities to students about scientific and societal issues associated with planning for and safely transporting these types of materials. Raising students' and educators' awareness of hazardous and radioactive materials transport through creative classroom materials and exhibits may help them make informed decisions as adults about this often controversial and difficult issue

  17. Determination of radioactivity levels from some Egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our world is radioactive and has been, since it was created. Over 60 radionuclides (radioactive elements) can be found in nature. Radon is naturally occurring radioactive gas, that is produced by the radioactive decay of radium. Breathing high concentration of radon can cause lung cancer. A set of experiments were carried out using Cr-39 as solid state nuclear track detectors with the optimum etching conditions, 6.25 N Na OH at 70oC for 8 hours. The radon-222 activity in this survey was found to be in the range of 0.303 kBq/m3 to 5.04 KBq/m3 for different building materials in Egypt

  18. Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Philosophy and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safe transport of radioactive material regulations issued by IAEA since 1961, provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of people,transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of the radioactive wastes and material. The history ,development, philosophy and scope of these international and national regulations were mentioned as well as the different supporting documents to the regulations for safe transport of radioactive material were identified.The first supporting document , namely TS - G-1.1(ST-2) ,Advisory material is also issued by the IAEA.It contains both the advisory and explanatory materials previously published in safety series Nos 7and 37 and therefore TS-G-1.1 (ST-2) will supersede safety series Nos 7 and 37. The second supporting document namely TS-G-1.2 (ST-3), planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material ,which will supersede safety series No 87. In addition to quality assurance (SS no.113), compliance assurance (SS no. 112), the training manual and others

  19. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  20. Aspects of safety in the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of radioactive materials behaves to the equal that other chemical products, certain risks that its are necessary to know how to evaluate and to minimize, adopting all kinds of measures technician-administrative, with object of being able to guarantee that this risks stay in an acceptable level for the population potentially affected for the workers of the one sector and for the environment. To be able to evaluate the risk acceptable it is a difficult task, for that, national and international organizations have established a commitment to develop standards of radiological protection, to make every day but sure the transport of radioactive materials

  1. Safe transport of radioactive material - A training experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training is a key component in the packaging and storage of radioactive materials. This paper offers a method by which suitable training may be provided. It is based on experiences of organizing and managing and international course in England for the International Atomic Energy Agency on Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and in spite of its title, packaging was also included. The training course, of three weeks duration, was hosted by the Central Electricity Generating Board at its Nuclear Power Training Center on behalf of the British Government under the IAEAInterregional Training Program

  2. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 1. Environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity survey in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on February, 1996. This data relates to radioactive materials such as Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 in environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, seawater, and sea sediments, which were collected at all over of Japan. In the survey report, followings are also contained; 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of figure. (G.k.)

  3. Consequences of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear or Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explosion of a nuclear yield device is probably the worst consequence of Illicit Trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.The nuclear yield device might be a stolen nuclear weapon, or an improvised nuclear device. An improvised nuclear device requires nuclear material design, and construction ability. Use of a radioactive dispersal device probably would not result in large numbers of casualties.However economic losses can be enormous. Non-Technical effects of nuclear trafficking (e.g. public panic, work disruption, etc.) and political and psychological consequences can far exceed technical consequences

  4. Measurement of radioactivity in building materials in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a comprehensive study of natural radioactivity in 720 building materials imported in Serbia in 2012. Radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied samples range from -1, respectively. The maximum values of 226Ra and 232Th activity concentrations were found in zirconium mineral, while the highest 40K activity concentration was in the feldspar. Based on the obtained radionuclide concentrations, radium equivalent activity, air absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices, gamma and alpha index due to radon inhalation were evaluated to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. (author)

  5. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA

  6. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  7. National inventory of the radioactive wastes and the recycling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This synthesis report presents the 2006 inventory of the radioactive wastes and recycling materials, in France. It contains 9 chapters: a general introduction, the radioactive wastes (definition, classification, origins and management), the inventory methodology (organization, accounting and prospecting, exhaustiveness and control tools), main results (stocks, prevision for the period 2005-2020, perspectives after 2020), the inventory for producers or owners (front end fuel cycle, electric power plants, back end fuel cycle, wastes processing and maintenance facilities, researches centers, medical activities, industrial activities, non nuclear industries using nuclear materials, defense center, storage and disposal), the polluted sites, examples of foreign inventories, conclusion and annexes. (A.L.B.)

  8. Radioactivity in building materials in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in 45 samples of different building materials used in Iraq were measured using gamma-spectroscopy system based on high-purity germanium detector with an efficiency of 40 %. Radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index due to radon inhalation originating from building materials were measured to assess the potential radiological hazard associated with these building materials. The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to range from below detection limit (BDL) to 223.7±9, BDL to 93.0±3 and BDL to 343.1±12, respectively. Values of average radium equivalent activity, air-absorbed dose rate, indoor and outdoor annual effective doses, external and internal hazard indices and alpha index ranged from 6.5 to 124.9, 16.2 to 89.5 (nGy h-1), 0.08 to 0.44 mSv, 0.02-0.11 mSv, 0.09 to 0.53, 0.13 to 0.69 and 0.03 to 0.62, respectively. These values indicate a low dose. Therefore, the building materials used in the current study are quite safe to be used as building materials. (author)

  9. Natural radioactivity of building materials in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hundred sample of natural and manufactured Syrian building materials have been studied. A high pure Germanium detector in use was connected to S-100 MCA Master board and samples have been analysed by using micro sampo gamma spectrum analysis for their Thorium-232, Radium-226 and Potassium-40 content. Fourteen kinds of building materials were studied; bricks ceramic and fire soil, generally showed the greatest concentration of the above mentioned radionuclides. While the other products like sand, cement, marble, and limestone, contained very low activity. All samples fitted the range of criteria set up in the OECD-NEA report 1979. (author). 7 refs., 21 tabs., 24 figs

  10. Natural matrix radioactivity standards and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the precise definition of Natural Matrix Standard (NMS) and Natural Matrix Reference Material (NMRM) remain somewhat unclear, few doubt their extreme usefulness in virtually all programs involving measurements of radioacitivity. Rigorous quality assurance/quality control is difficult, if not impossible, particularly in studies requiring radiochemical/radiometric analyses of environmental matrices, when lacking good NMSs and NMRMs. A fairly comprehensive range of these materials is now available internationally, at a reasonable cost. Progress on the National Bureau of Standards NMS program as well as EML's Quality Assessment Program are discussed. In addition 99Tc in vegetation is presented as a specific example of the methodology of preparing a NMRM. (orig.)

  11. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This educative booklet give a general overview of radioactivity: history, structure of matter, radiations, radioactivity law, origin of radioactivity, radioactivity uses, radioprotection and measurement units. (J.S.)

  12. Radioactive Materials in Medical Institutions as a Potential Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In numerous health institutions ionizing sources are used in everyday practice. Most of these sources are Roentgen machines and accelerators which produce radiation only when in use. However, there are many institutions, e.g., Nuclear medicine units, where radioactive materials are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This institutions store a significant amount of radioactive materials in form of open and closed sources of radiation. Overall activity of open radiation sources can reach over a few hundred GBq. Open sources of radiation are usually so called short-living isotopes. Since they are used on daily basis, a need for a continuous supply of the radioactive materials exists (on weekly basis). Transportation phase is probably the most sensitive phase because of possible accidents or sabotage. Radiological terrorism is a new term. Legislation in the area of radiological safety is considered complete and well defined, and based on the present regulatory mechanism, work safety with radiation sources is considered relatively high. However, from time to time smaller accidents do happen due to mishandling, loose of material (possible stealing), etc. Lately, the safety issue of ionizing sources is becoming more important. In this matter we can expect activities in two directions, one which is going towards stealing and 'smuggling' of radioactive materials, and the other which would work or provoke accidents at the location where the radiation sources are.(author)

  13. Emergency preparedness and response in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been providing clean, affordable electricity in many parts of the world for nearly half a century. The national and international transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials is essential to support this activity. To sustain the nuclear power industry, fuel cycle materials have to be transported safely and efficiently. The nature of the industry is such that most countries with large-scale nuclear power industries cannot provide all the necessary fuel services themselves and consequently nuclear fuel cycle transport activities are international. The radioactive material transport industry has an outstanding safety record spanning over 45 years; however the transport of radioactive materials cannot and most not be taken for granted. Efficient emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material is an important element to ensure the maximum safety in accident conditions. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), founded by International Nuclear Services (INS) of the United Kingdom, AREVA of France an the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, represents the collective interest of the radioactive material transport sector, and those who rely on safe, effective and reliable transport. As part of its activities, WNTI has conducted two surveys through its members on emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material and emergency exercises. After recalling the International Atomic Energy Agency approach on emergency response, this paper will be discussing the main conclusion of surveys, in particular the national variations in emergency response and preparedness on the national and local levels of regulations, the emergency preparedness in place, the emergency response organisation (who and how), communication and exercises. (author)

  14. Development of a wireless radioactive material sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our team at the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has designed and developed a low-power, compact, wireless-networked gamma sensor (WGS) array. The WGS system provides high sensitivity gamma photon detection and remote warning for a broad range of radioactive materials. This sensor identifies the presence of a 1 μCi Cs137 source at a distance of 1.5 m. The networked array of sensors presently operates as a facility and laboratory sensor for the movement of radioactive check sources. Our goal has been to apply this architecture for field security applications by incorporating low-power design with compact packaging. The performance of this radiation measurement network is demonstrated for both detection and location of radioactive material.

  15. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  16. The new context for transport of radioactive and nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials involves all modes of transportation with a predominance for road and for air. It is but a minute fraction dangerous good transportation. Around 10 millions of radioactive packages are shipped annually all over the world of which ninety percent total corresponds to shipments of radioisotopes. In spite of the small volume transported, experience, evolution of transport means and technologies, the trend to constantly improve security and safety and public acceptance have modified the transport environment. During the last few years, new evolutions have applied to the transport of radioactive and nuclear materials in various fields and especially: - Safety - Security - Logistics means - Public acceptance - Quality Assurance. We propose to examine the evolution of these different fields and their impact on transportation methods and means. (authors)

  17. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  18. International Regulations for Transport of Radioactive Materials, History and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Regulations for the transport of radioactive materials have been published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 1961. These Regulations have been widely adopted into national Regulations. Also adopted into different modal Regulations such as International Air Transport Association (IATA) and International Martime Organization (IMO). These Regulations provide standards for insuring a high level of safety of general public, transport workers, property and environment against radiation, contamination, criticality hazard and thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive wastes and materials. Several reviews conducted in consultation with Member States (MS) and concerned international organizations, resulted in comprehensive revisions till now. Radioactive materials are generally transported by specialized transport companies and experts. Shippers and carriers have designed their transport operations to comply with these international Regulations. About 20 million consignments of radioactive materials take place around the world each year. These materials were used in different fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research, consumer product and electric power generation. After September 11,2001, the IAEA and MS have worked together to develop a new guidance document concerning the security in the transport of radioactive materials. IAEA have initiated activities to assist MS in addressing the need for transport security in a comprehensive manner. The security guidance and measures were mentioned and discussed. The transport security becomes more developed and integrated into national Regulations of many countries beside the safety Regulations. IAEA and other International organizations are working with MS to implement transport security programs such as guidance, training, security assessments and upgrade assistance in these fields.

  19. Incident involving radioactive material in steel scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early March of 1996, a wagon with steel scrap heading from the Czech Republic to Italy was returned as a strongly contaminated material. Based on the integral dose (dose rate 650 mGy/h in front of the wagon) and spectrometric measurement and evaluation, it was concluded that an unshielded cobalt-60 source (1.6 TBq) was present. The history of the event (notification, assessment, intervention planning, intervention) is highlighted and the lesson learned from the incident is discussed. (P.A.)

  20. Experiences managing radioactive material at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Rick L

    2013-06-01

    The National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's largest and most energetic laser system for inertial confinement fusion and experiments studying high energy density science. Many experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility involve radioactive materials; these may take the form of tritium and small quantities of depleted uranium used in targets, activation products created by neutron-producing fusion experiments, and fission products produced by the fast fissioning of the depleted uranium. While planning for the introduction of radioactive material, it was recognized that some of the standard institutional processes would need to be customized to accommodate aspects of NIF operations, such as surface contamination limits, radiological postings, airborne tritium monitoring protocols, and personnel protective equipment. These customizations were overlaid onto existing work practices to accommodate the new hazard of radioactive materials. This paper will discuss preparations that were made prior to the introduction of radioactive material, the types of radiological work activities performed, and the hazards and controls encountered. Updates to processes based on actual monitoring results are also discussed. PMID:23629067

  1. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well

  2. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  3. New basic safety regulations of radioactive material transport in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ershov, V.N. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper the system of normative regulation of radioactive material transport in Russia, basic principles and provisions of the new Russian regulations, available deviations from rules IAEA regulations are briefly considered. The problems, connected with putting in force of the new regulations in practice of transport, including problems of usage earlier designed and manufactured packages are considered as well.

  4. IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation gives the history of transportation of radioactive materials which began in early 1900s while the need for transport regulations was identified in early 1950s. The also paper covers the recognized standards of transport for various quantities, forms and standards. The philosophy of the regulations include adequate package to ensure safety and all conditions of transport and accidents

  5. The new context for transport of radioactive nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transportation of radioactive and nuclear materials, involves all modes of transportation (road, air, sea, rail) with predominance for road and for air (air for radioisotopes). In this paper we examine the impact of new evolutions in the fields of safety, security, logistics means, public acceptance and quality assurance

  6. Qualification test of packages for transporting radioactive materials and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 the Waste Treatment Division of Nuclear Tecnology Development Center has been developed and tested packagings for transporting radioactive materials and wastes. The Division has designed facilities for testing Type A packages in accordance with the adopted regulations. The Division has tested several packages for universities, research centers, industries, INB, FURNAS, etc. (author)

  7. 44 years of testing radioactive materials packages at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews the package testing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1960 and then examines the trends in the testing activities that occurred during the same period. Radioactive material shipments have been made from ORNL since the 1940s. The first fully operating reactor built at the ORNL site was patterned after the graphite pile constructed by Enrico Fermi under Stagg Field in Chicago. After serving as a test bed for future reactors, it became useful as a producer of radioactive isotopes. The Isotopes Division was established at ORNL to furnish radioactive materials used in the medical community. Often these shipments have been transported by aircraft worldwide due to the short half-lives of many of the materials. This paper touches briefly on the lighter and smaller radioisotope packages that were being shipped from ORNL in large numbers and then deals with the testing of packages designed to handle large radioactive sources, such as spent fuel, and other fissile materials

  8. The issue of safety in the transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses and discusses the various hazards associated with transports of radioactive materials, their prevention, intervention measures, and precautions to be taken by rescuers, notably how these issues are addressed in regulations. For each of these issues, this report proposes guidelines, good practices, or procedures to handle the situation. The author first addresses hazards related to a transport of radioactive products: multiplicity of hazards, different hazards due to radioactivity, hazards due to transport modes, scale of dangerous doses. The second part addresses precautionary measures: for road transports, for air transports, for maritime transports, control procedures. The third part addresses the intervention in case of accident: case of a road accident with an unhurt or not vehicle crew, role of the first official rescuers, other kinds of accidents. The fourth part briefly addresses the case of transport of fissile materials. The fifth part discusses the implications of safety measures. Appendices indicate standards, and give guidelines for the construction of a storage building for radioactive products, for the control and storage of parcels containing radioactive products, and for the establishment of instructions for the first aid personnel

  9. Detection of radioactive materials at Astrakhan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrakhan is the major Russian port on the Caspian Sea. Consequently, it is the node for significant river traffic up the Volga, as well as shipments to and from other seaports on the Caspian Sea. The majority of this latter trade across the Caspian Sea is with Iran. The Second Line of Defense and RF SCC identified Astrakhan as one of the top priorities for upgrading with modern radiation detection equipment. The purpose of the cooperative effort between RF SCC and DOE at Astrakhan is to provide the capability through equipment and training to monitor and detect illegal shipments of nuclear materials through Astrakhan. The first facility was equipped with vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. The second facility was equipped with pedestrian, vehicle and rail portal monitoring systems. A second phase of this project will complete the equipping of Astrakhan by providing additional rail and handheld systems, along with completion of video systems. Associated with both phases is the necessary equipment and procedural training to ensure successful operation of the equipment in order to detect and deter illegal trafficking in nuclear materials. The presentation will described this project and its overall relationship to the Second Line of Defense Program

  10. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  11. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE's cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials

  12. Determination of radioactivity in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two major counting techniques in use in most laboratories today are those utilizing liquid or crystal scintillation counters. A discussion of liquid scintillation counting is inextricably linked with the problems of sample preparation and both are emphasized in this chapter. Radiochromatography and autoradiography are also discussed. Chromatography is one of the most important techniques for the separation of chemical compounds from biological material. Most of the detection mechanisms applicable to radiochromatography use x-ray film, a β-particle detector, or a luminescence detector. In biological autoradiography, labeled substances in the organism, tissue, or cell, are made visible by preparing thin sections and exposing them to a suitable photographic film. Light and electron microscope autoradiography were also discussed. 12 figures, 6 tables

  13. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  14. Stochastic Modeling of Radioactive Material Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrus, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pope, Chad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Nonreactor nuclear facilities operated under the approval authority of the U.S. Department of Energy use unmitigated hazard evaluations to determine if potential radiological doses associated with design basis events challenge or exceed dose evaluation guidelines. Unmitigated design basis events that sufficiently challenge dose evaluation guidelines or exceed the guidelines for members of the public or workers, merit selection of safety structures, systems, or components or other controls to prevent or mitigate the hazard. Idaho State University, in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory, has developed a portable and simple to use software application called SODA (Stochastic Objective Decision-Aide) that stochastically calculates the radiation dose associated with hypothetical radiological material release scenarios. Rather than producing a point estimate of the dose, SODA produces a dose distribution result to allow a deeper understanding of the dose potential. SODA allows users to select the distribution type and parameter values for all of the input variables used to perform the dose calculation. SODA then randomly samples each distribution input variable and calculates the overall resulting dose distribution. In cases where an input variable distribution is unknown, a traditional single point value can be used. SODA was developed using the MATLAB coding framework. The software application has a graphical user input. SODA can be installed on both Windows and Mac computers and does not require MATLAB to function. SODA provides improved risk understanding leading to better informed decision making associated with establishing nuclear facility material-at-risk limits and safety structure, system, or component selection. It is important to note that SODA does not replace or compete with codes such as MACCS or RSAC, rather it is viewed as an easy to use supplemental tool to help improve risk understanding and support better informed decisions. The work was

  15. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Radioactive materials in construction projects; Radioaktive Stoffe bei Baumassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank [Baugrund Dresden IGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kaltz, Andrea Christine [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Ref. 53 (Strahlenschutz)

    2014-07-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  17. Packaging, carriage and dispatching fuel and radioactive materials, IAEA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to bring fuel and other radioactive substances into a nuclear power plant and to send out irradiated or contaminated materials: spent fuel, activated equipment, used filters, resin and clothing, etc. gives rise to the question: How can these materials be transported safely and economically. The purpose of this paper is to answer that question by providing information on the regulatory requirements that have been developed for packaging, labelling and handling and on the containers which are being employed. (orig./RW)

  18. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs

  19. Calculations and observations of induced radioactivity in spaceborne materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All material in space becomes radioactive due to nuclear interactions with cosmic rays, radiation belt protons and solar flare particles. This poses a particular problem for gamma-ray detectors as the energy depositions fall in the precise window of interest. On the positive side, samples returned to earth can be monitored to provide information on the primary and secondary radiations experienced. Here, radiation transport calculations are compared with observations of induced radioactivity obtained from the OSSE experiment on the Compton Observatory and the CREAM experiment on Space Shuttle. These results illustrate the importance of secondary particles

  20. Death of a patient treated with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have been used for medical treatments ever since they were first discovered. Some of the materials used have short half-lives so they can be permanently located in the area of the body requiring treatment, and they deliver their dose while they decay away. The materials may be taken by the patient either as a radiopharmaceutical that is selectively taken up by a target organ (such as iodine-131 which is naturally taken up by the thyroid and is commonly used for treating hyperthyroidism), or the radioactive material may be sealed in small metal capsules and injected (such as iodine-125 'seeds' used to treat prostate cancer). The therapeutic process will continue for days or weeks depending on the half-life of the material. The patient is given instructions on any precautions that may be necessary during this time to ensure radiation exposures of other people are minimised. However, there is always the possibility that the patient may die before the radioactive material has decayed away, either from the disease being treated, or from an unrelated cause. This may give rise to some risk of radiation exposure for anyone who comes in contact with the body or remains. (author)

  1. The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: An overview (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook provides information on the design, operation, and maintenance of shipping packages. The 500-page document was published in June 1998 and will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M.E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and provides a wealth of technical guidance that gives designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses to be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuel). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs), which are submitted to a competent authority and form the basis of their review, must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet US and international regulations. (author)

  2. Training of personnel in the field of radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training of personnel in the whole nuclear fuel cycle and also in the other fields of the use of radioactivity is one of the essentials with respect to compliance assurance. The transport of radioactive material is the only activity that takes place outside a facility: on roads, on railways, on the sea or in the air. A high level of safety is therefore an absolute requirement for all transport operations. To ensure this high level the training of the personnel involved in these activities plays an important role. Many studies show that most of the incidents in radioactive materials transport are caused by man-made errors: even so there have been no events with serious radiological consequences anywhere worldwide. There are many requirements in the various national and international regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material with regard to training. An overview is given of the special regulations, e.g. for road transport drivers, for safety advisers in the whole field of the transport of dangerous goods, for specially educated personnel in sea and air transports. In addition, the newest developments in the European Community in this field are discussed. An evaluation of the present regulations and proposals for further rules are also given. (Author)

  3. New Monitoring System to Detect a Radioactive Material in Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illegal radioactive material transportation detection, by terrorist for example, is problematic in urban public transportation. Academics and industrials systems include Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) to detect radioactive matters transported in vehicles or carried by pedestrians. However, today's RPMs are not able to efficiently detect a radioactive material in movement. Due to count statistic and gamma background, false alarms may be triggered or at the contrary a radioactive material not detected. The statistical false alarm rate has to be as low as possible in order to limit useless intervention especially in urban mass transportation. The real-time approach depicted in this paper consists in using a time correlated detection technique in association with a sensor network. It is based on several low-cost and large area plastic scintillators and a digital signal processing designed for signal reconstruction from the sensor network. The number of sensors used in the network can be adapted to fit with applications requirements or cost. The reconstructed signal is improved by comparing other approaches. This allows us to increase the device speed that has to be scanned while decreasing the risk of false alarm. In the framework of a project called SECUR-ED Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration, this prototype system will be used during an experiment in the Milan urban mass transportation. (authors)

  4. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector

  5. Assessment of Transportation Risk of Radioactive Materials in Uganda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Menya; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radioactive materials refer to any materials that spontaneously emit ionizing radiation and of which the radioactivity per gram is greater than 0.002 micro-curie. They include: spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes, medical sources i.e. Co-60, industrial sources i.e. Cs-137, Am-241:Be, Ra-226, and sources for research. In view of the rising reported cancer cases in Uganda, which might be as a result of radiation exposure due to constant transportation of radioactive materials i.e. industrial sources, a risk analysis was thought of and undertaken for the country's safety evaluation and improvement. It was therefore important to undertake a risk assessment of the actual and potential radiation exposure during the transportation process. This paper explains a study undertaken for transport risk assessment of the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the industrial sources in Uganda. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with visualized transport scenarios for the highway transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of the sources along Busia transport route to Hoima. Busia is the entry port for the sources whilst Hoima, where various industrial practices that utilize sources like oil explorations are centered. During the study, a computer code RADTRAN-6 was used. The overall collective dose for population and package transport crew are 3.72E-4 and 1.69E-4 person-sievert respectively. These are less than the exemption value recommended by the IAEA and Uganda Regulatory Authority for public implying that no health effects like cancer are to be expected. Hence the rising cancer cases in the country are not as a result of increased transportation of radioactive materials in the Industrial sector.

