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Sample records for administered lna-antimir leads

  1. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  2. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO(3) (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products. PMID:19765804

  3. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  4. Lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This is one of a series of reports made on industrial pollutants by the Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards to advise the United Kingdom Government on air quality standards. It describes the main sources of lead exposure, including the relative contribution of lead in the air and lead in the diet, and the methods by which it is measured in air. The Panel also considers the airborne concentrations recorded to date in the United Kingdom, ways in which lead is handled in by the body, and its toxic effects on people. The dominant source of airborne lead is petrol combustion. Other source include coal combustion, the production of non-ferrous metals and waste treatment and disposal. The justification of an air quality standard for lead is set down. The Panel recommends an air quality standard for lead in the United Kingdom of 0.25 {mu}g/m{sup 3} measured as an annual average. This is intended to protect young children, the group most vulnerable to impairment of brain function. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Antagonism of microRNA-122 in mice by systemically administered LNA-antimiR leads to up-regulation of a large set of predicted target mRNAs in the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmen, Joachim; Lindow, Morten; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Bak, Mads; Christensen, Mette; Lind-Thomsen, Allan; Hedtjarn, Maj; hansen, jens bo; Hansen, Henrik Freydenlund; Straarup, Ellen Marie; McCullagh, Keith; Keraney, Phil; Kauppinen, Markus Sakari

    2008-01-01

    the LNA-antimiR in mouse liver cells, which was accompanied by markedly reduced hybridization signals for mature miR-122 in treated mice. Functional antagonism of miR-122 was inferred from a low cholesterol phenotype and derepression within 24 h of 199 liver mRNAs showing significant enrichment for mi......MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is an abundant liver-specific miRNA, implicated in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism as well as hepatitis C viral replication. Here, we report that a systemically administered 16-nt, unconjugated LNA (locked nucleic acid)- antimiR oligonucleotide complementary to the 5......’end of miR-122 leads to specific, dose-dependent silencing of miR-122 and shows no hepatotoxicity in mice. Antagonism of miR-122 is due to formation of stable heteroduplexes between the LNA-antimiR and miR-122 as detected by northern analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated uptake of...

  6. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  7. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....

  8. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of...

  9. Best Practices for Administering Concept Inventories

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Adrian; Sayre, Eleanor C

    2014-01-01

    There are a plethora of concept inventories in physics available for faculty to use, but it is not always clear exactly why you would use these tests, or how you should administer them and interpret the results. These multiple-choice research-based tests about physics concepts are valuable because they allow for standardized comparisons among institutions, instructors, or over time. In order for these comparisons to be meaningful, you should use best practices for administering the tests. Here we discuss best practices for administering concept inventories including background on these types of tests and specifics of how to give them online or in-class. We also discuss advantages and disadvantages of different incentives you could give your students, interpretation of scores and common concerns you may have about using concept inventories.

  10. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T;

    2011-01-01

    endoscopists and for endoscopy nurses who were administering propofol sedation. The nurses' program comprised a 6-week course including theoretical and practical training in airway management, and the endoscopists' program consisted of 2.5 h of theory and a short course in practical airway management. In the......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A structured training program was developed both for...

  11. Administering the Labor Agreement. Manager Development Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Prepared under the direction of Headquarters, Department of the Army with the aid of subject matter specialists and technicians, this guide was designed to facilitate the preparation for and presentation of a course in administering local labor agreements. The five sessions, intended for first-line supervisors involved in day-to-day administration…

  12. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  13. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  14. Bioavailability of rectally administered carbamazepine mixture.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuvonen, P J; Tokola, O.

    1987-01-01

    The relative bioavailability of carbamazepine mixture was studied after oral and rectal administration to healthy subjects. The absorption was significantly slower after the rectal than after the oral route but the total bioavailability was similar provided the mixture was not defaecated within 2 h of administration. We conclude that carbamazepine can be administered rectally, e.g. to postoperative patients in doses corresponding with oral doses.

  15. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  16. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  17. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  18. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free solder, lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust ... NOT store wine, spirits, or vinegar-based salad dressings in lead crystal decanters for long periods of ...

  19. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or ... avoid exposure to soil. Is there a medical test for lead exposure? • Blood samples can be tested ...

  20. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  1. Who should administer awards, and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the problems related to the administration of compensation awards following a nuclear accident, and suggests ways in which these problems could be addressed. The author first describes the existing legislation in Switzerland governing nuclear third party liability and its financial guarantee, namely the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability and its Implementing Ordinance. He then provides an outline of the principles underlying the administration of compensation in Switzerland, describing in particular issues related to the information of the public, the organisation of a first estimate of damage three months after the incident, and the procedure applicable to accidents of catastrophic proportions, including the drafting of special legislation to govern the indemnization regime. The author further notes that in the context of the international third party liability regime, the Paris Convention does not regulate the administration of claims in detail, but rather refers to the national legislation of the accident state to determine such measures (Article 11). It does provide, however, that the distribution of compensation should be equitable in nature. The Vienna Convention contains similar provisions, although its Amending Protocol provides in certain cases for a priority system in favour of victims who have lost their lives or suffered personal injury. He points out that although Switzerland is not a Party to either of these Conventions, it has concluded a reciprocal agreement with Germany in this field, in light of the similarities in their national legislation. The author concludes by expressing his agreement with the approach taken by the Swiss legislator in avoiding the adoption of detailed regulations governing the administration of awards in advance. He notes that a case-by-case approach in response to the particular circumstances of a nuclear accident provides those responsible with the flexibility necessary to administer compensation

  2. Who Should Administer Energy-Efficiency Programs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen L.

    2003-05-01

    The restructuring of the electric utility industry in the US created a crisis in the administration of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency programs. Before restructuring, nearly all energy-efficiency programs in the US were administered by utilities and funded from utility rates. Restructuring called these arrangements into question in two ways. First, the separation of generation from transmission and distribution undermined a key rationale for utility administration. This was the Integrated Resource Planning approach in which the vertically integrated utility was given incentives to provide energy services at least cost. Second, questions were raised as to whether funding through utility rates could be sustained in a competitive environment and most states that restructured their electricity industry adopted a system benefits charge. The crisis in administration of energy-efficiency programs produced a variety of responses in the eight years since restructuring in the US began in earn est. These responses have included new rationales for energy-efficiency programs, new mechanisms for funding programs, and new mechanisms for program administration and governance. This paper focuses on issues related to program administration. It describes the administrative functions and some of the options for accomplishing them. Then it discusses criteria for choosing among the options. Examples are given that highlight some of the states that have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. The conclusion attempts to summarize lessons learned.

  3. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K; Greil, W; Kim, M J; Panteleyeva, G; Park, J M; Prilipko, L; Rayushkin, V; Sharma, M; Mellerup, E

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal...... recurrences. The mean 12-h standard serum lithium concentration was lower in the patients who had recurrences than in those who stayed euthymic. The results suggest that to be effective when administered every second day, lithium must be given in a dose leading to a 12-h standard serum lithium concentration...

  4. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    -99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

  5. Lead poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help if this information is not immediately available. Poison Control If someone has severe symptoms from possible ... be caused by lead poisoning, call your local poison control center. Your local poison center can be ...

  6. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  7. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has also been associated with juvenile delinquency and criminal behavior. In adults, lead can increase blood pressure ... and-forth manner, but rather from left to right (or vise-versa), or from the top of ...

  8. 40 CFR 147.3000 - EPA-administered program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administered by EPA. (The term “Indian lands” is defined at 40 CFR 144.3.) The Navajo Indian lands are in the... Utah. This program consists of the UIC program requirements of 40 CFR parts 124, 144, 146, 148, and... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program....

  9. Methods of administering oral formulations and child acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Ferreira, José A; Schobben, Alfred F A M; de Neef, Barbara J; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children may be unable or unwilling to swallow medicines. In order to avoid or accommodate any such problems, parents may decide to administer medicines other than intended. The aim of this study was to investigate how parents administered four oral placebo formulations to infants and

  10. Methods of administering oral formulations and child acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riet-Nales, Diana A.; Ferreira, José A.; Schobben, Alfred F A M; De Neef, Barbara J.; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Children may be unable or unwilling to swallow medicines. In order to avoid or accommodate any such problems, parents may decide to administer medicines other than intended. The aim of this study was to investigate how parents administered four oral placebo formulations to infa

  11. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also...

  12. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  13. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How ... poisoning is still one of the most important health issues in the United States ... in housing built before 1946 have elevated blood lead levels. These ...

  14. Enhancing older adults’ eyewitness memory for present and future events with the self-administered interview

    OpenAIRE

    Gawrylowicz, Julie; Memon, Amina; Scoboria, Alan; Hope, Lorraine; Gabbert, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Older adults’ memory reports are often less complete and accurate than those by younger adults. The current study assessed the suitability of the Self-Administered Interview (SAI) as retrieval support for older eyewitnesses, and examines whether experience with the SAI leads to improved performance on subsequent events where the SAI is not used. Participants recalled an event with the SAI or free recall instructions. After 1-week, all participants watched a second event and freely recalled it...

  15. The bioavailability of an orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-05-01

    The relative bioavailability of an orally administered aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for intramuscular injection (Depo-Provera) was determined in relation to orally administered tablets. Serum levels of MPA were determined by radioimmunoassay following the administration of 400-mg doses to 19 adult male volunteers in a crossover design after an overnight fast. The two treatments were judged bioequivalent based upon a comparison of the resultant MPA serum levels and the derived bioavailability parameters. Hence, the intramuscular suspension administered orally offers an alternative means of achieving optimal serum levels of MPA in patients requiring high dose therapy. PMID:6222996

  16. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  17. Prophylactic Effect of Gossypin Against Percutaneously Administered Sulfur Mustard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANSHOO GAUTAM; R.VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective efficacy of gossypin(3,3',4',5,7,8-hexahydroxyflavone 8-glucoside)by administering it intraperitoneally,for dose,time,and vehicle dependent effects against sulphur mustard(SM),administered through percutaneous route in mice.Methods SM(diluted in PEG-300)was administered percutaneously.The protective efficacy of gossypin was evaluated by administering it intraperitoneally(50,100,200,and 400 mg/kg),in various vehicles (water,PEG-300 and DMSO),and time intervals(30 min prior,simultaneous and 2 h post).The time dependent protection of gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was also evaluated using selected biochemical variables(GSH,GSSG,MDA,total antioxidant status,Hb,WBC count,RBC count,glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase,and superoxide dismutase)and liver histology.The protection of gossypin by oral route was also evaluated against percutaneously administered SM.Results The protection against systemic toxicity of SM(LD50 8.1 mg/kg)was beRer when gossypin was given with PEG-300 (8.0 folds)than DMSO(5.7 folds).No protection was observed when gossypin was administered with water.Good protection (8.0 folds)was observed when gossypin was administered(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)at 30 min prior or simultaneous to SM exposure,but no protection was observed when gossypin was administered 2 h post to SM exposure.A significant weight loss was observed 7 days after SM administration(2 LD50),with a significant increase in RBC and Hb.A significant decrease in total antioxidant status of plasma,liver GSH and GSSG levels,and in the activities of glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase was also observed 7 days after SM administration.SM treated mouse liver also showed necrosis.A significant protection was observed when gossypin(200 mg/kg in PEG-300;i.p.)was administered either as a pretreatment(30 min before)or simultaneous treatment,and not as a post treatment(2 h).The protective efficacy of gossypin was better

  18. Comparison of quality of induction of anaesthesia between intramuscularly administered ketamine, intravenously administered ketamine and intravenously administered propofol in xylazine premedicated cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Dzikiti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of induction of general anesthesia produced by ketamine and propofol, 2 of the most commonly used anaesthetic agents in cats, was assessed. Eighteen cats admitted for elective procedures were randomly assigned to 3 groups and then premedicated with xylazine 0.75 mg/kg intramuscularly before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 15 mg/kg intramuscularly (KetIM group, ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously (KetIV group or propofol 4 mg/kg intravenously (PropIV group. Quality of induction of general anaesthesia was determined by scoring ease of intubation, degree of struggling, and vocalisation during the induction period. The quality of induction of anaesthesia of intramuscularly administered ketamine was inferior to that of intravenously administered ketamine, while intravenously administered propofol showed little difference in quality of induction from ketamine administered by both the intramuscular and intravenous routes. There were no significant differences between groups in the ease of intubation scores, while vocalisation and struggling were more common in cats that received ketamine intramuscularly than in those that received intravenously administered ketamine or propofol for induction of anaesthesia. Laryngospasms occurred in 2 cats that received propofol. The heart rates and respiratory rates decreased after xylazine premedication and either remained the same or decreased further after induction for all 3 groups, but remained within normal acceptable limits. This study indicates that the 3 regimens are associated with acceptable induction characteristics, but administration of ketamine intravenously is superior to its administration intramuscularly and laryngeal desensitisation is recommended to avoid laryngospasms.

  19. Comparison of quality of induction of anaesthesia between intramuscularly administered ketamine, intravenously administered ketamine and intravenously administered propofol in xylazine premedicated cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikiti, T B; Chanaiwa, S; Mponda, P; Sigauke, C; Dzikiti, L N

    2007-12-01

    The quality of induction of general anesthesia produced by ketamine and propofol, 2 of the most commonly used anaesthetic agents in cats, was assessed. Eighteen cats admitted for elective procedures were randomly assigned to 3 groups and then premedicated with xylazine 0.75 mg/kg intramuscularly before anaesthesia was induced with ketamine 15 mg/kg intramuscularly (KetIM group), ketamine 10 mg/kg intravenously (KetIV group) or propofol 4 mg/kg intravenously (PropIV group). Quality of induction of general anaesthesia was determined by scoring ease of intubation, degree of struggling, and vocalisation during the induction period. The quality of induction of anaesthesia of intramuscularly administered ketamine was inferior to that of intravenously administered ketamine, while intravenously administered propofol showed little difference in quality of induction from ketamine administered by both the intramuscular and intravenous routes. There were no significant differences between groups in the ease of intubation scores, while vocalisation and struggling were more common in cats that received ketamine intramuscularly than in those that received intravenously administered ketamine or propofol for induction of anaesthesia. Laryngospasms occurred in 2 cats that received propofol. The heart rates and respiratory rates decreased after xylazine premedication and either remained the same or decreased further after induction for all 3 groups, but remained within normal acceptable limits. This study indicates that the 3 regimens are associated with acceptable induction characteristics, but administration of ketamine intravenously is superior to its administration intramuscularly and laryngeal desensitisation is recommended to avoid laryngospasms. PMID:18507218

  20. 40 CFR 282.92 - Tennessee State-Administered Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and 40 CFR part 281, subpart E. If Tennessee obtains approval for the revised requirements pursuant to... Storage Tanks, 4th Floor, L&C Tower, 401 Church Street, Nashville, Tennessee 37243-1541. (1) State... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tennessee State-Administered...

  1. Distribution of intratracheally administered plutonium-239 within the skeleton bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on distribution of the intratracheally administered plutonium-239 within the skeleton bones. Plutonium was found to be distributed non-uniformly within the skeleton: it was concentrated mainly in the bones where the trabecular fraction of the bone tissue was most manifest. The results obtained were supported by the correlation analysis

  2. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC STUDIES ON VAGINALLY ADMINISTERED LEVONORGESTREL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEChang-Hai; XUJian-Qiu; ZHUYue-Hua; SHIYong-En

    1989-01-01

    Comparative studies on pharmacokinetics of vaginally and orally administered levonorgestrel (LNG) tablet (Postinor) in one single dose containing 0,75mg LNG were performed. The pharmacokinetics of LNG and its effects on ovarian functions werealso studied after repeated vaginal administration.

  3. Lead pollution: lead content in milk from cows fed on contaminated forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapetti, C.; Arduino, E.; Durio, P.

    1973-01-01

    Lead toxicity is reviewed, and the history of the lead poisoning is described. Much of the lead pollution in soil is due to automobile exhaust. Two milk cows were fed forage with added lead acetate. The 20 kg of lead corresponded to 50 ppm, a level that is often found in hays near major highways. The cows milk was then analyzed for lead content. During the first and second phase of administration of lead salts, the milk cows did not show any evident symptoms of intoxication. The lead in the milk did have a marked correlation with the administered lead. The lead doses did not last long enough for chronic symptoms to begin. The dosage of lead in milk, due to the facility of drawing samples and the relevant levels of response, could represent a valid method for diagnosing incipient chronic intoxications.

  4. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by...... ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival....... Secondary outcomes included the number of patients with reduction in pain intensity during transport (NRS ≥ 2), the number of patients with NRS > 3 at hospital arrival, and potential fentanyl-related side effects. RESULTS: Fentanyl reduced pain from before treatment (8, IQR 7-9) to hospital arrival (4, IQR...

  5. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... US EPA US Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us You ... EPA Home » Lead » Learn about Lead Learn about Lead General Lead Information Read more about lead in ...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole administered intramuscularly and intravenously to healthy adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Barbero, J; Mariño, E L; Dominguez-Gil, A

    1985-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefmetazole, a new parenteral cephalosporin, administered intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg/kg to two groups of seven healthy volunteers were studied. Concentrations in serum were monitored over 8 h by a high-pressure liquid chromatography technique. The plasma concentration-time data were statistically fitted to a biexponential equation for both administration routes, and the data were analyzed by a two- and one-compartment kinetic model, respective...

  7. Computer Administering of the Psychological Investigations: Set-relational Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Yordzhev, Krasimir; Peneva, Ivelina

    2012-01-01

    Computer administering of a psychological investigation is the computer representation of the entire procedure of psychological assessments - test construction, test implementation, results evaluation, storage and maintenance of the developed database, its statistical processing, analysis and interpretation. A mathematical description of psychological assessment with the aid of personality tests is discussed in this article. The set theory and the relational algebra are used in this descripti...

  8. Use of professionally administered topical fluorides in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tenuta, LMA; Fox, CH; Lo, ECM

    2012-01-01

    Professionally applied topical fluoride varnish, gel, and solution have been shown to be effective in preventing and in arresting dental caries. Their use in different countries in Asia varies greatly and may not correlate with the dental caries situation of the populations in the countries. In the higher-income countries, use of fluoride varnish and gel is common among dental professionals. In contrast, the use of professionally administered topical fluorides is not common in the lower-incom...

  9. The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Henderson, Charles R.; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for ...

  10. The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

  11. Paradata: a new data source from web-administered measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Jenkins, Louise S

    2010-01-01

    Web administration of measures offers numerous advantages as well as some drawbacks; the efficiency of collecting data in this way is dramatic. An important by-product of Web administration of measures is the option of creating paradata that offer information about how respondents access a measure (server-side paradata) and navigate within the online environment (client-side paradata) to complete the measure. Paradata can play a critical role in developing and piloting measures as well as refining the measurement process. Uses of paradata in Web-administered measures include (1) informing the choice of response formats, (2) examining the extent of changing response options, (3) examining the extent of following a prescribed sequence in completing a measure, (4) tracking the response process, (5) aiding in designing a Web-administered measure and its layout, and (6) assisting in determining the most appropriate log-in procedure. Because of the potential value of this new type of useful data to researchers in nursing and health, this article focuses on paradata within the context of Web-administered measures. More specifically, the article focuses on the definition, generation, and uses of paradata, as well as the ethical issues and other concerns in obtaining and using paradata. Uses of paradata to test the usability of information systems used in nursing and health practices are also included. PMID:20978403

  12. Patient biodistribution of intraperitoneally administered yttrium-90-labeled antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatowich, D J; Chinol, M; Siebecker, D A; Gionet, M; Griffin, T; Doherty, P W; Hunter, R; Kase, K R

    1988-08-01

    Although 90Y is one of the best radionuclides for radioimmunotherapeutic applications, the lack of gamma rays in its decay complicates the estimation of radiation dose since its biodistribution cannot be accurately determined by external imaging. A limited clinical trial has been conducted with tracer doses (1 mCi) of 90Y in five patients who then received second-look surgery such that tissue samples were obtained for accurate radioactivity quantitation by in vitro counting. The anti-ovarian antibody OC-125 as the F(ab')2 fragment was coupled with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, radiolabeled with 90Y and administered intraperitoneally to patients with suspected or documented ovarian cancer. Size exclusion and ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography analysis of patient ascitic fluid and serum samples showed no evidence of radiolabel instability although a high molecular weight species (presumably immune complex) was observed in three patients. Total urinary excretion of radioactivity prior to surgery averaged 7% of the administered radioactivity while at surgery the mean organ accumulation was 8% of the administered radioactivity in serum, 10% in liver, 7% in bone marrow, and 19% in bone with large patient to patient variation. The mean tumor/normal tissue radioactivity ratio varied between 3 and 25. On the assumption that the above radioactivity levels were achieved immediately following administration, that the radioactivity remained in situ until decayed and that the dimensions of tumor were sufficient to completely attenuate the emissions of 90Y, the dose to tumor for a 1-mCi administration would be approximately 50 rad with normal tissues receiving approximately 8 rad. PMID:3404257

  13. A parent-administered program to reduce children's television viewing

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, David A.; Mendes, Maria G.; Factor, David

    1984-01-01

    A parent-administered program to reduce television viewing of primary school-aged children was tested on two boys and three girls from three different families who were heavy viewers of television. Children were given 20 unearned tokens each week by their parents, which they could exchange for up to 10 hours of viewing time. The child earned a gold token for viewing in accordance with the rules for 4 consecutive weeks, which was exchanged for a reward. Parents were given instructions to follo...