  6. Competent authority regulatory control of the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this guide is to assist competent authorities in regulating the transport of radioactive materials and to assist users of transport regulations in their interactions with competent authorities. The guide should assist specifically those countries which are establishing their regulatory framework and further assist countries with established procedures to harmonize their application and implementation of the IAEA Regulations. This guide specifically covers various aspects of the competent authority implementation of the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. In addition, physical protection and safeguards control of the transport of nuclear materials as well as third party liability aspects are briefly discussed. This is because they have to be taken into account in overall transport regulatory activities, especially when establishing the regulatory framework

  7. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents recommendations for the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that is out of regulatory control. It is based on national experiences and practices and guidance publications in the field of security as well as the nuclear security related international instruments. The recommendations include guidance for States with regard to the nuclear security of nuclear and other radioactive material that has been reported as being out of regulatory control as well as for material that is lost, missing or stolen but has not been reported as such, or has been otherwise discovered. In addition, these recommendations adhere to the detection and assessment of alarms and alerts and to a graded response to criminal or unauthorized acts with nuclear security implications.

  8. The european legislation on the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal basis for the actions of the European Commission in the field of transport of nuclear materials has its origin both in the EC and the EURATOM Treaties. While recommendations on the transport of radioactive materials are drawn up by the IAEA in Vienna and transposed into the national legislation of each country, the European Community must ensure that these provisions are in conformity with its own requirements and that they facilitate the functioning of the internal market. To advise the Commission on issues related to the transport of radioactive materials, a standing working group was established in 1982. The Commission also helps in gathering information by financing studies on various aspects such as surveys of legislation or of events or investigations related to technical matters. (author)

  9. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  10. Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng; Miller, Andy; Bryan, Charles R.; Kruichak, Jessica Nicole

    2015-11-17

    Methods of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei with metal fluorite-based inorganic materials are described. For example, a method of capturing and immobilizing radioactive nuclei includes flowing a gas stream through an exhaust apparatus. The exhaust apparatus includes a metal fluorite-based inorganic material. The gas stream includes a radioactive species. The radioactive species is removed from the gas stream by adsorbing the radioactive species to the metal fluorite-based inorganic material of the exhaust apparatus.

  11. Dangerous quantities of radioactive material (D-values)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material is widely used in industry, medicine, education and agriculture. In addition, it occurs naturally. The health risk posed by these materials vary widely depending on many factors, the most important of which are the amount of the material involved and its physical and chemical form. Therefore, there is a need to identify the quantity and type of radioactive material for which emergency preparedness and other arrangements (e.g. security) are warrant due to the health risk they pose. The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for Member States on that quantity of radioactive material that may be considered dangerous. A dangerous quantity is that, which if uncontrolled, could be involved in a reasonable scenario resulting in the death of an exposed individual or a permanent injury, which decreases that person's quality of life. This publication is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series. It supports several publications including: the IAEA Safety Requirements 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2. IAEA, Vienna (2002). IAEA Safety Guide 'Categorization of Radioactive Sources', IAEA Safety Standards Series No RS-G-1.9, IAEA, Vienna (2005) and IAEA Safety Guide 'Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency' IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-2.1, IAEA, Vienna (2006). The procedures and data in this publication have been prepared with due attention to accuracy. However, as part of the review process, they undergo ongoing quality assurance checks. Comments are welcome and, following a period that will allow for a more extensive review, the IAEA may revise this publication as part of the process of continuous improvement. The publication uses a number of exposure scenarios, risk models and dosimetric data, which could be used during the response to nuclear or radiological emergency or other purposes

  12. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  13. Risk Prevention for Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper investigates the parameters which may have effects on the safety of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources used in peaceful applications of atomic energy. The emergency response planning in such situations are also indicated. In synergy with nuclear safety measures, an approach is developed in this study for risk prevention. It takes into consideration the collective implementation of measures of nuclear material accounting and control, physical protection and monitoring of such strategic and dangerous materials in an integrated and coordinated real-time mode at a nuclear or radiation facility and in any time

  14. Radioactive diffusion gaseous probes in defectoscopy of film materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perspectives of use of dynamic variant of diffusion-probe defectoscopy for diagnostics of film materials (packing films, membranes, foils) are considered. Basic attention is centered to application of radioactive gaseous probes for detection of defects and structural heterogeneity in moving film products. Comparison of efficiency of different regimes of diagnostics (permittivity, sorption, desorption) is done. It is shown that diffusion defectoscopes permit to control operatively composition of film materials and filled and lamellar composites among them, to detect and identify in materials different types of defects

  15. Radioactive Substances Act 1960. Keeping and use of radioactive materials; list of registrations in England and Wales issued under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 (RSA 60), Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (Radioactive Substances) (HMIP) exercises control, on behalf of the Secretary of State for the Environment, over the keeping and use of radioactive material and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive waste in England. HMIP also provides technical advice to the Secretary of State for Wales in connection with the enforcement of RSA 60 in Wales. Registrations under RSA 60 for the keeping and use of radioactive materials in England and Wales are issued respectively by the Secretaries of State for the Environment and Wales, following careful assessment of the radiological consequences for members of the public. Registrations impose strict limits and conditions and premises and apparatus are subject to scrutiny by HMIP Inspectors to ensure compliance. A list contains names and addresses of those registered in England and Wales for the keeping and use of radioactive materials and mobile apparatus

  16. Regulatory requirements for the transport of radioactive materials in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada is a major producer and shipper of radioactive material. Each year more than a million packages are transported in Canada. The safety record with the transport of RAM in Canada has historically been excellent. There have never been any serious injuries, overexposure or fatality or environmental consequences attributable to the radioactive nature of such material being transported or being involved in a transport accident. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the prime agency of the federal government entrusted with regulating all activities related to the use of nuclear energy and nuclear substances including the packaging and transport of nuclear substances. The mission of the CNSC is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of the person and the environment and to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The division of responsibility for the regulation of transport of radioactive material has been split between Transport Canada and the CNSC. The governing Transport Canada's regulations are Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Regulations and the CNSC regulations are Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations (PTNSR). Canada has actively participated in the development of the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material since 1960. As an IAEA member state, Canada generally follows the requirements of IAEA regulations with few deviations. The Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) strongly supports Canada's international obligations to ensure safe packaging, transport, storage and disposal of nuclear substances, prescribed equipment and prescribed information. Prescribed equipment and prescribed information are defined in the CNSC General Nuclear Safety and Control Regulations. This paper presents the current CNSC regulatory requirements and initiatives taken by the CNSC to improve its effectiveness and efficiency

  17. Natural radioactivity of building materials used in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the natural radioactive content of building materials used in Malaysia. The materials analysed include both old and new clay bricks, cement bricks, mortar, cement, sands, ceramic tiles and gypsum. Samples of the first three materials were collected from the 12 states of the Malay Peninsula. Radium-226 (from the U-238 series) and Ra-228 (from the Th-232 series), these both representing naturally occurring radionuclides, were analysed using high-resolution HpGe gamma spectrometers. The results of our investigations showed that some old clay bricks contain high levels (at more than 5 times the normal soil concentration) of natural radionuclides, with maximum concentrations of 590 Bq/kg and 480 Bq/kg for respectively Ra-226 and Ra-228. The reasons behind this finding were not clearly understood. As there are people living in old buildings, i.e. built using old clay bricks, there is a possibility that they are being exposed to significant radiation doses. However, there proved to be no significant overall difference between old and new clay bricks in terms of the natural radioactivity levels determined, at a 95% confidence level. The overall mean concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 observed in Malaysian clay bricks were respectively 118 ± 58 Bq/kg and 120 ± 42 Bq/kg. The radioactive content of other materials was found to be not much different from that to be determined in normal soil from Malaysia. The data obtained can be used as a basis for reaching decisions on the regulatory limits for radioactivity levels in building materials in Malaysia. (orig.)

  18. Illicit trafficking of radioactive materials and regulatory issues in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recycle and reuse of materials have been increasing during recent years, particularly because of recognition of the economic opportunities presented, but also because of an increased societal awareness of the desirability of conserving raw materials and natural resources. Lost, stolen and abandoned sources appearing in recycled metals constitute a world wide problem. Radioactive sources sometimes incorporate into scrap metal for subsequent recycling. Most of these incidents have resulted in significant levels of radioactive contamination with the attendant risks to employees and the general public. During the past decade there have been numerous accidents where these shielded sources have been accidentally mixed with scrap metal, and have been subsequently melted or ruptured particularly in steel making process. For controlling of incoming trucks and trains in case the presence of radioactive sources hidden in the scrap, there is a need to establish a radiation detecting system. In Turkey in addition to pocket sized or hand held radiation monitors, fixed or mobile panel detection systems will also be used in the detection of illicit trafficking of radiation sources and contaminated scrap material. But besides this activity; training courses have been carried out to improve the knowledge and skills of workers and the customs officers dealing with radiation sources and scrap materials

  19. Inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment: Sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste have been disposed at more than 50 sites in the northern parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The last known disposal operation was in 1982, at a site about 550 km off the European continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean. Since 1957, the IAEA has provided specific guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. In 1972, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter designated the IAEA as the competent international authority in matters related to sea disposal of radioactive waste. The Contracting Parties requested the IAEA to develop an inventory of radioactive wastes entering the marine environment from all sources as an information base with which the impact of radioactive materials from disposal operations can be more adequately assessed. The continuous compilation of these data could ensure that the IAEA recommendations on the disposal rate in a single basin are not overstepped. The inventory shows that between 1946 to 1982 an estimated 46 PBq1 (1.24 MCi) of radioactive waste coming from research, medicine, the nuclear industry and military activities were packaged, usually in metal drums lined with a concrete or bitumen matrix, and disposed of at sea. This inventory includes some unpackaged wastes and liquid wastes which were disposed of from 1950 to 1960. Beta-gamma emitters represent more than 98% of the total radioactivity of the waste and tritium alone represents one third of the total radioactivity disposed at the North East Atlantic sites. The other beta-gamma emitters radionuclides include 90Sr, 137Cs, 55Fe, 58Co, 60Co, 125I and 14C. The wastes also contain low quantities of alpha-emitting nuclides with plutonium and americium isotopes representing 96% of

  20. Natural radioactivity level of main building materials in Baotou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was done on natural radioactivity level and annual effective dose rate of main building materials in Baotou, China. The natural radionuclides of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in main building materials collected from Baotou were measured using NaI γ-ray spectrometry and the measured data were analyzed according to the national standards and radiological protection principles of the European Commission. The specific activities of 40K, 232Th and 226Ra in the building materials samples were 218.82-1145.92, 19.75-1.32.50 and 11.46-82.66 Bq/kg, respectively. The internal and external exposure indexes of building materials were 0.06-0.41 and 0.28-0.70, respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent was 0.41-0.97 mSv/y. This justifies the production and sale of the main building materials, as both the internal and external exposure indexes of building materials are less than 1. The effective dose rate of ash brick is 0.97 mSv/y, while the maximum acceptable value is 1 mSv/y. Therefore, it is necessary to control the amount of industrial waste residue in building materials to avoid unnecessary radioactive exposure to residents. (authors)

  1. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  2. RECERTIFICATION OF THE MODEL 9977 RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Loftin, B.; Nathan, S.

    2013-06-05

    The Model 9977 Packaging was initially issued a Certificate of Compliance (CoC) by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) for the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) in the Fall of 2007. This first CoC was for a single radioactive material and two packing configurations. In the five years since that time, seven Addendums have been written to the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and five Letter Amendments have been written that have authorized either new RAM contents or packing configurations, or both. This paper will discuss the process of updating the 9977 SARP to include all the contents and configurations, including the addition of a new content, and its submittal for recertification.

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12., it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  4. Enhanced thermal testing of type b radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety is the top priority in the transport of radioactive material. Safety is primarily ensured using the appropriate type of package in compliance with the requirements specified within the national and international regulations. According to the IAEA Transport Regulations, type B packages must fulfill certain performance criteria in order to demonstrate that they will withstand normal and accident conditions of transport. The qualifications tests for packages, used for transport and storage in Romania, can be performed at INR Pitesti where a Testing Facility for type A and B packages with a maximum weight up to 5 tones has been developed. The paper presents a detailed description of the fire testing facility, designed and developed by Reliability and Testing Laboratory within INR, and the thermal test performed for type B radioactive material package. Also an experimental prototype that offers a solution for enhancing the thermal test conditions is described. (authors)

  5. Border Control of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second half of year 2006, stationary detection systems for nuclear and other radioactive materials were installed on Border Crossing Bregana, Croatia. Yantar 2U, which is the commercial name of the system, is integrated automatic system capable of detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials prepared for fixed-site customs applications (Russian origin). Installed system contains portal monitors, camera, communication lines and communication boxes and server. Two fully functional separate systems has been installed on BC Bregana, one on truck entrance and another one on car entrance. In this article the operational experience of installed system is presented. This includes statistical analysis of recorded alarms, evaluation of procedures for operational stuff and maintenance and typical malfunction experience, as well as some of the recommendation for future use of detection systems.(author)

  6. Digital Radiography of a Drop Tested 9975 Radioactive Materials Packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the use of radiography as a tool for evaluating damage to radioactive material packaging subjected to regulatory accident conditions. The Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, presents the performance based requirements that must be used in the development (design, fabrication and testing) of a radioactive material packaging. The use of various non-destructive examination techniques in the fabrication of packages is common. One such technique is the use of conventional radiography in the examination of welds. Radiography is conventional in the sense that images are caught one at a time on film stock. Most recently, digital radiography has been used to characterize internal damage to a package subjected to the 30-foot hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) drop. Digital radiography allows for real time evaluation of the item being inspected. This paper presents a summary discussion of the digital radiographic technique and an example of radiographic results of a 9975 package following the HAC 30-foot drop

  7. National inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials 2006. Descriptive catalogue of radioactive waste families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real comprehensive overview of radioactive wastes, the national inventory of radioactive wastes and recoverable materials describes the situation in France of the wastes that can be conditioned (in their definitive form) or not. It presents also the waste production quantities foreseen for 2010, 2020 and beyond. This document is a complement to the synthesis report and to the geographic inventory of radioactive wastes in France and details the classification of wastes by families (wastes with similar characteristics). For each family of wastes, the description comprises a general presentation and some photos. It comprises also some data such as the position of the family in the French classification, the industrial activity at the origin of the waste, the production situation of the waste in concern (finished, in progress, not started). Some information about the raw waste are given and the conditioning process used is described. Some figures complete the description, like: the past and future production quantities, the evaluation of the radioactivity of the waste family in 2004 and 2020, and the evaluation of the thermal power when available. Finally, some information are given about the presence of compounds with a specific risk of toxicity. (J.S.)

  8. Emergency room preparation for injuries caused by radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing number of nuclear power plants and expanding use of radioactive materials in industry and medicine, the potential for inadvertent exposure of the public and the work force to radiation has increased greatly. The recent experience in Chernobyl underscored the need for the emergency rooms of the nation's largest hospitals to prepare for such disasters. This paper discusses a plan developed at the University of Alabama in Birmingham (UAB) to provide medical care related to such events

  9. Shielding integrity testing of radioactive material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although this Code of Practice is intended primarily to cover shielding integrity test requirements for off-site shielded radioactive material transport packaging, it may also be partly applicable to containers and specialised handling equipment (e.g. fuelling machines) used only on site, and to radiation shielding generally. The code is not concerned with proving adequacy of shielding design or with its absolute shielding value. (author)

  10. RADTRAN: a computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code is presented which predicts the environmental impact of any specific scheme of radioactive material transportation. Results are presented in terms of annual latent cancer fatalities and annual early fatility probability resulting from exposure, during normal transportation or transport accidents. The code is developed in a generalized format to permit wide application including normal transportation analysis; consideration of alternatives; and detailed consideration of specific sectors of industry

  11. Guide for disposition of radioactive-material sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide has been prepared to assist DOE Energy Technology Centers in disposing of radioactive-material sources. The guide describes the steps and requirements necessary to dispose of unwanted sources. The steps include obtaining approvals, source characterization, source disposition, packaging requirements, and shipment preparation. A flow chart is provided in the guide to assist the user in the necessary sequential steps of source disposition

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized

  13. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  14. Safety and security of radioactive materials - The Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a phenomenal increase in the use of radiation sources in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, research and teaching in India and elsewhere. Though the radiation safety record in these applications has been good, there have been a few incidents/accidents during transport/use of radioactive materials. Current status and various aspects of regulatory control to ensure safety and security of radioactive material including incidents of missing/orphan sources in India are discussed in this paper. Regulatory Infrastructure: Government of India enacted the Atomic Energy Act in 1962 to provide a regulatory infrastructure for control and use of radioactive materials and radiation sources. Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, were promulgated under this Act and Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was appointed as the Competent Authority to enforce these rules. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RP and AD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre provides technical and executive support to AERB in implementation of the regulations in the non-nuclear applications of radiation. Under the Rules, the Competent Authority has notified the surveillance procedures for various applications. Various codes and guides on regulatory procedures relating to specific applications of radioactive material have also been issued by the Competent Authority. As per the regulatory procedures, each practice and source requires specific authorisation. The pre-requisites for the procurement of radioactive material for various applications are: (a) Approved source and equipment, (b) Approved installation, (c) Provision of an exclusive safe and secure storage facility for radioactive material when not in use or pending installation, (d) Trained manpower duly approved by the competent authority, (e) Radiation monitoring devices (area and personnel), (f) Emergency preparedness and (g) Commitment from the licensee for safe disposal of disused/decayed sources. In

  15. Over-the-road testing of radioactive materials packagins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has an ongoing program to characterize the environments encountered during normal surface transport of radioactive materials. This effort consists of obtaining experimental data from both road simulator and over-the-road tests and of analyzing the data to obtain numerical models to simulate those environments. These data and models have been used to define the design basis for resistance to shock and vibration and the requirements for tiedowns of truck-transported radioactive materials. This work is in conjunction with the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards development for radioactive materials transport. This paper summarizes the data, from a series of over-the-road tests performed with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. equipment near Barnwell, South Carolina. The data include packaging responses to driving over various road types as well as measurements of packaging and trailer responses to hard braking and turning events. The data also include the responses of both flexible and rigid tiedown systems. The results indicate that the tiedown forces for these tests were less than 0.06 g based on packaging weight. (J.P.N.)

  16. Management System for Regulating Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN) management system applied to the transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TMR from now on. ARN's management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TMR process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of the system. Such sub processes were defined taking into account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials. For each of this processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to achieve continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measures sub processes as a way to show objective evidence of conformity with objectives. Finally, as conclusions of this paper, they will be showed the main obstacles and troubleshooting found in the design and implementation of management system as well as their solutions and state of advance. (authors)

  17. Qualifications of and acceptance criteria for transporting special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special form radioactive material is a radioactive material that is in an inert, insoluble, indispersible form such that even in the event of an accident, it will not be dispersed into the environment in a way that could have an adverse impact on public health and safety. Methods of qualifying a special form radioactive material are discussed. Interpretation of acceptance criteria are proposed for the transportation of Type B quantities of a special form radioactive material. 11 refs

  18. Survey of naturally radioactive level of some new type wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in seven new type wall materials were surveyed. The radioactivity was determined with HPGe-γ spectrometer. The red mud has the highest radioactivity concentration, followed by slag building blocks, fly-ash building blocks (bricks), gangue bricks and light weight board materials, gypsum blocks. Fly-ash and slag contain higher NORM, which contributes the major part of the radioactivity in new wall materials. (authors)

  19. The role of the central registry in the safety and security of radioactive materials in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief overview of the Hungarian legislation and regulatory infrastructure the report provides information on the number of companies and licensees using radioactive materials and explains also the role of the established central registry of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Hungary for improving the safety and security of radioactive materials in the country. It concludes that a reliable nationwide central registry can be a very useful tool for increasing the safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials. (author)

  20. Studies on natural radioactivity of some egyptian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high-resolution y-rays spectrometry, the natural radioactivity of 14 samples of natural and o manufactured Egyptian building materials have been investigated. The samples were collected from local market and construction sites. From the measured gamma-ray spectra, specific activities were determined. The radium equivalent activity in each sample was estimated. Radiological evaluations of these materials indicate that all materials meet the external gamma-ray dose limitation. Calculation of concentration indices by assuming a Markkanen room model is constructed from these materials, to find the excess gamma-ray dose taken over that received from the outdoors. The Austrian Standard ONORM S 5200 is used in testing the building materials

  1. Response to a radioactive materials release having a transboundary impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared with an accidental release of radioactive material which is confined to the accident State, a transboundary release has added dimensions which were not fully anticipated in publications dealing with response to accidents at nuclear facilities. The new aspects to the problem may be summarized as follows: (1) A transboundary release of radioactive material, as distinct from a release which affects only the accident State, has international repercussions in the following ways: Potentially at least, the difficulties associated with a transboundary release may be magnified in those States that have no nuclear facilities of their own and may, therefore, have foreseen no need for resources to assess and deal with radioactive contamination of their food supplies, their water and their environment appropriately. International trade, in food commodities particularly, may be severely affected. Issues of compensation may arise for which the dispute settlement mechanisms are weak or non-existent. (2) Many Member States are in such geographic locations that they could be affected by a transboundary release occurring in any of their surrounding neighbour States. Planning for and responding to such an event is necessarily more difficult than planning for an accidental release from a single, identified nuclear facility. (3) Deposits of radioactive material from a distant source are apt to be highly unpredictable. Depending on weather conditions, they may be localized in a random fashion or widespread. Because of the international dimension of the problem and its essentially unpredictable character it is recommended here that planning for such events should be carried at the national or federal government level rather than at provincial government level. 14 refs

  2. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on August, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from April to September, 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  3. Extending the utility of a radioactive material package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Nathan, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions

    2015-06-04

    Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.

  4. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  5. Safe Handling of Radioactive Materials. Recommendations of the National Committee on Radiation Protection. Handbook 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help users of radioactive materials to handle the radioactive material without exposing themselves or others to radiation doses in excess of maximum permissible limits. The discussion of radiation levels is in terms of readings from dosimeters and survey instruments. Safety in the handling of radioactive materials in…

  6. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in... (radioactive) material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to— (1) The impact test and the percussion test of this section provided that the mass of the special form radioactive material is less...

  7. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  8. Characterisation of natural occurring radioactive materials in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radionuclides (U,Th and K) are known to be present in significant amounts in soil, building materials and recycled industrial waste products. These findings are of our concern since we are continuously being exposed to radiations from such radionuclides, be it at home or workplace. In the study, we have chosen several commonly used building materials such as; cement brick, roof asbestos, red-clay brick, ceiling asbestos and also cement produce which form a vital component in the construction industry. The gamma gross counting method was used to analyse gamma rays at energies 609 keV, 583 keV and 1460 keV using hyperpure germanium counter with 20% efficiency. The radium equivalent activity, Raeq were computed and our findings have shown that some of the samples exhibit a high level of radium equivalent activity, exceeding those of the normal limit recommended by UNSCEAR. (Author)

  9. Denial of shipments of radioactive materials in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Denials, Delays and Abandonment of the Radioactive Materials is a problem at world level that has been increased in the last times with more emphasis starting from the attack of September 11 the 2001 in the USA. From then radioactive materials have been denial or delayed and until abandoned. The materials of short periods used mainly in nuclear medicine as the 99mTc or the 131I, when they are rejected, delayed it usually causes the lost of the material because it has surpassed their useful life and in many cases they are abandoned. The rejections, delays and later abandonment of the materials in special of Medical use have originated serious damages for the nuclear medicine patients as much of diagnoses as of treatments, in Teleterapia for many patients of cancer who could not be treated. In the petroliferous prospecting and Industry has originated numerous economic damages due to the delays since most of the used sources they are of long period but the delay causes an important increase in the cost. (author)

  10. Exposure to radiation from the natural radioactivity in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation exposure of members of the public can be increased appreciably by the use of building materials containing above-normal levels of natural radioactivity. This phenomenon has attracted attention in recent years, and in this review, an attempt is made to the quantify exposures incurred under various circumstances. The second section of the review is a general survey of those building materials, mostly industrial wastes, that have aroused interest in Member countries. The probability that environmental pressures may cause such wastes to be used more and more by building industries may lead to similar situations in the future. Other review material of a relevant nature is described in the third section. Primordial radionuclides only are considered here. They are: potassium-40 (K-40); radium-226 (Ra-226) and its decay products; the series headed by thorium-232 (Th-232). The important radiological consequences of the natural radioactivity in building materials are two-fold, irradiation of the body by gamma rays and irradiation of the lung tissues by radon-222 (Rn-222) decay products or daughters. These consequences cannot be explored quantitatively except in relation to the specific activities of the nuclides of interest, and the approach adopted in this review is to assess the consequences in terms of the incremental radiation exposures that would be incurred by occupants of substantial dwellings entirely constructed of materials with various specific activities or combinations thereof. Gamma rays are dealt with in the fourth section and radon daughters in the fifth

  11. Illicit trafficking of nuclear material and other radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is known, for the fact that the illicit trafficking and trading of nuclear materials are being increased over the past few years because of the huge demand of third world states. Nuclear materials like uranium, plutonium, and thorium are used in nuclear explosives that have very attractive features for crime groups, terrorist groups and, the states that are willing to have this power. Crime groups that make illegal trade of nuclear material are also trying to market strategic radioactive sources like red mercury and Osmium. This kind of illegal trade threats public safety, human health, environment also it brings significant threat on world peace and world public health. For these reasons, both states and international organizations should take a role in dealing with illicit trafficking. An important precondition for preventing this kind of incidents is the existence of a strengthened national system for control of all nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. Further, Governments are responsible for law enforcement within their borders for prevention of illegal trading and trafficking of nuclear materials and radiation sources

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from decommissioning of offshore installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Decommissioning of offshore installations can produce large amount of scale and sludge containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). Because of its radioactivity there are special considerations for both working with and disposal of NORM. There are approximately 600 installations in the North Sea - North Atlantic areas. These will eventually be decommissioned. This is an upcoming challenge considering both safe work and disposal of low-radioactive waste. When oil and gas is produced, water is also produced. The produced water (brine) often includes a large concentration of inorganic salts (up to 30%). Decay products of U-238 (Ra-226, Pb-210) and Th-232 (Ra-228) can occur at elevated concentrations in the produced water. These isotopes can precipitate as deposits (scale) in process equipment (pipes, vessels, etc.) at the offshore production installations. The radioactive scale is normally found in largest quantities on platforms where water has been injected in the underlying reservoir. The main radionuclide in NORM from The North Sea is radium-226 (Ra-226) which has a half-live of 1600 years. Disposal and handling of NORM in Denmark requires an authorisation from the National Board of Health/ National Institute of Radiation Protection (NIRP) and in some cases also other authorities. Disposal options include re-injected into abandoned wells and storage at temporary storage sites on land. The NORM issue must be considered both for the safe work during the decommissioning, and because NORM waste will be part of the outcome of the decommissioning activity. A national facility for disposal of NORM in Denmark will meet the need from the industry for a permanent solution to the waste problem. A solution could be to include NORM in a National repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. The decision for establishing such a repository is pending. (author)

  13. Prevention of radioactive gas seeping into buildings through constructive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of possible method of realization of the terrorist acts is using gases and liquids, which easily permeate through the constructive materials of walls, floor, ceiling, roof, etc. into buildings by the capillary action of the pores. Toxic volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic gases, radioactive elements, especially, which emits alpha particles can be used as the dangerous substances. Increased ventilation may help in removing the gases, but can actually increase the gases level by increasing the suction through the pores of concrete. If the gases and liquids are soluble in water and are easily volatilized from it, they can also get by groundwater up to underground structures and penetrate inside through opening and pores in concrete or pushed by hydrostatic pressure. The purpose of this work is creating a method to reduce concentration of toxic and radioactive gases in homes, buildings, underground buildings, tunnels, hangars, garages, bomb shelters, etc. The most effective method to prevent penetration of radionuclides into premises of buildings and underground structures through walls, roofs, floors is using special chemicals, which seal micropores inside the construction materials against gases. Worked out chemicals which consist of blend of polymeric compounds are described in the paper. Radioactive gases permeability in constructive materials after treatment by chemicals was studied. Influence of types of cement, sand and gypsum, preliminary treatment by different chemicals, different types of polymeric compounds, time between treatments, moisture of materials, time between preparation of chemicals and treatment of materials (aging of chemicals), time between treatment of concrete and testing (aging of treated concrete) were examined. Experiments have shown that our method allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability 200 - 400 times

  14. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  15. Technical considerations for detection of and response to illicit trafficking in radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    it is illicit or 'innocent'. Innocent materials are typically medical radionuclides administered to patient, legal shipments or naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If the radiological hazard is significant, neutron radiation is observed, indicating the presence of nuclear materials or mechanical damage of the item containing the source raises suspicion of contamination, it will be necessary to adopt a tactical response mechanism. A detailed generic model has been developed for a tactical response plan including incident command structures, cordon control areas, casualty handling at the scene, requirements for seizure and temporary storage of radioactive materials, considerations on liaison with the media and incident investigation techniques. Further important information relates to mitigation of health hazards, casualty management, needs for planning, equipment and training, transport arrangements for radioactive materials, decontamination procedures and hints for working with the media. (author)

  16. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts

  17. Radioactive materials and waste. Planning act of 28 jun 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The English translation contained in this booklet is based on Planning Act No. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006 and on articles L. 542-1 and following of the Environmental Code (as modified). It gathers all articles of the French law dealing with the activities of the ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, and with the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. It is provided for convenience purposes only. The French version remains the only valid and legally binding version. In order to enhance readability, all articles relating to ANDRA's activities are consolidated in this self-supporting document. The original French version of the new Act and of the Environmental Code, already published in the 'Journal officiel', are the only authentic biding texts.

  18. Natural radioactivity in building materials used in Changzhi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used building materials collected from Changzhi, China was analysed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the investigated building materials range from 14.6 to 131.2, from 9.9 to 138.8 and from 96.1 to 819.0 Bq kg-1, respectively. The results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the worldwide mean activity of soil. The external and internal hazard indices and gamma index were calculated to assess the radiation hazard to residents. The external hazard index of all building materials are less than unity, while the internal hazard and gamma indexes of hollow brick and gravel aggregate exceed unity. The study shows that the investigated hollow brick and gravel aggregate are not suitable for use as building materials in dwellings. (authors)

  19. Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides practical information needed for evaluating the radiation dose to the general public and workers caused by materials containing elevated levels of natural radionuclides. The report presents criteria, exposure scenarios and calculations used to assess dose with respect to the safety requirements set for construction materials in accordance with the Finnish Radiation Act. A method for calculating external gamma exposure from building materials is presented in detail. The results for most typical cases are given as specific dose rates in table form to enable doses to be assessed without computer calculation. A number of such dose assessments is presented, as is the corresponding computer code. Practical investigation levels for the radioactivity of materials are defined. (23 refs.)

  20. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  1. Workplace characterizations in case of rail transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive fuel and wastes are frequently transported for storage and/or reprocessing purposes. The main part of this transport is generally done by train. Before, during and after the journey, operators and drivers, who work directly in contact with and in the vicinity of the wagons, are exposed to external irradiations due to the radioactive materials that are confined inside the containers. In order to evaluate the dose that its personnel is liable to receive during such transports, the French National Railway Company (SNCF) has requested to the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) a series of workplaces characterizations for convoys of different types, that are considered to be representative of all types of possible transports. Each one is associated to a given radioactive material (low and medium activity wastes, new and used fuel, MOX, uranium fluoride, etc... ), involving photon or mixed neutron-photon fields. This measurement campaign has started in May 2004 and by the end of 2004 at least four types of radioactive convoys will have been investigated (three have already been measured). By using survey meters and spectrometers, the study consists in measuring the external exposure for different stages of the work that is done beside the wagons (for example coupling / decoupling two wagons, or checking the brakes) and inside the locomotive (driving). For each one of these workplaces, the exposure is estimated in terms of the ambient dose equivalent H*(10) by summing the dose all along the different phases carried out by the operator. In addition, a dosimetric characterization of each convoy is made by performing measurements along the wagons and spectrometric information about the photon and/or neutron fields are collected. This study provides helpful data to predict the dose that the operators are liable to integrate over long periods, typically one year. (author)

  2. Transport of radioactive materials of short half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: It is well known the importance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in diagnosis of heart diseases and oncology. In Brazil, the production of fluorine-18 (18F) is performed in Sao Paulo and in Rio de Janeiro. 18F is a radionuclide with a half life of less than one hour which requires an efficient and prompt transport infrastructure from the point where it is produced to the place where it will be used. This may be a problem in big cities like Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro where heavy traffic is a daily experience. To fulfill the growing demand for 18F it would be necessary to have an adequate number of cyclotrons machines providing this radionuclide where and when it is necessary. However, due to their high costs, cyclotrons seem to be a long term solution. Consequently, there is a need for an immediate solution. In this connection, carriers have exercised a number of alternatives as, for example, a dedicated transportation team and the identification and use of optimal routes. These alternatives have demonstrated satisfactory results but represent higher costs. Method and Materials: Observations of the experience in transport of other goods have provided an indication of possible solutions for the prompt transport of 18F. In big Brazilian cities, the use of 2 wheel vehicles like motorcycles has proven to be an alternative to solve problems related to the transport of radioactive material of short half-lives. As any other activity involving the transport of radioactive material, there is a need for a license to be granted by competent authorities. However, the use of 2 wheel vehicles for the transport of dangerous goods is not addressed in the transport regulations. Therefore there is a need of technical approach to obtain the necessary authorization. To accomplish this goal, it was simulated a shipment of radioactive material using a 2 wheel vehicle. In this simulation, 2 routes were chosen: the longest one, 45 kin, and the shortest one, 12

  3. The inhalation of radioactive materials as related to hand contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C.; Rohr, R.C.

    1953-09-15

    Tests performed to determine the hazard associated with the inhalation of radioactive materials as the result of smoking with contaminated hands indicate that for dry uranium compounds adhering to the palmar surfaces of the hands, approximately 1.0% of the material may be transferred to a cigarette, and that of this approximately 0.2% may appear in the smoke which is inhaled. Most of the contamination originally placed in a cigarette was found in the ash, and only 11% of the material was not recovered following burning; approximately half of this loss may be attributed to normal losses inherent in the analytical process, the recovery efficiency for which was found by supplementary experiments to be 95%.

  4. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  5. Trade in radioactive materials - Potential problems and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of radiation protection regulations (including border controls) in consumer countries may potentially lead to the partial or complete loss of market for some mineral producers, and the resulting economic and logistical constraints have become a serious consideration for individual industries. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1) and Advisory Material (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-G-1.1) provide detailed instructions on the transport of material with elevated concentrations of natural radionuclides. However, these documents are somewhat complex for a common user and this paper presents an overview of a simplified step by step guideline developed for both the minerals industry and the appropriate regulatory authorities. Also presented are considerations for the regulatory control of natural radioactivity in international transport and trade and the potential radiation protection and regulatory problems that may arise during transport and at international border crossings. Solutions for these problems are offered in the conclusion. (author)

  6. An Experimental Study of Indoor Dispersion of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Red House' (RH) project, conducted in Israel, aimed at increasing the preparedness for terrorism events where radioactive material is silently released inside a shopping mall or governmental facility. During the tests, a set of releases of 50 mCi's of liquid 99mTc were conducted, and radiation levels were measured, on the ground and in the air. Special attention was given to the air ventilation system, and measurements were taken from the air filters. This paper describes the project objectives, the experimental setups, the results obtained during the tests and a preliminary analysis of them

  7. Recycling of radioactively contaminated materials: Public policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling radioactively contaminated materials requires varying degrees of interaction among Federal regulatory agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State governments and regulators, the public, and the Department of Energy. The actions of any of these parties can elicit reactions from the other parties and will raise issues that must be addressed in order to achieve a coherent policy on recycling. The paper discusses potential actions and reactions of Federal regulatory agencies (defined as NRC and EPA), the States, and the Department and the policy issues they raise

  8. Application of radiation protection programmes to transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The principles for implementing radiation protection programmes (RPP) are detailed in the draft IAEA safety guide TS-G-1.5 'Radiation protection programmes for transport of radioactive material'. The document is described in this paper and analysis is made for typical applications to current operations carried out by consignors, carriers and consignees. Systematic establishment and application of RPPs is a way to control radiological protection during different steps of transport activity. The most widely transported packages in the world are radiopharmaceuticals by road. It is described an application of RPP for an organization involved in road transport of Type A packages containing radiopharmaceuticals. Considerations based on the radionuclides, quantities and activities transported are the basis to design and establish the scope of the RPP for the organizations involved in transport. Next stage is the determination of roles and responsibilities for each activity related to transport of radioactive materials. An approach to the dose received by workers is evaluated considering the type, category and quantity of packages, the radionuclides, the frequency of consignments and how long are the storages. The average of transports made in the last years must be taken into account and special measures intended to optimize the protection are evaluated. Tasks like monitoring, control of surface contamination and segregation measures, are designed based on the dose evaluation and optimization. The RPP also indicates main measures to follow in case of emergency during transport taking account of radionuclides, activities and category of packages for different accident scenarios. Basis for training personnel involved in handling of radioactive materials to insure they have appropriate knowledge about preparing packages, measuring dose rates, calculating transport index, labelling, marking and placarding, transport documents, etc, are considered. The RPP is a part

  9. Compliance assurance for the safe transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to assist competent authorities in the development and maintenance of compliance assurance programmes in connection with the transport of radioactive material, and to assist applicants, licensees and organizations in their interactions, with competent authorities. In order to increase co-operation between competent authorities and to promote uniform application of international regulations and recommendations it is desirable to adopt a common approach to regulatory activities. This book is intended to assist in accomplishing such uniform application by laying down most of the actions that competent authorities need to provide for in their programmes for ensuring regulatory compliance. 23 refs, figs and tabs

  10. Economic effects of detecting and confiscating illicitly trafficked radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development smuggling and confiscation of illicit radioactive materials demands taking into account its financial implications. The real beneficiaries of smuggling are often difficult to identify. Generally the violation cases are impossible to solve. Who would pay? How the costs of detection, analysis and decontamination could be covered. One of the primary solutions could be better charge of different parties (prisoners). It could as well be the responsibility of involved parties (transporters, enterprises, etc.). Another possibility would be to apply the principle of responsibility for payment by the party responsible for contamination

  11. Education and training in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport

  12. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), for NRC Approved Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, is applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  13. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226Ra, 228Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  14. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices

  15. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass

  16. CERN: Materials science with radioactive isotopes from ISOLDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Among the major physics objectives at CERN's ISOLDE on-line isotope separator is the growth field of nuclear solid state physics, where the goals are both technological and scientific. ISOLDE research entered a new era when the facility began operations last year in its new home at the 1 GeV Booster synchrotron (July 1992, page 5). Nuclear solid state physics accounts for about 30% of ISOLDE beam time, other research highlights being nuclear physics, atomic physics, nuclear astrophysics, and biophysics. The achievements so far and ongoing goals of nuclear solid state research were covered in a recent workshop - 'Materials Science with Radioactive Isotopes' - held at CERN from 5-7 April. This carried on from where the 'Radioactive Implants in Materials Science' meeting in Bad Honnef left off in January 1992. The main aims of the CERN meeting were: - to show the outstanding possibilities offered by ISOLDE for solid state experiments using short-lived isotopes; - to stimulate discussion between physicists using nuclear techniques and those employing other methods; and - to look for collaboration opportunities between present ISOLDE users and other researchers: small teams could be strengthened to provide a very cost-effective way of exploiting ISOLDE beams. Nuclear solid state physics at ISOLDE is mainly focused on the investigation of defects and impurities in semiconductors, but will also be used for metals, surfaces and interfaces, using nuclear techniques such as radiotracer diffusion, emission channeling, and Mössbauer or Perturbed Angular Correlation Spectroscopy (PACS). The hitherto serious limitation of many nuclear methods due to a restricted range of chemically different suitable radioactive probe atoms can be easily overcome by ISOLDE'S lengthy isotope menu. Thus whole new classes of semiconductors become accessible for PACS, yielding information on the annealing of radiation damage after heavy ion implantation and