  14. Prototype of a glass to administer liquid to newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Lopes de Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the evaluation of health professionals about a prototype glass to administer liquids to newborns. It was a descriptive, exploratory study, which was carried out at the maternity of a university hospital, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to 75 health professionals, after administering a glass of milk to newborns, in the months of July and August, 2011. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively and subjected to qualitative content analysis, three categories emerged: positive aspects, with 269 of the register units; negative aspects, with 11 units and suggestions to improve the glass, with six. Statistical analysis showed that the concepts ‘good’ and ‘excellent’, related to the prototype glass, presented rates over 90%. The perception of the participants demonstrated a positive evaluation of the prototype glass, which proved to be a practical tool, the design and safe material for the execution of the ‘technique of the little glass’.

  15. NOTE FOR EDITOR: Administering Examinations For Quality Control In Distance Education: 
The National Open University Of Nigeria Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    IBARA, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    Examination is an important tool for evaluating students learning outcome and require proper planning to meet high standards. This paper therefore examines the processes leading to administration of face-to-face examination in distance education with focus on the National Open University of Nigeria. It highlighted some procedures such as test development, test administration and post test administration/award procedures. It also identified some quality control practices adopted in administer...

  16. Bioavailability of detomidine administered sublingually to horses as an oromucosal gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, H; Aspegrén, J; Hyyppä, S; Tamm, L; Salonen, J S

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the absorption, bioavailability and sedative effect of detomidine administered to horses as an oromucosal gel compared to intravenous and intramuscular administration of detomidine injectable solution. The study was open and randomized, with three sequences crossover design. Nine healthy horses were given 40 μg/kg detomidine intravenously, intramuscularly or administered under the tongue with a 7-day wash-out period between treatments. Blood samples were collected before and after drug administration for the measurement of detomidine concentrations in serum. The effects of the route of administration on heart rate and rhythm were evaluated and the depth of sedation assessed. Mean (±SD) bioavailability of detomidine was 22% (±5.3%) after sublingual administration and 38.2% (±7.9%) after intramuscular administration. The sedative effects correlated with detomidine concentrations regardless of the route of administration. We conclude that less detomidine is absorbed when given sublingually than when given intramuscularly, because part of it does not reach the circulation. Sublingual administration of detomidine oromucosal gel at 40 μg/kg produces safe sedation in horses. Slow absorption leads to fewer and less pronounced adverse effects than the more rapid absorption after intramuscular injection. PMID:21219348

  17. Peripherally administered nanoparticles target monocytic myeloid cells, secondary lymphoid organs and tumors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraklis C Kourtis

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have been extensively developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications. While the focus of nanoparticle trafficking in vivo has traditionally been on drug delivery and organ-level biodistribution and clearance, recent work in cancer biology and infectious disease suggests that targeting different cells within a given organ can substantially affect the quality of the immunological response. Here, we examine the cell-level biodistribution kinetics after administering ultrasmall Pluronic-stabilized poly(propylene sulfide nanoparticles in the mouse. These nanoparticles depend on lymphatic drainage to reach the lymph nodes and blood, and then enter the spleen rather than the liver, where they interact with monocytes, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. They were more readily taken up into lymphatics after intradermal (i.d. compared to intramuscular administration, leading to ∼50% increased bioavailability in blood. When administered i.d., their distribution favored antigen-presenting cells, with especially strong targeting to myeloid cells. In tumor-bearing mice, the monocytic and the polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cell compartments were efficiently and preferentially targeted, rendering this nanoparticulate formulation potentially useful for reversing the highly suppressive activity of these cells in the tumor stroma.

  18. Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-12-09

    Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.

  19. [Spontaneous reporting system data analysis of parenterally administered Shenmai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Xin; Xiang, Yong-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming; Shen, Hao; Ai, Qing-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous reporting system (SRS) datais currently an important source of monitoring and finding ADRs signals throughout the world. This method can promptly and effectively discover ADR signals, thus preventing and avoiding ADRs effectively. Parenterally administered Shenmai has the functions of benefiting vital energy, nourishing Yin and generating body fluids, and activating the pulse. Clinically it is used in various diseases including shock, coronary heart disease, viral myocarditis, chronic pulmonary heart disease, and granulocytopenia. The large, national SRS database of ADRs needs effective evaluation methods. We report on the use of Bayesian confidence propagation neural network method (BCPNN) and proportional reporting ration (PRR) with propensity score to control for confounding variables. Early warning signs of an ADR are, a feeling of suffocation (difficulty exhaling), anaphylactoid reactions and flushing. Furthermore, relevant relationships between the different factors is analysed by association rules (AR). It is found that there is a close relationship between past history of ADRs, a family history of ADRs and itching. PMID:24471317

  20. Interactions of conjugate vaccines and co-administered vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, H; Borrow, R

    2016-01-01

    Conjugate vaccines play an important role in the prevention of infectious diseases such as those caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) type b (Hib), Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccines developed against these 3 pathogens utilize 3 main carrier proteins, non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin (CRM197), diphtheria toxoid (DT) and tetanus toxoid (TT). Current pediatric immunisation schedules include the administration of several vaccines simultaneously, therefore increasing the potential for immune interference (both positively and negatively) to the antigens administered. Knowledge of vaccine interactions is principally derived from clinical trials, these are reviewed here to explore immune interference which may result of from carrier-specific T-cell helper interactions, bystander interference and carrier induced epitopic suppression. PMID:26619353

  1. Registered nurse-administered sedation for gastrointestinalendoscopic procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The rising use of nonanesthesiologist-administeredsedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has clinicalsignificances. Most endoscopic patients require someforms of sedation and/or anesthesia. The goals ofthis sedation are to guard the patient's safety, minimizephysical discomfort, to control behavior and todiminish psychological responses. Generally, moderatesedation for these procedures has been offered by thenon-anesthesiologist by using benzodiazepines and/oropioids. Anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologistpersonnel will need to work together for these challengesand for safety of the patients. The sedationtraining courses including clinical skills and knowledgeare necessary for the registered nurses to facilitate thepatient safety and the successful procedure. However,appropriate patient selection and preparation, adequatemonitoring and regular training will ensure that the useof nurse-administered sedation is a feasible and safetechnique for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

  2. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... propofol dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate ofhypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 (p = 0.017) and total propofol dose (p = 0.001) were...... associated with a higher rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Safety during intermittent deep sedation with NAPS was good. Age, ASA class 3 and total propofol dose were correlated with a higher rate of adverse events. Patients aged 60 years or more needed more handling during adverse events. FUNDING: Arvid...

  3. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars; Vilmann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... propofol dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate of hypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p < 0.001), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class 3 (p = 0.017) and total propofol dose (p = 0.001) were...... associated with a higher rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Safety during intermittent deep sedation with NAPS was good. Age, ASA class 3 and total propofol dose were correlated with a higher rate of adverse events. Patients aged 60 years or more needed more handling during adverse events. FUNDING: Arvid...

  4. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... is used to screen people at risk for lead poisoning. This may include industrial workers and children ... also used to measure how well treatment for lead poisoning is working. Lead is common in the ...

  5. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  6. Lead for radiation shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication programme lead in radiation protection: lead bricks, radiation protection tables and windows, locks, lead containers, vaults and bunkers, radiation protection capsules as well as lead fillings for reactor aggregates. (RW/LH)

  7. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  8. Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Repici; Eva Vitetta; Daniel de Paula Pessoa Ferreira; Silvio Danese; Massimo Arosio; Alberto Malesci; Nico Pagano; Cesare Hassan; Alessandra Carlino; Giacomo Rando; Giuseppe Strangio; Fabio Romeo; Angelo Zullo; Elisa Ferrara

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies.METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected.RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively.CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation.

  9. Human metabolism of orally administered radioactive cobalt chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the human gastrointestinal uptake (f1) and subsequent whole-body retention of orally administered inorganic radioactive cobalt. Of eight adult volunteers aged between 24 and 68 years, seven were given solutions of 57Co (T1/2 = 272 d) containing a stable cobalt carrier, and six were given carrier-free 58Co (T1/2 = 71 d). The administered activities ranged between 25 and 103 kBq. The observed mean f1, based on 6 days accumulated urinary excretion sampling and whole-body counting, was 0.028 ± 0.0048 for carrier-free 58Co, and 0.016 ± 0.0021 for carrier-associated 57Co. These values were in reasonable agreement with values reported from previous studies involving a single intake of inorganic cobalt. The time pattern of the total retention (including residual cobalt in the GI tract) included a short-term component with a biological half-time of 0.71 ± 0.03 d (average ± 1 standard error of the mean for the two nuclides), an intermediate component with a mean half-time of 32 ± 8.5 d, and a long-term component (observed in two volunteers) with half-times ranging from 80 to 720 d for the two isotopes. From the present data we conclude that for the short-lived 57Co and 58Co, more than 95% of the internal absorbed dose was delivered within 7 days following oral intake, with a high individual variation influenced by the transit time of the unabsorbed cobalt through the gastro-intestinal tract. - Highlights: • Gastrointestinal (GI) uptake, f1, of inorganic radioactive cobalt varies between 0.007 and 0.043 among humans. • Mean f1 among human volunteers was found to be 0.022 ± 0.003. • More than 95% of the estimated internal absorbed dose occurs within 7 d for the short-lived radionuclides 57Co and 58Co. • More than 60% of the time integrated absorbed dose from ingestion of 60Co occurs within 7 d. • Residence time of cobalt in the human GI-tract strongly influences the time integrated internal absorbed dose

  10. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  11. Administering and Detecting Protein Marks on Arthropods for Dispersal Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James R; Machtley, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring arthropod movement is often required to better understand associated population dynamics, dispersal patterns, host plant preferences, and other ecological interactions. Arthropods are usually tracked in nature by tagging them with a unique mark and then re-collecting them over time and space to determine their dispersal capabilities. In addition to actual physical tags, such as colored dust or paint, various types of proteins have proven very effective for marking arthropods for ecological research. Proteins can be administered internally and/or externally. The proteins can then be detected on recaptured arthropods with a protein-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here we describe protocols for externally and internally tagging arthropods with protein. Two simple experimental examples are demonstrated: (1) an internal protein mark introduced to an insect by providing a protein-enriched diet and (2) an external protein mark topically applied to an insect using a medical nebulizer. We then relate a step-by-step guide of the sandwich and indirect ELISA methods used to detect protein marks on the insects. In this demonstration, various aspects of the acquisition and detection of protein markers on arthropods for mark-release-recapture, mark-capture, and self-mark-capture types of research are discussed, along with the various ways that the immunomarking procedure has been adapted to suit a wide variety of research objectives. PMID:26863574

  12. [What lipid emulsion should be administered to ICU patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreymann, G

    2014-01-01

    The review deals with a question what lipid emulsion should be administered to ICU patients according to recently published official parenteral and enteral nutrition guidelines. Classic lipid emulsions based on omega-6 fatty acids are immunosuppressive and should not be used with ICU patients. The olive/soy emulsion is immunoneutral and can be used for most patients. Many ICU patients are in an inflammatory state (e.g. sepsis, ARDS, pancreatitis). A common belief is that this "hyperinflammed patient population" would profit from an anti-inflammatory lipid component of their parenteral nutrition solution, such as fish oil. On the other hand, every anti-inflammatory therapy has the disadvantage of also being immunosuppressive. Inflammation is a necessary part of the host defense against infection and any correct anti-inflammatory medication presupposes the exact immunologic knowledge that there is too much inflammation for a given situation. This "too much" is certainly not fulfilled in every patient with sepsis, ARDS or pancreatitis. At the bedside it is nearly impossible to determine the degree of "hyper" inflammation. In reality, a number of these patients may be adequately inflamed or, in fact, even hypoinflammed. Specific emulsions which can be used in hyper- or hypoinflammation should be developed in the future. As long as these difficulties in the immunologic diagnosis prevail, the clinician might be best advised to use an immunoneutral lipid emulsion when choosing a lipid preparation for the ICU patients. PMID:25306684

  13. Recovery of cholinesterase activity in mallard ducklings administered organophosphorus pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Bradbury, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticides acephate, dicrotophos, fensulfothion, fonofos, malathion, and parathion were administered to mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for up to 77 d after dosing. In vivo recovery of brain ChE activity to within 2 standard deviations of the mean activity of undosed birds occurred within 8 d, after being depressed an average of 25-58% at 24 h after dosing. In vivo recovery of plasma ChE appeared as fast as or faster than that of brain, but the pattern of recovery was more erratic and therefore statistical comparison with brain ChE recovery was not attempted. In vitro tests indicated that the potential for dephosphorylation to contribute to in vivo recovery of inhibited brain ChE differed among chemical treatments. Some ducklings died as a result of organophosphate dosing. In an experiment in which ducklings within each treatment group received the same dose (mg/kg), the brain ChE activity in birds that died was less than that in birds that survived. Brain ChE activities in ducklings that died were significantly different among pesticide treatments: fensulfothion > parathion> acephate > malathion (p < 0.05).

  14. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  15. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  16. Pacemaker lead design masquerading as lead fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Gangadhara; Charles Peebles; James Gnanapragasam

    2015-01-01

    Performing chest X-ray is an important annual investigation to check pacemaker lead integrity during follow-up of patients with pacemakers. Understanding lead design is vital to the correct interpretation of X-rays to prevent inappropriate interventions for patients as highlighted in this case.

  17. Biological fractionation of lead isotopes in Sprague-Dawley rats lead poisoned via the respiratory tract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It was considered that lead isotope ratios did not change during physical, chemical, or biological processes. Thus, lead isotope ratios have been used as fingerprints to identify possible lead sources. However, recent evidence has shown that the lead isotope ratios among different biological samples in human are not always identical from its lead origins in vitro. An animal experiment was conducted to explore the biological fractionation of lead isotopes in biological systems. METHODS: 24 male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into groups that received acute lead exposure (0, 0.02, 0.2, or 2 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate via the respiratory route every day for 5 days. Biological samples (i.e., blood, urine, and feces were collected for comparison with the lead acetate (test substance and the low-lead animal feed (diet administered to the rats. The lead isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. RESULTS: There are significant differences (p<0.05 in lead isotope ratios between blood, urine, and feces. Moreover, a nonlinear relationship between the blood lead concentration and the blood lead isotope ratios was observed. There is also a threshold effect to the fractionation function. Only the blood isotope ratio of (204Pb/(206Pb matches the test substance well. As for feces, when (204Pb/(206Pb ratio is considered, there is no significant difference between feces-test substance pairs in medium and high dose group. CONCLUSIONS: The biological fractionation of lead isotopes in SD rats was observed. Moreover, there might be a threshold for the biological fractionation of lead isotopes which is depending on whole blood lead level. It is considered to be more reliable that we compared the isotope ratios of potential lead hazards with both blood and feces lead fingerprints especially for (204Pb/(206Pb ratio under high-dose exposure.

  18. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  19. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  20. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  1. Lead (in the Workplace)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Lead Health Effects Exposure and Controls General Resources Enforcement ... section of this webpage. Who is Exposed to Lead? OSHA estimates that approximately 804,000 workers in ...

  2. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  3. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than ...

  4. VOLUMETRIC LEAD ASSAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a system for handling and radioassay of lead, consisting of a robot, a conveyor, and a gamma spectrometer. The report also presents a cost-benefit analysis of options: radioassay and recycling lead vs. disposal as waste

  5. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  6. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

  7. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  8. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important ...

  9. Lead encephalopathy in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janapareddy Vijaya Bhaskara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries. We report the varied clinical presentation, diagnostic and management issues in two adult patients with lead encephalopathy. Both patients worked in a battery manufacturing unit. Both patients presented with seizures and one patient also complained of abdominal colic and vomiting. Both were anemic and a lead line was present. Blood lead level in both the patients was greater than 25 µg/dl. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain revealed bilateral symmetric involvement of the thalamus, lentiform nucleus in both patients and also the external capsules, sub-cortical white matter in one patient. All these changes, seen as hyperintensities in T2-weighted images suggested demyelination. They were advised avoidance of further exposure to lead and were treated with anti-epileptics; one patient also received D-penicillamine. They improved well on follow-up. Lead encephalopathy is an uncommon but important manifestation of lead toxicity in adults.

  10. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  11. NA49: lead-lead collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma.

  12. Retention and tissue distribution of 210Pb (NO3)2 administered orally to infant and adult monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retention and tissue distribution of 210Pb were studied in 10-day-old, 150-day-old, and adult monkeys. Lead-210 nitrate was administered to the monkeys by gavage after a 12 hr fast and 210Pb excreted in urine and feces was monitored for 96 hr. All monkeys were necropsied 96 hr after dosing and the 210Pb concentrations of various tissues were deermined. The data demonstrated that infant monkeys retained 64.5 and 69.8% of the orally administered 210Pb at 10 and 150 days of age, respectively, while adult monkeys retained 3.2% of the 210Pb dose. Blood 210Pb levels 96 hr after dosing did not vary significantly between age groups. Of the 210Pb contained in blood, 98 to 99% was found in blood cells and 1 to 2% in blood plamsa; 5 to 8% of the Pb in blood cells was bound to blood cell membranes. None of these parameters varied significantly with age. The percentage of the lead dose excreted in urine did not vary significantly between age groups. Analysis of tissues for 210Pb revealed that both the tissue Pb concentrations and tissue Pb : blood Pb ratios were significantly higher in the bone structure of infants than adults. Brain Pb : blood Pb ratios were significantly greater in 10-day-old infants than 150-day-old infants or adults

  13. Nephrotoxicity of cadmium & lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonick, H C

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium and lead are divalent cations with a propensity to settle in the proximal tubule of the nephron, leading to nephrotoxicity. The pathophysiological results, however, tend to diverge. Cadmium in sufficient cumulative dosage leads to the production of the Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular reabsorptive defect thought to be related to inhibition of both ATP production and Na-K-ATPase activity. On the other hand, lead accumulation in the proximal tubule leads to hyperuricaemia and gout, presumably by inhibiting uric acid secretion, and diminished glomerular filteration rate (GFR). Fanconi syndrome is seen unusually only in children and experimental animals. Cadmium nephrotoxicity is heralded by increased excretion of beta2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein and alpha1-microglobulin, indicative of decreased proximal tubule function. Beta2-microglobulinuria is not found in lead nephropathy. In lead nephropathy albuminuria is absent or minimal whereas in cadmium nephropathy albuminuria is variable. From the standpoint of pathology, both entities are characterized by tubulointerstitial disease and fibrosis, but only early lead nephropathy is characterized by the presence of proximal tubule nuclear inclusion bodies, due to the combination of lead with a lead binding-protein. PMID:19106433

  14. Lead exposure among young urban women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moline Jacqueline M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority residents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead levels. Our objective was to measure lead burden in young women of childbearing age in New York City. We also describe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material and methods. Healthy women aged 18-25 attending a New York City health care center in 1995-1998 were eligible for participation. Participants were recruited by health care providers, the study coordinator and the participants themselves. Venous blood samples were obtained for whole blood lead, ferritin and hematocrit measurements, and detailed questionnaires were administered. Results. 239 women have been recruited to date. The population is predominately minority: 62% African-American, 33% Hispanic and 5% Caucasian/Asian. The average age of participants is 19.3 years. Recruitment of participants into the study is predominantly (55% through "word of mouth" from previously enrolled participants. Few participants learned of the study through their health care providers. The mean blood lead level among study participants is 2.1 ± 1.7 µg/dl, which is consistent with the most recent United States national survey. Conclusions. Blood lead levels are low in young, urban minority women of childbearing age in New York City. In this population, recruitment efforts were substantially enhanced with the help of enrolled participants and the health care community.

  15. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn

    2012-01-01

    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  16. Development of Teacher-Administered Tests for the SWRL Reading Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermeyer, Fred C.; Sullivan, Howard J.

    To investigate the type of classroom testing format most appropriate for the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Mod 2 Reading Program, three types of teacher-administered tests for the SWRL Second-Year Communication Skills Program were developed and tried out during the 1970-71 school year. The tests were administered by the classroom teacher as…

  17. Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul; Hammering, Anne; Hornslet, Pernille; Horsted, Tina; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....

  18. Lead Poison Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  19. Lead and the skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.R.; Moore, M.R.; Hunter, J.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing use of lead will continue to give rise to problems of toxicity. Protective measures have resulted in florid lead poisoning becoming rare. Attention has recently turned to the possibility of prolonged exposure to low doses of lead causing morbidity in the absence of the classical clinical features of poisoning. Lead is absorbed mostly through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract. Some is also absorbed through the skin but with inorganic compounds the amount is small. Shortly after the most widely used compound, tetraethyl lead, was first manufactured, cases of toxicity began to occur. Manufacture was forbidden until plant design produced greater safety. Significant absorption can occur through the skin. The hazard to those handling leaded gasoline in a normal manner is probably small, mainly because 95 percent of a dose applied to the open skin surface evaporates. Hair has been used as a biopsy material to assess lead exposure. The biological effects of lead poisoning are discussed, including the synergistic effects of lead and agents provoking porphyria.