  17. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the first edition in 1961, the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material of the IAEA (IAEA Regulations) have served as the basis of safety for the transport of radioactive material worldwide. In the discussions leading to the first edition of the IAEA Regulations, it was realized that there was need for a publication to supplement the Regulations which could give information of individual provisions as to their purpose, their scientific background and how to apply them in practice. In response, the Agency published Safety Series No. 7, entitled, in its first edition in 1961, 'Notes on Certain Aspects of the Regulations'. An additional source of information on the Regulations, providing advice on 'how' the user should comply with them which could be augmented from time to time in the light of latest experience, was provided by the Agency, initially in relation to the 1973 edition of the Regulations. This was entitled 'Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' and designated Safety Series No. 37. This document is the result of combining the two Safety Series in a single publication. Thus the primary purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to users on proven and acceptable ways of complying with the Regulations. This Advisory Material is not a stand-alone text and it only has significance when used as a companion to the IAEA Safety Standards Series No. ST-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (1996 edition)

  18. Doses to road transport workers from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year approximately 750,000 packages of radioactive materials are shipped throughout Canada. Regulatory controls on these shipments are designed to keep radiation doses received by transport workers well within acceptable limits. Since many of these workers are not monitored for radiation exposure, however, little factual information has been available in Canada to support theoretical estimates. A study to document actual radiation doses received by a select group of transport workers that is actively involved in the shipment of radioactive materials, was carried out in 1987 and 1988. This study involved the monitoring of 31 candidates from nine transport companies from across the country that handle medical isotopes, industrial isotopes, uranium fuel cycle materials and associated radioactive wastes. Each of the candidates (consisting of driver, dock workers, sorters, and supervisors) was issued personal thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) badges that were worn each day during the six month monitoring period. Some of the candidates were also issued cab or area dosimeters that were left in the cabs of the vehicles or in work areas so that the dose received in these areas could be differentiated from total personal exposure. During the monitoring program, the candidates filled out reporting sheets at the end of each working day to document information such as the quantity of materials handled, handling times and vehicle size. This information and the dosimetry data were used in the development of correlations between materials handled and doses reported so that doses for other handling similar materials could be estimated. Based on the results of the study, it was learned that while most of the transport workers receive doses that are at or near background levels, other (particularly those handling medical isotopes) are exposed to levels of radiation that may result in their receiving doses above the 5 mSv per annum limit set for members of the general public. On

  19. State surveillance of radioactive material transportation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this final report on the state surveillance of the transportation of radioactive material (RAM) is to suggest the most cost-effective inspection areas where enforcement actions might be taken by the states during their participation in the State Hazardous Materials Enforcement Development (SHMED) Program. On the basis of the lessons learned from the surveillance program, these actions are enforcement at low-level radioactive burial sites by means of civil penalties and site use suspension; enforcement at airports and at terminals that forward freight; and enforcement of courier companies. More effective and efficient enforcement can be achieved through instrumented police patrol cars and remote surveillance because they require the least amount of time of enforcement personnel. In addition, there is a strong relationship between effective emergency response and enforcement because the appropriate shipping papers, placarding and knowledge of appropriate emergency response procedures lead to improved emergency response. These lessons originate from a ten-state surveillance program from 1977 through 1981 jointly sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and DOT. The states give recommendations in the categories of education, training, expanded surveillance, coordination and enforcement. The topics of special interest covered include low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, airports, cargo terminals, highways, ports, and accidents and incidents. The three most common problems in compliance with RAM transportation regulations reported by the states are incorrect package labeling; improper shipping papers; and incorrect or missing placards. Other common problems reported by the states are summarized. The relationship to other studies, the status of the SHMED Program, a synopsis of state RAM surveillance reports, and NRC/DOT expenditures are given

  20. Organization of customs control of fissionable and other radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the routine inspection tasks of the Sheremetyevo customs office are tasks stemming from international commitments of Russia to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons and material that can be used for making these weapons. These tasks are: radiation monitoring of all vehicles, passengers, their luggage and goods crossing the state border; inspection of fissionable and radioactive materials (FRM) legally transported by participants in the foreign trade activities with a view to checking that the declared data fully correspond to the actual radioactive cargo. Organizational measures and technical measures at the Sheremetyevo customs office are described in detail. The efficiency of the scheme is illustrated by the following figures. In 1997, when appropriate technical means and trained personnel were lacking, there were only 2 events of detecting items with a rather high radioactivity level in the luggage. In 1999, after the entire radiation monitoring system was fully deployed (i.e. the flight checkpoint was equipped with technical means of radiation monitoring, personnel was trained, special technologies and algorithms were developed), there were 61 events of radiation detection, and in 2000 there have been 90 events, including breaches of legal FRM traffic regulations through disagreement of declared and actual parameters. We believe that the above-considered organization of radiation monitoring allows effective and quite reliable control of and adequate response to possible illicit transport of FRM through the airport Sheremetyevo to other countries, including CIS. In the near future we plan to increase the efficiency of the radiation monitoring by integrating the currently operational customs-used stationary FRM detection systems into a single information network capable of providing simultaneous video-aided continuous nuclear monitoring at three terminals (Sheremetyevo-1, Sheremetyevo-2, Sheremetyevo-Cargo) with display of information at the workstation

  1. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site's suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling

  2. Quality assurance in the transport and packaging of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality Assurance (QA) is a requirement of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6 ''Regulations for Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials.'' It is also, increasingly, a customer requirement. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Transport Division has established an integrated management system (including quality and safety) which is being extended to cover environmental aspects. The management system covers the design, procurement, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance, inspection and decommissioning of all packages used for the transport of radioactive materials and for interim storage. It also covers planning, programming and transport operations. These arrangements cover all modes of transport by road, rail, sea and air. The QA arrangements developed enable Transport Division to demonstrate to Competent Authorities, customers and the general public that the systems in place meet all regulatory requirements. This paper discusses what quality assurance is, why QA arrangements should be introduced and how they were established within Transport Division. Finally, the further developments in the Division's quality arrangements using the tools and techniques of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the European Foundation for Quality Management Model for Self Assessment are described

  3. Natural radioactivity measurements in some Indian building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with the radioactivity measurements of some Indian building materials using gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration obtained for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K ranged from 8.3 to 88.47, 8.45 to 95.29 and 23.43 to 155.46 Bq kg-1, with the mean values of 42.57, 34.85 and 63.25 Bq kg-1 respectively. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity in the samples, the radium equivalent activity the absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index were also calculated. The study yields an annual effective dose equivalent in the range of 0.6 to 11.73 x 10-5 Sv with a mean value of 5.77 x 10-5 Sv. The results suggest that the use of such building materials in the construction of domestic dwellings or workplaces in India is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants. The uranium calculated using fission track registration technique and the values ranged from 0.69 to 2.28 ppm. (author)

  4. Natural radioactivity in building materials and phosphate fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction industry is one of the most thriving industries in Kerala these days. The objective of the present study is to understand the various radionuclides present in some of the building materials used for construction of buildings in Kerala. The inhabitants as well as the construction workers of the building will be the suffering group if these materials are highly radioactive. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K measured in the different samples of building analysed is found to be greater than the values given in the references cited in the literature. The outdoor absorbed dose rate values and annual effective dose values were also determined. A newspaper reported recently that grains like rice and wheat are being transported to the ware houses of Food Corporation of India in Kerala from other states in the same wagon in which cement and fertilizers were transported. This news motivated us to analyse one fertilizer sample also for radioactivity. The activity concentrations of different radionuclides in the phosphate fertilizers, commonly used by farmers in Kerala is reported. (author)

  5. Dose control in road transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses to workers in the transport of radioactive material should be as low as reasonably achievable. The average doses of drivers and loaders, sampled in this thesis should be decreased. The demonstration of doses control in a road vehicle with radioactive material required by the current Brazilian regulation, CNEN NE 5.01 should be written in its own printed form with exposure values obtained in normally occupied positions from workers and members of the public, even when the consignment does not need 'exclusive use' (⅀IT ≤50). Through bibliographic research, modeling and field research, this research work shows that this demonstration of the control should be done by writing the registration accumulation of load, limited (⅀IT ≤50), also in the own printed form. It is for a better control method, in order to avoid the use of measuring equipment, to build standardization with foreign regulations, to the current occupational doses of radioprotection technicians, the costs and time, (important for consignment with radiopharmaceuticals short half-life) would be all smaller. Exposure values of the parameters used with this method are smaller than regulatory limits. The segregation distances between loads and the cabins of vehicles shall be showed by Brazilian regulation updated to contribute to these aims. (author)

  6. Crush loadings to radioactive material transport packages during ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accident-resistant Type B packages are used to transport radioactive materials such as spent fuel and vitrified high level waste in all surface modes, in accordance with national and international regulations. As with other modes, a sea-going conveyance (vessel) carrying radioactive material (RAM) may be involved in a collision accident. If the vessel is struck by another commercial vessel with sufficient tonnage and velocity, the RAM package may be impacted by the penetrating bow of the striking ship. The impact on the RAM package by the bow is less damaging to the package than the regulatory 9 m drop test. This is because the velocity is always lower and the bow always less rigid than the essentially unyielding target required for the drop test. Thus, the only remaining mechanism for gross damage to the package is crush loading. For the package to be crushed, forces must act on two opposing sides. In this paper, the bow of the impacting ship is assumed to be able to impart an infinite force to one side of the package. The opposing force is supplied by the hull of the struck ship on the side away from the collision. Resistance of this hull to penetration by the package determines the maximum magnitude of the crush force. Work described in this paper is aimed at determining an upper bound for this force. (author)

  7. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on March, 1997. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, sea fish, freshwater fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1994 to Mar. 1995. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium-90 and Cesium-137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (G.K.)

  8. Radioactivity survey data in Japan. Pt. 2. Dietary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on radioactivity in Japan issued by National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba on September, 1998. This data relates to some environmental materials such as rain and dry fallout, airborne dust, service water, freshwater, soil, sea water and sea sediments and some dietary materials such as rice, milk, vegetables, tea, fish, shellfish, and seaweeds, which were collected from Oct. 1995 to Mar. 1996. In the survey data, followings are contained: 1) Collection and pretreatment of samples, 2) Preparation of samples for analysis, 3) Separation of Strontium 90 and Cesium 137, 4) Determination of stable Strontium, Calcium, and Potassium, 5) Counting, 6) Results, and 7) Contents of Figure. (J.P.N.)

  9. Combating illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive material. Reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended for individuals and organizations that may be called upon to deal with the detection of and response to criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear or other radioactive material. It will also be useful for legislators, law enforcement agencies, government officials, technical experts, lawyers, diplomats and users of nuclear technology. This manual emphasizes the international initiatives for improving the security of nuclear and other radioactive material. However, it is recognized that effective measures for controlling the transfer of equipment, non-nuclear material, technology or information that may assist in the development of nuclear explosive devices, improvised nuclear devices (INDs) or other radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) are important elements of an effective nuclear security system. In addition, issues of personal integrity, inspection and investigative procedures are not discussed in this manual, all of which are essential elements for an effective overall security system. The manual considers a variety of elements that are recognized as being essential for dealing with incidents of criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material. Depending on conditions in a specific State, including its legal and governmental infrastructure, some of the measures discussed will need to be adapted to suit that State's circumstances. However, much of the material can be applied directly in the context of other national programmes. This manual is divided into four main parts. Section 2 discusses the threat posed by criminal or unauthorized acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as the policy and legal bases underlying the international effort to restrain such activities. Sections 3 and 4 summarize the major international undertakings in the field. Sections 5-8 provide some basic technical information on radiation, radioactive material, the health consequences of radiation

  10. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary legislation governing safety in uses of ionizing radiation in Ireland is the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. This Act provided for the establishment in 1992 of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, and gives the Institute the functions and powers which enable it to be the regulatory body for all matters relating to ionizing radiation. A Ministerial Order made under the Act in 2000 consolidates previous regulations and, in particular, provides for the implementation in Irish law of the 1996 European Union Directive which lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. Under the legislation, the custody, use and a number of other activities involving radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus require a licence issued by the Institute. Currently some 1260 licences are in force. Of these, some 850 are in respect of irradiating apparatus only and are issued principally to dentists and veterinary surgeons. The remaining licences involve sealed radiation sources and/or unsealed radioactive substances used in medicine, industry or education. A schedule attached to each licence fully lists the sealed sources to which the licence applies, and also the quantities of radioactive substances which may be acquired or held under the licence. It is an offence to dispose of, or otherwise relinquish possession of, any licensable material other than in accordance with terms and conditions of the licence. Disused sources are returned to the original supplier or, where this is not possible, stored under licence by the licensee who used them. Enforcement of the licensing provisions relies primarily on the programme of inspection of licensees, carried out by the Institute's inspectors. The Institute's Regulatory Service has a complement of four inspectors, one of whom is the Manager of the Service. The Manager reports to one of the Institute's Principal

  11. 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Richard W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-27

    This report provides the results of the 2011 Radioactive Materials Usage Survey for Unmonitored Point Sources (RMUS), which was updated by the Environmental Protection (ENV) Division's Environmental Stewardship (ES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ES classifies LANL emission sources into one of four Tiers, based on the potential effective dose equivalent (PEDE) calculated for each point source. Detailed descriptions of these tiers are provided in Section 3. The usage survey is conducted annually; in odd-numbered years the survey addresses all monitored and unmonitored point sources and in even-numbered years it addresses all Tier III and various selected other sources. This graded approach was designed to ensure that the appropriate emphasis is placed on point sources that have higher potential emissions to the environment. For calendar year (CY) 2011, ES has divided the usage survey into two distinct reports, one covering the monitored point sources (to be completed later this year) and this report covering all unmonitored point sources. This usage survey includes the following release points: (1) all unmonitored sources identified in the 2010 usage survey, (2) any new release points identified through the new project review (NPR) process, and (3) other release points as designated by the Rad-NESHAP Team Leader. Data for all unmonitored point sources at LANL is stored in the survey files at ES. LANL uses this survey data to help demonstrate compliance with Clean Air Act radioactive air emissions regulations (40 CFR 61, Subpart H). The remainder of this introduction provides a brief description of the information contained in each section. Section 2 of this report describes the methods that were employed for gathering usage survey data and for calculating usage, emissions, and dose for these point sources. It also references the appropriate ES procedures for further information. Section 3 describes the RMUS and explains how the survey results are

  12. Incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials (1993-2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confirmed incidents of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials between 1993-2005 shows that, 27% involved nuclear materials, 62% radioactive materials,7% involved both nuclear and other radioactive materials while the remainder involved other radioactive and non radioactive materials.Also 80% of nuclear material which was recovered during the same period was not reported as stolen or lost.

  13. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  14. Radon concentration due to naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (N.O.R.M.) are and always have been a part of our world. Our planet and its atmosphere contain many different naturally occurring radioactive species. N.O.R.M. can be of cosmogenic origin and terrestrial origin (singly occurring radionuclides and series decay) It is well known that N.O.R.M., as uranium and thorium are hazardous to health and it has long been recognized that work with N.O.R.M. can raise significantly the exposure in the workforce. Inhalation of radon (222Rn), from the 238U series, represents the main contribution to the effective dose received by the workers. At the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, there is a facility dealing with great uranium and thorium concentrations, the nuclear materials storage site. In order to estimates afterwards the inhalation effective committed dose for the workers, it is being assessed the radon concentrations in air at the place. The aim of this study is to determine the radon levels at the IPEN nuclear materials storage site. It is being monitored fifteen points inside the workplace. Radon measurements were carried out through the passive method with solid state nuclear track detectors (Makrofol E), because of their simplicity and long-term integrated read-out. The exposure period is three months, covering one year minimum, in order to determine the long-term average levels of the indoor radon concentrations with varying seasons. The first run, covering the period from December 2004 to June 2005, showed radon concentrations varying from 341 ± 41 Bq/m3 to 2224 ± 330 Bq/m3. (authors)

  15. Decree Law No.12 dated March 2, 1985. Approves regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This regulation established the conditions that the transport of radioactive materials must comply with for all types of land, aquatic or air transport as long as the radioactive materials are not an integral part of the transport medium. Accidental transport inherent in using radioactive materials in included. All transport of radioactive materials requires the Competent Authority or other agency authorized to provide it

  16. Dose rate measurements around consignments of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material require compliance with various radiation protection control measures and also require the competent authority to arrange for periodic assessments of the radiation doses to workers and to members of the public. It is a two-fold approach of controls and assessments. Periodic reviews of the radiological impact arising from the transport of radioactive materials by road, rail, sea and air, have been undertaken by NRPB on behalf of the UK Competent Authority. Dose assessments were made using estimated exposure times together with measured and extrapolated dose rates from 'near-field' regions close to consignments, 'mid-field' regions occupied by transiently exposed persons and 'far-field' regions occupied by members of the public. The results show that annual doses to workers and public are generally small fractions of dose limits. The exception is a small group of driver/handlers involved with packages for medical and industrial use. Compliance with the Regulations has ensured that a sufficient degree of control exists. Originally, most packages were small compared with the distances to exposed persons. Point source geometry was therefore used. More recently, it has been estimated that only a minority of all consignments of radioactive material is of sufficiently small dimensions for point source geometry to continue to apply. Instead, initial despatches of radionuclide packages can consist of consignments of several cubic metres in size, and only at tertiary despatch level would point source geometry prevail. However, for all physically large loads, the measured dose rates do not decline as rapidly as point source geometry would suggest based on the Tl value. Development of the methodology adopted by the IAEA Regulations over some 40 years has introduced parameters to compensate in part for these levels of dose rate, and, together with operational improvements

  17. Workplace characterisation in case of rail transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRSN has been asked by SNCF (French Railways) to carry out measurements in order to establish the values of ambient dose equivalents H*(10) in the vicinity of shipments of radioactive materials to assess the external exposure to ionising radiation to which employees may be subjected during the carriage of radioactive goods. Detailed dosimetric characterisations of the wagons have been made and the external exposure at different stages of the work that is done by the employees have been measured in terms of H* (10). For the study presented in this paper, and corresponding to a used fuel shipment composed of UO2 and UO2-PuO2, it has been observed that the photon and neutron doses are very similar. In addition, the order of magnitude of the total dose integrated by an employee who would carry out 100 times the series of essential operational tasks, has been found to be ∼250 μSv. This value is compared with those observed for other previously investigated shipments involving the exposure to photon fields only. (authors)

  18. Priorities for technology development and policy to reduce the risk from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standing Committee on International Security of Radioactive and Nuclear Materials in the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Division conducted its fourth annual workshop in February 2010 on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials. This workshop examined new technologies in real-time tracking of radioactive materials, new risks and policy issues in transportation security, the best practices and challenges found in addressing illicit radioactive materials trafficking, industry leadership in reducing proliferation risk, and verification of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, Article VI. Technology gaps, policy gaps, and prioritization for addressing the identified gaps were discussed. Participants included academia, policy makers, radioactive materials users, physical security and safeguards specialists, and vendors of radioactive sources and transportation services. This paper summarizes the results of this workshop with the recommendations and calls to action for the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) membership community.

  19. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vince, D.J. [Department for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages.

  20. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages

  1. Natural Radioactivity in Clay and Building Materials Used in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riekstina D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of natural radionuclide concentration and activity index study in materials used for construction in Latvia. Special attention is given to clay and clay ceramics. Concentrations of K-40 and Th- 232, U-238 radioactivity were determined using gamma-spectrometry method. In some building ware, maximal concentration of K-40 was 1440 Bq/kg, and of U-238 - 175 Bq/kg. In granite, the determined maximum concentration of Th-232 was 210 Bq/kg. It was found that radionuclide content in different period clay deposits can differ by more than two times, and up to five times in different clay ceramics. The results obtained are compared with analogous data from the other Baltic and North European countries.

  2. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on

  3. Radioprotection from design to exploitation of radioactive material transport packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author gives an overview of the various aspects, methods and trends related to the design, test and use of packaging used for the transportation of radioactive materials. He evokes the currently existing calculation methods and codes which are used to assess irradiation sources and to study the propagation of such irradiation through matter. He discusses the qualification process of a radioprotection calculation scheme and gives and comments comparison between computed and measured results of effective dose flow rate about packaging. He presents the 'Transportability' tool which uses a database of fuel assembly characteristics, a code to assess neutron and gamma sources, a packaging model used to compute the different contributions to effective dose flow rates, a validation stage, and a fixed margin

  4. Logistics of radioactive materials: optimization of laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article considers the problems of the Russian authorization system in the field of radioactive materials (RM) logistics which does not meet the needs of their application in medicine, science and industry. To correct the situation, first of all, it is necessary to revise the licensing system. For optimization of licensing in the field of RM transportation, a radical revision is needed for the Regulations of transportation of dangerous cargoes by automobiles, sanitary regulations, the GOST Dangerous Cargoes, numerous federal codes and norms issued by Rostekhnadzor in recent years. It is also necessary to review and coordinate various sanitary regulations for radiation safety, develop the Agreement on transit transportation of RM between the countries of the CIS

  5. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES IN TRANSPORT CONFIGURATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-04

    Drum type packages are routinely used to transport radioactive material (RAM) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. These packages are designed to meet the federal regulations described in 10 CFR Part 71. The packages are transported in specially designed vehicles like Safe Secure Transport (SST) for safety and security. In the transport vehicles, the packages are placed close to each other to maximize the number of units in the vehicle. Since the RAM contents in the packagings produce decay heat, it is important that they are spaced sufficiently apart to prevent overheating of the containment vessel (CV) seals and the impact limiter to ensure the structural integrity of the package. This paper presents a simple methodology to assess thermal performance of a typical 9975 packaging in a transport configuration.

  6. Regulatory control and management of radioactive materials in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) by virtue of Republic Act 2067, as amended, Republic Act 5207 and Executive Order 128 (1987), was mandated to promote, advance and regulate the safe and peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology in the Philippines. The PNRI was formerly the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, established in 1958. This report aims to share the information and experience of PNRI as a regulatory authority on the administrative, technical and managerial aspects to ensure the safety and security of radioactive material in the country. It describes the country's regulatory framework, operational experiences, international co-operation including reporting system and database, and radiological safety assessment and compliance monitoring. It also briefly discusses the current development of the country's radiological emergency response plan and the radiation protection services offered by the PNRI. In the discussion and recommendations, some of the results of the regulatory information conferences conducted with the end-users are enumerated. (author)

  7. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  8. Data assimilation on atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drews, Martin

    2006-01-01

    During a nuclear accident in which radionuclides are released to the atmosphere, off-site dose assessment using atmospheric dispersion models play an important role in facilitating optimized interventions, i.e. for mitigating the radiological consequences. By using data assimilation methods......, radiological observations, e.g. dose rate measurements, can be used to improve these model predictions and to obtain real-time estimates of the atmospheric dispersion parameters. This thesis examines data assimilation in the context of atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. In particular, it presents...... greatly improved dose rate assessment. The Kalman filter method is found to be computationally efficient and therefore has the potential of becoming an efficient operational assimilation tool for nuclear emergency management. Empirical dispersion data are crucial in order to evaluate dose rate models and...

  9. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  10. Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over six years the customs service of Russian Federation has been dealing with the new problem of preventing the illicit trafficking of FRM (fissionable and radioactive material) through customs. This retaliatory measure of the Russian government was undertaken after the incident with plutonium at the Munich airport in 1994. This new function is realized by solving two principal tasks: 1. Detection at the checkpoints of persons, goods, or means of transportation containing illegally transported FRM. 2. Organization of customs procedures and customs controls for FRM (export, import, and transit) in order to prevent FRM smuggling by their replacing or trafficking in quantities not corresponding to that declared on the state customs declaration. It would be impossible to fulfill these goals without specially designed technical means of detection and identification of FRM for customs control and without trained customs officers

  11. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry. Government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated 'lead department', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies. For their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nationwide response capability. (author)

  12. Spoken commands control robot that handles radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several robotic systems have been developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to handle radioactive material. Because of safety considerations, the robotic system must be under direct human supervision and interactive control continuously. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a voice-recognition system that permits this control, yet allows the robot to perform complex preprogrammed manipulations without the operator's intervention. To provide better interactive control, we connected to the robot's control computer, a speech synthesis unit, which provides audible feedback to the operator. Thus upon completion of a task or if an emergency arises, an appropriate spoken message can be reported by the control computer. The training programming and operation of this commercially available system are discussed, as are the practical problems encountered during operations

  13. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards

  14. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability

  15. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY IN SOME BUILDING MATERIALS USING A GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER

    OpenAIRE

    AKKURT, Iskender; Betül MAVİ

    2011-01-01

    The main reason for the natural radioactivity in the earth is decay series of 40K, 238U and 232Th radionuclides. Because all building materials are soil product, they contain these radionuclides as natural so that building materials have different amounts of radioactivity. In this study the concentrations of natural radioactivity levels of the commonly used natural building materials in Isparta region have been determined. The samples have been analysed using a NaI(Tl) ƒ×-ray spectrometer sy...

  16. Transportation of radioactive materials issued from the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the context of radioactive material transportation (types of transported materials, applicable constraints), the author describes the different kinds of packaging used during the different stages of the fuel cycle in the case of light water reactors: ore concentrates, UF4 and UF6, low enriched uranium oxide, impoverished uranium oxide, plutonium oxide, new UO2 and MOX fuel assemblies, irradiated fuel assemblies aimed at processing-recycling, uranyl nitrate, warehousing of irradiated fuels before final storage, wastes (high, very low, low and medium activity). He briefly evokes packaging for the case of fast neutron or fusion reactors. He discusses the various aspects of packaging design: safety function, applicable constraints and tests, design and material choice with respect with various issues (criticality, confinement, biological protection, heat transfer, mechanical resistance and shock damping properties, radiolysis and thermolysis, interfaces with transportation installations and means). He describes how packaging is exploited: life cycle management, fabrication, exploitation, maintenance and spare parts, end of life, documentation. He addresses how transportation is organised by evoking transport means and modes, and transport commissioning

  17. Assessment of the US Department of Transportation's radioactive materials routing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) requires postnotification of highway route controlled quantity shipments of radioactive materials. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and NRC-licensed shippers of designated quantities of radioactive materials provide this post-notification to DOT. DOT compiles the routing data in the Radioactive Materials Routing Report (RAMRT). The RAMRT may be a useful source of data for research and development leading to improved safety and efficiency of highway shipments of radioactive materials

  18. Monitoring for radioactive materials releasing to environment in M310 reformatived nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne radioactive materials of nuclear power plant (NPP) releases to the environment from the stack of NPP. Radioactive liquid waste releases of the ocean, the fluvial and the lake through the liquid waste letdyke of NPP. Further more, a few radioactive waste may be taken out of the NPP by vehicle or personnel. For the purpose of strict management and control above-mentioned waste, we use detect equipment monitoring radioactive waste of NPP. Management and control for the releasing of radioactive material to the environment in M310 reformatived NPP is strict and safety. (authors)

  19. Advisory material for the IAEA regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material (1985 edition). 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material provide standards for ensuring a high level of safety of people, property and the environment against radiation and criticality hazards as well as thermal effects associated with the transport of radioactive material. The basic requirements to be met are: Effective containment of radioactive material; Effective control of radiation emitted from the package; A subcritical condition for any fissile material; and Adequate dissipation of any heat generated within the package. Effective quality assurance and compliance assurance programmes are required, for example: (a) Appropriate and sound packages are used; (b) The activity of radioactive material in each package does not exceed the regulatory activity limit for that material and that package type; (c) The radiation levels external to, and the contamination levels on, surfaces of packages do not exceed the appropriate limits; (d) Packages are properly marked and labelled and transport documents are completed; (e) the number of packages containing radioactive material in a conveyance is within the regulatory limits; (f) Packages of radioactive material are stowed in conveyances and are stored at a safe distance from persons and photosensitive materials; (g) Only those transport and lifting devices which have been tested are used in loading, conveying and unloading packages of radioactive material; and (h) Packages of radioactive material are properly secured for transport. The control of the transport of radioactive materials may be necessary also for other reasons, e.g. safeguards control and physical protection of nuclear materials and control of a property. For radioactive materials having other dangerous properties, the regulations of Member States, modal conventions and agreements, and other relevant documents of international organizations need to be applied. A Member State may require in its national regulations that an additional approval be

  20. Prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear material and radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Countries like Russia, which have a large nuclear industry, export a significant number of radioactive sources and substances. Some of them are nuclear material. In general, it is the task of the customs inspectors to verify that the content of the shipment is in agreement with the declaration (as safeguards inspectors verify operators declarations). In case of other goods, this is easy. The consignment can be opened and the content can be seen and compared with the declaration. In the case of radioactive shipments this cannot be done. The radioactive substance is in a shielded container and opening is often only possible in a hot cell. Opening of the package and measurement of the removed source in presence of the customs inspector is impossible because the customs inspector is impossible because the customs control begins only after the declaration has been registered. Therefore, the Russian customs authorities have contracted a company to develop a gamma spectrometer, which can be used to verify the source, even if inside the shielded shipping container. Throughout the country - near the where many shipments or receivables take place - there are 18 customs offices, equipped with gamma spectrometers and special software. If a container arrives for customs inspection, its design is called from a database. Then the gamma spectrum outside the container is measured and the measured gamma peak energy and intensity is compared with the expected, which is calculated by software based on the design information of the container. This approach works well. Several cases were already discovered in Russia, where there were attempts to use legal shipments for smuggling radioactive sources. I would like to mention some technical problems concerning control of legal export and import of radioactive sources: a) There are not enough commercial suppliers, which offer the needed equipment; because of lack of competition prices for the equipment are too high b) Presently

  1. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1988. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  2. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A., E-mail: A.Shakhashiro@iaea.or [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Sansone, U. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTP, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhoefer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Former collaborator) (Korea, Republic of); Kis-Benedek, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary); Al-Masri, M.S. [Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2011-01-15

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  3. Instrumentation, Equipment and Methods for the In Vivo Measurement of Radioactive Material in the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current applications for the in vivo measurement of radioactive material can be divided into three broad categories: (1) occupational exposure monitoring, (2) monitoring of the public, and (3) medical monitoring. The focus of this chapter is on occupational exposure monitoring that is part of an internal dosimetry program for monitoring workers for intakes and assessing the dose consequences of an intake. In the 1920's when electroscopes were first used to measure radium in the body of dial painters issues affecting the measurement accuracy were identified related to external contamination interferences, properly measuring the instrument background, need for measurement QC, microphonic interferences, shielding and others. The sophistication of the radiation detection instrumentation has evolved to the point where most systems today employ one or more detectors primarily either sodium iodide or germanium. Many different styles of detectors and cryostat designs are used at different facilities. However, the same issues identified in the 1920's are still issues today. The in vivo measurement systems are calibrated with anthropometric phantoms that simulate the body or parts of the body. Whole body phantoms, torso phantoms, lung phantoms, thyroid phantoms and skeletal phantoms are just some of the different types used.The systems are typically shielded with low background materials such as pre-World War II steel from battleships. Interferences can come from naturally occurring radioactive material, medically administered radiopharmaceuticals, equipment instability, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and other sources. These contribute to the uncertainties in measurement results that can range from 10% to 1000% or more depending on the measurement system, the energy of the radiation associated with the radionuclide to be measured, the accuracy of the phantom versus the person especially how well the distributions of activity match.

  4. Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials: 1987 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From time to time, the issue as to whether the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) should seek legislative authority to regulate naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive materials (NARM) is raised. Because NARM exists in the environment, in homes, in workplaces, in medical institutions, and in consumer products, the issue of Federal controls over NARM is very old and very complex. This report presents a review of NARM sources and uses as well as incidents and problems associated with those materials. A review of previous congressional and Federal agency actions on radiation protection matters, in general, and on NARM, in particular, is provided to develop an understanding of existing Federal regulatory activity in ionizing radiation and in control of NARM. In addition, State controls over NARM are reviewed. Eight questions are examined in terms of whether the NRC should seek legislative authority to regulate NARM. The assessment of these questions serves as the basis for developing and evaluating five options. The evaluation of those options leads to two recommendations

  5. Development of a sampler to characterize radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very important to find a method of decontamination for nuclear contaminated objects without generating large amounts of radioactive waste. In order to develop an appropriate method it's necessary to know how much the object is contaminated and what the contaminant is. The project focus was to develop a sampler that may give this information with high precision, generating few waste and easy to operate. The sampler used a pulsed Nd:YAG (Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) laser in its fundamental wavelength of 1064nm to ablate the materials surface, then the particulates generated by the ablation were sucked by a vacuum pump, collected by a filter and then analyzed in a gamma spectrometer to determine which contaminants were present in the sample. A set of two mirrors attached to two DC motors was controlled by a computer interface using the software LabView to make the laser beam scan and ablate a determined area of the materials surface. (author)

  6. Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA Safety Series No 6 and SAGSTRAM have gone - long live ST-1 and TRANSSAC. Yes, the styles remain the same but improvements have occurred and should continue. At IAEA, transport safety previously had a senior advisory group SAGSTRAM (Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material). With the establishment of the Department of Nuclear Safety at IAEA, a review of supporting advisory committees was undertaken. There are now four Safety Standards Advisory Committees, one each for transport, waste, radiation and nuclear safety. An advisory Commission on Safety Standards has also been established as an overseeing commission. The Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC) currently has 18 members together with observers from international organisations and advisers: it had its second meeting in March 1997. IAEA publications are now known as the 'Safety Standards Series' and those related to transport safety are in the category 'safe transport' with publication numbers prefixed by 'ST'. The 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations is ST-1. There are some major changes, with a new high integrity package (Type C), radionuclide-specific exemption values and a new material category of low dispersible material (LDM). In addition, there are revisions relating to criticality safety and to packages containing uranium hexafluoride. There is a register of UN numbers linked to the Schedules of Requirements for Specified Consignments. The regulations remain complex with extensive cross-referencing. Names and numbers are a useful means of identification but policy and content are the important matters. With the recent publication of the latest edition of the IAEA transport regulations, TRANSSAC had the opportunity to review the draft revisions of the supporting documents. The explanatory and advisory material have been combined into one document (ST-2) and transport emergency response information will be published as ST-3. TRANSSAC agreed

  7. A proposal for an international tagging system for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In an earlier paper based on our experience with lost or abundant radiation sources, we have discussed the need of an international tagging system for radioactive materials for the purpose of insuring trackability, accountability and safety. In this paper we take our discussion further by presenting a proposal of establishing such an international tagging system for radioactive materials which we call ITS-RM. The elements of ITS-RM: IAEA is to be the international authority in charge of ITS-RM; Each 'significant' radiation source is to be labeled with a unique number at the point of production. This number is identified as ITS-RM number; The term 'significant' can be defined in light of current international standards; As each source is naturally possessed by some legal notion or international entity, each time this entity is changed (e.g. the source is sold, resold, transported, decommissioned etc.) the process of changing hand is registered at IAEA via the ITS-RM number; No source is to change hands without triggering ITS-RM; Even if a source finds its way to a waste facility it will remain tagged indefinitely. The requirement for ITS-RM: Legal requirement: this issue needs to be studied to find out weather anew international treaty needs to be established or ITS-RM can be applied under existing treaties; Organizational requirements: This can be easily done with the framework if IAEA and national counterparts; Consultation requirements: ITS-RM can only work if it is done through complete consultation and cooperation with manufactures. Old and current sources: An effort is to be made to survey and tag current sources; Priorities will be given as follows: first to new sources second to current sources the comes last old sources, particularly those in storage facilities; ITS-RM is not to compete with any existing safety system, national or internationally, to the contrary is to support safety. ITS-RM advantages are many but in particular we have

  8. Compatibility of radioactive materials transportation with railroad operations: two views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has a growing need for safe, economical and efficient transport of nuclear spent fuel and similar radioactive materials. In most cases railroads are the clearly economic mode of transport. Many US rail carriers have shown an increasing reluctance - in some instances an outright refusal - to handle these commodities. This is in spite of very stringent packaging and safety regulations, and a virtually perfect accident record to date. Following several years of fruitless discussions with the railroads on this issue, the nuclear industry filed several complaints with the Interstate Commerce Commission seeking to force the railroads to handle this traffic in normal operations. The history and results of the investigations stemming from these complaints are covered in other papers. The testimony, exhibits and briefs submitted in these cases illustrate the reasons for the railroads' safety concerns and why they believe certain train operating restrictions will produce a safer transport environment. Despite the acknowledged sturdiness of spent fuel casks, the rail industry has not been convinced that the tests and model simulations used by the nuclear industry to design and certify casks adequately portrayed the forces actually generated in a railroad accident. The most significant of the operating changes proposed by the carriers in response to this concern was the requirement that spent fuel be moved only in special trains.According to the railroads, this would permit closer monitoring; reduce both the probability and consequences of accidents; permit better control of speeds; and minimize switching and terminal handling. A review of the material submitted by both the protestants and respondents in these proceedings provides a clearer understanding of the litigants' respective positions, as well as some insights into practical railroading as it pertains to the transportation of nuclear materials

  9. Radiation and Radioactivity Levels Survey of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) at PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI) is the largest oil company sharing contractor with Pertamina, located in Riau Province, Central Sumatera, employs about 6,800 employees and works together with 28,000 business partner employees. Currently CPI produces about 510,000 bbls crude oil. The production process mobilizes the naturally occurring radionuclides from deep reservoir rock that are deposited as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in well tubes, surface pipes, vessels and other processing equipment. NORM has a potential to be externally exposed during production process due to the accumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides and internal exposure to employees/business partners particularly during maintenance, sludge processing and decontamination of equipment. Understanding of the possible NORM hazards to human life, CPI initiated a NORM survey in order to obtain a clear picture of the magnitude of NORM in CPI operations. The survey has been conducted in 2001 and 2002 involved experts from Chevron Texaco USA, BATAN and BAPETEN Jakarta. The survey covered the determination of gamma exposure rates and the concentration of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th and 40K in several samples taken from scale, sludge, tank bottom and sand. To safely management of NORM, the Industrial Health Team of Corporate Health, Environment and Safety in coordination with Training Center Team and BATAN have conducted a NORM training for Industrial Hygienist and employees exposed to NORM, developed Standard Operating Procedure for NORM Handling and Disposal and continuously performed NORM survey and mapping of all suspected areas. (author)

  10. Software Development of Display Interface in Walk-Through Metal and Radioactive Materials Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yong; WANG; Qiang; GAO; Qi; TIAN; Li-jun; YANG; Lu; ZHENG; Yu-lai; GUO; Feng-mei

    2012-01-01

    <正>With the advanced digital detecting technology, Walk-through metal and radioactive materials detector (MRMD) was specifically designed for detecting metal and radioactive materials carried on a person. It has advantages of safe, high sensitivity, fine anti-interference capability, 24 h continually working, sound and light alarming.

  11. Probability and severity of fires on board ships carrying radioactive materials. Annex 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the five UK contributions to the International Atomic Energy Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material (CRP) on Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material. (author)

  12. Users manual. Pursuit program of use licenses of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the program 'Databases for the pursuit of licenses of use of radioactive material', it consists on the application of a computer system carried out in dbase IV that it allows the control of the all the information related with those licenses for use, possession and storage of radioactive material or generator equipment of ionizing radiations. (Author)

  13. Law project on the radioactive materials and wastes management 2006 recommendations presented by Anne Duthilleul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides recommendations on the law project concerning the radioactive material and wastes management. It precises the law objectives, the french particularities concerning the radioactive wastes and materials management, the public debate in France, the evaluation of the researches, the recommendations of the economic and social council. (A.L.B.)

  14. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  15. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1996--June 6, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation each year. The 1997 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1996 and June 6, 1997. Fifty bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste, storage and emergency response. Also summarized are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  16. State legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) prepares an update on state developments in radioactive materials transportation. The 1995 Report on State Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation describes activities between July 1, 1994 and June 30, 1995. Forty-six bills were introduced and are arranged in this report by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. The bills address nuclear materials transportation as well as the broader areas of hazardous materials transportation, waste storage and emergency responsiveness. Also included are state legislative resolutions and Federal Register notices and rule changes related to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation that affect states

  17. Monitoring for Radioactive Material in International Mail Transported by Public Postal Operators. Reference Manual (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The illegal transport of conventional explosives and biological material has been observed in public mail and could lead to serious health hazards. In response to Member States' requests to establish guidance for detecting the movement of radioactive material in international mail, the IAEA and the Universal Postal Union (UPU) undertook a joint effort to prepare this publication. It considers how radioactive materials in international mail might be detected, how best to monitor for these materials in mail facilities and how to respond appropriately. This publication brings together a concise but comprehensive description of the various techniques and equipment used to detect and control radioactive material during mail processing.