  20. Chronic lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, K.; Straub, P.W.

    1974-02-19

    A detailed description is given of the complex pathological picture observed in the case of a worker with 30 years' occupational exposure to lead in an accumulator factory (evolution of the disease, clinical findings, autopsy). In spite of a typical clinical picture, lead is not held responsible for the terminal encephalopathy, in view of the fact that Alzheimer's syndrome was discovered at autopsy. However, the neurovegetative asthenia and progressive kidney disease without hypertonia, but with uraemia, which preceded the encephalopathy are in all probability due to chronic lead poisoning. The article discusses the diagnosis and symptomatology of chronic lead poisoning, encephalopathy and kidney disease.

  1. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  2. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  3. Leading Educational Change Wisely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews Christopher Branson's book entitled "Leading Educational Change Wisely". The book provides an alternative and engaging perspective on leading educational change. Branson utilises "wisdom" as its central conceptual device to present a thought-provoking and philosophical account on how leaders are able to build a…

  4. Decontaminating radioactive lead solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead has been and continues to be used extensively at nuclear facilities and DOE/DOD sites to shield workers from ionizing radiation. Because it is often used in highly contaminated areas, the lead itself often becomes radioactively contaminated, thus creating a Mixed Waste. If the lead is contaminated above specified limits, it must be decontaminated prior to release for unrestricted use. In most cases, where the lead cannot be decontaminated using conventional methods, the lead is stored until a viable decontamination method and/or disposal alternative is determined. At many facilities, large quantities of stored lead are creating a significant problem. The U.S. EPA treatment standard for radioactive lead is, 'Macroencapsulafion with surface coating materials such as polymeric organics (e.g. resins and plastics) or with a jacket of inert inorganic materials to substantially reduce surface exposure to potential leaching media'. Since the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requires size reduction to less than 9.5 mm particles for solid waste, macroencapsulation is not a practical or economically feasible option for processing lead. The U.S. EPA originally proposed 'Surface Deactivation' as the treatment standard. Because there exists no demonstrated available technology, this method was dropped from the final treatment standard. (author)

  5. Distribution of rare earths in liver of mice administered with chloride compounds of 12 rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Rare earths are used in high technology field, however, the information on their biological effects are not sufficient. The behaviour of rare earths in biology is of interest in connection with their toxicity. In the present study, the distribution of rare earths in liver of mice administered with these elements was investigated. The effects on Ca and other biological essential elements were also determined. Male mice (5 weeks old) were injected with one of 12 kinds of rare earths (chlorides of Y, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Yb) at the dose of 25 mg/KXg body weight. After 20 hours of administration, mice were sacrificed, then liver and other organs were taken out. Liver was homogenized and separated by centrifugation. The concentrations of rare earths administered were measured by microwave-induced plasma-mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) after acid digestion. The concentrations of administered elements in whole liver were about 100μg/g (wet weight), where the difference between elements was few. Distribution amounts of elements administered in four fractions were following order; 700μg precipitate > mitocondrial fraction > microsomal fraction > cytosol. The relative contents in these fractions, however, was different depending on the element administered. Calcium concentrations in liver of administered mice were higher than those of control mice. Increase of Ca concentrations were observed in all four fractions and the increase ratio was also dependent on the elements administered

  6. LEADS-PEP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Alexander Sebastian; Windshügel, Björn

    2016-01-01

    tools, an independently constructed benchmark data set is urgently needed. Here we present the LEADS-PEP benchmark data set for assessing peptide docking performance. Using a rational and unbiased workflow, 53 protein-peptide complexes with peptide lengths ranging from 3 to 12 residues were selected....... The data set is publicly accessible at www.leads-x.org . In a second step we evaluated several small molecule docking programs for their potential to reproduce peptide conformations as present in LEADS-PEP. While most tested programs were capable to generate native-like binding modes of small peptides...

  7. The Effect of Compressor-Administered Defibrillation on Peri-shock Pauses in a Simulated Cardiac Arrest Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Glick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Results: Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47-0.67 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35-1.64. Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58-2.95 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08-4.43. Conclusion: Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:246–250.

  8. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create......, deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case...

  9. Compressor leading edges

    OpenAIRE

    Goodhand, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Compressor blades often have a small 'spike' in the surface pressure distribution at the leading edge. This may result from blade erosion, manufacture defects or compromises made in the original design process. In this thesis it is shown that these spikes will increase the loss generated by a blade only when they become large enough to initiate boundary layer transition at the leading edge through a separation bubble; this process increases profile loss by about 30%. A criterion is presen...

  10. Intranasally administered mesenchymal stem cells promote a regenerative niche for repair of neonatal ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H; van Tilborg, Geralda; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2014-11-01

    Previous work from our group has shown that intranasal MSC-treatment decreases lesion volume and improves motor and cognitive behavior after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage in neonatal mice. Our aim was to determine the kinetics of MSC migration after intranasal administration, and the early effects of MSCs on neurogenic processes and gliosis at the lesion site. HI brain injury was induced in 9-day-old mice and MSCs were administered intranasally at 10days post-HI. The kinetics of MSC migration were investigated by immunofluorescence and MRI analysis. BDNF and NGF gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis following MSC co-culture with HI brain extract. Nestin, Doublecortin, NeuN, GFAP, Iba-1 and M1/M2 phenotypic expression was assessed over time. MRI and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that MSCs reach the lesion site already within 2h after intranasal administration. At 12h after administration the number of MSCs at the lesion site peaks and decreases significantly at 72h. The number of DCX(+) cells increased 1 to 3days after MSC administration in the SVZ. At the lesion, GFAP(+)/nestin(+) and DCX(+) expression increased 3 to 5days after MSC-treatment. The number of NeuN(+) cells increased within 5days, leading to a dramatic regeneration of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus at 18days after intranasal MSC administration. Interestingly, MSCs expressed significantly more BDNF gene when exposed to HI brain extract in vitro. Furthermore, MSC-treatment resulted in the resolution of the glial scar surrounding the lesion, represented by a decrease in reactive astrocytes and microglia and polarization of microglia towards the M2 phenotype. In view of the current lack of therapeutic strategies, we propose that intranasal MSC administration is a powerful therapeutic option through its functional repair of the lesion represented by regeneration of the cortical and hippocampal structure and decrease of gliosis. PMID:24945601

  11. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakib Uddin RAYHAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Material and Methods: Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a “Cloud” database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. Results: This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient’s progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Conclusions: Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data.

  12. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  13. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  14. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndazo S Minka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  15. Open-label, multicenter study of self-administered icatibant for attacks of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Reshef, A; Longhurst, H; Kivity, S; Bygum, Anette; Caballero, T; Bloom, B; Nair, N; Malbrán, A

    2014-01-01

    Historically, treatment for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks has been administered by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patient self-administration could reduce delays between symptom onset and treatment, and attack burden. The primary objective was to assess the safety of self...

  16. Environmental lead in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, L.A.; Badillo, F. (Centro de Ecodesarrollo (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    From the data presented here, it can be concluded that environmental exposure to lead is a particularly severe problem in Mexico. As has been shown, there are very important sources of exposure to this metal: (a) for rural populations who manufacture and/or utilize lead-glazed pottery, (b) for urban populations who are exposed to high air lead concentrations due to the continued use of lead fuel additives, (c) for workers of several industries, mainly those of batteries and pigments, (d) for consumers who routinely eat canned foods such as hot peppers and fruit products, and (e) for the general population living in the vicinity of smelters, refineries and other industries that emit lead. Therefore, in Mexico only those native populations living in very primitive communities, far away from all civilized life, could be expected to be free from this exposure. At the same time, and despite the relatively few data available, it can be stated that the exposure to lead of populations in Mexico could be approaching levels that might be highly hazardous, in particular for the neuropsychological health of children. Regarding the presence of lead in the environment, despite the fact that the available studies are not enough, it is evident that pollution by this metal is widespread and that there is a serious lack of studies for most regions of the country, including several that might be expected to be highly polluted. At the same time, it is evident that the official attention paid to the problem, either in regulations, support of further studies, or implementation of effective control measures has been far from the level needed according to the available data.

  17. Subchronic chloroform priming protects mice from a subsequently administered lethal dose of chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection offered by pre-exposure priming with a small dose of a toxicant against the toxic and lethal effects of a subsequently administered high dose of the same toxicant is autoprotection. Although autoprotection has been extensively studied with diverse toxicants in acute exposure regimen, not much is known about autoprotection after priming with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate this concept following repeated exposure to a common water contaminant, chloroform. Swiss Webster (SW) mice, exposed continuously to either vehicle (5% Emulphor, unprimed) or chloroform (150 mg/kg/day po, primed) for 30 days, were challenged with a normally lethal dose of chloroform (750 mg chloroform/kg po) 24 h after the last exposure. As expected, 90% of the unprimed mice died between 48 and 96 h after administration of the lethal dose in contrast to 100% survival of mice primed with chloroform. Time course studies indicated lower hepato- and nephrotoxicity in primed mice as compared to unprimed mice. Hepatic CYP2E1, glutathione levels (GSH), and covalent binding of 14C-chloroform-derived radiolabel did not differ between livers of unprimed and primed mice after lethal dose exposure, indicating that protection in liver is neither due to decreased bioactivation nor increased detoxification. Kidney GSH and glutathione reductase activity were upregulated, with a concomitant reduction in oxidized glutathione in the primed mice following lethal dose challenge, leading to decreased renal covalent binding of 14C-chloroform-derived radiolabel, in the absence of any change in CYP2E1 levels. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) intervention led to 70% mortality in primed mice challenged with lethal dose. These data suggest that higher detoxification may play a role in the lower initiation of kidney injury observed in primed mice. Exposure of primed mice to a lethal dose of chloroform led to 40% lower chloroform levels (AUC15-360min) in the systemic circulation

  18. Psychological sources of response effects in self-administered and telephone surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Norbert; Bishop, George F.; Hippler, Hans-J.; Strack, Fritz

    1989-01-01

    The impact of mode of data collection (self-administered questionnaire vs. telephone interview) on the emergence of response effects and the accuracy of recall from memory was explored in a cross-cultural experiment, conducted in the U.S. and the Federal Republic of Germany. As predicted on the basis of psychological considerations, question order effects were obtained under telephone interview conditions but not under self-administered conditions, where question order is eliminated by the op...

  19. Metrological aspects in the estimate of the administered activity in nuclear medicine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the performance quality of routine measurements of Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation/Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (LNMRI/IRD) has been conducting, since 1998, a program of comparison for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. (author)

  20. Telephone-administered psychotherapy for depression in MS patients: moderating role of social support

    OpenAIRE

    Beckner, Victoria; Howard, Isa; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Depression is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). While psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, not all individuals benefit. We examined whether baseline social support might differentially affect treatment outcome in 127 participants with MS and depression randomized to either Telephone-administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (T-CBT) or Telephone-administered Emotion-Focused Therapy (T-EFT). We predicted that those with low social support would improve more ...

  1. Dose Dependence of the Anticoagulant Effect of Intravenously Administered Cellulose Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, N N; Kuznetsova, S A; Kalinina, T B; Vasilieva, N Yu

    2016-04-01

    Experiments on rabbits showed that increasing the dose of intravenously administered cellulose sulfate from wheat straw (dynamic viscosity 3.4 cP, sulfur content 14.1%) increased plasma clotting time in some coagulation tests and plasma anticoagulant activity. When cellulose sulfate was administered in the dose of 1 mg/kg, plasma clotting time in the presence of the anticoagulant (5 min after administration) was ~3-fold higher than after saline administration. PMID:27165079

  2. Present status of medical study on thorotrast-administered patients in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-fourths of all thorotrast-administered cases in Japan was warwounded ex-servicemen and their dates of thorotrast injections were concentrated between 1932 and 1945. An epidemiological follow-up study on 147 thorotrast-administered warwounded ex-servicemen whose protocols, contained records of thorotrast-administration, were kept at four former military hospitals, was initiated in 1963. At the end of 1983 the total number of their protocols discovered has increased to 282. On December 31, 1983, the authors found 50 malignant hepatic tumors, 25 other malignant tumors, 16 liver cirrhosis, and 4 blood diseases in 261 intravascularly thorotrast-administered cases. In the remaining 21 cases who had been given thorotrast by the route other than intravascularly, no significant difference was observed in the incidence of any diseases when compared with the controls. In 270 throtrast-administered autopsy cases reported during 1945-1983, 267 had been injected with thorotrast intravascularly and the remaining 3 had been given by other routes. Of the 267 intravascularly thorotrast-administered autopsy cases, 180 were malignant hepatic tumors, 20 liver cirrhosis, 16 leukemias, 5 aplastic anemias, 5 lung cancers, 3 sarcomas of thorotrast injected site, 2 metholiomas, 1 hemangioendothelioma of the spleen, 1 malignant lymphoma, and 1 osteosarcoma. The dosimetry of 96 intravascularly thorotrast-administered autopsy cases was performed for an estimate of the absorbed dose of critical organs, such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. (orig./MG)

  3. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic

  4. Predictors of DMSA chelatable lead, tibial lead, and blood lead in 802 Korean lead workers

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, A; Lee, B; Lee, G.; Ahn, K; Moshier, E; Schwartz, B.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine the interrelations among chelatable lead (by dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA), tibial lead, and blood lead concentrations in 802 Korean workers with occupational exposure to lead and 135 employed controls with only environmental exposure to lead.
METHODS—This was a cross sectional study wherein tibial lead, DMSA chelatable lead, and blood lead were measured. Linear regression was used to identify predictors of the three lead biomarkers, evaluating the influence of age, job...

  5. PENCIL LEAD FIELD EMITTER

    OpenAIRE

    Khairnar, R.; Joag, D.

    1989-01-01

    Field electron emission from 2H and HB grades of pencil lead has been studied. The pencil lead field emitter is found to obey the Fowler-Nordheim characteristics. The emission current fluctuations are found to increase with the residual gas pressure and the emission current. The current density of the order of 106 amp/cm2 could be drawn from these emitters. The emission stability over the operation of six hours has been found to be reasonably good. The field ion microscopy of the 2H and HB gr...

  6. Total contribution of airborne lead to blood lead.

    OpenAIRE

    Manton, W I

    1985-01-01

    A nine year study of blood lead concentrations and isotope ratios carried out on a married couple shows that pulmonary deposition cannot account for all the airborne lead in blood; that lead from bone may comprise 70% of blood lead; and that during pregnancy blood lead may double due to mobilisation of lead from bone.

  7. Postoperative intravenously administered iron sucrose versus postoperative orally administered iron to treat post-bariatric abdominoplasty anaemia (ISAPA): the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Montano-Pedroso, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaemia and iron deficiency are common complications following post-bariatric abdominoplasty. Given the low oral absorbability of iron resulting from bariatric surgery, it has been hypothesised that postoperative intravenously administered iron supplementation could be used to treat anaemia and to prevent the development of iron deficiency in these patients. Methods/Design In this multicentre open-label randomised clinical trial, 56 adult women undergoing post-bariatric anchor-line...

  8. Challenges in converting an interviewer-administered food probe database to self-administration in the National Cancer Institute Automated Self-administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24)

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Thea Palmer; Hull, Stephen G.; McNutt, Suzanne; Mittl, Beth; Islam, Noemi; Guenther, Patricia M.; Thompson, Frances E; Potischman, Nancy A.; Subar, Amy F.

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an automated, self-administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) application to collect and code dietary intake data. The goal of the ASA24 development is to create a web-based dietary interview based on the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Automated Multiple Pass Method (AMPM) instrument currently used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The ASA24 food list, detail probes, and portion probes were drawn from the ...

  9. Leading by Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    While the interview remains the most relevant process by which information about an applicant can be obtained, the effective school administrator must recognize that the interview process is much more than exploring an applicant's qualifications, skills, and experiences. The interview must also be utilized as a means of leading. In other words,…

  10. Change, Lead, Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Linda; von Frank, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Redefine leadership in your school, and create capacity through school leadership teams that successfully coordinate professional learning. "Change, Lead, Succeed" shows school leaders and teachers in leadership roles what they need to know to effectively create a culture for change. Find out what distinguishes a school leadership team from other…

  11. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals, the...

  12. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    As well as accelerators to boost particles up to high energy, physicists need detectors to see what happens when those particles collide. This lead glass block is part of a CERN detector called OPAL. OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  13. Girls Leading Outward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  14. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...

  15. Kinetics of lead following intravenous administration in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body retention of lead (Pb) and lead kinetics in blood, urine and faeces were determined over 2 weeks following i.v. administration of 203Pb-labelled chloride to 2 subjects. Pb was retained with a biological half-life of 73 days (mean). After day 1 Pb excreted in urine and faeces remained fairly constant at 1% and 0.3% of administered dose, respectively. There was a daily loss of 0.5% by other routes. There was a rapid clearance of isotope from plasma with a half-life of 1 min (mean). At 60 min 45% of the administered dose was in erythrocytes; this changed little over the 2 weeks. (Auth.)

  16. The Factors Lead to Management Accounting Change: A Malaysian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gengqiu

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, management accounting change has dominated both the professional and academic accounting literature. This paper aims to explore what are the factors leads to management accounting changes in Malaysian companies over the period 1997-2007. Data collected through online survey questionnaire administered to 1449 member of the Malaysian Institute of Accountants (MIA) who has the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) qualification. In all, 30 professionally qualified...

  17. HAIR LEAD CONCENTRATION IN NAKHLAK LEAD MINERS VERSUS CONTROL GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    Izadi, N.; K Montazeri

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Lead poisoning is a major problem in environmental health. Exposure can occur via air, soil, food and water. Occupational exposure is the most common source of lead poisoning in adults. Lead miners are exposed to an additional source of poisoning in long term. Hair analysis may be used to evaluate chronic lead toxicity. This study compare the hair lead concentration in Nakhlak lead miners and Mohammadieh people who live 130 km far from the lead mine. Methods. Hair samples f...

  18. Safety Evaluation of CNS Administered Biologics-Study Design, Data Interpretation, and Translation to the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemenot, Brian R; Korte, Sven; Wright, Teresa L; Adams, Eric L; Boyd, Robert B; Butt, Mark T

    2016-07-01

    Many central nervous system (CNS) diseases are inadequately treated by systemically administered therapies due to the blood brain barrier (BBB), which prevents achieving adequate drug concentrations at sites of action. Due to the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases and the inability of most systemically administered therapies to cross the BBB, direct CNS delivery will likely play an increasing role in treatment. Administration of large molecules, cells, viral vectors, oligonucleotides, and other novel therapies directly to the CNS via the subarachnoid space, ventricular system, or parenchyma overcomes this obstacle. Clinical experience with direct CNS administration of small molecule therapies suggests that this approach may be efficacious for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using biological therapies. Risks of administration into the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid include local damage from implantation of the delivery system and/or administration of the therapeutic and reactions affecting the CNS. Preclinical safety studies on CNS administered compounds must differentiate between the effects of the test article, the delivery device, and/or the vehicle, and assess exacerbations of reactions due to combinations of effects. Animal models characterized for safety assessment of CNS administered therapeutics have enabled human trials, but interpretation can be challenging. This manuscript outlines the challenges of preclinical intrathecal/intracerebroventricular/intraparenchymal studies, evaluation of results, considerations for special endpoints, and translation of preclinical findings to enable first-in-human trials. Recommendations will be made based on the authors' collective experience with conducting these studies to enable clinical development of CNS-administered biologics. PMID:27354708

  19. Leading Indicator Project : Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Everhart, Stephen S.; Duval-Hernandez, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a method for forecasting growth cycles in economic activity, measured as total industrial production. They construct a series which they aggregate into a composite leading indicator to predict the path of the economy in Lithuania. The cycle is the result of the economy's deviations from its long-term trend. A contractionary phase means a decline in the growth rate of the economy, not necessarily an absolute decline in economic activity. The indicator they select for econom...

  20. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  1. 75 FR 7440 - Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Forest Service Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental... report to the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest Final Environmental... considered, the FS must receive written comments on the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by...

  2. 38 CFR 2.3 - Delegation of authority to employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc. 2.3 Section 2.3 Pensions, Bonuses, and... employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc. (a) An employee to whom authority is delegated by... from the Secretary to employees to take affidavits, to administer oaths, etc., will be evidenced by...

  3. 34 CFR 692.80 - How does a State administer its community service work-study program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State administer its community service work... Its Community Service Work-Study Program? § 692.80 How does a State administer its community service work-study program? When administering its community service work-study program, a State must...

  4. [Technical specifications for rational clinical use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine (draft version for comments)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Ma, Rong; Xian, Shao-Xiang; Liu, Jian; Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Yu-Bin

    2013-09-01

    The regulations on basic clinical use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine, issued jointly in 2008, by the ministry of health (MOH), China food and drug administration (SFDA) and the state administration of traditional Chinese medicine (SATCM). Integrating actual clinical practice, these presented doctors and nurses with detailed specifications for the safe use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine. The regulations emphasize the use of Chinese medicine pattern differentiation, use in strict accordance with instructions, and they prohibit use combined with other medicines. The emphasis of the regulations are practicality and operability, and provide meaningful guidance to doctors and nurses for the rational and safe use of parenterally administered Chinese medicine, to reduce adverse reactions/adverse events caused by improper use. PMID:24471306

  5. Safety and efficiency of prehospital pain management with fentanyl administered by emergency medical technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Brogaard, Kjeld; Dahl, Michael; Hansen, Poul Anders

    Introduction: In our region Advanced Emergency Medical Technicians (AEMTs) respond to acutely ill or injured patients in rural areas. The AEMTs have been authorized to administer fentanyl intravenously in doses up to 2 μg/kg to selected groups of patients in pain. Higher doses can be allowed by a...... physician after a teleconference. We examined the effect of intravenous (IV) fentanyl treatment, expressed as pain reduction on a 10-point Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Moreover we examined the occurrence of negative coincident events to assess whether it was safe to let non-medical staff administer potent...... considered minor, and were not treated with naloxone.   Conclusions: Our results suggest that non-medical personnel safely can administer IV fentanyl to selected groups of patients with a satisfactory result in terms of a considerable reduction in pain score and an acceptable rate of negative coincident...