  18. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's advice to ministers on the problems of 'small users' of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the UK Government, including the devolved administrations for Scotland and Wales, on issues relating to the management of civil radioactive waste. Radioactive wastes are produced by the civil nuclear industry, by the Ministry of Defence, and by a varied group of organisations known as 'Small Users'. Small Users include hospitals, universities and some non-nuclear industries, which use radioactive materials and, in turn, produce radioactive waste. In 1991, and again in 1996, RWMAC provided the Government with advice on the problems encountered by Small Users. These difficulties were associated both with specific aspects of the radioactive waste management required and with the controls exercised by the regulators. As part of its work programme for 1999-2000, Ministers asked the Committee to return to these issues. In volume, Small User radioactive wastes make up only a small part of the total UK inventory. However, like those produced by the nuclear and defence sectors, it is vital that they are managed properly, as some carry the potential for considerable harm. Equally, it is important that the financial costs imposed on Small Users as a result of regulation are commensurate with the actual health risk involved. Otherwise, for example, the benefits accruing from use of radioactive materials in medicine might be prejudiced. We have tried to strike an appropriate balance in arriving at the views set out in our report. The report draws attention to a number of areas that Government could usefully consider in respect of Small User waste management, possibly as part of its forthcoming radioactive waste management policy review. A key issue is the need to get to grips with the problem of historic redundant radioactive sources held under registration by Small Users. Many such sources are in the public sector and, under current funding arrangements, Small Users encounter

  19. Route-specific analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses a methodology for route-specific analysis, of which route-selection is one aspect. Identification and mitigation of specific hazards along a chosen route is another important facet of route-specific analysis. Route-selection and route-specific mitigation are two tools to be used in minimizing the risk of radioactive materials transportation and promoting public confidence. Other tools exist to improve the safety of transportation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Selection of a transportation mode and other, non-route-specific measures, such as improved driver training and improved cask designs, are additional tools to minimize transportation risk and promote public confidence. This report addresses the route-specific analysis tool and does not attempt to evaluate its relative usefulness as compared to other available tools. This report represents a preliminary attempt to develop a route-specific analysis methodlogy. The Western Interstate Energy Board High-Level Waste Committee has formed a Route-Specific Analysis Task Force which will build upon the methodology proposed in this Staff Report. As western states continue to investigate route-specific analysis issues, it is expected that the methodology will evolve into a more refined product representing the views of a larger group of interested parties in the West

  20. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials on conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commission of the European Communities has financed some research work carried out jointly by the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'' and the belgian company ''TRANSNUBEL'', in the field of stowing containers for radioactive materials on trucks. 2 reference type accidents are selected: . a front-end collision against a rigid barrier at an impact speed of 50 km/h . a side-on collision of an impacting vehicle at a speed of 25-35 km/h against a truck loaded with a container. A mathematical model has been developed by means of the CEA Trico code to compute a frontal impact in which the container (1.3 t weight), is stowed by means of 4 tie-down members, each for a nominal load of 2 t. Results indicate the stowing being insufficient and the attachment points too weak to keep the container on the platform. Real tests have been performed to verify these results. Tie-down members and chocks have been defined on the basis of static- and dynamic tests for being used in 8 crash tests. Different containers (low- and high center of gravity) and different ways of stowing have been tried out. An attempt is made to work a code of good practice for stowing, by means of tie-down members and chocks, packages on a truck platform. 19 refs

  1. IAEA reference materials for quality assurance of marine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory has been assisting laboratories in Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment since the early seventies. AQCS through world-wide and regional intercomparison exercises and the provision of reference methods and reference materials (RM) have been recognized as an important component of quality assurance/quality control. A total of 43 intercomparison exercises were organized and 37 RM were produced for marine radioactivity studies. All important marine matrices were covered, e.g., seawater, marine sediments of different chemical compositions, fish, shellfish and seaplants. RM were prepared from samples collected at contaminated sites (e.g., the Irish Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Arabian Sea, Mururoa and Bikini Atolls, etc.) as well as from sites affected only by global fallout (e.g., the Pacific Ocean). Available RM are listed in the IAEA biennial catalogue and can be purchased at a minimal price. An overview of prepared RM for radionuclides in marine matrices is presented and discussed in more detail. (author)

  2. Safe transport of radioactive material : revised international regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1961 the IAEA at the request of the United Nations Economic and Social Council has issued advisory Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, published as IAEA Safety Series No. 6. These regulations have come to be recognized throughout the world as the uniform basis for both national and international transport safety requirements in this area. Requirements based on the IAEA regulations are known to have been adopted in 59 countries, as well a by the International Civil Aviation Organization the Internatioanl Maritime Organization, and regional transport organizations. Recognizing the need to keep the regulations up-to-date with the latest radiation protection principles and evolving transport technologies, the IAEA has regularly issued revisions to the transport regulations. Most recently the revisions have taken place at approximately 10-year intervals and the latest revision began in 1986. In September 1996 the IAEA Board of Governors approved the 1996 draft for publication. From a technical perspective, this article briefly reviews the major changes incorporated in the latest revision of the newly issued regulations. (author)

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  4. Sor/89-426, 24 August 1989, transport packaging of radioactive materials regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These Regulations of 24 September 1983 were amended mainly to clarify the original text and further specify certain requirements. In particular, the definitions of A1, A2, Fissile Class III package and special Form Radioactive Material have been revoked and replaced by new definitions. Also, a new condition has been added regarding Special Form Radioactive Material. Henceforth, no such material may be transported without a certificate attesting that the material meets the requirements set out in Schedule XII of the Regulations

  5. Sorption-reagent materials in liquid radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the factors causing ecological problems at nuclear power units functioning is a large quantity of liquid radioactive waste (LRW) formed. LRW treatment and, in particular, removal of long-lived radionuclides comprise a serious problem from the ecological safety point of view. Good prospects of using selective sorbents and new sorption-reagent materials (SRM) developed in the Institute of Chemistry (Far East Department, Russian Academy of Sciences) in LRW management have been shown. Mechanism of sorption and factors affecting the strontium sorption efficiency has been analyzed with using SRM on the basis of inorganic hydroxides as an example. The principal difference between sorption-reagent systems (SRS) and other sorbents is that in the former, simultaneously with ion exchange reactions, takes place the formation of insoluble precipitate inside the sorbent porous matrix. This process results in increasing selectivity of strontium removal from high-salinity solutions. Such a mechanism combining ion exchange and chemical reactions (RIEX) enables one to benefit on precipitation process advantages (removal of radionuclide non-ionic forms) without excessive complication of the process technological setup at large. It is possible to use SRM successfully in the simplest and the best in economical terms dynamic regime (filtration of solution through a stationary sorbent layer). Application of SRM in real LRW management is considered on the example of pilot-plant tests of the sorption installation Barrier at the Russian Pacific Navy facilities and LRW decontamination unit used at decommissioned nuclear submarines. Technological setups and test results are presented. They show that use of sorption-reagent materials enables one to achieve LRW decontamination factors up to 106 and, therefore, provide a reliable decontamination of LRW from submarines to be decommissioned. (Author)

  6. Radiological dose assessment of naturally occurring radioactive materials in concrete building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have shown that the natural radioactivity contained in building materials have significantly influenced the dose rates in dwelling. Exposure to natural radiation in building has been of concerned since almost 80 % of our daily live are spend indoor. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the radiological risk associated by natural radioactivity in soil based building materials to dwellers. A total of 13 Portland cement, 46 sand and 43 gravel samples obtained from manufacturers or bought directly from local hardware stores in Peninsular of Malaysia were analysed for their radioactivity concentrations. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the studied building materials samples were found to be in the range of 3.7-359.3, 2.0-370.8 and 10.3-1,949.5 Bq kg-1 respectively. The annual radiation dose rates (μSv year-1) received by dwellers were evaluated for 1 to 50 years of exposure using Resrad-Build Computer Code based on the activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K found in the studied building material samples. The rooms modelling were based on the changing parameters of concrete wall thickness and the room dimensions. The annual radiation dose rates to dwellers were found to increase annually over a period of 50 years. The concrete thicknesses were found to have significantly influenced the dose rates in building. The self-absorption occurred when the concrete thickness was thicker than 0.4 m. Results of this study shows that the dose rates received by the dwellers of the building are proportional to the size of the room. In general the study concludes that concrete building materials; Portland cements, sands, and gravels in Peninsular of Malaysia does not pose radiological hazard to the building dwellers. (author)

  7. Determination of macroconstituents and trace elements in naturally occurring radioactive material in oil exploration waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) contain radionuclides, such as radium, thorium, and uranium. The existence of NORM remains an issue for oil and gas exploration because once the material becomes concentrated through technological activity, it becomes a radioactive contamination hazard or a radioactive waste. Pipes and tanks used to handle large volumes of produced water at some oil-field sites are coated with scale deposits that contain high levels 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb. Experiments were conducted using thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression for the determination of macroconstituents and trace elements in the radioactive scale sample. (author)

  8. International measures needed to protect metal recycling facilities from radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In almost every major city and region of every country, there is a recycling facility that is designed to process or consume scrap metal. These same countries will probably have widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. This material and equipment will have metal as a primary component of its housing or instrumentation. It is this metal that will cause these sources of radioactivity, when lost, stolen or mishandled, to be taken to a metal recycling facility to be sold for the value of the metal. This is the problem that has faced scrap recycling facilities for many years. The recycling industry has spent millions of dollars for installation of radiation monitors and training in identification of radioactive material. It has expended millions more for the disposal of radioactive material that has mistakenly entered these facilities. Action must be taken to prevent this material from entering the conventional recycling process. There are more than 2,300 known incidents of radioactive material found in recycled metal scrap. Worldwide, more than 50 smeltings of radioactive sources have been confirmed. Seven fatal accidents involving uncontrolled radioactive material have also been documented. Hazardous exposures to radioactive material have plagued not just the workers at metal recycling facilities. The families of these workers, including their children, have been exposed to potentially harmful levels of radioactivity. The threat from this material does not stop there. Radioactive material that is not caught at recycling facilities can be melted and the radioactivity has been found in construction materials used to build homes, as well as shovels, fencing material, and furniture offered for sale to the general public. The time has come for the international community to address the issue of the uncontrolled sources of radioactive material. The following are the key points that must be addressed. (i) Identification of sources

  9. The radioactivity of agricultural raw materials and foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a synthesis on the essential aspects concerning the radioactivity of foodstuffs: the nature and type of radionuclides existing in food, the input ways and the behaviour of the radionuclides in food chains, the measuring and analysis method, the international and national recommendations and maximum permissible levels for food radiocontamination and the assessed effects on the populations' health condition. For a coherent and complete image on the foodstuffs radioactivity there are also presented the characteristic radioactive concentrations of the Romanian main food items as function of radionuclide species, territorial zone, and food properties. (Author) 2 Figs., 2 Tabs., 9 Refs

  10. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States and competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a nuclear security regime for facilities dealing with radioactive material and associated activities. This is to be achieved through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement a legislative and regulatory framework to address the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and associated activities in order to reduce the likelihood of malicious acts involving those materials. These recommendations reflect a broad consensus among States on the requirements which should be met for the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and activities.

  11. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Radioactive Material and Associated Facilities: Recommendations (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance to States and competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a nuclear security regime for facilities dealing with radioactive material and associated activities. This is to be achieved through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement a legislative and regulatory framework to address the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and associated activities in order to reduce the likelihood of malicious acts involving those materials. These recommendations reflect a broad consensus among States on the requirements which should be met for the security of radioactive material, associated facilities and activities.

  12. Observed radioactive materials in rain water after accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 2011, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station had been damaged by massive earthquake and huge tsunami, named as 'The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku'. A lot of radioactive materials were released from the power station into the environment. In order to observe radioactive materials and those fluctuations, rain water was measured by using gamma-ray spectrometer. 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 131I, 132I, 133I, 129mTe, 132Te, 133Xe, 140Ba, and 140La were observed in the collected rain water at Tokai-mura which is located at 100-km in the south of the power station. The release of radioactive materials from the power station into the atmosphere has not been observed since April 11 as a result of measuring the fluctuation for radioactivity of 137Cs that is a typical radioactive material. (author)

  13. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials (from production to disposal), experience with criminal acts involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper takes the position that prevention of breaches in the security of radioactive materials is the most important element in combating illicit trafficking in those materials. It outlines the main requirements for ensuring that the three most important elements in preventing uncontrolled movement of radioactive materials - accounting, control and physical security - are in good order. It emphasizes that these aspects all ultimately derive from appropriate national laws and regulations and from the presence of an effective national regulatory body. Uncontrolled movement, if it occurs, must of course be detected, e.g., at border crossings, and such incidents must be responded to appropriately: Germany's recent record in this regard is described. (author)

  14. Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations on achieving and demonstrating compliance with IAEA Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, establishing safety requirements to be applied to the national and international transport of radioactive material. Transport is deemed to comprise all operations and conditions associated with and involved in the movement of radioactive material; these include the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging, and the preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt at the final destination of packages. This publication supersedes IAEA Safety Series No. TS-G-1.1, 2002 Edition

  15. Discharges of radioactive materials to the environment in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Curti, A R

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is creating a database of information on radioactive discharges to atmospheric and aquatic environments from nuclear and radioactive installations, and from facilities using radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. The database is expected to facilitate the analysis of worldwide trends in discharge levels and provide a basis for assessing the impact of the discharges on humans and on the environment. In November 2002 took place the first meeting of national contact points and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN in Spanish) was present as the counterpart for the provision of discharge data from Argentina. This paper, presented in the above mentioned meeting, is a general overview of the radioactive discharges control in Argentina including the legal infrastructure, the population dose assessment methodology and the main characteristics of the facilities in the country with radioactive discharges to the environment. It is mentioned their location, release...

  16. Forum on impact of radioactive materials on the atmospheric pollutant inventory and on the radioactivity uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains 6 separately documented lectures about the following topics of the meeting: 1) Radiation exposure of plants caused by the reactor accident of Chernobyl; 2) Tritium and radiocarbon concentrations in trees; 3) Energetics of the atmospheric trace materials cycle; 4) Phenomenology of formation and decomposition of ozone in the lower atmosphere, and 5) Comparison of radioactivity levels and trace materials in the air. (PW)

  17. Dangerous materials transport control: The case of radioactive materials. Point of view of the National Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of transport concerning the fuel cycle (nuclear fuels, spent fuels and radioactive wastes) amounts to 0.5 - 1% of the fuel cost and impact of an accident on public opinion explains the control kept by Electricite de France on its radioactive materials transport. Characteristics, planning and optimization of transport are reviewed

  18. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  19. Measures Against-Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear Materials and Other Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early nineties, illicit trafficking (IT) of nuclear materials and radioactive sources appeared as a new trend which raised the concern of the international community due to the grave consequences that would merge if these materials or radioactive sources fell into the hands of terrorist groups. However, by the end of the last century illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources lost its considerable salience, in spite of seizure of considerable amounts of 2'3'5U (76% enrichment) in Bulgaria (May 1999) and also 235U (30% enrichment) in Georgia (April 2000). Nevertheless, IT should be always considered as a continued and viable threat to the international community. Awareness of the problem should be developed and maintained among concerned circles as the first step towards combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and radioactive sources. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials needs serious consideration and proper attention by the governmental law enforcement authorities. Measures to combat with IT of nuclear material or radioactive sources should be effective in recovery, of stolen, removed or lost nuclear materials or radioactive sources due to the failure of the physical protection system or the State System Accounting and Control (SSAC) system which are normally applied for protecting these materials against illegal actions. Measures such as use of modern and efficient radiation monitoring equipment at the borders inspection points, is an important step in preventing the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials across the borders. Also providing radiological training to specific personnel and workers in this field will minimize the consequences of a radiological attack in case of its occurrence. There is a real need to start to enter into cooperative agreements to strengthen borders security under the umbrella of IAEA to faster as an international cooperation in the illicit trafficking of

  20. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOZLOWSKI, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below.

  1. RELEASE OF DRIED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MATERIALS TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical basis document was developed to support RPP-23429, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (PDSA) and RPP-23479, Preliminary Documented Safety Analysis for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Facility. The main document describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative accidents involving the release of dried radioactive waste materials from the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) and to the associated represented hazardous conditions. Appendices D through F provide the technical basis for assigning risk bins to the representative dried waste release accident and associated represented hazardous conditions for the Contact-Handled Transuranic Mixed (CH-TRUM) Waste Packaging Unit (WPU). The risk binning process uses an evaluation of the frequency and consequence of a given representative accident or represented hazardous condition to determine the need for safety structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls. A representative accident or a represented hazardous condition is assigned to a risk bin based on the potential radiological and toxicological consequences to the public and the collocated worker. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers because credible hazardous conditions with the potential for significant facility worker consequences are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls regardless of their estimated frequency. The controls for protection of the facility workers are described in RPP-23429 and RPP-23479. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses, as described below

  2. Correlation between measured gas leaks and possible loss of contents from radioactive materials packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a radioactive materials package, correlations between possible aperture size (the opening or fault induced by environmental testing) and radioactive material sizes are useful to confirm test evidence when that evidence demonstrates no loss or very small loss of radioactive material through specific seals and joints at measured leak rates. For the smaller leak rates that were actually measured following severe tests of containment vessel seals, such as 10-5 atm cm3/s, the approximated fault or aperture (crack height in the seal) is molecular and sub-particulate in size. Containment was predicted and was achieved. In the case of well designed seals and joints for the contianment of radioactive materials, very large leak rates (such as 10-2 to 10-4 atm cm3/s air or helium) may be associated with a fault or aperture (crack height in the seal) that is still smaller than the particulate size of the solid-form radioactive material being contained. In a specific case, containment was predicted and was achieved. This indicates that large post-accident-test gas leak rates in radioactive materials packagings, when associated with a well-designed seal and joint, may be supportive of the adequate containment of radioactive materials

  3. Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on various aspects of emergency planning and preparedness for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material, including the assignment of responsibilities. It reflects the requirements specified in Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and those of Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Framework for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 3. Responsibilities for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 4. Planning for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 5. Preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; Appendix I: Features of the transport regulations influencing emergency response to transport accidents; Appendix II: Preliminary emergency response reference matrix; Appendix III: Guide to suitable instrumentation; Appendix IV: Overview of emergency management for a transport accident involving radioactive material; Appendix V: Examples of response to transport accidents; Appendix VI: Example equipment kit for a radiation protection team; Annex I: Example of guidance on emergency response to carriers; Annex II: Emergency response guide.

  4. Guidance on radioactive waste management legislation for application to users of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, addressed primarily to developing countries, is restricted to management of radioactive wastes arising from uses of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. It does not deal with wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. Safeguards and physical protection are also outside the scope even though in some special cases it may be relevant; for instance, when fissile material is handled at research establishments. Information on nuclear fuel cycle waste management and waste transport can be found in a number of IAEA publications. The main aim of this document is to give guidance on legislation required for safe handling, treatment, conditioning and release or disposal of radioactive waste. It covers all steps from the production or import of radioactive material, through use, treatment, storage and transport, to the release or disposal of the waste either as exempted material or in special repositories. Management of radioactive wastes as a whole is optimized and kept at acceptable levels in accordance with the basic ICRP recommendations and the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. As a result of the new ICRP recommendations of 1991, the Agency is revising its Basic Safety Standards, the results of which may have some impact on the national regulations and necessitate updating of this document. 16 refs, 1 fig

  5. Polish prevention system against illicit trafficking of radioactive substances and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To protect the Polish territory from illegal import of radioactive materials and wastes radiation control was introduced on all national border check points starting from 10 October 1990. Stationary and portable radiometers and dosimeters are used for surface contamination and dose rate measurements. For round-day assistance in cases of accidents with radioactive substances and nuclear materials the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection is available 24 hours a day; the Laboratory carries out on request identification and analysis of those materials

  6. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tables are presented of trends in annual emissions of radioactive gaseous effluents at sites of civil establishments in the U.K. Trends in the discharge to surface and coastal water sites in the U.K. and trends in the radioactivity of solid wastes dumped in the N.E. Atlantic and in the volume and activity level of wastes disposed at sites in the U.K. are presented. Tables of radioactivity in samples of fish and shellfish at selected sites are presented. Radioactivity from global fallout and the annual mean ratio of 90Sr to calcium, and concentrations of 137Cs in milk are given. Trends in estimated collective doses from the consumption of fish and shellfish in the U.K. and Europe are presented. (U.K.)

  7. Analysis of generic exemption levels for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In essence, exemption may be considered a generic authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the practice or source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. After presenting the basic exemption criteria for limited quantities of radioactive materials this paper describes and analyses the exposure scenarios utilized, namely: 1- Normal use (workplace) scenario; 2- Accidental ( workplace) scenario; 3- Disposal (public) scenario. Each one has different exposure pathways, summing up a total of 24, covering external exposure, ingestion and inhalation. These scenarios were used to calculate both, exempted activity concentrations (Bq/g) and total activity (Bq), though in the first case exemption applies to limited masses of low concentration activity materials. For each radionuclide, the generic exemption level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity (Bq) or activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose per unit (Bq or Bq/g, as applicable) was calculated by a formula that was adjusted, for each scenario and pathway, through different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors and geometric factors. In general, the critical pathways for α emitters were inhalation of dust and aerosols in workplace for activity concentration scenario and inhalation of dust and volatiles from an accidental fire in the workplace for total activity scenario. For β emitters the critical pathways were ingestion of an object from a landfill site by a member of the public for activity concentration

  8. Education and training in transport of radioactive material; Educacao e treinamento em transporte de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Bruno Natanael; Pastura, Valeria da Fonseca e Silva; Mattar, Patricia; Dias, Carlos R. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the approach adopted by the Department of Transportation of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN, in the creation of the course of education and training distance for transport companies, as well as for national institutions directly involved with the theme transportation of radioactive materials. The course will consist of 20 modules containing exercises and further assessment of learning, and enable participants to understand the regulatory terminology, assimilating the philosophy of nuclear and radiation safety, prepare the shipment and identify and fill the complete documents required in an operation transport.