  6. Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

    The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.

  7. Lead diffusion in monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO4 monocrystals and in Nd0.66Ca0.17Th0.17PO4 polycrystals from Nd0.66Pb0.17Th0.17PO4 thin films to investigate Pb2+ + Th4+ ↔ 2 Nd3+ and Pb2+ ↔ Ca2+ exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb2+ + Th4+ ↔ 2 Nd3+ exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 ± 24 kJ mol-1 and log(D0 (m2s-1)) equals -3.41 ± 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb2+ ↔ Ca2+ exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 μm grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  8. Patient protection in nuclear medicine due to optimization of the administered activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of a radiological risk reduction in Nuclear Medicine patients is studied through the reduced absorbed doses in organs and tissues, and whole-body effective dose due to optimization of the administered radionuclide activities. Activity values, optimized for equipments and radiopharmaceuticals available in Cuba, are compared with the IAEA recommended values and with the routinary activities in medical practice. All doses were calculated using MIRDOSE 3.0 code for each activity and medical assay. The activity optimization permits to reduce in a 50% the doses administered to patients of the major part of studied medical assays. (Author)

  9. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid or...

  10. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  11. The effect of orally administered ranitidine and once-daily or twice-daily orally administered omeprazole on intragastric pH in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Šutalo, S; Ruetten, M.; Hartnack, S; Reusch, C E; Kook, P H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric acid suppressants frequently are used in cats with acid-related gastric disorders. However, it is not known if these drugs effectively increase intragastric pH in cats. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of PO administered ranitidine and omeprazole on intragastric pH in cats and to compare the efficacy of once-daily versus twice-daily dosage regimens for omeprazole. ANIMALS: Eight domestic shorthair cats. METHODS: Using a randomized 4-way cross-over design, cats were g...

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone or in combination

    OpenAIRE

    Hysek, C M; Simmler, L. D.; Schillinger, N.; De Meyer, N.; Schmid, Y; Donzelli, M; Grouzmann, E.; Liechti, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') are widely misused psychoactive drugs. Methylphenidate increases brain dopamine and norepinephrine levels by blocking the presynaptic reuptake transporters. MDMA releases serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine through the same transporters. Pharmacodynamic interactions of methylphenidate and MDMA are likely. This study compared the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone ...

  13. Comparing Two Conditions of Administering the Six-Minute Walk Test in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Brian M. Sandroff; Pilutti, Lara A.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Learmonth, Yvonne C.; Pula, John H.; Motl, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to determine whether differences existed in the total distance walked and energy expended between two conditions of administering the 6-Minute Walk test (6MW) across different levels of disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS).

  14. 34 CFR 650.41 - How are institutional payments to be administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Consumer Price Index for the previous calendar year. (b) If the institution of higher education charges and... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are institutional payments to be administered? 650.41 Section 650.41 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  15. High efficacy with deep nurse-administered propofol sedation for advanced gastroenterologic endoscopic procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Whereas data on moderate nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) efficacy and safety for standard endoscopy is abundant, few reports on the use of deep sedation by endoscopy nurses during advanced endoscopy, such as Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ER...

  16. Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Veterans Served by Community-Based Outpatient Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…

  17. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, C R; Jones, R.M.; Lee, D.; Brennan, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties.

  18. 20 CFR 664.610 - How is the summer employment opportunities element administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the summer employment opportunities... Opportunities § 664.610 How is the summer employment opportunities element administered? Chief elected officials... used to provide summer youth employment opportunities, these providers must be selected by awarding...

  19. 40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) The Program Description for the Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds As required by 40 CFR... Register on January 19, 2000 in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered...

  20. Higher Education in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan after 9/11: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.

    2010-01-01

    The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…

  1. Development and validation of a self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Having a food allergy may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for children with food allergy. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Child Form

  2. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo

  3. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo

  4. 21 CFR 1306.07 - Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering or dispensing of narcotic drugs. 1306.07 Section 1306.07 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... an incidental adjunct to medical or surgical treatment of conditions other than addiction, or...

  5. Depression in People with Intellectual Disability: An Evaluation of a Staff-Administered Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Kershaw, Mavis M.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of co-morbid depression in people with intellectual disability (ID) provides a strong rationale for the early identification and treatment of individuals at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate a staff-administered group CBT program for the treatment of depression in people with mild ID. A sample of 13 staff employed at two…

  6. Administered activity and estimated radiation doses from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures to the Israeli population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current levels of administered activity of radiopharmaceuticals in several common nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures and their contribution to the radiation doses to the Israeli population in 1998-2000 were analyzed. Diagnostic reference levels and the concept of effective dose per capita are discussed as relevant parameters to optimize patient protection. (author)

  7. 20 CFR 668.120 - How must INA programs be administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 U.S.C. section 450a, as well as the Department of Labor's “American Indian and Alaska Native... administer INA programs through a single organizational unit and consistent with the requirements in section...) within the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) as this single organizational unit required...

  8. 22 CFR 196.2 - How is the Fellowship Program administered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the Fellowship Program administered? 196.2 Section 196.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION THOMAS R. PICKERING FOREIGN AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.2 How is the Fellowship...

  9. Efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa administered by continuous infusion to haemophilia patients with inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Koopman, MMW; Goede-Bolder, ADE; Leebeek, FWG; Van der Meer, J; Kooij, GMV; Van der Linden, PWG

    2002-01-01

    We have prospectively monitored treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors by recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to obtain more insight in the underlying factors of the clinical efficacy of this administration method. At present, 43 treatment episodes of 14 d

  10. Stress Management for Special Educators: The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Krista; Poel, Elissa Wolfe

    2006-01-01

    The Self-Administered Tool for Awareness and Relaxation (STAR) is a stress management strategy designed to facilitate awareness of the physical, mental, emotional, and physiological effects of stress through the interconnectedness of the brain, body, and emotions. The purpose of this article is to present a stress-management model for teachers,…

  11. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  12. Lead Test Assembly program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the new/alternative fuel requires addressing all aspects of the fuel assembly design basis (mechanical, fuel handling, thermal-hydraulic, nuclear design, chemistry, safety analysis and licensing and including mix core effects. The scope of the work is minimized by implementing a Lead Test Assembly (LTA) program with a limited number of assemblies (6 or more), using approved designed features, and placing the LTAs in a unlimited core power location. The topics discussed in the contribution include plant licensing basis and regulatory requirements, plant interface review, compatibility with resident fuel and reactor environment, safety analysis, and post radiation examination. It is concluded that the LTA program is a prudent means of introducing new core designs into existing cores. (P.A.)

  13. Leading from the boardroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jay W; Clark, Robert C

    2008-04-01

    These days, boards are working overtime to comply with Sarbanes-Oxley and other governance requirements meant to protect shareholders from executive wrongdoing. But as directors have become more hands-on with compliance, they've become more hands-off with long-range planning. That exposes corporations and their shareholders to another--perhaps even greater--risk, say professors Lorsch, of Harvard Business School, and Clark, of Harvard Law School. Boards are giving the long term short shrift for a number of reasons. Despite much heavier workloads, directors haven't rethought their patterns of operating - their meetings, committees, and other interactions. Compliance has changed their relationship with executives, however, turning directors into micromanagers who closely probe executives' actions instead of providing high-level guidance. Meanwhile, the pressure to meet quarterly expectations intensifies. Directors need to do a better job of balancing compliance with forward thinking. Boardroom effectiveness hinges most on the quality of directors and their interactions, the authors' research shows. Directors must apply their wisdom broadly, handling compliance work more efficiently and staying out of the weeds on strategic issues. Using their power with management to evangelize for long-term planning, they must take the lead on discussions about financial infrastructure, talent development, and strategy. Reserving sacrosanct time for such discussions, as Philips Electronics' board does at annual retreats, is an effective practice: After one recent retreat, Philips decided to exit the semiconductor business, where it was losing ground. Individual directors also must not shy away from asking tough questions and acting as catalysts on critical issues, such as grooming a successor to the CEO. In short, directors must learn to lead from the boardroom. PMID:18435010

  14. Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that environmental lead exposure is associated with aggressive behavior in children; however, numerous confounding variables limit the ability of these studies to establish a causal relationship. The study of aggressive behavior using a validated animal model was used to test the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggression in the absence of confounding variables. We studied the effects of lead exposure on a feline model of aggression: predatory (quiet biting) attack of an anesthetized rat. Five cats were stimulated with a precisely controlled electrical current via electrodes inserted into the lateral hypothalamus. The response measure was the predatory attack threshold current (i.e., the current required to elicit an attack response on 50% of the trials). Blocks of trials were administered in which predatory attack threshold currents were measured three times a week for a total of 6-10 weeks, including before, during, and after lead exposure. Lead was incorporated into cat food 'treats' at doses of 50-150 mg/kg/day. Two of the five cats received a second period of lead exposure. Blood lead concentrations were measured twice a week and were <1, 21-77, and <20 μg/dL prior to, during, and after lead exposure, respectively. The predatory attack threshold decreased significantly during initial lead exposure in three of five cats and increased after the cessation of lead exposure in four of the five cats (P<0.01). The predatory attack thresholds and blood lead concentrations for each cat were inversely correlated (r=-0.35 to -0.74). A random-effects mixed model demonstrated a significant (P=0.0019) negative association between threshold current and blood lead concentration. The data of this study demonstrate that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in humans

  15. HAIR LEAD CONCENTRATION IN NAKHLAK LEAD MINERS VERSUS CONTROL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N IZADI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lead poisoning is a major problem in environmental health. Exposure can occur via air, soil, food and water. Occupational exposure is the most common source of lead poisoning in adults. Lead miners are exposed to an additional source of poisoning in long term. Hair analysis may be used to evaluate chronic lead toxicity. This study compare the hair lead concentration in Nakhlak lead miners and Mohammadieh people who live 130 km far from the lead mine. Methods. Hair samples from 24 Nakhlak lead miners and 26 adult men of Mohammadieh village were gathered, washed by detergent and distilled water and dissolved by wet digestion. Lead concentrations of the samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results. There was a significant difference between hair lead concentration of Nakhlak lead miners and Mohammadieh people (P < 0.001. The mean of lead concentrations were 52.43±27.7 µg/g (mean ± SD and 17.32±3.43 µg/g hair of the lead mine workers and the Mohammadieh people, respectively. There was also a significant regression between the number of exposure years and the lead concentration of hair in Nakhlak lead miners (P < 0.001, r=0.8. Discussion. Presence of lead compounds in work environment especially in the air may be an important factor for the difference between hair lead concentration of Nakhlak lead miners and Mohammadieh people. However, the hair lead concentration in Mohammadieh people is also reasonably high. It means that these people are also exposed to lead through the other sources e.g. food, soil, water and air.

  16. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:27033894

  17. Polymorphism of lead oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyulyupa, A.G. [Middle School, Sablinskoe, Stavropol region, 356322 (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, P.P., E-mail: ppfedorov@yandex.ru [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • Pb{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} melt undergoes statistical undercooling. • Orthorhombic nonlinear optical crystal Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is the metastable γ-polymorph. • Temperature of metastable melting of γ-Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is equal to 530 °C. - Abstract: The study of lead borate melt crystallization by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that, for Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (or 4PbO·B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) stoichiometric compound, its well-known orthorhombic modification (non-centrosymmetric Aba2 space symmetry group (SSG), a = 15.472(1), b = 10.802(1), c = 9.9486(6) Å unit cell parameters) is metastable. It forms from the undercooled melt and has a melting point of 530 ± 5 °C.

  18. The effect of CaNa2EDTA on excretion of 210PB, 210Po and stable lead in cases of chronic lead intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study describes the effect of CaNa2EDTA on the excretion of the naturally occurring radionuclides 210Pb, 210Po and stable lead in workers' urine. The CaNa2EDTA was administered intravenously to workers in the morning for five days. The results show that CaNa2EDTA mobilises biologically active 210Pb, 210Po and stable lead, appreciably increasing their concentration in urine. (author)

  19. Leading Your Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    life is good. More often when an unbelievably difficult test fails, we are left with a very long discussion of why and what was wrong in the design or execution of the test. Make sure that the test is well defined. Even then, it is important to explain to your leaders what inherent accuracy (or error) the test conditions or equipment have and what the assumptions or initial conditions were for the test. Test results without a good understanding of the test's accuracy or the pedigree of the test assumptions are worth very little. Finally, there is flight test data. Always limited, never at the edge of the envelope, it still shows how the real hardware works in a combined environment. Flight experience is dangerous because it typically doesn't show how close to the edge of the cliff the equipment is operating, but it does demonstrate how the hardware really works. A flight test is the ultimate test, again taken with the knowledge that it is probably not the extreme but something more like the middle of the environmental and systems performance. Good understanding of a problem and its solution always relies on a combination of all these methods. Be sure to lead your leaders by using all the tools you have at your disposal. At the end of the day, decisions in space flight always come down to a risk trade. Our business is not remotely safe, not in the sense that the public, the media, or our legislators use the term. Everything we do has a risk, cost, schedule, or performance trade-off. For your leaders to make an appropriate decision, you need to educate them, lead them, talk with them, and engage them in the discussion until full understanding takes place. It's your job. *

  20. Leading clever people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffee, Rob; Jones, Gareth

    2007-03-01

    In an economy driven by ideas and intellectual know-how, top executives recognize the importance of employing smart, highly creative people. But if clever people have one defining characteristic, it's that they do not want to be led. So what is a leader to do? The authors conducted more than 100 interviews with leaders and their clever people at major organizations such as PricewaterhouseCoopers, Cisco Systems, Novartis, the BBC, and Roche. What they learned is that the psychological relationships effective leaders have with their clever people are very different from the ones they have with traditional followers. Those relationships can be shaped by seven characteristics that clever people share: They know their worth--and they know you have to employ them if you want their tacit skills. They are organizationally savvy and will seek the company context in which their interests are most generously funded. They ignore corporate hierarchy; although intellectual status is important to them, you can't lure them with promotions. They expect instant access to top management, and if they don't get it, they may think the organization doesn't take their work seriously. They are plugged into highly developed knowledge networks, which both increases their value and makes them more of a flight risk. They have a low boredom threshold, so you have to keep them challenged and committed. They won't thank you--even when you're leading them well. The trick is to act like a benevolent guardian: to grant them the respect and recognition they demand, protect them from organizational rules and politics, and give them room to pursue private efforts and even to fail. The payoff will be a flourishing crop of creative minds that will enrich your whole organization. PMID:17348171

  1. [Effect of exogenously administered ATP on heart function and energy status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikov, V S; Darbinian, T M; Bakuleva, N P

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that ATP (24.10(-6) M) administered once into the circulating solution improved strength and speed characteristics of aerobically perfused hearts. The increasing demands of the hearts in oxygen and energy substrates were satisfied due to coronary vessels dilatation without harming the energy status of the myocardium. When the functional parameters of the hearts in the test and control groups did not differ, an exogenously administered ATP was included into the energy metabolism and increased considerably ATP and CP tissue levels, the sum of high-energy phosphates and ATP/ADP ratio. Artificial supplementation of tissue energy resources was accompanied by a decrease in energy-dependent end-diastolic pressure and diastolic left ventricular elasticity and by increased extensibility of the heart muscle, which may improve functional parameters. PMID:8185075

  2. Serum growth hormone (GH) profiles after nasally administered GH in normal subjects and GH deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda;

    1994-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: GH-deficient patients are at present treated with daily subcutaneous GH injections. Further improvements in patient compliance and effects of treatment may occur with nasal administration. We have examined the absorption of nasally administered GH in healthy subjects and in GH...... deficient patients in two separate studies. DESIGN: Healthy subjects and GH deficient patient were examined in the morning after an overnight fast. Twelve IU of GH in a powder containing didecanoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine as enhancer were administered in the nostrils (6 IU in each nostril) at the...... beginning of the study in the healthy subjects. The GH deficient subjects received a total of 6 IU GH/m2 intranasally. Blood was frequently sampled for up to 4 hours. Before and after nasal application anterior rhinoscopy was performed. PATIENTS: Eight normal subjects and 7 GH deficient patients...

  3. Administered activities of 18F-FDG PET clinics in pediatrics patients in Brazil- preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted among the Brazilian clinical PET, with the purpose of investigating the activities administered to pediatric oncology patients and assess whether significant differences between the protocols adopted. In addition, this survey can cooperate to the suggestion diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in nuclear medicine. Although the methodology for delivering doses by most clinics be based on patient's weight, the results showed variations of up to 191, 6% between the activities administered in clinics, even for similar devices. The average value of the distribution of activities reported was 4.46 ± 1,6 MBq /kg. These data demonstrate the need for harmonization and optimization of 18F-FDG/PET procedures, as well as training for professionals involved in the clinical routine

  4. Clinical evaluation of three techniques for administering low-dose heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbree, N S; Hollerbach, A D; Brooks, G P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of three techniques for administering subcutaneous low-dose heparin on the formation of bruises at the injection site in adult postoperative cardiothoracic surgery patients. Forty-three subjects comprised the sample. All received subcutaneous injections of heparin, 5,000 units every 12 hours postsurgery. Three subcutaneous injection techniques, identified to study the variables of needle manipulation and tracking of the medication, were administered randomly to each subject. Forty-eight hours after the third injection, the sites were observed and bruises, if present, were measured. Data were analyzed by means of the Friedman test, and a 0.569 level of significance was obtained. It was concluded that, for this sample, none of the three techniques appeared clearly superior in yielding smaller or fewer bruises. PMID:6560416

  5. Radiation dose calculations for orally administered radio-pharmaceuticals in upper gastrointestinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation burden estimates for upper gastrointestinal function studies employing the following orally administered radiopharmaceuticals are reported. Technetium 99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m-SC) in water, Indium-111-DTPA in water, Tc-99m-DTPA in water, Indium-113m DTPA in water, Tc-99m Ovalbumin, Tc-99m sulfur colloid in a cooked egg, Tc-99m sulfur colloid in vivo labeled chicken liver, and Indium-111 colloid in vivo labeled chicken liver. Orally administered radiopharmaceuticals for upper gastrointestinal studies afford clinician and investigator valuable clinical and physiologic information not previously obtainable using other techniques. The radiation burden to the patient from single or sequential studies is acceptable in comparison to fluoroscopy which results in approximately 5000 millirem per minute of exposure. The variety of preparations listed above should make these types of studies available in any routinely equipped nuclear medicine radiopharmacy laboratory

  6. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...... absorption was examined. Absorption was followed for 8 h after administration of 300 mg fat from the dairy products. Administration of cream and sour cream resulted in faster lymphatic fat absorption than cream cheese, butter, and mixed butter, and at 8 h the accumulated absorption of fat was significantly...... higher. The lymphatic absorption of fat after cream cheese administration was similar to the absorption after butter and mixed butter administration up to the 4-h time point; then it increased to a level between that of rats administered cream or sour cream and butter or mixed butter. Overall, these...

  7. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  8. Comparison between web-based and paper versions of a self-administered anthropometric questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Pollet, Clothilde; Malon, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Hercberg, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Online data collection could advantageously replace paper-and-pencil questionnaires in epidemiological studies by reducing the logistic burden, the cost and the duration of data processing. However, there is a need for studies comparing these new instruments to traditional ones. Our objective was to compare the web-based version of the NutriNet-Sante self-administered anthropometric questionnaire to the paper-based version. The questionnaire included 17 questions divided i...

  9. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Leung Lawrence; Neufeld Troy; Marin Scott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear) acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting pa...

  10. Self-administered acupressure for treating adult psychiatric patients with constipation: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Wai Kit; Chien, Wai Tong; Lee, Wai Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Constipation has a high prevalence rate (>30 %) in psychiatric patients with psychotropic drugs. Common pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for constipation might have longer-term negative and adverse effects that would outweigh their short-term efficacy in symptom reduction. This randomized controlled trial aims to investigate the effect of self-administered acupressure for the management of constipation, in hospitalized psychiatric patients. Methods Seventy-eigh...

  11. Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy: Pilot Study of a Structural Intervention in Methadone Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, JL; Haug, NA; Larios, S; Gruber, VA; Tulsky, J; Powelson, E; Logan, DP; Shapiro, B.

    2012-01-01

    Devising interventions to provide integrated treatment for addiction and medical problems is an urgent issue. This study piloted a structural intervention, Directly Administered Antiretroviral Therapy (DAART), to assist methadone-maintenance patients in HIV medication adherence. Twenty-four participants received: (1) antiretroviral medications at the methadone clinic daily before receiving their methadone; (2) take-home antiretroviral medication for days they were not scheduled to attend the ...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid administered alone and in combination.

    OpenAIRE

    D. Adam; Visser, I.; Koeppe, P

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, administered alone and in combination, were studied in six male and six female normal human volunteers. Each ingested 500 mg of amoxicillin or 125 mg of clavulanic acid or the above agents in combination in randomized sequences. The results indicate that most of the parameters tested for either substance are essentially independent of the presence of the other one.

  13. [Analysis of adverse reactions and pharmacovigilance research to parenterally administered shuxuening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming; Shen, Hao

    2013-09-01

    Parenterally administered Shuxuening is a commonly used Chinese medicine. There is a need to understand the characteristics of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to it. 9 601 ADR cases reports were collected from the national adverse drug reaction monitoring center reported between January, 2005 and December, 2012. These included 326 serious ADR cases, accounting for 3.93% of the total. It was found that ADR reports increased annually from 2005, reaching a peak in the third quarter of 2009. The number of ADR cases reports were greatest in the third quarter of each year. ADRs in patients aged 60-74, accounted for 3 348 (34.87%) of all cases. 9 391(97.81%) cases were administered by intravenous infusion. In 8 431 cases, the dosage was in accordance with instructions. 61.61% ADR cases occurred on first administration. The ten most frequent symptoms were, rashes, itching, dizziness, palpitations, chills, allergic reactions, shortness of breath, nausea, phlebitis and vomiting. Systemic damage mainly affected the skin and its accessories damage, or the nervous system damage. Through the use of proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN) and propensity score applying generalized boosted models (GBM) to control for 17 confounding factors, analysis of the 10 kinds of ADRs found that for the ADR signals of dizziness, palpitations, phlebitis, and vomiting, BCPNN found that dizziness and phlebitis were early warning signals. This research found that in the 60-89 age group, higher dosages of parenterally administered Shuxuening gave rise to more phlebitis. This study provides important information for parenterally administered Shuxuening research, and guidance for its risk management. PMID:24471322

  14. Psychometric Assessment of a Self-Administered Version of the Significant Other Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Benishek, Lois A.; Carter, Meridith; Clements, Nicolle T.; Allen, Cassandra; Salber, Kristin E.; Dugosh, Karen; Kirby, Kimberly C.

    2012-01-01

    While there are a number of general measures that assess interpersonal and psychological distress experienced by individuals who are in a close relationship with a substance abusing adult, until recently the field has lacked a psychometrically sound, self-administered multidimensional measure explicitly designed to measure the problems of non-substance abusing adults who are concerned about a substance using loved one. This study examined the psychometric properties of a 54-item, self-adminis...

  15. The effects of four different drugs administered through catheters on slime production in coagulase negative Staphylococci

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sedef Göçmen; Ünase Büyükkoçak; Alpay Azap; Yasemin Ö. Pekuz; Osman Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Higher rate of slime production has been found in pathogen bacteria strains. Accordingly, the factors thatcontribute to higher slime production rate increase the infection risk, while the factors that reduce the slime productionrate will reduce the infection risk. The effect of some drugs that are administered through catheters in intensive careunits on slime production with coagulase negative Staphylococci was investigated.Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of four ...

  16. The effects of four different drugs administered through catheters on slime production in coagulase negative Staphylococci

    OpenAIRE

    Göçmen, Julide Sedef; Büyükkoçak, Ünase; AZAP, Alpay; Pekuz, Yasemin; Çağlayan, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Higher rate of slime production has been found in pathogen bacteria strains. Accordingly, the factors that contribute to higher slime production rate increase the infection risk, while the factors that reduce the slime production rate will reduce the infection risk. The effect of some drugs that are administered through catheters in intensive care units on slime production with coagulase negative Staphylococci was investigated. Methods: In this study, the effect of four differe...

  17. Willingness to administer mouth-to-mouth ventilation in a first response program in rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mecrow, Tom Stefan; Rahman, Aminur; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman; Rahman, Fazlur; Nusrat, Nahida; Scarr, Justin; Linnan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely mouth-to-mouth ventilation is critical to resuscitate drowning victims. While drowning is frequent, there are no lay persons trained in cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in rural Bangladesh. As part of a feasibility study to create a first response system in a conservative Islamic village environment, a pilot was undertaken to examine willingness to provide mouth-to-mouth ventilation for drowning resuscitation. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 721 participants ...

  18. Randomized, controlled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent febrile seizure recurrences

    OpenAIRE

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Derksen-Lubsen, Gerarda; Steyerberg, Ewout; Habbema, Dik; Moll, Henriëtte

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure /=38.5 degrees C). Parents were instructed to take the child's rectal temperature immediately when the child seemed ill or feverish and to promptly administer the study medication when the temperature was >/=38.5 degrees C. Doses were to be admi...

  19. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  20. Validity and reliability of a self-administered foot evaluation questionnaire (SAFE-Q)

    OpenAIRE

    Niki, Hisateru; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Haraguchi, Naoki; Aoki, Takafumi; Okuda, Ryuzo; Suda, Yasunori; Takao, Masato; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japanese Society for Surgery of the Foot (JSSF) is developing a QOL questionnaire instrument for use in pathological conditions related to the foot and ankle. The main body of the outcome instrument (the Self-Administered Foot Evaluation Questionnaire, SAFE-Q version 2) consists of 34 questionnaire items, which provide five subscale scores (1: Pain and Pain-Related; 2: Physical Functioning and Daily Living; 3: Social Functioning; 4: Shoe-Related; and 5: General Health and Well-...

  1. Intravascularly Administered RGD-Displaying Measles Viruses Bind to and Infect Neovessel Endothelial Cells In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Hooi Tin; Trejo, Theodore R; Pham, Linh D.; Oberg, Ann L.; Russell, Stephen J.; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2009-01-01

    Systemically administered vectors must cross the endothelial lining of tumor blood vessels to access cancer cells. Vectors that interact with markers on the lumenal surface of these endothelial cells might have enhanced tumor localization. Here, we generated oncolytic measles viruses (MVs) displaying αvβ3 integrin-binding peptides, cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) or echistatin, on the measles hemagglutinin protein. Both viruses had expanded tropisms, and efficiently entered target cel...

  2. Effect of Sulfonylureas Administered Centrally on the Blood Glucose Level in Immobilization Stress Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Naveen; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-hyun; Lim, Su-Min; Kim, Sung-Su; Jung, Jun-Sub; Hong, Jae-Seung; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonylureas are widely used as an antidiabetic drug. In the present study, the effects of sulfonylurea administered supraspinally on immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were once enforced into immobilization stress for 30 min and returned to the cage. The blood glucose level was measured 30, 60, and 120 min after immobilization stress initiation. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with 30 µg of glyburide, glipizide, glimepir...

  3. Safety and Efficacy Study of Intramuscularly Administered Sea buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L. Oil as Depot Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI RASHID

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to assess the sub-chronic toxicity and efficacy study of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L oil administered intramuscularly in New Zealand white rabbits. Seabuckthorn oil was administered intramuscularly, at doses of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/kg body weight in three groups of animals and the dose was scheduled once in a week up to seven weeks. Total antioxidant status was studied after the first intramuscular administration of oil that act as depot and provide sustained effect for prolong period of time. The clinical signs of toxicity data were collected and observed daily. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological, biochemical (AST, ALT, ALP, Uric acid, Urea and creatinine as well as histopathological parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that intramuscular seabuckthorn oil is non toxic even at higher dose level in rabbits. The studies revealed significant increase (p<0.05 in total antioxidant activity in the serum sample with increase in doses. Overall safety and tolerability profile of seabuckthorn oil administered intramuscularly is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects. The results obtained also indicates efficacy of oil in terms of total antioxidant capacity and may be used as a vehicle for sustained release formulations

  4. Phase I trial of intramuscularly administered tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, A A; Casper, E S; Gabrilove, J L; Templeton, M A; Sherwin, S A; Oettgen, H F

    1989-03-01

    A phase I trial of intramuscularly administered recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rTNF) was conducted in 19 adult patients with advanced solid tumors. The agent was administered daily for up to five consecutive days every other week for two to four courses. Doses of rTNF ranged from 5 to 200 micrograms/m2/d. Dose-limiting toxicities were encountered at doses greater than 100 micrograms/m2/d. Toxicities included tenderness, erythema and induration at the site of injection, fatigue, fever, chills, headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Moderate to marked reductions in WBC and platelet counts were observed regularly at the highest dose levels, but none were clinically significant. Hepatic enzyme elevation was seen frequently, and two patients developed hyperbilirubinemia. Only one of seven patients treated with doses greater than 100 micrograms/m2/d completed the planned course of therapy. Even at the highest dose levels, serum concentrations of rTNF could only rarely be detected in the serum. No therapeutic responses were observed. The maximal tolerated dose (MTD) of rTNF in this trial was 150 micrograms/m2/d, administered for two courses. PMID:2918329

  5. [The hypertensive effect of vasopressin administered into the median eminence of the hypothalamus in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindeva, R; Pencheva, T

    1991-01-01

    Data about direct effect of vasopressin (VP) on the central arterial pressure (AP) orientated us to investigate the effect of its local administration in the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus in rats. For this purpose VP was administered in ME under micropellet form. AP was measured indirectly on the tail of rats up to 96th hour after operation. After implantation of VP there was an elevation of AP with maximum in the first hour, which was statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Identical manipulation (sham operation) was performed to control the lesion effect. Transitory lowering of AP with maximum in the first hour was also established and it was statistically significant (p less than 0.001), For exclusion a nonspecific systemic effect of VP the same dose was administered in the parietal cortex, during which transitory and short-lasting reaction occurred in the first hour after the operation. The data indicate that the peptide, administered in ME under micropellet form, could induce a longlasting hypertensive effect. PMID:1884687

  6. Orally administered DTPA penta-ethyl ester for the decorporation of inhaled (241)Am.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Huckle, James E; Leed, Marina G D; Weber, Waylon M; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Guilmette, Raymond A; Jay, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is an effective decorporation agent to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides from the body, but its permeability-limited oral bioavailability limits its utility in mass-casualty emergencies. To overcome this limitation, a prodrug strategy using the penta-ethyl ester form of DTPA is under investigation. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were conducted in rats by orally administering [(14) C]DTPA penta-ethyl ester, and this prodrug and its hydrolysis products were analyzed as a single entity. Compared with a previous reporting of intravenously administered DTPA, the oral administration of this prodrug resulted in a sustained plasma concentration profile with higher plasma exposure and lower clearance. An assessment of the urine composition revealed that the bioactivation was extensive but incomplete, with no detectable levels of the penta- or tetra-ester forms. Tissue distribution at 12 h was limited, with approximately 73% of the administered dose being associated with the gastrointestinal tract. In the efficacy study, rats were exposed to aerosols of (241) Am nitrate before receiving a single oral treatment of the prodrug. The urinary excretion of (241) Am was found to be 19% higher than with the control. Consistent with prior reports of DTPA, the prodrug was most effective when the treatment delays were minimized. PMID:24619514

  7. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits. PMID:26007615

  8. Lead pollution sources and Impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the medical awareness of lead toxicity, and despite legislation designed to reduce environmental contamination, lead is one of the most widely used heavy metals. Significant human exposure occurs from automobile exhaust fumes, cigarette smoking, lead-based paints and plumbing systems lead spread in the environment can take place in several ways, the most important of which is through the lead compounds released in automobile exhaust as a direct result of the addition of tetraethyl or tetraethyl lead to gasoline as octane boosting agents. Of special is the effect of lead pollution on children, which affects their behavioral and educational attributes considerably. The major channel through through which lead is absorbed is through inhalation of lead compounds in the atmosphere. Lead is a heavy metal characterized its malleability, ductility and poor conduction of electricity. So, it has a wide range of applications ranging from battery manufacturing to glazing ceramics. It is rarely found free in nature but is present in several minerals and compounds. The aim of this paper is to discuss natural and anthropogenic sources of lead together with its distribution and trends with emphasis on egypt. The effects of lead pollution on human health, vegetation and welfare are also presented. It could be concluded that, the excessive release of lead into the environment, especially through the atmosphere, can produce many detrimental and sometimes fatal effects on human, agriculture and zoological life. Besides, it is very plain that there is a serious problem of pollution lead in egypt and specially in cairo. 7 figs

  9. Effect of chronic lead exposure on kidney function in male and female rats: determination of a lead exposure biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbe, F; Boujelbene, M; Makni-Ayadi, F; Guermazi, F; Kammoun, A; Murat, J; Croute, F; Soleilhavoup, J P; El-Feki, A

    2001-12-01

    Several cytotoxic chemical pollutants inducing peroxidative damages are liable to induce kidney failure. Among these pollutants we find heavy metals such as: lead, nickel, cadmium, vanadium and mercury. Lead is one of the most dangerous metals because it is widely spread in the environment, and because it may be a source of several nervous diseases. The aim of this study is to provide evidence concerning the effect of this metal on the renal function and to try to determine a storage corner in the organism which serves as an indicator of a lead intoxication. Lead acetate was administered by oral route in the drinking water to adult rats aged three months at the rate of 0.3% (P1) and 0.6% (P2). Reference rats received distilled water to drink under the same conditions. The treatment continued for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The creatinemia, uremia, glycemia and creatinuria are determined by colorimetric techniques. Lead concentration in blood as well as the lead content of the tail are determined by atomic absorption after nitroperchloric mineralization at the liquid stage. The results showed an increase of creatinemia on the 30th day of the experiment for both sexes in (P1 and P2). The same happened for ureamia. The increase of these two parameters would indicate a renal deficiency which is confirmed by a decrease of creatinuria and urinary pH observed mainly on and after the 45th day of the experiment. An increase of the renal relative weight was noticed in P1 and P2 on the 30th day of the treatment. The determination of the concentration of lead in the blood shows that this factor increases among treated subjects in a constant way, independently of the dose and the duration of the treatment. Nevertheless, the rate increase of lead in the tail seems to be dose-dependent. In conclusion, lead administered by oral route causes a renal deficiency to the rat without distinction between males and females. In addition, the tail seems to be a reliable exposure biomarker

  10. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  11. Leaded gasoline - an environmental problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the European countries it is a clear trend towards the increasing consumption of unleaded gasolines. Driving force of this trend is, on the one hand the high toxicity of lead compounds and on the other, the necessity of purification of exhaust gases by catalytic converters, for which the lead represent a catalyst poison. In Macedonia, the limit lead content in the leaded gasolines is relatively high (0,6 g/l), as well as the consumption of the leaded gasolines. Rapid and complete transition to unleaded gasolines can be realized by the concept of step by step reduction of lead in our gasolines. (Original)

  12. Secondary lead production in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. J.; Lim, S. S.

    The increase in the number of vehicles and, subsequently, the volume of batteries made by manufacturers in Malaysia have seen a dramatic rise in lead demand over the last five years. Without any lead mines, the only source of lead in Malaysia has been from the recycling of lead/acid batteries. Metal Reclamation (Industries) has commenced the design of a new and advanced secondary lead plant at West Port, Malaysia to meet the increasing demand for lead and the increasingly stringent environmental regulations. The plant is designed to produce up to 75 000 t of lead and lead alloys per year. The plant will also produce, as by-products: polypropylene chips, wallboard-grade gypsum, non-leachable slag for use in construction. A discussion of the process and the products from the new secondary smelter is outlined.

  13. Common ECG Lead Placement Errors. Part I: Limb Lead Reversals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison V. Rosen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electrocardiography (ECG is a very useful diagnostic tool. However, errors in placement of ECG leads can create artifacts, mimic pathologies, and hinder proper ECG interpretation. It is important for members of the health care team to be able to recognize the common patterns resulting from lead placement errors. Methods: 12-lead ECGs were recorded in a single male healthy subject in his mid 20s. Six different limb lead reversals were compared to ECG recordings from correct lead placement. Results: Classic ECG patterns were observed when leads were reversed. Methods of discriminating these ECG patterns from true pathologic findings were described. Conclusion: Correct recording and interpretation of ECGs is key to providing optimal patient care. It is therefore crucial to be able to recognize common ECG patterns that are indicative of lead reversals.

  14. International perspectives of lead exposure and lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    1993-01-01

    Three approaches have been used to examine how human body burdens of lead depend on different environments: (1) In paleopathologic studies, lead concentrations have been determined in well-preserved human bones or teeth, and pre-pollution samples generally show lead concentrations of about 1% of current levels in industrialized countries. (2) Geographic comparisons of blood-lead concentrations show low levels in, Nepal, Faroe Islands, and Sweden, while high levels occur in Mexico and Malta; average blood-lead levels may vary by a factor of 10 or more. (3) In analytical epidemiology, major exposure sources have been related to lead levels in blood, by either prospective or cross-sectional design. Increased blood-lead concentrations are related to smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, eating vegetables for dinner, urban residence, and exposure from lead-using industries; average blood-lead values of subgroups within well-defined populations may vary by a factor of 3 or more. The dose-relationships for lead-induced neurotoxicity will depend on the sensitivity of the parameters chosen as indicators of lead exposure and of neurotoxicity. The temporal relationship between lead exposures and the development of deficits must be ascertained. Individual susceptibility and interacting factors must also be taken into account. Differences in addressing these issues impede the comparison between studies. Recently neonatal jaundice has been found to be a risk factor for subsequent neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with a birth weight above 2500 g, but only in children with increased lead exposure. Lead exposure may act in combination with several other factors and result in additive, or synergistic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8247415

  15. Blood Test: Lead (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Lead KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Lead Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Análisis de sangre: plomo What It Is A lead test is used to determine the amount of ...

  16. Lead toxicosis in a puppy.

    OpenAIRE

    Huerter, L

    2000-01-01

    After showing clinical and radiographic signs of a gastrointestinal foreign body, a 5-month-old puppy began head pressing, which progressed to convulsions. Hematological abnormalities suggested lead poisoning; serum lead was 2.61 mumol/L. The puppy made a complete recovery after intensive treatment for lead toxicosis.

  17. Lead in teeth from lead-dosed goats: Microdistribution and relationship to the cumulative lead dose

    OpenAIRE

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Jones, Joseph; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    Teeth are commonly used as a biomarker of long-term lead exposure. There appear to be few data, however, on the content or distribution of lead in teeth where data on specific lead intake (dose) are also available. This study describes the analysis of a convenience sample of teeth from animals that were dosed with lead for other purposes, i.e., a proficiency testing program for blood lead. Lead concentration of whole teeth obtained from 23 animals, as determined by atomic absorption spectrome...

  18. Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED Tests. GED Testing Service[R] Research Studies, 2009-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setzer, J. Carl; He, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Reliability Analysis for the Internationally Administered 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests Reliability refers to the consistency, or stability, of test scores when the authors administer the measurement procedure repeatedly to groups of examinees (American Educational Research Association [AERA], American Psychological…

  19. 27 CFR 70.41 - Rewards for information relating to violations of tax laws administered by the Bureau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... relating to violations of tax laws administered by the Bureau. 70.41 Section 70.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Powers and Duties § 70.41 Rewards for information relating to violations of tax laws administered by...

  20. 20 CFR 641.400 - What entities are eligible to apply to the Department for funds to administer SCSEP community...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Department for funds to administer SCSEP community service projects? 641.400 Section 641.400 Employees... COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Grant Application, Eligibility, and Award Requirements § 641.400 What entities are eligible to apply to the Department for funds to administer SCSEP community service...

  1. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  2. Validity and reproducibility of self-administered joint counts. A prospective longitudinal followup study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prevoo, MLL; Kuper, IH; vantHof, MA; vanLeeuwen, MA; vandePutte, LBA; vanRiel, PLCM

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the reproducibility and validity of self-administered joint counts (JC), measuring tenderness, swelling and the combination of both, in a longitudinal study, Methods. At the outpatient department a form self-administered by patients (SAI-form), was used to measure joint inv

  3. Evaluation of dexamethasone on fetal maturation and delivery in mares when administered on days 305 to 307 of gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many species corticosteroids are administered to the dam to induce precocious fetal maturation when the pregnancy is at risk; however in the mare this has met with mixed results. Previously we showed that 24 mg betamethasone administered to pregnant mares on d305 to 307 of pregnancy tended to...

  4. Validation of the Portuguese self-administered computerised 24-hour dietary recall among second-, third- and fourth-grade children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current methods for assessing children's dietary intake, such as interviewer-administered 24-h dietary recall (24-h DR), are time consuming and resource intensive. Self-administered instruments offer a low-cost diet assessment method for use with children. The present study assessed the validity of ...

  5. Plasma Pharmacokinetics of Sulfadiazine Administered Twice Daily versus Four Times Daily Are Similar in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients†

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, M. Kelli; Burstein, Aaron H.; Rock-Kress, Diane; Alfaro, Raul M.; Pau, Alice K.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Piscitelli, Stephen C.

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 2,000 mg of sulfadiazine administered twice daily (BID) versus those of 1,000 mg administered four times a day were compared in eight human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. No differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were detected between the regimens. These data provide a pharmacokinetic rationale for BID dosing of sulfadiazine for the treatment and suppression of toxoplasmosis.

  6. BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE TO TRITIUM AND LEAD IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an attempt to contribute information on the effects of simultaneous exposure to two potentially synergistic environmental pollutants the authors have chronically administered tritiated water (HTO) and lead (Pb) to rats. HTO and Pb were selected because they are ubiquitous in t...

  7. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron; André Klafke de Lima; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Nelson Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental eval...