  9. Detection of smuggling of nuclear material covered by a legal transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility study was performed in order to investigate the possible on site measurement techniques and approaches applicable in cases when a legal transport of radioactive material is used to cover the radiation of the smuggled uranium. The study was concentrating on non-destructive, passive gamma-spectrometric methods. Possible application of NaI, CdZnTe, and high purity Germanium planar detectors was investigated. An important conclusion of the study was that the higher resolution of the measured spectra provides significant advantages. (author)

  10. Radioactive materials in biosolids : national survey, dose modeling, and publicly owned treatment works (POTW) guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Received for publication March 1, 2004. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) announced the availability of three new documents concerning radioactive materials in sewage sludge and ash from publicly owned treatment works (POTW). One of the documents is a report presenting the results of a volunteer survey of sewage sludge and ash samples provided by 313 POTWs. The second document is a dose modeling document, using multiple exposure pathway modeling focused on a series of generic scenarios, to track possible exposure of POTW workers and members of the general public to radioactivity from the sewage sludge or ash. The third document is a guidance report providing recommendations on the management of radioactivity in sewage sludge and ash for POTW owners and operators. This paper explains how radioactive materials enter POTWs, provides criteria for evaluating levels of radioactive material in sludge and ash, and gives a summary of the results of the survey and dose modeling efforts

  11. National Plan for radioactive material and waste management, 2010-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents radioactive materials and wastes (definition, origins, and classification), principles to take into account when defining management pathways, and the legal and institutional framework of waste management in France. It gives an assessment of the existing and developing management practices: warehousing, long term management of valuable materials, long term waste management for different kinds of radioactive materials (low, intermediate or high level of activity). It describes how to improve these different practices. Two annexes give information on realizations and researches in foreign countries, and on the adequacy between storage capacities and prospective radioactive waste volumes

  12. Radiation Protection Programmes for the Transport of Radioactive Material. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on meeting the requirements for the establishment of radiation protection programmes (RPPs) for the transport of radioactive material, to optimize radiation protection in order to meet the requirements for radiation protection that underlie the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This Guide covers general aspects of meeting the requirements for radiation protection, but does not cover criticality safety or other possible hazardous properties of radioactive material. The annexes of this Guide include examples of RPPs, relevant excerpts from the Transport Regulations, examples of total dose per transport index handled, a checklist for road transport, specific segregation distances and emergency instructions for vehicle operators

  13. Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ratifying the inexistence of terrorist groups operating in these areas, but confirming the existence of strong evidence of the remittance of foreign currency to extremist Arab groups. Illegal activities in this area are notorious: weapons trafficking, money laundering, drug trafficking, and other types of traffic (nuclear and radioactive materials) cannot be dismissed. The problem is that authorities from no country would wish to have nuclear or radiological materials stolen or misplaced in them and then used to fabricate a 'dirty' bomb to perpetrate attacks. This document analyzes the situation of sector policies (international binding and non-binding agreements legal instruments, internal security policies, defence programs and plans, etc.); global and national threats; the nature of actions taken by the Paraguayan Government through effective mechanisms for coordination including planning, implementation and monitoring, and relevant collaborative actions implemented with the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA. (author)

  14. Strategies to reduce illicit uses of radioactive materials: The Ethiopian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Ethiopia, attempts/incidents of illegal use of radioactive sources have, so far, been limited. However, in Ethiopia's perspective, preventing and controlling illicit uses and trafficking of radioactive materials includes strengthening national systems of control and protection; achieving co-ordination between regulators, law enforcement bodies and customs; developing effective information systems; and training responsible parties in prevention, detection and response. (author)

  15. Report on the evaluation of the national plan on radioactive wastes and materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document constitutes the evaluation of the first edition of the National Plan on radioactive wastes and materials management. It presents the definitive or temporary solutions for the radioactive wastes management, the national plan juridical framework defined by the laws of 1991 and 2006 and the first evaluation and perspectives. (A.L.B.)

  16. Technical guide management of waste materials with radioactive contents in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The guide presented offers significant improvements in the management procedures of waste materials with radioactive contents, in addition to unifying modes of action on radioactive facilities for research and teaching. The guide has been developed within the activities of the SEPR in collaboration with ENRESA. (Author)

  17. Accounting and control of sources of ionising radiation and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the various elements of the state accounting and control system of radioactive materials and radioactive waste in the Russian Federation, and some of the tasks to be carried out for the development and improvement of the system. A list and short description of documents of this system and structure and the organisation scheme of the system are also presented. (author)

  18. Illegal handling of radioactive and nuclear materials. Threats and suggestions for measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project deals with threats from smuggling or other illegal transportation of radioactive or nuclear materials across the borders to Sweden, and with the security of handling such materials in Sweden. The project has included studies of relevant documentation; visits and interviews at industries, hospitals, research institutes and military institutions in Sweden that handle radioactive materials; a pilot study at the Stockholm freeport, where equipment for detection of radioactive materials has been tested for six months; an analysis of incidents reported to the IAEA database; and an analysis of Swedish incidents. The following conclusions are drawn: Stricter rules regarding the physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive materials should be implemented in Sweden. The recommendations recently issued by IAEA should serve as a point of departure for working out such rules

  19. Regulations for the safe transport of radioactive material: Content and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides a set of requirements for the packaging and transport of radioactive material, known as the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. These serve as the model for other international organizations as they develop regulatory documents relating to dangerous goods, and for individual IAEA Member States for their domestic regulations. This paper briefly discusses the IAEA Transport Regulations and elaborates on how they are applied in Argentina, which both exports and imports radioactive material and which is coastal with some sections of society concerned about the transport of large amounts of such material. From a technical perspective, Argentina understands that the transport of radioactive material, done in compliance with the existing regulations, is safe. (author)

  20. Forecasting of the radioactive material transport demand for the Brazilian Nuclear Program and the security aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear fuel cycle, a lot of radioactive materials are produced. These radioactive materials must be transported in order to promote the integration of the fuel cycle units. Considerations about the transport characteristics of radioactive material were made for each section of the fuel cycle. These considerations were based on the experience of several countries and in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations. A prediction of transport demands for the Brazilian Nuclear Program until year 2.010 was made. The prediction refers mainly to the quantity of radioactive material produced in each section of the cycle the quantity of vehicles needed for the transport of these materials. Several safety aspects were considered specially, the accidents predictions for years 2.000 and 2.010. The accident probability in Brazilian railroads and highways was compared with that of the USA. (author)

  1. 10 CFR 40.27 - General license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive material disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lease any subsurface mineral rights associated with land on which residual radioactive materials are... radioactive material disposal sites. 40.27 Section 40.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... residual radioactive material disposal sites. (a) A general license is issued for the custody of and...

  2. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg-1, respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  3. The use of radioactive materials in German schools. Obstacles and chances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basics for the understanding of radioactivity and radioprotection are set in the secondary school. Therefore the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association already is trying to support the appropriate teaching of relevant topics in school for a long time. Unfortunately experiments with radioactive material are hampered in Germany by complex and confusing legislation. In this contribution the framework is described which is given by the German legislation for the use of radioactive sources in secondary schools. Additionally proposals for different simple experiments with radioactivity are presented which can be easily implemented in teaching and alternative methods are introduced like e.g. virtual experiments.

  4. Monitoring for radioactive material in international mail transported by public postal operators. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive material has been an issue of concern since the first seizures in the early 1990s. By the end of 2004 Member States had confirmed 540 cases, while about another 500 remain unconfirmed. Most of the confirmed cases have a criminal dimension, even if they were not for known terrorist purposes. The attacks of September 2001 in the USA dramatically emphasized the requirement for the enhanced control and security of nuclear and other radioactive material. In response to a resolution by the IAEA General Conference in September 2002 the IAEA has adopted an integrated approach to protection against nuclear terrorism. This brings together IAEA activities concerned with the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear installations, nuclear material accountancy, detection and response to illicit nuclear trafficking, the security and safety of radioactive sources, emergency response measures - including pre-emergency measures in Member States and at the IAEA - and the promotion of State adherence to relevant international instruments. States have the responsibility for combating illicit trafficking and the inadvertent movements of radioactive material. The IAEA cooperates with Member States and other international organizations in joint efforts to prevent incidents of illicit trafficking and inadvertent movements and to harmonize policies and measures by providing relevant advice through a range of technical assistance and documents. In this context, the IAEA issued a group of three technical documents, co-sponsored by the World Customs Organization, Europol and Interpol, on the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive material. The first is Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1311), the second is called Detection of Radioactive Material at Borders (IAEA-TECDOC- 1312) and the third is Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent

  5. Methodology in the handling of the waste radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology in the management of radioactive waste is constituted by an administrative part and seven technical stages: transport, classification, segregation, conditioning, treatment, packages qualification and final disposition (storage). In their diverse stages the management deserves a special attention, due to the increment of the use and application of the nuclear energy and radioactive substances, for such a reason should be managed in such a way that the exposed personnel safety and the public in general is guaranteed, protecting the integrity of the environment. (Author)

  6. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H.J.; Hartenstein, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy

  7. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy, preservation of the environment, providing

  8. Recommendations on Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Work with Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In facilities where workers are exposed to ionizing radiation, a system of radiation protection is implemented which is ultimately based on a balancing of the risks and benefits to the uses of radiation involved. More restrictive dose limits are set for members of the public than for workers and these have been applied also to conceptus.There are many different industries and practices that involve the use of ionizing radiation and the potential exposure of female workers at fertility age. The radiation sources and levels of exposure may vary significantly in different industries, such as those associated with the nuclear fuel cycle (where the workforce is mostly male), industrial radiography, diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications (where the number of female workers may be greater than males) and others.The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA) in its Basic Safety Standards (BSS) recommend to regard the conceptus as a member of the public when considering the protection of female workers who are pregnant. There is a requirement that women should be informed of the importance of early notification of pregnancy.In 2001, the ICRP in its Publication 88 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the conceptus from intakes by the mother. Several internal scenarios were considered, which include acute and chronic intakes by inhalation and ingestion for female workers and members of the public. For acute exposures, intakes were taken to occur at 2.5 years and 6 months before conception, at the time of conception, and at the end of weeks 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 of the pregnancy.In 2005, the ICRP in its Publication 95 published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to the infant from intakes by the breasfeeding mother.This work examines the significance of pregnant and breastfeeding women work with radioactive materials on the potential

  9. Reuse of conditionally released radioactive materials from NPP decommissioning applied in motorway bridges construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operation and especially during decommissioning of nuclear installation is produced considerable amount of solid materials (metals, non-metals, building structures) that can fix radioactivity in forms of contamination or activation. The materials present radioactive waste, part of radioactive waste may just slightly exceed limits for unconditional release of materials into the environment. On the other side, there is possible, after proving of defined safety limits fulfillment, to conditionally release radioactive waste for special purpose. In opposite case it would be inevitable to dispose radioactive waste in radioactive waste repository. Approaches of different countries to release of materials vary and the extent of this issue processing is related to each approach. Requirements set down in Slovak Republic legislation are given in the paper. Before the conditional release of materials there must be done consistent analysis of the materials impact on the inhabitants and the environment in short and long time period. The analysis comprises the evaluation of considered scenarios of specific utilization of conditionally released materials. This analysis necessarily precedes the realization of utilization. Scenarios describing utilization of radioactive waste carbon steel in the motorway bridge building process is stated in the paper. Radioactive steel can be utilized in many parts of the bridge. In the paper it is described its use as reinforcement of piles. Short time period external irradiation of workers and inhabitants is taken into account. Critical group (i.e. the group that gets the highest accumulated dose) of workers or inhabitants is chosen. Specific mass activity of released radioactive waste carbon steel is related to individual effective dose taken by critical group. Following legislation rules, annual effective dose taken by critical group must not overstep the limit of 10 μSv/year. The determination of value of the specific mass activity

  10. Radioactive Materials in Scrap Metal, How This Problem is Addressed in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The port of Rotterdam is the biggest trading place of scrap metal in the World. After the introduction of fixed radiation detection systems at the entrance gates of scrap yards, further referred to as portal detectors, incoming loads of scrap metal are inspected for radioactive sources. In the Netherlands exists a legal system in which every suspicion to be in the possession of radioactive materials without a license has to be reported to the authorities, hence also an alarm of a portal detector. A regulation is developed in consensus by the authorities, the scrap metal traders, and RTD (Research, Technology and Development) in order to control this flow of unwanted radioactive materials. At the present the scrap metal traders announce radioactive materials voluntarily, the authorities control, and RTD takes care of the disposal of unwanted radioactive materials. Since 1994 RTD has gained considerable experience in isolating radioactive materials, and assisting the scrap metal traders in deciding on further actions to be taken. In this paper it will be described how inspections are performed on loads of scrap metal that caused the alarm of a portal detector to go off. Some examples, and characteristics of radioactive objects that were intercepted will be given. (author)

  11. Detection of smuggling of nuclear material covered by a legal transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the worst scenarios for detection of illicit trafficking of nuclear material is when a legal transport of radioactive material is used to cover the radiation of the smuggled uranium. Feasibility study was performed in the Institute of Isotopes and Surface Chemistry of the Chemical Research Centre of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (hereinafter: Institute) in order to study the possible on site measurement techniques and approaches applicable in such cases. As the type A and type B packages always incorporate a feature such as a seal, in a realistic scenario the confiscated nuclear material is expected to be placed outside the package. The passive neutron emission of the uranium is negligible for a reasonable isotopic abundance therefore the feasibility study was concentrating on non-destructive, passive gamma- spectrometric methods. Possible application of Nal (diameter 40x40 mm3, large planar (15x15x3 mm3) and a hemispheric CdZnTe (500 mm3, and high purity Germanium detectors was investigated. During the on site measurements portable electronics, mini multichannel analyzer, palmtop and/or notebook computer were used. The shielding material of the packages was lead or depleted uranium. The smuggled material was simulated by a package of reactor fuel pellets containing low enriched or natural uranium (materials confiscated in earlier cases) and standards containing low enriched uranium. During the supposed scenario the portal monitor provides an indication of an elevated level of the environmental radioactivity. Then the responsible (e.g. customs) officer investigate the vehicle by a hand-held survey meter in order to search for peaks in dose rates. If a peak was localized, which is different from the position of the legally transported package(s) the officer requests for the expertise of the designated institutes. The following model cases provided the basic conclusion: 1. The legal transport of the radioactive material was simulated by a 4

  12. Induced Radioactivity in Recovered Skylab Materials. [gamma ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four radioactive isotopes found in aluminum and stainless steel samples from Skylab debris were recovered in Australia. The low-level activity was induced by high-energy protons and neutrons in the space environment. Measurements of the specific activities are given.

  13. Scanning electron microscope facility for examination of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An AMRAY model 1200B scanning electron microscope was modified to permit remote examination of radioactive specimens. Features of the modification include pneumatic vibration isolation of the column, motorized stage controls, improvements for monitoring vacuum, and a system for changing filaments without entering the hot cell

  14. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-02-27

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information.

  15. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  16. RADTRAN II: revised computer code to analyze transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised and updated version of the RADTRAN computer code is presented. This code has the capability to predict the radiological impacts associated with specific schemes of radioactive material shipments and mode specific transport variables

  17. Storage in traffic and the personnel's radiological surveillance during the manipulation of radioactive materials in airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures to apply for the manipulation of radioactive materials in the airports, they will establish the conditions first floor that is to say which will be carried out the storage in traffic of the radioactive bundles, the values of minimum distance to which they will be able to be people of the loads of radioactive material. For a scenario that reproduces the storage conditions in traffic that is presented in the airports, the work it establishes values of the distance of segregation of radioactive bundles in function of the radiological characteristics of the loads. Also, the dose values to that the personnel is exposed that it manipulates the bundles are evaluated. The obtained results can be useful to the ends to establish the procedures required for the manipulation of radioactive bundles in the airports

  18. Data about shipping of radioactive material for medical use; Datos sobre los envios de material radioactivo para uso medico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN/SP, Av.Professor Lineu Prestes No. 2242, Zip Code 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: msanches@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The transport of radioactive materials implies a risk for the personnel of the team, those members of the public and the environment. While the safety in the transports is based on the designs of the bulks, the programs of radiological protection are important to assure the radiological control to the workers, the public and the environment during the transport of these materials. Although the biggest interest in the transport of radioactive materials it spreads to be centered in the nuclear industry, the transport in great measure it happens for the materials of medical use. These are mainly transported in bulks of the A Type and excepted bulks. The transport ones are forced, by national regulations, to send to the competent authority, in our case the National Comissao of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), all the data of the transported materials. This work has by objective to aim the efforts made to settle down and to manage the data regarding the transported radioactive materials. The existent data in the Radiopharmaceuticals Center, of the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations 'IPEN/CNEN' it contains the information on all the radioactive materials consigned for the transport during every year. A statistic of the number of deliveries of the radioactive material for the period from 2001 to 2005 is provided. Based on this statistic its are presented the number of bulks, the quantity of activity and the ways of the transport for the period in study. (Author)

  19. Radiation sources safety and radioactive materials security regulation in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    packages for shipment of radiation sources; State registration of radiation sources; licensing of radiation material transportation. In 1997, the Government of Ukraine decided to establish a unified computerized system of accountancy, control and registration of radiation sources - the State Register of Radiation Sources (Register). In 1998, under the Ukrainian State Production Enterprise 'Isotope' a separate subdivision 'State Register of Radiation Sources' was established. This subdivision functions as the main registration centre, and has been supplied with computer equipment with the assistance of the IAEA. During 1999-2000, the basic documents that regulate the legal status of the Register, the radiation source registration procedure and the State inventory of radiation source procedure were developed and approved by the relevant ministries. Urgent commissioning of the Register and starting the State registration of radiation sources will form a good basis for considerable upgrading of the level of safety and security of radiation sources, reduction of illicit trafficking in radiation sources, and investigation of illicit trafficking cases. Lack of funds is the main problem impeding the commissioning of the Register. On the basis of analysis of safety regulation system for activities dealing with radiation sources in Ukraine, we can draw a conclusion about its sufficiency for effective safety regulation of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials. (author)

  20. Occupational and public exposures arising from the normal transport of radioactive material: Experience in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the principal findings and conclusions of work undertaken on behalf of the national competent authorities. The work was performed with the objective to provide guidance material on occupational and public radiation exposures arising from the normal transport of radioactive material in Germany. The survey and assessment results provided cover all major categories of materials (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle material) and all relevant shipping modes. The findings confirm the general understanding that the radiation doses to workers and members and the public received during the normal transport of radioactive material represent - with very few exceptions - only a small fraction of the relevant regulatory dose limits. (author)

  1. Development of Innovative Technology for Detection and Identification of Radioactive Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pino Andrades, Felix Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    During the last 20 years, 2477 incidents related with the smuggling of radioactive materials have been reported to the IAEA. The implementation of systems for detection of radioactive materials at borders, ports, airports, etc. is a critical issue to contrast the contraband and prevent further consequences. The neutron detector based in 3He has been a common component in radiation portals, but the increasing demand of 3He has caused its shortage with a very large cost increase. This situation...

  2. Application of partitioning/transmutation of radioactive materials in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Multiple recycling of plutonium in critical FRs is the most economic way to reduce the accumulated plutonium inventory of LWR-MOX. This option asks for the development of new reprocessing technologies. Pyrochemical reprocessing techniques appear as almost indispensable to carry out multiple recycling of high burn up FR fuel within short cooling times. Critical fast reactors with an adapted coolant system could also be used as storage reactors for Minor Actinides and reduce significantly their inventory during a long irradiation period in a thermalized blanket. Separated Minor Actinides can theoretically be incinerated in accelerator driven transmutation systems (ADS). But a long range R and D effort will be necessary to develop the system from its present conceptual design stage to an industrial reality. The connection between the proton accelerator operating under vacuum and the subcritical reactor core operating under cover-gas pressure requires the development of a replaceable beam window. The subcritical core design implies a lot of investigations on the homogeneity of the neutron flux, the burn up reactivity swing, the criticality control and the in-core actinide fuel management. Dedicated transmutation facilities will have to be erected near the large reprocessing plants in order to reduce as much as possible fuel recycling and transportation of highly radioactive materials. Development of dedicated transmutation facilities may take at least 25 years to reach the mature industrial level. The operation of a combined P and T prototype facility on a single site may possibly start in the second quarter of the 21st century

  3. Equipment of high sensitivity to detect smuggled radioactive materials transported across the ''east-west'' border

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment specially developed for the customs radiation control is described. Its sensitivity is higher than requirements of western countries. The equipment ensures an alarm when a radioactive source (both shielded or not) is found in the controlled area, localizes and identifies the source detected, and provides the radiation protection of customs personnel. Most of devices have a non-volatile memory where the radiation situation history is stored and then transferred to PC. The equipment may be used by personnel of special services for secret detection of radioactive materials. Some Belarussian and Russian documents specifying measures to prevent an unauthorized transportation of radioactive materials are discussed. (author)

  4. Study on the metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism by autoradiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of contamination of radioactive materials in organism was studied by diferent types of autoradiographic techniques, such as: (1) in body level by whole-body autoradiography; (2) in organ level by whole-organ autoradiography; (3) in cellular level by microautoradiography; (4) in subcellular level by electron microscopic autoradiography; (5) in combinative form by tissue fixative autoradiography; (6) in ionizing form by freezing autoradiography; (7) for radioactive mateials with two radionuclides by double radionuclide autoradiography; (8) for radioactive materials with low level of radionuclides by fluorescence sensitization autoradiography; (9) in dissociative products by chromatographic autoradiography

  5. Radiological emergencies due to postulated events of melted radioactive material mixed in steel reaching public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials are used widely in various applications, which in turn have resulted in its large scale availability to the various end users. Though in India, there is strict regulatory control on obtaining radioactive material and their use, there have been reported cases of radioactive material detected as steel contaminant in the public domain elsewhere. This led to the analysis on estimation of the radiation field during the postulated event of radionuclides 60Co and 137Cs getting into the alloys of steel. The postulated cases of radioactive material getting mixed during the alloy making are studied for two case studies to ascertain the detection and capability of identifying the radioactive material even in trace levels, are presented in this paper. For 60Co and 137Cs nuclides - either by design or unintentionally, as low as 10 mg gaining entry into the matrix of 100 kg of the alloy during its making, it is estimated and shown that the radioactive materials can easily be detected. It is feasible due to the use of sensitive radiation monitors available at the Emergency Response Centers-Department of Atomic Energy, which are capable of detecting radiation field above the natural radiation background, the event can be detected, and the consequences can be minimized. (author)

  6. Tracking and Monitoring of Radioactive Materials in the Commercial Hazardous Materials Supply Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main components of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Clean Materials Program is to prevent the loss of radioactive materials through the use of tracking technologies. If a source is inadvertently lost or purposely abandoned or stolen, it is critical that the source be recovered before harm to the public or the environment occurs. Radio frequency identification (RFID) tagging on radioactive sources is a technology that can be operated in the active or passive mode, has a variety of frequencies available allowing for flexibility in use, is able to transmit detailed data and is discreet. The purpose of the joint DOE and EPA Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) project is to evaluate the viability, effectiveness and scalability of RFID technology under a variety of transportation scenarios. The goal of the Phase II was to continue testing integrated RFID tag systems from various vendors for feasibility in tracking radioactive sealed sources which included the following performance objectives: 1. Validate the performance of RFID intelligent systems to monitor express air shipments of medical radioisotopes in the nationwide supply chain, 2. Quantify the reliability of these tracking systems with regards to probability of tag detection and operational reliability, 3. Determine if the implementation of these systems improves manpower effectiveness, and 4. Demonstrate that RFID tracking and monitoring of radioactive materials is ready for large scale deployment at the National level. For purposes of analysis, the test scenario employed in this study utilized the real world commerce supply chain process for radioactive medical isotopes to validate the performance of intelligent RFID tags. Three different RFID systems were assessed from a shipping and packaging perspective, included varied environmental conditions, varied commodities on board vehicles, temporary staging in shipping terminals using various commodities and normal

  7. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Naturally radioactivity in common building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of some building materials used in Thiruvannamalai city has been measured using a NaI(Tl) detector based gamma ray spectrometer. The distribution of natural occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in the building materials was studied. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex) internal radiation hazard index (Hin) and the activity utilization index (I) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. The present work shows that the natural radioactivity levels in the building construction materials used in Thiruvannamalai city is well below the acceptable limits. From the analysis, it was found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. (author)

  9. Measurement of natural radioactivity in common building materials used in Tiruvannamalai, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of some building materials used in Tiruvannamalai city has been measured using a NaI (Tl) detector based gamma ray spectrometer. The distribution of natural occurring radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in the building materials was studied. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the activity utilization index (I), external hazard index (Hex) and internal radiation hazard index (Hin) associated with the natural radionuclide are calculated to assess the radiation hazard of the natural radioactivity in the building materials. The present work shows that the natural radioactivity levels in the building construction materials used in Tiruvannamalai city is well below the acceptable limits. From the analysis, it was found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. (author)

  10. The natural radioactivity in common building materials around Tiruvannamalai city, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most building materials contain naturally occurring radioactive elements. By the determination of the radioactivity level in building materials, the indoor radiological hazard to human health can be assessed. This helps in taking important precautionary measures whenever the dose rate is found to be above the recommended limits. In this paper, the samples of commonly used raw materials and building products have been collected around the Tiruvannamalai city, Tamilnadu to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides were determined by gamma ray spectrometer. The radiological hazards in the building materials due to the natural radioactivity were inferred from the calculations of radium equivalent activity (Raeq) and the criteria formula. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values. From the analysis, it was found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards. (author)

  11. Quantification of risks at the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requirement of the risks which are coherent with the transport of hazardous elements are for the time being drawn up in a joint project by the Netherlands Ministries of SZW and VROM. In this project 'Requirements of risk for the transport of hazardous elements' (RNVGS) the transport of radioactive elements is not considered. To reach requirements for such a transport, the Directorate of Elements, Safety and Radiation of VROM has provided an assignment to ECN to make a quantitative analysis on the risks of transport of radioactive elements on the road. At the same time, they requested to examine in this performance study whether there are needed additional criteria specific for transport, along the criteria used for individual risk and group-risks. 55 refs., 1 fig., 16 refs

  12. Management of individuals accidentally exposed to radiation or radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sources of ionizing radiation are being used with increasing frequency in a wide spectrum of applications in society. These uses are accompanied by the possible occurrence of accidents resulting in persons exposed to radiation and contaminated with radioactivity. These persons pose a risk to facilities and attending personnel upon their arrival at the hospital. This risk can be minimized without compromising the quality of patient care only if careful planning for such patients has been conducted by the hospital. Planning should include identification of a radiation emergency area within the hospital, delineation of a radiation emergency response team of individuals knowledgeable about radiation and radioactivity, and development of protocols for the medical care and decontamination of patients involved in radiation accidents. Various agencies, including the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, have stressed the need for preparation and periodic testing of radiation emergency response plans for hospitals

  13. Use of radioactive materials in recombinant DNA research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactively labeled compounds are used extensively in recombinant DNA work. The use of labeled compounds allows for great sensitivity of detection, essential for techniques such as DNA sequencing and genomic Southern hybridizations. DNA and RNA can be labeled to high specific activities using in vitro enzymatic reactions, and are useful in many procedures. 32P, 35S, 125I and 3H are the isotopes which are most often used in recombinant DNA studies. 20 refs

  14. Natural radioactivity in Slovak construction materials and the indoor dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For keeping the population exposure al low as reasonably achievable (recommended by the Slovak regulations), the radioactive content of primordial radionuclides in building materials and products have not to exceed 370 Bq kg-1 of radium equivalent activity and 120 Bq kg-1 of 226Ra. Samples of building materials (cement, stone, fly-ash, light concrete, slag, dross, sand dolomite. etc.) user for construction of the residential buildings were collected, milled and screened with 2-3 cm sieve. After drying, the samples were stored in 450 cm3 sealed polyethylene containers for a 30 day period. All samples were measured in a 4 π geometry usually for 60,000 seconds. Measurements of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K concentrations were carried out by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The primordial radionuclides 226 and 232Th were assessed through their progeny photo-peaks 214Bi (609 keV), 214Pb (295 keV, 351 keV) 228Ac (338 keV, 911 keV) and 212Pb (238 keV). The specific activity of both nuclides has been determined as weighted average of their photo-peaks. 40K was measured directly via its 1460 keV peak. Until now, about 600 samples of building materials have been measured. The obtained radium equivalent activity in various types of building materials and mean annual effective doses of gamma radiation are presented. (J.K.)

  15. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10–100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: 60Co≤4.6%, 134Cs≤4.7%, 137Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and 3H≤1.3%. - Highlights: • Seven kinds environmental materials were used to establish the production of the RMs. • Spiking the traceable standard radioactive source to the blank substance. • Each sample was carefully evaluated for its uncertainty. • The performance of the RMs was estimated with the Proficiency Testing program report. • The ability of the environment RMs in the configuration is quite good

  16. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed at border, seaport, airport and key traffic checkpoints have played an important role in preventing the illicit trafficking and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. However, the RPM is usually large and heavy and can't easily be moved to different locations. These reasons motivate us to develop a mobile radiation detection system. The objective of this paper is to report our experience on developing the mobile radiation detection system for search and detection of nuclear and radioactive materials during road transport. Field tests to characterize the developed detection system were performed at various speeds and distances between the radioactive isotope (RI) transporting car and the measurement car. Results of measurements and detection limits of our system are described in this paper. The mobile radiation detection system developed should contribute to defending public's health and safety and the environment against nuclear and radiological terrorism by detecting nuclear or radioactive material hidden illegally in a vehicle

  17. Vertical and Horizontal Mixing Rates of Radioactive Material in the Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations on the vertical distribution of radioactivity in the Pacific Ocean showed that presence of activity was mostly limited to the mixed layer above the thermocline in June 1954 (Miyake, Sugiura and Kameda, 1954). In March 1955, however, the activity extended down to about 600 m below the surface, the thermocline being present at the depth of 75 m (operation Troll, USAEC, 1956). If there is any biological transport of radioactive material in a vertical direction in sea-water, migration of plankton might be more effective than decomposition of organic debris in transporting radioactive material, although it would be only 10-20% of the physical mixing rate. When radioactive material diffuses out from a source point, the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient may be obtained from the time change of the distribution of the activity. (author)

  18. ASN: regional day of information and exchange on transport of radioactive materials - 4 February 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers Power Point presentations made during a meeting on the transport of radioactive materials. The contributions addressed the following topics: results of a survey based on questionnaires sent to actors of this sector, regulatory framework and radioprotection plan, case of parcels not submitted to the authority concerned, declaration of transport interesting or significant events, ASN inspections, the transport of radioactive products by the IBt Bebig company in France, the activities of the Institut de Soudure Industrie (industry welding institute), the activities of the ISO Life company specialized in health product transportation, the activities of the Securidis company (a consulting company for activities related to hazardous materials transportation, and notably radioactive materials), the activities a the ACE Environnement company (specialized in building diagnosis), the point of view of an academic research unit on radioactive material transportation, the experience of the hospital sector in radioactive source transportation, the experience of the Advanced Accelerator Applications company in radioactive material transportation, and a discussion on regulation application

  19. Quantification of Dilution Characteristics of Radioactive Materials in Korean Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the research, it was reported that all of the four nuclear sites in Korea were suitable for a nuclear power plant site as they had good atmospheric dispersion. However, in the event of an accident related to the leakage of radioactive materials from a nuclear power plant, the damage scale is decided depending on the meteorological conditions and it is necessary to quantify the dilution characteristics in case of the same-scale accident that might occur in any of the four nuclear power plant sites. This study quantified the annual dilution characteristics of radioactive materials in four power plant sites in Korea. The air concentrations resulting from an assumed unit release of radioactivity were used for the quantification and discrepancy among the dispersion levels of radioactive materials tested in each site statistically with ANOVA. Among the four nuclear power plant sites in Korea, the most active atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials was at the Kori site, and the weakest atmospheric dispersion was at the Yeoungkwang site. On the other hand, at the Kori site which is the most advantageous for the dilution of radioactive materials, the main wind direction is toward the city. Thus, special attention is required to protect residents from a nuclear accident. To identify and generalize the dilution characteristics for nuclear sites, more analysis using many years of meteorological data will be needed, whether for routine releases or an accidental release

  20. The experience of implementation and improving import-export control for nuclear and radioactive material in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Malaysia, nuclear, radioactive and radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry and research. Malaysia has initiated new or improved measures to combat illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials through enforcement of a strengthened Act 304 and its regulations. The paper discusses the experience of implementing and improving import and export control for nuclear and radioactive material in Malaysia. (author)

  1. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  2. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site`s radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, D.H.; Wolfe, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hoertkorn, T.R. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials).

  3. Description of a Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex for the Hanford Site's radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site has changed from defense nuclear materials production to that of waste management/disposal and environmental restoration. ne Multipurpose Processing and Storage Complex (MPSC) is being designed to process discarded waste tank internal hardware contaminated with mixed wastes, failed melters from the vitrification plant, and other Hanford Site high-level solid waste. The MPSC also will provide interim storage of other radioactive materials (irradiated fuel, canisters of vitrified high-level waste [HLW], special nuclear material [SNM], and other designated radioactive materials)

  4. Radioactive waste immobilization using ion-exchange materials which form glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention provides a process for the production of a glass-ceramic composite product in which the crystalline phase is thermodynamically stable and compatible with the host rock. The process comprises: (a) passing liquid radioactive waste materials through an inorganic ion exchange medium; (b) heating the ion exchange materials with sufficient glass-forming materials to form a melt; (c) cooling the melt to form a glass; and (d) heat treating the glass to crystallize sphene crystallites in a protective glassy matrix that contains the radioactive materials. There is also provided a cartridge containing the ion exchange medium

  5. Applications of nuclear analytical techniques for identifying the origin and composition of found radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials and sources have been used worldwide for the last 100 years - for medical diagnosis and therapy, industrial imaging and process monitoring, consumer applications, materials and biological research, and for generating nuclear energy - among other peaceful purposes. Many of the radioactive materials have been produced, and the associated nuclear science and technology developed, at major research sites such as the Chalk River Laboratories in Ontario, Canada. Sometimes undocumented radioactive materials associated with production, development or use are found, usually in the context of a legacy setting, and their composition and origin needs to be determined in order for these materials to be safely handled and securely dispositioned. The novel applications of nuclear analytical techniques, including mass spectroscopy, gamma and x-ray spectroscopy and neutron beam irradiation techniques, is presented in the context of some recent investigations. (author)

  6. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  7. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material. Implementing Guide (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks.

  8. Security in the transport of radioactive material: Implementing guide. Spanish edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide provides States with guidance in implementing, maintaining or enhancing a nuclear security regime to protect radioactive material (including nuclear material) in transport against theft, sabotage or other malicious acts that could, if successful, have unacceptable radiological consequences. From a security point of view, a threshold is defined for determining which packages or types of radioactive material need to be protected beyond prudent management practice. Minimizing the likelihood of theft or sabotage of radioactive material in transport is accomplished by a combination of measures to deter, detect, delay and respond to such acts. These measures are complemented by other measures to recover stolen material and to mitigate possible consequences, in order to further reduce the risks

  9. IMPACLIB: a material property data library for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-12-01

    The paper describes the structural data library and graphical program for impact and stress analyses of radioactive material transport casks. Four kinds of material data, structure steels, stainless steels, leads and woods are compiled. These materials are main structural elements of casks. Structural data such as, coefficient of thermal expansion, modulus of longitudinal elasticity, modulus of transverse elasticity, Poisson`s ratio and stress-strain relationship have been tabulated. Main features of IMPACLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature or strain rate, (2) thirteen kinds of polynominal fitting for stress-strain curve are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for structural data and (4) the IMPACLIB is able to be used on not only main frame computers but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computers (OS Windows 3.1). In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides a user`s guide for computer program and input data for the IMPACLIB. (author)

  10. THERMLIB: a material property data library for thermal analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes an heat conduction data library and graphical program for analysis of radioactive material transport casks. More than 1000 of material data are compiled in the data library which was produced by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Thermal data such as, density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, phase-change or solid-state, transition temperature and latent heat have been tabulated. Using this data library, a data library processing program THERMLIB for thermal analysis has been developed. Main features of THERMLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature, (2) more than 1000 material data are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for thermal data and (4) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows) are available for use of THERMLIB. In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides an user's guide for computer program and input data for THERMLIB. (author)

  11. IMPACLIB: a material property data library for impact analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the structural data library and graphical program for impact and stress analyses of radioactive material transport casks. Four kinds of material data, structure steels, stainless steels, leads and woods are compiled. These materials are main structural elements of casks. Structural data such as, coefficient of thermal expansion, modulus of longitudinal elasticity, modulus of transverse elasticity, Poisson's ratio and stress-strain relationship have been tabulated. Main features of IMPACLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature or strain rate, (2) thirteen kinds of polynominal fitting for stress-strain curve are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for structural data and (4) the IMPACLIB is able to be used on not only main frame computers but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computers (OS Windows 3.1). In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides a user's guide for computer program and input data for the IMPACLIB. (author)

  12. THERMLIB: a material property data library for thermal analysis of radioactive material transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The paper describes an heat conduction data library and graphical program for analysis of radioactive material transport casks. More than 1000 of material data are compiled in the data library which was produced by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Thermal data such as, density, thermal conductivity, specific heat, phase-change or solid-state, transition temperature and latent heat have been tabulated. Using this data library, a data library processing program THERMLIB for thermal analysis has been developed. Main features of THERMLIB are as follows: (1) data have been tabulated against temperature, (2) more than 1000 material data are available, (3) it is capable of graphical representations for thermal data and (4) not only main frame computer but also work stations (OS UNIX) and personal computer (OS Windows) are available for use of THERMLIB. In the paper, brief illustration of data library is presented in the first section. The second section presents descriptions of structural data. The third section provides an user`s guide for computer program and input data for THERMLIB. (author)

  13. Development of a impact limiter for radioactive material transport packages - characterization of the polymeric material used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact limiters are sacrificial components widely used to protect radioactive waste packages against damages arising from falls, fires and collisions with protruding objects. Several materials have been used as impact limiter filling: wood, aluminum honeycomb, and metallic or polymeric foams. Besides, hollow structures are also used as shock absorbers, either as a single shell or as a tube array. One of the most popular materials among package designers is rigid polyurethane foam, owing to its toughness, workability, low specific weight, low costs and commercial availability. In Brazil, a foam developed using the polymer extracted from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) is being studied as a potential impact limiter filling. For a better performance of this material, it is necessary to minimize the impact limiter dimensions without compromising the package safety. For this, a detailed knowledge of the foam physical and mechanical properties is essential. A relatively vast amount of data about regular polymeric foams can be found in the literature and in foreign manufacturers brochures, but no data has been published about the properties of the castor oil foam. This paper presents data gathered in an ongoing research program aiming at the development of a Type-B packaging. Foam samples were submitted to uniaxial static compression tests and to hydrostatic tests. The results obtained reveal that the castor oil foam has a mechanical behavior similar to that of regular foams, with good property reproducibility and homogeneity. (author)

  14. Romanian experience in a assessment of the risk and environmental consequences due to radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The transport of radioactive materials (RAM) is a very important problem taking into consideration its potential risks over the environment and the radiological consequences of this activity. Romania as a Member State of the International Atomic Energy Agency has implemented national regulations for a safe transport of RAM in complying with the Agency's recommendations as well as other international specialized organizations. The paper will present the main sources of radioactive materials in Romania, and their transportation routes with a particular focus on the radioactive wastes (very low level and mixed low-level radioactive materials), radioactive isotopes and sources, and natural uranium ore. Starting from the fact that the safety in the transport of radioactive materials is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped, rather than operational and/or administrative actions required for the package, the paper presents, very briefly, the qualification tests for the main packages used for transport and storage of RAM in Romania. There are presented also specific problems related to the identification and evaluation of the environmental risks and impacts as well as the potential radiological consequences associated with the transport of radioactive materials, for all those three possible situations: routine transport (without incidents), normal transport (with minor incidents) and during potential accidents. As a conclusion, it is stated that the evaluated annual collective dose for the population due to RAM transport is less than those received by natural radiation sources. At the same time it is concluded that Romanian made packages are safe and prevent loss of its radioactive contents into environment. (author)

  15. Low-level radioactive material information management system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) has designed and tested a monitoring system for reporting and tracking the movement of low-level radioactive waste from generator through transporter or broker to disposal site. This demonstration project has been an attempt to show the feasibility of a system with wider regional and national scope. In conjunction with the development of this closed-loop system, a low-level waste generators' survey has been conducted in 10 pilot states to collect, analyze and present low-level waste data for state management purposes. These states are Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

  16. Hygienization of sewage sludge with radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special irradiation plant in Geiselbullach (Federal Republic of Germany) has recently been charged up with caesium 137 sources. This is the first time that highly radioactive waste products from nuclear power stations are being employed for the hygienization of sewage sludge. About 150 m3 of sewage sludge per day are subjected for a short time to irradiation by hard gamma rays in the Geiselbullach plant. The irradiation destroys the living organisms dangerous to human health present in the sludge. This results in an end product used as fertilizer in agriculture. (Auth.)

  17. Application of Generic Exemption Levels for Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In essence, exemption is an authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the user of the radioactive source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. This paper briefly describes and analyses these scenarios and also, describes the status of an implementation guide of these levels in the Argentinean Regulatory System. (authors)

  18. Application of generic exemption levels for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In essence, exemption is an authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the user of the radioactive source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. This paper briefly describes and analyses these scenarios and also, describes the status of an implementation guide of these levels in the Argentinean Regulatory System. (author)

  19. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document states the functional requirements and procedures for systems making measurements of radioactive airborne emissions from facilities at the Hanford Site. The following issues are addressed in this document: Definition of the program objectives; Selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples; Sampling equipment design; Sampling equipment maintenance, and quality assurance issues. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance

  20. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Geographical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geographical inventory of the radioactive wastes present on the French territory (as recorded until the 31 of december, 2007) is presented, region by region. The various types of waste sites (production, processing, conditioning and storage sites, Uranium mines, ANDRA storage centers, historical storage sites and polluted sites where wastes are stored) are listed and located on maps. Details are given on the nature and origin of these wastes (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). A total of 1121 sites have been recorded, among which 163 are presented with details and charts