  8. Serum metabolites of proanthocyanidin-administered rats decrease lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Ligia; Margalef, Maria; Pons, Zara; Quiñones, Mar; Arola, Lluis; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña

    2013-12-01

    The regular consumption of flavonoids has been associated with reduced mortality and a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The proanthocyanidins found in plasma are very different from the original flavonoids in food sources. The use of physiologically appropriate conjugates of proanthocyanidins is essential for the in vitro analysis of flavonoid bioactivity. In this study, the effect of different proanthocyanidin-rich extracts, which were obtained from cocoa (CCX), French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol extract, PYC) and grape seed (GSPE), on lipid homeostasis was evaluated. Hepatic human cells (HepG2 cells) were treated with 25 mg/L of CCX, PYC or GSPE. We also performed in vitro experiments to assess the effect on lipid synthesis that is induced by the bioactive GSPE proanthocyanidins using the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of GSPE-administered rats. For this, Wistar rats were administered 1 g/kg of GSPE, and serum was collected after 2 h. The semipurified serum of GSPE-administered rats was fully characterized by liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ/MS(2)). The lipids studied in the analyses were free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG). All three proanthocyanidin-rich extracts induced a remarkable decrease in the de novo lipid synthesis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, GSPE rat serum metabolites reduced the total percentage of CE, FC and particularly TG; this reduction was significantly higher than that observed in the cells directly treated with GSPE. In conclusion, the bioactivity of the physiological metabolites that are present in the serum of rats after their ingestion of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract was demonstrated in Hep G2 cells. PMID:24231101

  9. Indomethacin administered early in the postnatal period results in reduced glomerular number in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A L; Koina, M E; Gubhaju, L; Cullen-McEwen, L A; Bertram, J F; Lynnhtun, J; Shadbolt, B; Falk, M C; Dahlstrom, J E

    2014-11-15

    Indomethacin and ibuprofen are administered to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) during active glomerulogenesis. Light and electron microscopic glomerular changes with no change in glomerular number were seen following indomethacin and ibuprofen treatment during glomerulogenesis at 14 days after birth in a neonatal rat model. This present study aimed to determine whether longstanding renal structural changes are present at 30 days and 6 mo (equivalent to human adulthood). Rat pups were administered indomethacin or ibuprofen antenatally on days 18-20 (0.5 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen) or postnatally intraperitoneally from day 1 to 3 or day 1 to 5 (0.2 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) indomethacin; 10 mg·kg(-1)·dose(-1) ibuprofen). Control groups received no treatment or normal saline intraperitoneally. Pups were killed at 30 days of age and 6 mo of age. Tissue blocks from right kidneys were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination, while total glomerular number was determined in left kidneys using unbiased stereology. Eight pups were included in each group from 14 maternal rats. At 30 days and 6 mo, there were persistent electron microscopy abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane in those receiving postnatal indomethacin and ibuprofen. There were no significant light microscopy findings at 30 days or 6 mo. At 6 mo, there were significantly fewer glomeruli in those receiving postnatal indomethacin but not ibuprofen (P = 0.003). In conclusion, indomethacin administered during glomerulogenesis appears to reduce the number of glomeruli in adulthood. Alternative options for closing a PDA should be considered including ibuprofen as well as emerging therapies such as paracetamol. PMID:25186294

  10. Interviewer versus self-administered health-related quality of life questionnaires - Does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackatz Lori E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of administration format is inconsistent and mainly available from cross-sectional studies our aim was to assess the effects of different administration formats on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes in participants with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods We included participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS (LSOCA who completed the Medical Outcome Study [MOS] -HIV questionnaire, the EuroQol, the Feeling Thermometer and the Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ 25 every six months thereafter using self- or interviewer-administration. A large print questionnaire was available for participants with visual impairment. Considering all measurements over time and adjusting for patient and study site characteristics we used linear models to compare HRQL scores (all scores from 0-100 between administration formats. We defined adjusted differences of ≥0.2 standard deviations [SD] to be quantitatively meaningful. Results We included 2,261 participants (80.6% males with a median of 43.1 years of age at enrolment who provided data on 23,420 study visits. The self-administered MOS-HIV, Feeling Thermometer and EuroQol were used in 70% of all visits and the VFQ-25 in 80%. For eight domains of the MOS-HIV differences between the interviewer- and self- administered format were Conclusions Our large study provides evidence that administration formats do not have a meaningful effect on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes. As a consequence, longitudinal studies may not need to consider the effect of

  11. Serum pharmacokinetics of clindamycin hydrochloride in normal dogs when administered at two dosage regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Salame, Michel; Chatzis, Manolis K; Katsoudas, Vassilis; Pappas, Ioannis S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this cross-over study was to compare clindamycin pharmacokinetics in the serum of clinically normal dogs when administered orally at two dosage regimens (5.5 mg/kg, twice daily, and 11 mg/kg, once daily), separated by a 1 week wash-out period. Serum samples were obtained from six clinically normal laboratory beagles before, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after the first and fifth dose of clindamycin at 5.5 mg/kg, twice daily, and before, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h after the first and third dose at 11 mg/kg, once daily. Serum clindamycin concentrations were determined by reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results were analysed using Student's paired t-test, at a 5% level of significance. Values of pharmacokinetic parameters that differed significantly between the two dosage regimens included the following: maximal concentration and area under the concentration-time curve were higher at 11 mg/kg, once daily, than at 5.5 mg/kg, twice daily; and, more importantly, the ratio of AUC(0-24) to the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.5 μg/mL for a 24 h period (AUC(0-24)/MIC) was higher when clindamycin was administered at 11 than at 5.5 mg/kg, at least during the first day of drug administration. Therefore, a better pharmacokinetic profile may be expected when clindamycin is administered at 11 mg/kg, once daily, for the treatment of canine pyoderma caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. PMID:21418348

  12. [Dynamic analysis of pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs using positron emission tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful and noninvasive technology for molecular imaging in living systems. Its high sensitivity and high spatial-temporal resolution make this technology particularly useful to analyze the disposition of drugs in the body. PET technology could be applied to analyze the process of distribution of orally administered drugs on the basis of time-profiles of radioactivity in vivo. Kinetic analysis of radioactivity derived from 18F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose administered orally to rats under several conditions indicated that not only gastric emptying and intestinal transit but also the rate constant of intestinal absorption and limited process of oral absorption could be evaluated quantitatively. After oral administration of 11C-labeled telmisartan with or without non-radiolabeled telmisartan, systemic bioavailability and hepatic distribution of radioactivity significantly increased non-linearly with dose. In the intestinal lumen, telmisartan and its glucuronide, converted by UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT), were detected and the ratio of telmisartan decreased at a high dose of telmisartan. In vitro permeation study revealed that telmisartan is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). It was reported that hepatic uptake of telmisartan is mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) and most of the hepatic radioactivity in the liver is derived from telmisartan. These results indicated that P-gp for intestinal absorption, OATP1B3 for hepatic uptake and UGT for glucuronidation could be considered as limiting steps of orally administered telmisartan. Therefore, PET study is highly anticipated to be a potent tool for better understanding of gastrointestinal absorption and the subsequent tissue distribution of various drugs and candidates. PMID:22864349

  13. Determining lead sources in Mexico using the lead isotope ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary-Webb Madhu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lead poisoning can, in some cases, be traced to a specific route or source of exposure on the basis of the individual's blood lead isotope ratio. To assess the major source of lead exposure among women residing in Mexico City, we compared blood, ceramic, and gasoline lead isotope ratios. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population, randomly selected from participants of a large trial, (1/1996-12/1996 comprised of 16 women whose lead levels exceeded 10 µg/dl and who reported using lead-glazed ceramics. Lead isotope ratios were performed on a Perkin Elmer 5000 Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS interfaced with a Perkin Elmer HGA-600MS Electrothermal Vaporization System (ETV. RESULTS: The isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb of both the blood specimens and their corresponding ceramic specimens were highly correlated, with r=0.9979, r²=0.9958, r=0.9957, r²=0.9915 and r=0.9945, r²=0.9890 values for the three isotope ratios, respectively, suggesting that the lead exposure most likely resulted from the use of these ceramic. Measurements of lead isotope ratios from leaded gasoline in use at the time of blood sampling, differed from those in blood and ceramics. CONCLUSIONS: Determining lead isotope ratios can be an efficient tool to identify a major source of lead exposure and to support the implementation of public health prevention and control measures.

  14. Crossover study of the pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone administered intravenously or intramuscularly to healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, B R; Srulevitch, E S; Jacobson, J; Hirschman, S Z

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were investigated in six healthy adults. One-gram doses were administered either intramuscularly or intravenously in a crossover design study. Mean peak ceftriaxone concentrations in plasma of 79.2 and 123.2 micrograms/ml were achieved with intramuscular injection and intravenous infusion, respectively, with plasma half-lives of 5.4 and 5.8 h. The urinary recovery of ceftriaxone in the first 24 h was 37% after intravenous infusion and 25% after intramuscula...

  15. Orally administered moxifloxacin prolongs QTc in healthy Chinese volunteers: a randomized, single-blind, crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qian; Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Mendzelevski, Boaz; Chanter, Dennis; Pu, Hua-hua; Liu, Gang-yi; Weng, Onglee; Hu, Chao-Ying; Wang, Wei; Yu, Chen; Jia, Jing-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the QT/QTc effects of orally administered moxifloxacin in healthy Chinese volunteers. Methods: This was a single-blinded, randomized, single-dose, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over study. A total of 24 healthy Chinese volunteers were enrolled, randomly assigned to two groups: one group received moxifloxacin (400 mg, po) followed by placebo with a 7-d interval, another group received placebo followed by moxifloxacin with a 7-d interval. On the days of dosing, 12-lea...

  16. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.;

    1990-01-01

    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum and...... tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  17. The Comparison of Doxycycline Residue in the Meat of Broiler Chickens Administered in Feed and Water

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Wijayanti; Wihandoyo; A. W. Rosetyadewi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of doxycycline (a tetracycline derivative) administered at disease-prevention dose given daily in the feed and drinking water on the residue level in the broiler-chicken meat. Doxycycline at concentration of 100 ppm was mixed in the drinking water (1 g of doxycycline in 10 L of drinking water) and feed (1 g of doxycycline in 10 kg of feed). Samples of chicken meat were taken every week to measure their residue level. Analysis of doxyc...

  18. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation in advanced interventional endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burtea, Daniela Elena; Dimitriu, Anca; Maloş, Anca Elena;

    2015-01-01

    the patients and medical personnel. Current guidelines support the use of propofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverse effects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recovery time. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation has become...... an option in most of the countries, due to limited anesthesiology resources and the increasing evidence from prospective studies and meta-analyses that the procedure is safe with a similar rate of adverse events with traditional sedation. The advantages include a high quality of endoscopic examination...

  19. Reduced administered activity, reduced acquisition time, and preserved image quality for the new CZT camera.

    OpenAIRE

    Oddstig, Jenny; Hedeer, Fredrik; Jögi, Jonas; Carlsson, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Engblom, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For a 1-day myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) the recommendations for administered activity stated in the EANM guidelines results in an effective dose of up to 16 mSv per patient. Recently, a gamma camera system, based on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) technology, was introduced. This technique has the potential to reduce the effective dose and scan time compared to the conventional NaI gamma camera. The aim of this study was to investigate if the effective dose can be reduced with a...

  20. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...... results demonstrated different lymphatic absorption patterns of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Because the fatty acid composition of the dairy products differed only slightly, other factors such as viscosity, type of emulsion, particle size, and likely also protein content...

  1. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  2. Toxicity of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) administered during pregnancy and lactation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The popularity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the treatment of depression is increasing and, in recent years, concerns about its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding have emerged. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in Wistar rats, the effects of a treatment with hypericum administered prenatally and during breastfeeding (from 2 weeks before mating to 21 days after delivery). Two doses of the extract were chosen, 100 mg/kg per day, which, based on surface area, is comparable to the dose administered to humans, and 1000 mg/kg per day. A microscopical analysis of livers, kidneys, hearts, lungs, brains, and small bowels was performed. A severe damage was observed in the livers and kidneys of animals euthanized postnatally on days 0 and 21. The lesions were more severe with the higher dose and in animals that were breastfed for 21 days; however, an important renal and hepatic damage was evident also with the dose of 100 mg/kg per day. In addition, similar serious hepatic and renal lesions were evident also in animals that were exposed to hypericum only during breastfeeding. In particular, a focal hepatic damage, with vacuolization, lobular fibrosis, and disorganization of hepatic arrays was evident; in the kidney, a reduction in glomerular size, disappearance of Bowman's space, and hyaline tubular degeneration were found. The results obtained in this study indicate that further, appropriate histological studies should be performed in other animal species to better evaluate the safety of hypericum extracts taken during pregnancy and breastfeeding

  3. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of epinephrine administered using a mobile inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechen, Sebastian; Suleiman, Ahmed Abbas; Mohammad Nejad Sigaroudi, Ali; Wachall, Bertil; Fuhr, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled epinephrine is a potential alternative to self-administered intramuscular epinephrine in imminent anaphylactic reactions. The objective was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model describing exposure and effects on heart rate of inhaled epinephrine. Data from a 4-phase cross-over clinical trial in 9 healthy volunteers including 0.3 mg intramuscular epinephrine, two doses of inhaled epinephrine (4 mg/mL solution administered during [mean] 18 and 25 min, respectively) using a mobile pocket inhaler, and an inhaled placebo were analyzed using mixed-effects modeling. Inhaled epinephrine was available almost immediately and more rapidly than via the intramuscular route (absorption half-live 29 min). Epinephrine plasma concentrations declined rapidly after terminating inhalation (elimination half-life 4.1 min) offering the option to stop exposure in case of adverse events. While the expected maximum concentration was higher for inhaled epinephrine, this was not associated with safety concerns due to only moderate additional hemodynamic effects compared to intramuscular administration. Bioavailability after inhalation (4.7%) was subject to high interindividual and interoccasional variability highlighting that training of inhalation would be essential for patients. The proposed model suggests that the use of a highly concentrated epinephrine solution via inhalation may offer an effective treatment option in anaphylaxis, while efficacy in patients remains to be shown. PMID:26615448

  4. Preliminary results of the analysis of the administered activities in diagnostic studies of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide use of Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedures and the tendency to its increment, infers an important exposure of the population to ionising radiation; it has motivated that the IAEA in the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), emits recommendations for the establishment of guidance levels of activities administered to the patients in diagnostic procedures. Taking into account the above-mentioned and that in Cuba there exist 20 departments of Nuclear Medicine that in the majority possess equipment with more than 20 years of operation, which influences directly the medical exposure. A survey was designed and applied in 10 of these departments. The survey evaluates the compliance with the BSS requirements, and specifically, the activities administered to the patients in Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedures are analysed. In the present work the obtained preliminary results of the statistical analysis carried out on the activity values used in Nuclear Medicine departments are presented, and comparisons made for a proposal of guidance levels for the national practice, which is compared with those recommended internationally. (author)

  5. The effects of four different drugs administered through catheters on slime production in coagulase negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sedef Göçmen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Higher rate of slime production has been found in pathogen bacteria strains. Accordingly, the factors thatcontribute to higher slime production rate increase the infection risk, while the factors that reduce the slime productionrate will reduce the infection risk. The effect of some drugs that are administered through catheters in intensive careunits on slime production with coagulase negative Staphylococci was investigated.Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of four different preparations containing Glyceryl trinitrate (Perlinganit®, Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®, Esmolol (Brevibloc®, and Propofol (Propofol® on slime production of 24Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from blood cultures of patients, and reference strain were investigated. Slimeproduction was determined using ‘the quantitative microdilution plaque test’ described by Christensen.Results: Under controlled medium, eight strains formed slimes, and in the media containing esmolol, glyceryl trinitrate,dexmedetomidine, and propofol slimes were positive for five, 21, 15, and 18 strains, respectively. The rate of slime productionin glyceryl trinitrate, dexmedetomidine, and propofol containing media were higher than that of the controls.Conclusions: In the light of the results of this study, it is concluded that the drugs and/or additives increase the rate ofslime production. The effects of the preparations administered through catheters on slime production should be investigated,and these effects should be kept in mind during their use. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 150-154Key words: Slime Production, Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci, Parenteral drugs

  6. Assessing the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of human rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilagumba, Gangaboraiah; Ravish, Haradanahalli Shankarappa; Narayana, Hanumanthappa Ashwath Doddabele

    2010-01-01

    The metadata of 10 published studies and 3 vaccine trial reports comprising of 19 vaccine cohorts from four countries conducted over a period of 23 years (1986–2009) was used for metaanalysis. The vaccines studied were purified chick embryo cell vaccine (Rabipur, India and Germany), purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Verorab, France; Indirab, India) and human diploid cell vaccine (MIRV, France). The potency of these vaccines varied from 0.55 IU to 2.32 IU per intradermal dose of 0.1 ml per site. The vaccines were administered to 1,011 subjects comprising of 19 cohorts and using five different ID regimens. The immunogenicity was measured by assays of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titres using rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) [15 cohorts] and mouse neutralization test (MNT) [4 cohorts]. The statistical analysis of the data was done by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity. It was revealed that, there was no significant linear relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route (p > 0.230 and p > 0.568). PMID:20523131

  7. Effects of Folic Acid on the Growth of the Offspring of Ethanol-Administered Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvis Taylín Zumeta Dubé

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: ethanol consumption among adolescent women has increased and consequently, the complications associated with it, such as fetal alcohol syndrome. Effects of this syndrome on the central nervous system have been extensively studied, unlike its consequences for growth during postnatal life. Objective: to determine the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on the growth of the rats’ offspring and to assess therapeutic actions of folic acid. Methods: 24 pregnant Wistar rats divided into four groups A: control, B: treated with folic acid, C: treated with ethanol and D: treated with ethanol and folic acid were used. Treatment was administered by intragastric cannulation throughout the pregnancy period until delivery. The study offspring were weighed and measured at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days old. Body weight and height values were used in order to assess the gain curves of both parameters. Results: ethanol administered during pregnancy did not modify the offspring weight and height. Treatment with folic acid caused an increase in tail weight and length of the rats’ offspring. Conclusions: ethanol administration to pregnant rats is not sufficient to trigger stature-ponderal retardation in their offspring; folic acid causes tail growth in the offspring, which is a valuable indicator in the nutritional assessment of rats.

  8. Anaesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular morphine, medetomidine and ketamine administered to telemetered cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Ashley J; Muir, William W

    2007-04-01

    The quality and duration of anaesthesia, cardiorespiratory effects and recovery characteristics of a morphine, medetomidine, ketamine (MMK) drug combination were determined in cats. Six healthy, adult female cats were administered 0.2 mg/kg morphine sulphate, 60 microg/kg medetomidine hydrochloride, and 5 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride intramuscularly. Atipamezole was administered intramuscularly at 120 min after MMK administration. Time to lateral recumbency, intubation, extubation and sternal recumbency were recorded. Cardiorespiratory variables and response to a noxious stimulus were recorded before and at 3 min and 10 min increments after drug administration until sternal recumbency. The time to lateral recumbency and intubation were 1.9+/-1.2 and 4.3+/-1.2 min, respectively. Body temperature and haemoglobin saturation with oxygen remained unchanged compared to baseline values throughout anaesthesia. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume, heart rate, and blood pressure were significantly decreased during anaesthesia compared to baseline values. One cat met criteria for hypotension (systolic blood pressure cat remained non-responsive to noxious stimuli from 3 to 120 min. Time to extubation and sternal recumbency following atipamezole were 2.9+/-1.1 and 4.7+/-1.0 min, respectively. MMK drug combination produced excellent short-term anaesthesia and analgesia with minimal cardiopulmonary depression. Anaesthesia lasted for at least 120 min in all but one cat and was effectively reversed by atipamezole. PMID:17198759

  9. Efficacy of self-administered treatments for pathological academic worry: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B; Telch, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    Research on treatments for reducing pathological worry is limited. In particular, academic worry is a common theme in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) samples as well as non-clinical student samples. Given the high cost of anxiety disorders to society, research is needed to examine the efficacy of self-administered treatments designed to reduce pathological worry. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the benefits of three self-administered interventions for reducing academic worry. College students (N = 113) experiencing clinically significant academic worry were randomized to either: (a) worry exposure (WE); (b) expressive writing (EW); (c) relaxation consisting of pulsed audio-photic stimulation (APS); or (d) waitlist control (WLC). Participants were instructed to practice their interventions three times per week for one month and completed home practice logs online to track treatment adherence. Academic worry, general anxiety, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-treatment. Academic worry and general anxiety were also assessed at a three-month follow-up. Those assigned to the WE and APS conditions showed significant improvement relative to EW and WLC at post-treatment. All treatment conditions showed continued improvement by follow-up, with no between-group differences. Treatment and public health implications are discussed. PMID:20663491

  10. Mood changes by self-administered acupressure in Japanese college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students. PMID:25946916

  11. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N;

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...... the steady-state study do not differ significantly from 1.0, the confidence limits exceed the acceptable values given by Poulsen & Juul (personal communication 1990) (a 20% decrease or increase of the ratio to 0.8 or 1.2).......Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr...... respectively) whereas differences in AUC, t1/2 and Cmax were not significant. The AUC (mean +/- S.D.) values following single dose administration of Cardil and Cardizem were 678.4 +/- 321.5 and 948.6 +/- 580.6 ng.ml-1.hr respectively. The mean and the 95% confidence limits for the observed ratio AUCCardil...

  12. Stress-induced changes in the analgesic and thermic effects of morphine administered centrally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, B D; Holtzman, S G

    1985-12-01

    Stress (e.g. restraint) potentiates analgesia and changes in body temperature induced by morphine administered systemically to rats. In order to determine if stress-induced potentiation of these effects of morphine are mediated within the central nervous system, restrained and unstressed groups of rats were injected in the lateral ventricle (i.c.v.) with graded doses of morphine, and their analgesic and body temperature responses were measured. Compared to unstressed animals, restrained rats had a greater analgesic response at each dose of morphine, characterized by an increase in both the magnitude and duration of the drug effect. The unstressed group of rats responded consistently to 1.0-100 micrograms of morphine with a 1.5-2.0 degrees C increase in core temperature. Restrained rats had either a smaller increase in body temperature or a hypothermia at these doses of morphine. Thus, restraint stress can modify the effects of morphine administered i.c.v. on analgesia and body temperature in a manner similar to that seen after systemic administration of morphine, indicating that this phenomenon is mediated centrally. PMID:4075121

  13. Lead Directorship and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    OuYang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically explores the role of the lead directors in the corporate governance system and strives to empirically examine the association between the lead directorship and firm performance. I measure firm performance by three empirical proxies: Tobin’s Q, returns on assets (ROA) and stock returns. I explore the research question on the relationship between lead directorship and firm performance in both cross-sectional and inter-temporal contexts. The sample consists of S & P 500 fi...

  14. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  15. Recovery of indium and lead from lead bullion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lead and indium were recovered by electrolysis and nonequilibrium solvent extraction process from lead bullion.The effects of current density,electrolytic period and circle amnant of electrolyte on the electrochemical dissolution of lead and indium were investigated.The effects of extraction phase ratio and mixing time on solvent extraction of indium and striping phase ratio and stripping stage on the loaded organic phase stripping were also investigated.The experimental results indicate that under optimum conditions,the purity of lead deposited on cathode is 98.5% and the deposit rate of lead is 99.9%,the dissolution rate of indium is 94.28%,the extraction rate of indium is 98.69%,the stripping rate of indium is almost 100%,and the impurity elements,such as Zn,Fe and Sn can be removed.

  16. Safe leads and lead changes in competitive team sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  17. Remnant Pacemaker Lead Tips after Lead Extractions in Pacemaker Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehoon; Baek, Yong-Soo; Lee, Misol; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Complete hardware removal is recommended in the case of patients with cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections. However, the complete extraction of chronically implanted leads is not always achieved. The outcomes and optimal management of CIED infections with retained material after lead extractions have not been elucidated. In this case report, we present five patients with CIED infections with remnant lead tips even after lead extractions. Two patients had localized pocket infections, and were managed with antibiotics for a period of more than two weeks. The other three patients had infective endocarditis, and were managed with antibiotics for a period of more than four weeks. In one patient, the lead tip migrated to the right pulmonary artery, but did not produce any symptoms or complications. Only one of five patients experienced a resurgence of an infection. PMID:27482268

  18. Safe Leads and Lead Changes in Competitive Team Sports

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, A; Redner, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size $L$ and game time $t$. Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40,000 games across four professional or semi-professional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  19. Issues of lead coolant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from 1989 with the BREST-OD-300 reactor design development, some experimental studies related to lead coolant have been performed to provide feasibility of using liquid lead as a coolant in the closed circuit. Further comprehensive analytical and experimental studies are required to develop lead coolant technology for the BREST-OD-300 reactor design. General work program for justification of lead coolant technology are planned aiming at not only getting the information on the components required for the technology realization and their design features but also revealing the possibility of use of data obtained in the course of lead-bismuth circuit operation for the lead circuits. The main results performed so far for justification of BREST-OD-300 reactor coolant technology are presented in this paper. The results confirmed the possibility of using the experience gained on lead-bismuth coolant justification on the stage of the BREST-OD-300 reactor design development. In addition, the results provided directions for further justification of lead coolant technology based on experience gained on lead-bismuth coolant. (author)

  20. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radionuclides and is therefore a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Lab. decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 100 metric tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 280 kPa (40 psig) rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a pump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process

  1. SafAIRway: an airway training for pulmonologists performing a flexible bronchoscopy with nonanesthesiologist administered propofol sedation: A prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Melanie; Grande, Bastian; Kolbe, Michaela; Kriech, Sarah; Nöthiger, Christoph B; Kohler, Malcolm; Spahn, Donat R; Franzen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Nonanesthesiologist administered propofol (NAAP) sedation for flexible bronchoscopy is controversial, because there is no established airway management (AM) training for pulmonologists. The aim was to investigate the performance and acceptance of a proposed AM algorithm and training for pulmonologists performing NAAP sedation. The algorithm includes using 3 maneuvers including bag mask ventilation (BMV), laryngeal tube (LT), and needle cricothyrotomy (NCT). During training (consisting of 2 sessions with a break of 9 weeks in between), these maneuvers were demonstrated and exercised, followed by 4 consecutive attempts to succeed with each of these devices. The primary outcome was the improvement of completion time needed for a competent airway. Secondary outcomes were the trainees' overall reactions to the training and algorithm, and the perceptions of psychological safety (PS). The 23 staff members of the Department of Pulmonology performed a total of 552 attempts at AM procedures (4 attempts at each of the 3 maneuvers in 2 sessions), and returned a total of 42 questionnaires (4 questionnaires were not returned). Median completion times of LT and NCT improved significantly between Sessions 1 and 2 (P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively), whereas BMV was only marginally improved (P = 0.05). Trainees perceived training to be useful and expressed satisfaction with this training and the algorithm. The perception of PS increased after training. An AM algorithm and training for pulmonologists leads to improved technical AM skills, and is considered useful by trainees and raised their perception of PS during training. It thus represents a promising program. PMID:27281093

  2. Lead-free primary explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  3. Targeting Lead in Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Sigman, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores policy options for reducing lead in municipal solid waste. It focuses on policies that rely on economic incentives, such as taxes, deposit-refunds, and recycled content standards. The paper addresses the relative cost effectiveness of these approaches and also considers the overall desirability of government intervention to reduce lead disposal.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime administered to lactating and non-lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rule

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (iv and intramuscular (im ceftazidime administered to lactating (LTG; n = 6 and non-lactating (NLTG; n=6 healthy Creole goats in 2 trials (T1 and T2. During T1 and T2, goats randomly received a single dose of im or iv ceftazidime (10 mg/kg. Serum concentration of iv ceftazidime in NLTG and LTG goats is best described by 2 and 3 compartment models, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of iv and im ceftazidime administered to LTG and NLTG showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in the constants (λz, T1 vs T2 [iv] 0.5±0.1 vs 0.3±0.1 /h; T1 vs T2 [im] 0.5±0.2 vs 0.3±0.1 /h and in the mean times (t1/2, T 1 vs T 2 [iv] 1.6±0.3 vs 2.3±0.6 h; T 1 vs T 2 [im] 1.6±0.7 vs 2.6±0.9 h of elimination. The bioavailability of ceftazidime in LTG and NLTG was 113.0 ± 17.8 and 96.0 ± 18.0 %, respectively. Ceftazidime concentration in milk at 2 h was: iv = 1.9 ± 0.2 and im = 2.4 ± 0.5 μg/m ; the penetration in milk was iv = 18.3 ± 13.5 and im = 14.3 ± 10.6 %. Ninety-six hours after iv and im administration, residues of the drug were not found in milk. In conclusion, ceftazidime, when administered to goats, showed high concentration times in serum, good penetration into milk and a bioavailability that makes it suitable to be used by the im route.

  5. How do patients with inflammatory bowel disease want their biological therapy administered?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infliximab is usually administered by two monthly intravenous (iv infusions, therefore requiring visits to hospital. Adalimumab is administered by self subcutaneous (sc injections every other week. Both of these anti-TNF drugs appear to be equally efficacious in the treatment of Crohn's Disease and therefore the decision regarding which drug to choose will depend to some extent on patient choice, which may be based on the mode of administration. The aims of this study were to compare preferences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD patients for two currently available anti-TNF agents and the reasons for their choices. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to IBD patients who had attended the Gastroenterology service (Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, N. Ireland. UK between January 2007 and December 2007. The patients were asked in a hypothetical situation if the following administering methods of anti-TNF drugs (intravenous or subcutaneous were available, which drug route of administration would they choose. Results One hundred and twenty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were issued questionnaires, of these 78 questionnaires were returned (62 percent response. The mean age of respondent was 44 years. Of the total number of respondents, 33 patients (42 percent preferred infliximab and 19 patients (24 percent preferred adalimumab (p = 0.07. Twenty-six patients (33 percent did not indicate a preference for either biological therapy and were not included in the final analysis. The commonest reason cited for those who chose infliximab (iv was: "I do not like the idea of self-injecting," (67 percent. For those patients who preferred adalimumab (sc the commonest reason cited was: "I prefer the convenience of injecting at home," (79 percent. Of those patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF therapy (n = 10, all infliximab six patients stated that they would prefer infliximab if given

  6. Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeong-A Lee,1 Mi-Kyung Kim,1 Hee-Jeong Paek,1 Yu-Ri Kim,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,2 Jong-Kwon Lee,3 Jayoung Jeong,3 Soo-Jin Choi1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk–do, Republic of Korea Purpose: The effects of particle size on the tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of silica nanoparticles and their biological fates were investigated following a single oral administration to male and female rats. Methods: Silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. Tissue distribution kinetics, excretion profiles, and fates in tissues were analyzed using elemental analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The differently sized silica nanoparticles mainly distributed to kidneys and liver for 3 days post-administration and, to some extent, to lungs and spleen for 2 days post-administration, regardless of particle size or sex. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies in tissues demonstrated almost intact particles in liver, but partially decomposed particles with an irregular morphology were found in kidneys, especially in rats that had been administered 20 nm nanoparticles. Size-dependent excretion kinetics were apparent and the smaller 20 nm particles were found to be more rapidly eliminated than the larger 100 nm particles. Elimination profiles showed 7%–8% of silica nanoparticles were excreted via urine, but most nanoparticles were excreted via feces, regardless of particle size or sex. Conclusion: The kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen were found to be the target organs of orally-administered silica nanoparticles in rats, and this organ

  7. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine technologists from administering I-131 therapy dosages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Therapeutic doses of I-131 for treatment of thyroid cancer are administered orally in liquid or capsule form. During the last few years, a total number of patients loaded in our isolation ward increased from 4 to 10 patients per week. When considering radiation safety precautions for attending technologists, it is preferable to use the dose in capsules. The purpose of this study is to compare radiation exposure to nuclear medicine technologists from administering I-131 therapy dosages in capsules and in liquid form in a closed system. Materials and Methods: Three year radiation exposure to technologists during I-131 administration was analyzed. From January 2004 to June 2005 dose administration was in liquid form (n=263) and from July 2005 to February 2007 in capsules (n=541). Radiation dose assessment was performed with an electronic personal dosimeter (PDM 112). The dose rate in μSv and time spent per patient were recorded. Results: Dose received per patient when I-131 was given in a liquid was 3.50 ± 1.67 μSv and 1.17 ± 0.66 μSv when given in capsules. Compared with the use of a liquid, capsules significantly reduced radiation dose to technologists by 66% (P < 0.001). These doses received depended not only on the administered activity but also on the time, distance and shielding. Time spent per patient, including a brief visit before the time of dosing to explain the procedure and answer questions was reduced slightly from 4.4 ± 2.2 to 3.7 ± 1.8 minutes (P < 0.01). These correspond to a reduction in a yearly dose to 1 technologist by 40%, from 0.63 mSv to 0.38 mSv from dosing to 175 and 325 patients respectively. Conclusions: The measured doses clearly showed that handling of I-131 therapy dosages either in a liquid form or capsules are not the major contributors to the technologist's radiation exposure in routine clinical practice. However, one has to be cautious and follow good work practice to avoid risk of radiation exposure and radioiodine

  8. How do patients with inflammatory bowel disease want their biological therapy administered?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Patrick B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infliximab is usually administered by two monthly intravenous (iv) infusions, therefore requiring visits to hospital. Adalimumab is administered by self subcutaneous (sc) injections every other week. Both of these anti-TNF drugs appear to be equally efficacious in the treatment of Crohn\\'s Disease and therefore the decision regarding which drug to choose will depend to some extent on patient choice, which may be based on the mode of administration.The aims of this study were to compare preferences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients for two currently available anti-TNF agents and the reasons for their choices. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to IBD patients who had attended the Gastroenterology service (Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, N. Ireland. UK) between January 2007 and December 2007. The patients were asked in a hypothetical situation if the following administering methods of anti-TNF drugs (intravenous or subcutaneous) were available, which drug route of administration would they choose. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were issued questionnaires, of these 78 questionnaires were returned (62 percent response). The mean age of respondent was 44 years. Of the total number of respondents, 33 patients (42 percent) preferred infliximab and 19 patients (24 percent) preferred adalimumab (p = 0.07). Twenty-six patients (33 percent) did not indicate a preference for either biological therapy and were not included in the final analysis. The commonest reason cited for those who chose infliximab (iv) was: "I do not like the idea of self-injecting," (67 percent). For those patients who preferred adalimumab (sc) the commonest reason cited was: "I prefer the convenience of injecting at home," (79 percent). Of those patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF therapy (n = 10, all infliximab) six patients stated that they would prefer infliximab if given the choice

  9. Variation in the relationship between blood lead and air lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snee, Ronald D.; Bailey, Steven P.; Fellner, William H.; Pfeifer, Charles G.

    Estimates of the slope of the relationship between blood lead (μg dl -1) and air lead (μg m -3) obtained in ten independent studies are compared. No significant differences were detected among the estimates which ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 μg dl -1 per μg m -3 and represented male adult, female adult and child populations. A single best estimate of 1.2 μg dl -1 per μg m -3 ( ± 0.2,95 per cent confidence limits) was obtained. It is concluded that, if the blood lead-air lead slope depends on various physical and biological factors, then studies providing more precise estimates are required to detect these differences.

  10. Effect of afobazole administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis on prenatal development of fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugayova, L I; Denisova, T D; Morozova, Yu A; Sergeeva, S A; Kharlamov, I V

    2014-11-01

    Experiments on pregnant rats have demonstrated the absence of damaging effect of Afobazole administered during the antenatal period on organogenesis in fetuses. Afobazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg given to pregnant rats on gestation days 6-16 reduced pre- and post-implantation fetal mortality and improved fertility; 20-day-old embryos had no developmental abnormalities and did not differ from controls by craniocaudal size, body weight, and skeleton ossification. Afobazole in a dose of 100 mg/kg reduced pre- and post-implantation fetal mortality, but had no effect on fertility. No congenital malformations were found in the fetuses, but they were characterized by lower craniocaudal size, body weight, and number of ossification foci in the sternum and spine. PMID:25403398

  11. Metabolic effects of growth hormone administered subcutaneously once or twice daily to growth hormone deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    -term metabolic effects in GH deficient patients. An improved growth response is obtained in GH deficient children when a fixed weekly GH dose is administered by daily subcutaneous injections instead of twice or thrice-weekly intramuscular injections. A more pulsatile pattern and serum GH levels above zero might...... MEASUREMENTS: In a cross-over study, 8 GH deficient patients (age 16-43 years) were treated with 3 IU/m2/24 h of human GH. The dose was injected in the evening for 4 weeks and for another 4 weeks two-thirds was injected in the evening and one-third in the morning. At the end of each period the patients were...

  12. Changes in Lipid Profile of Rats Administered with Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Eze

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens on some lipid profile parameters of normoglycemic Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity studies were conducted. The animals were administered with the plant extract at graded doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b w and metformin 250 mg/kg bw orally for 21 days. Blood samples were collected from the animals at the end of the treatment period and assayed for the serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results showed the extract significantly reduced (p0.05 in the lipid profile in the group treated with 400 and 250 mg/kg b w of metformin. In conclusion, the results of the present findings may be beneficial and of clinical importance to individuals at risks of cardiovascular problems.

  13. The role of capnography in endoscopy patients undergoing nurse-administered propofol sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagelse, Charlotte; Vilmann, Peter; Hornslet, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    . The existing literature on capnography for endoscopy patients sedated with nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) is limited. Can the addition of capnography to standard monitoring during endoscopy with NAPS reduce the number, duration, and level of hypoxia. Materials and methods. This study was...... a randomized controlled trial with an intervention group (capnography) and a control group (without capnography). Eligible subjects were consecutive patients for endoscopy at Gentofte Hospital compliant with the criteria of NAPS. Results. Five hundred and forty patients, 263 with capnography and 277...... without capnography, were included in the analysis. The number and total duration of hypoxia was reduced by 39.3% and 21.1% in the intervention group compared to the control group (p > 0.05). No differences in actions taken against insufficient respiration were found. Changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide...

  14. Comparative efficacy of terbutaline administered by Nebuhaler and by nebulizer in young children with acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, J; Hopkins, J; Timms, B; Van Asperen, P P

    1989-10-01

    We compared the use of terbutaline sulphate that was delivered by a nebulizer with its delivery by a Nebuhaler at two dose levels in 27 children (nine children per group) of between three and six years of age with acute asthma. No significant difference was found in the mean baseline clinical score among the three groups, and a significant decline occurred in the mean clinical scores in all groups by 15 minutes which was maintained to 60 minutes after the dose was administered. The decline that was achieved with delivery of the drug by way of a Nebuhaler (at either dose level) was not significantly different from that with a nebulizer, although cooperation with Nebuhaler usage was not universal in the age-group. PMID:2677624

  15. Protecting eyewitness evidence: examining the efficacy of a self-administered interview tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbert, Fiona; Hope, Lorraine; Fisher, Ronald P

    2009-08-01

    Given the crucial role of eyewitness evidence, statements should be obtained as soon as possible after an incident. This is not always achieved due to demands on police resources. Two studies trace the development of a new tool, the Self-Administered Interview (SAI), designed to elicit a comprehensive initial statement. In Study 1, SAI participants reported more correct details than participants who provided a free recall account, and performed at the same level as participants given a Cognitive Interview. In Study 2, participants viewed a simulated crime and half recorded their statement using the SAI. After a delay of 1 week, all participants completed a free recall test. SAI participants recalled more correct details in the delayed recall task than control participants. PMID:18561007

  16. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofolsedation in advanced interventional endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Complex and lengthy endoscopic examinations likeendoscopic ultrasonography and/or endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography benefit from deepsedation, due to an enhanced quality of examinations,reduced discomfort and anxiety of patients, as well asincreased satisfaction for both the patients and medicalpersonnel. Current guidelines support the use ofpropofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverseeffects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recoverytime. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofolsedation has become an option in most of the countries,due to limited anesthesiology resources and theincreasing evidence from prospective studies and metaanalysesthat the procedure is safe with a similar rate ofadverse events with traditional sedation. The advantagesinclude a high quality of endoscopic examination,improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as wellas decreased recovery and discharge time. Despitethe advantages of non-anesthesiologist administeredpropofol, there is still a continuous debate related to thesuccessful generalization of the procedures.

  17. Correlation of administered activity and dosimetric data in patients treated with 131MIBG therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aims: the purpose of the study was to optimized 131-MIBG (or 131I-MIBG) therapy in children and adults patients with neural crest tumors, by correlating the administered pro/KXg activity to whole-body dosimetry and hematologic toxicity. Materials and methods: from September 2003, to June 2012 twenty-four patients (9 children, 15 adults) (13 neuroblastoma, 9 pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, 2 medullary thyroid carcinoma) treated with 131I-MIBG were enrolled in the study. In each patient dosimetric estimation was carried out with MIRD method after patient therapy, using imaging acquisition or probe determination (from 1 to 168 hours). Hematological toxicity was evaluated according to WHO grade by weekly blood count for at least 6 weeks or until recovery. Whole Body Dose (WBD) was correlated with administered pro/KXg activity and bone marrow toxicity. Results: a total of forty-five dosimetric studies have been performed, 16/45 in children and 29/45 in adult patients. Administered activity ranged from 7.4 to 16.65 GBq, corresponding in children to 5-21 mCi/KXg (median 10 mCi/KXg) and in adults to 3-7 mCi/KXg. (median 5 mCi/KXg). In 4 patients (3 children, 1 adult) 2 weeks after 131I-MING therapy autologous stem cell transplantations were performed. Grade II-III hematological toxicity was observed in all children and in 6/15 adult patient. Whole Body Dose ranged from 1 Gy to 3.6 Gy (median 1.7 Gy) in children, meanwhile it ranged between 0.55 and 1.87 Gy (median 0.96 Gy) in adults. In 5/16 children studies WBD was about 2 Gy and one child received a dose of 3.6 Gy (0.4 Gy/GBq), corresponding to an activity of 18 mCi/KXg. Conclusion: contrary to published data in children the pro/KXg activity is not a good predictor of WBD. In these cases WBD calculation can be affected by the presence of large tumor masses which overestimates the absorbed dose. In any case the administration of activity superior to 15 mCi/KXg is known to be associated

  18. Leading people and leading authentic self through online networking platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Korzynski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Online social networking is more and more important in leading people and leading oneself. Online platforms provide a low cost, highly accessible way of communication, which enable leaders to build personal brand, maintain relationship with people within and outside leaders' company as well as support task performing through online discussion, sharing knowledge and finding clients. Leaders should pay special attention not only to their operational or individual network but also to strategi...

  19. Chemical speciation of lead dust associated with primary lead smelting.

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, T M; Svee, W; Vincent, J H; Stanisich, N

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this article assessed geochemical factors relating to dust produced during primary lead smelting. Bulk dust samples and size-selective airborne dust samples were collected from four areas of a primary lead smelter and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and sequential chemical extraction. X-ray diffraction showed that the smelter dusts were composed primarily of sulfides, oxides, sulfates, and silicates of metal ores, with galena being the primary dust component. Sequentia...

  20. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Aithal

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  1. Centrally administered isoproterenol induces sympathetic outflow via brain prostaglandin E2-mediated mechanisms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kazuo; Kondo, Fumio; Yamaguchi, Naoko; Tachi, Masahiko; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Gosho, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Okada, Shoshiro

    2015-05-01

    Brain β-adrenoceptor stimulation can induce elevations of plasma levels of noradrenaline. However, there have been no detailed studies related to signaling pathways downstream of β-adrenoceptors responsible for central sympathetic outflow. In the present study, we pharmacologically examined the possibility that centrally administered isoproterenol can induce elevations of plasma noradrenaline levels in a brain prostaglandin-dependent manner. In addition, we also examined whether or not intracerebroventricular administration of isoproterenol could release endogenously synthesized prostaglandin (PG) E2 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) by using the brain microdialysis technique combined with liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ITMS(n)). Under urethane anesthesia, a femoral venous line was inserted for infusion of saline and a femoral arterial line was inserted for collecting blood samples. Next, animals were placed in a stereotaxic apparatus for application of test agents. Catecholamines in the plasma were extracted by alumina absorption and were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Quantification of PGE2 in rat PVN microdialysates was performed by the LC-ITMS(n) method. We demonstrated that centrally administered isoproterenol-induced elevations of plasma noradrenaline could be mediated via activation of β-adrenoceptors and the downstream phospholipase A2-cyclooxygenase pathway. Furthermore, PGE2 in the PVN and the PGE2 receptor EP3 subtype appear to play an important role in the process. Our results suggest that central isoproterenol-induced sympathetic outflow is mediated via brain PGE2 in a PGE2 receptor EP3 subtype-dependent manner. PMID:25549851

  2. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Lawrence

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting participants with confirmed habit of tobacco smoking will be recruited and randomized into three arms to receive either auricular acupressure at five true acupoints (NADA protocol, auricular acupressure at five sham points, or no auricular acupressure at all. Participants having auricular acupressure will exert firm pressure to each acupoint bilaterally via the bead in the attached plasters whenever they feel the urge to smoke. The treatment phase will last for six weeks during which all participants will be assessed weekly to review their smoking log, state of abstinence, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and possible adverse effects including withdrawal reactions and stress levels. At any time, a successful quit date will be defined with continuous abstinence for the following consecutive 7 days. From then on, participants will be evaluated individually for continuous abstinence rate (CAR, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and adverse effects of stress and withdrawal at specified intervals up to 26 weeks. Expectancy of treatment will be assessed with a four-item Borkovec and Nau self-assessment credibility scale during and after intervention. Discussion We incorporate validated outcome measures of smoking cessation into our randomised controlled trial design with the objectives to evaluate the feasibility and possible benefits of self-administered auricular acupressure as a non-invasive alternative to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Trial

  3. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Immediate and Sustained Release Cephalexin Administered by Different Routes to Llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreil, Verónica; Ambros, Luis; Prados, Ana Paula; Tarragona, Lisa; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Bramuglia, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pharmacokinetics of two different cephalexin formulations administered to llamas by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) routes, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cephalexin against some Escherichia coli and staphylococci isolated from llamas, and we apply the PK/PD modelling approach, so that effective dosage recommendations for this species could be made. Six llamas received immediate (10 mg/kg, IV, IM, and SC) and sustained (8 mg/kg IM, SC) release cephalexin. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental approach. Immediate release SC administration produced a significantly longer elimination half-life as compared with the IV and IM administration (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 h, resp.) and higher mean absorption time as compared with the IM administration (1.7 ± 0.5 versus 0.6 ± 0.4 h). Absolute bioavailability was in the range of 72–89% for both formulations and routes of administration. Cephalexin MIC90 values against staphylococci and E. coli were 1.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Our results show that the immediate release formulation (10 mg/kg) would be effective for treating staphylococcal infections administered every 8 h (IM) or 12 h (SC), whereas the sustained release formulation (8 mg/kg) would require the IM or SC administration every 12 or 24 h, respectively. PMID:27051418

  5. Development of a self-administered early inflammatory arthritis detection tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugwell Peter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barriers to care limit the potential benefits of pharmacological intervention for inflammatory arthritis. A self-administered questionnaire for early inflammatory arthritis (EIA detection may complement contemporary triage interventions to further reduce delays to rheumatologic care. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered EIA detection tool for implementation in pre-primary care settings. Methods A core set of dimensions and constructs for EIA detection were systematically derived from the literature and augmented by investigative team arbitration. Identified constructs were formulated into lay language questions suitable for self-administration. A three-round Delphi consensus panel of EIA experts and stakeholders evaluated the relevance of each question to EIA detection and suggested additional items. Questions accepted by less than 70% of respondents in rounds one or two were eliminated. In round three, questions accepted by at least 80% of the panel were selected for the tool. Results Of 584 citations identified, data were extracted from 47 eligible articles. Upon arbitration of the literature synthesis, 30 constructs encompassing 13 dimensions were formulated into lay language questions and posed to the Delphi panel. A total of 181 EIA experts and stakeholders participated on the Delphi panel: round one, 60; round two, 59; and, round three, 169; 48 participated in all three rounds. The panel evaluated the 30 questions derived from the literature synthesis, suggested five additional items, and eliminated a total of 24. The eleven-question instrument developed captured dimensions of articular pain, swelling, and stiffness, distribution of joint involvement, function, and diagnostic and family history. Conclusions An eleven-question, EIA detection tool suitable for self-administration was developed to screen subjects with six to 52 weeks of musculoskeletal complaints. Psychometric and performance

  6. Radioprotection of hemopoiesis conferred by Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Shigoka) administered before or after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acanthopanax senticosus Harms (Shigoka) extract has been observed to have radioprotective effects on hemopoiesis of irradiated mice (CBA/olac) when administered before or after irradiation by 60Co. The mechanisms of action were explored by studying the following parameters: 1) survival after lethal doses of irradiation; 2) recovery of spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S); 3) protective effect on endogenous CFU-S; and 4) effect on self-renewal of CFU-S. 1) The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly reduced in Shigoka-treated mice. The maximum effect of the extract (80% survival) at a dose of 5 mg was observed when given intraperitoneally 24 h before a lethal dose of irradiation (9.5 Gy) and it was still effective when administered as late as 12 h after irradiation (30% survival). The radioprotective effect of Shigoka extract given before irradiation was not due to an increase in the total number of CFU-S but probably due to quiescent CFU-S that entered DNA synthesis (S-phase) 24 h after the injection of Shigoka extract. 2) Recovery of CFU-S in mice given the extract within 15 min after 4.75 Gy of whole body irradiation was also enhanced, especially in the spleen. The number of CFU-S in the bone marrow 24 h after irradiation showed a marked decrease. It returned to normal values in the bone marrow at day 11 in Shigoka-treated mice and at day 15 in nontreated irradiated mice. CFU-S in the spleen recovered more rapidly with an overshoot from days 7 to 21 in the Shigoka-treated mice, whereas in control irradiated mice it did not reach the normal value until day 21. 3) Nine days after sublethal doses of irradiation (7.0 Gy) the number of endogenous spleen colonies (endogenous CFU-S) was highest in mice given the extract 24 h before irradiation

  7. Evaluation of computed tomographic enterography with an orally administered lactulose solution in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keh, Seoyeon; Sohn, Jungmin; Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Jang, Jaeyoung; Kim, Hyunwook; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine optimal techniques for CT enterography in clinically normal dogs and to evaluate luminal distention after oral administration of lactulose solution as a contrast agent. ANIMALS 15 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES CT was performed in a control group (2 dogs that underwent CT to evaluate metastasis and 5 other dogs). In a bolus administration group (5 dogs from the control group), lactulose solution (1.34 g/mL) was administered (60 mL/kg) rapidly via gastric tube to anesthetized dogs, and CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. In a continuous administration group of 8 other dogs, lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) was administered slowly via nasoesophageal tube over a period of 45 minutes. Then, 15 minutes after anesthetic induction, CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Luminal distention of the small intestines was evaluated qualitatively by use of a 3-point scale. RESULTS All small intestinal segments had poor luminal distention in the control group. The terminal ileum had poor luminal distention for the bolus administration group. Nearly all segments had good luminal distention for the continuous administration group with mild adverse effects. Luminal distention scores from 0 to 20 minutes after lactulose administration were significantly higher than scores from 30 to 60 minutes. Interobserver reproducibility was high for all intestinal segments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT performed between 0 and 20 minutes after continuous administration of lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) may reveal adequate luminal distention for examination of small intestinal segments in dogs. PMID:27027835

  8. Pharmacokinetics of midazolam administered concurrently with ketamine after intravenous bolus or infusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Jacobson, J D; Hartsfield, S M

    1993-12-01

    Midazolam, a water-soluble benzodiazepine tranquilizer, has been considered by some veterinary anaesthesiologists to be suitable as a combination anaesthetic agent when administered concurrently with ketamine because of its water solubility and miscibility with ketamine. However, the pharmacokinetics of midazolam have not been extensively described in the dog. Twelve clinically healthy mixed breed dogs (22.2-33.4 kg) were divided into two groups at random and were administered ketamine (10 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) either as an intravenous bolus over 30 s (group 1) or as an i.v. infusion in 0.9% NaCl (2 ml/kg) over 15 min. Blood samples were obtained immediately before the drugs were injected and periodically for 6 h afterwards. Serum concentrations were determined using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Serum concentrations were best described using a two-compartment open model and indicated a t1/2-alpha of 1.8 min and t1/2-beta of 27.8 min after i.v. bolus, and t1/2-alpha of 1.35 min and t1/2-beta of 31.6 min after i.v. infusion. The calculated pharmacokinetic coefficient B was significantly smaller after i.v. infusion (429 +/- 244 ng/ml) than after i.v. bolus (888 +/- 130 ng/ml, P = 0.004). Furthermore, AUC was significantly smaller after i.v. infusion (29,800 +/- 6120 ng/h/ml) than after i.v. bolus (42,500 +/- 8460 ng/h/ml, P infusion (17.4 +/- 4.00 ml/min/kg than after i.v. bolus (12.1 +/- 2.24 ml/min/kg, P < 0.05). No other pharmacokinetic value was significantly affected by rate of intravenous administration. PMID:8126758

  9. Antifertility effect of chronically administered Tabernaemontana divaricata leaf extract on male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Ankit Jain; Pritesh Paliwal; Shailendra Singh Solanki

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the antifertility effect of chronically administeredTabernaemontana divaricata (T. divaricata) leaf extract on male rats.Methods:The effect of50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaves on reproduction was studied on male rats.The study was divided into four groups of five animals each.The first groups(I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second, third and fourth groups(II,II andIV) of animals were administered theleaf extract daily at50 mg/kg body weight,p.o.,100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., and200 mg/kg body weight, p.o., respectively, for a period of60 days.Results:Significant decreases in the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were observed.A dose related reduction in the testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility, number of fertile male, ratio between delivered and inseminated females and numbers of pups were observed.The testis showed a clear correlation between the dose and severity of lesions of seminiferous epithelium. In general, the seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size with a frequently filled eosinophilic material.Spermatogenesis arrested at the secondary spermatocyte stage.Pachytene spermatocytes were undergoing degeneration.Disorganigation and sloughing of immature germ cell were visible. Leydinf cells were atrophied.No morphological changes were observed inSertoli cells.Significant reduction in serum concentration of luteinizing hormone and testosterone were observed.No distinct change in serumFSH concentration was recorded.The final body weights of all groups were elevated markedly.No alterations were recorded in any hematologiocal parameters. Conclusions:It is concluded that the50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaf produced dose related effect on male reproduction without altering general body metabolism.

  10. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members

  11. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  12. Comparison of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale Versus the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale in Domestic Violence Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Michael G.; Uhlmansiek, Mary H.; Resick, Patricia A.; Mechanic, Mindy B.

    2004-01-01

    The posttraumatic diagnostic scale (PDS) is a self-report instrument for PTSD that is simple to administer and has demonstrated good psychometric properties. We compared the PDS with the gold standard clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS) diagnostic interview for PTSD. We assessed 138 women who were victims of domestic violence using both the PDS and the CAPS. Findings confirmed that PTSD develops at a high base rate in this sample. The PDS generally performed well in relation to the CAPS ...

  13. Electrical properties of lead orthovanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When studying the complex of electrical properties (electric conductivity as function T, psub(Osub(2)); ion numbers of transfer) the analysis of defective structure of lead orthovanadate has been carried out. It is shown that Pb3V2O8 - is a mixed semiconductor of n-type where electron conductivity prevails. Oxygen vacancies and internodal lead are the main point defects in the structure

  14. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YuFeng; ZHANG Zhang; MA YongJun; KANG JingWan

    2001-01-01

    @@ Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.

  15. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; YuFeng

    2001-01-01

    Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.……

  16. European lead cooled system (ELSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international Generation IV (GEN IV) initiative has once more highlighted that fast reactors are indispensable for a sustainable development of the Nuclear Energy. Europe has historically a large experience in the field of sodium-cooled fast reactors and recently has made a big effort in the development of the Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) technology for use in the sub-critical reactors, starting from the Russian technology for the submarine propulsion programme. The evolution from the LBE technology towards the pure lead technology is a natural and logical way because lead is less expensive, less corrosive and of lesser radiological concern. Lead has chemical and neutronic characteristics which are unique for a safe fast reactor. Molten lead, namely, operates at low pressure and high temperature, is relatively inert to air and water. The ELSY consortium intends to design a Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) system that complies with all GEN IV goals and gives assurance of investment protection. The EC FP6-ELSY project aims to demonstrate that it is possible to design a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features. ELSY is a 36-months project (starting September 1, 2006) partially funded as a Specific Targeted Research Project entitled to the European Commission

  17. Leading to distraction: Driver distraction, lead car, and road environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N

    2016-04-01

    Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought. PMID:26785327

  18. Bispectral index monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered combined sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se Young Jang; Hyun Gu Park; Min Kyu Jung; Chang Min Cho; Soo Young Park; Seong Woo Jeon; Won Young Tak

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO determine whether bispectral index (BIS)monitoring is useful for propofol administration for deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS:Fifty-nine consecutive patients with a variety of reasons for ERCP who underwent the procedure at least twice between 1 July 2010 and 30 November 2010.This was a randomized cross-over study,in which each patient underwent ERCP twice,once with BIS monitoring and once with control monitoring.Whether BIS monitoring was done during the first or second ERCP procedure was random.Patients were intermittently administered a mixed regimen including midazolam,pethidine,and propofol by trained nurses.The nurse used a routine practice to monitor sedation using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale or the BIS monitoring.The total amount of midazolam and propofol used and serious side effects were compared between the BIS and control groups.RESULTS:The mean total propofol dose administered was 53.1 ± 32.2 mg in the BIS group and 54.9± 30.8 mg in the control group (P =0.673).The individual propofol dose received per minute during the ERCP procedure was 2.90 ± 1.83 mg/min in the BIS group and 3.44 ± 2.04 mg in the control group (P =0.103).The median value of the MOAA/S score during the maintenance phase of sedation was comparable for the two groups.The mean BIS values throughout the procedure (from insertion to removal of the endoscope) were 76.5 ± 8.7 for all 59 patients in using the BIS monitor.No significant differences in the frequency of < 80% oxygen saturation,hypotension (< 80 mmHg),or bradycardia (< 50 beats/min) were observed between the two study groups.Four cases of poor cooperation occurred,in which the procedure should be stopped to add the propofol dose.After adding the propofol,the procedure could be conducted successfully (one case in the BIS group,three cases in the control group).The endoscopist rated patient sedation as excellent for

  19. Brachytherapy Application With In Situ Dose Painting Administered by Gold Nanoparticle Eluters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Neeharika [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cifter, Gizem [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sajo, Erno [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Electronic Materials Research Institute and Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L.; Cormack, Robert A.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ngwa, Wilfred, E-mail: wngwa@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Recent studies show promise that administering gold nanoparticles (GNP) to tumor cells during brachytherapy could significantly enhance radiation damage to the tumor. A new strategy proposed for sustained administration of the GNP in prostate tumors is to load them into routinely used brachytherapy spacers for customizable in situ release after implantation. This in silico study investigated the intratumor biodistribution and corresponding dose enhancement over time due to GNP released from such GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS). Method and Materials: An experimentally determined intratumoral diffusion coefficient (D) for 10-nm nanoparticles was used to estimate D for other sizes by using the Stokes-Einstein equation. GNP concentration profiles, obtained using D, were then used to calculate the corresponding dose enhancement factor (DEF) for each tumor voxel, using dose painting-by-numbers approach, for times relevant to the considered brachytherapy sources' lifetimes. The investigation was carried out as a function of GNP size for the clinically applicable low-dose-rate brachytherapy sources iodine-125 (I-125), palladium-103 (Pd-103), and cesium-131 (Cs-131). Results: Results showed that dose enhancement to tumor voxels and subvolumes during brachytherapy can be customized by varying the size of GNP released or eluted from the GBS. For example, using a concentration of 7 mg/g GNP, significant DEF (>20%) could be achieved 5 mm from a GBS after 5, 12, 25, 46, 72, 120, and 195 days, respectively, for GNP sizes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nm and for 80 nm when treating with I-125. Conclusions: Analyses showed that using Cs-131 provides the highest dose enhancement to tumor voxels. However, given its relatively longer half-life, I-125 presents the most flexibility for customizing the dose enhancement as a function of GNP size. These findings provide a useful reference for further work toward development of potential new brachytherapy application

  20. Brachytherapy Application With In Situ Dose Painting Administered by Gold Nanoparticle Eluters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Recent studies show promise that administering gold nanoparticles (GNP) to tumor cells during brachytherapy could significantly enhance radiation damage to the tumor. A new strategy proposed for sustained administration of the GNP in prostate tumors is to load them into routinely used brachytherapy spacers for customizable in situ release after implantation. This in silico study investigated the intratumor biodistribution and corresponding dose enhancement over time due to GNP released from such GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS). Method and Materials: An experimentally determined intratumoral diffusion coefficient (D) for 10-nm nanoparticles was used to estimate D for other sizes by using the Stokes-Einstein equation. GNP concentration profiles, obtained using D, were then used to calculate the corresponding dose enhancement factor (DEF) for each tumor voxel, using dose painting-by-numbers approach, for times relevant to the considered brachytherapy sources' lifetimes. The investigation was carried out as a function of GNP size for the clinically applicable low-dose-rate brachytherapy sources iodine-125 (I-125), palladium-103 (Pd-103), and cesium-131 (Cs-131). Results: Results showed that dose enhancement to tumor voxels and subvolumes during brachytherapy can be customized by varying the size of GNP released or eluted from the GBS. For example, using a concentration of 7 mg/g GNP, significant DEF (>20%) could be achieved 5 mm from a GBS after 5, 12, 25, 46, 72, 120, and 195 days, respectively, for GNP sizes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nm and for 80 nm when treating with I-125. Conclusions: Analyses showed that using Cs-131 provides the highest dose enhancement to tumor voxels. However, given its relatively longer half-life, I-125 presents the most flexibility for customizing the dose enhancement as a function of GNP size. These findings provide a useful reference for further work toward development of potential new brachytherapy application

  1. Determination of drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuan; WANG Ning-li; WANG Yan-ling; MA Chen; MA Li; GAO Li-xin; HUANG Ying-xiang; XIONG Shi-hong; WANG Kang

    2010-01-01

    Background Ophthalmic gel has been developed to increase the drug concentration in aqueous humor and to retard the loss of drug from the conjunctival sac.The research was to compare the drug concentration in aqueous humor of cataract patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel with that in patients administered 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.Methods Ninety-six patients with cataract (96 eyes) were randomly assigned to 8 groups.The patients in groups 1-4received topical gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic gel and those in groups 5-8 received gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution.The dose regimen was 1 drop, 4 times a day for 3 consecutive days prior to cataract surgery.On the day of surgery, 1drop was applied at 15, 30, 60 or 120 minutes before commencement of cataract surgery in groups 1 and 5, groups 2 and 6, goups 3 and 7, and groups 4 and 8, respectively.Aqueous humor was extracted during the cataract surgery for the analysis of gatifloxacin concentration..Results The concentrations of gatifloxacin in aqueous humor were (0.24±0.25) μg/ml, (1.11±0.74) μg/ml, (2.32±2.01)μg/ml and (1.85±1.14) μg/ml in groups 1 to 4, and (0.16±0.25) μg/ml, (0.31±0.24) μg/ml, (0.75±0.28) μg/ml and (0.33±0.22) μg/ml in groups 5 to 8, respectively.Patients receiving gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel showed greater mean values of gatifloxacin concentration in aqueous humor than those receiving gatifloxacin solution, and such differences were significant with P <0.05 for all comparisons except that between groups 1 and 5.Conclusion Topical gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel can attain significantly greater drug concentrations in human aqueous humor than gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution.

  2. Lead-vacancy-related hole centers in lead tungstate crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laguta, Valentyn; Nikl, Martin; Zazubovich, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 249, č. 11 (2012), s. 2161-2166. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hole centers * lead tungstate * thermally stimulated luminescence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2012

  3. CAN FLUORIDATION AFFECT WATER LEAD LEVELS AND LEAD NEUROTOXICITY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reports have attempted to show that certain approaches to fluoridating potable water is linked to increased levels of lead(II) in the blood. We examine these claims in light of the established science and critically evaluate their significance. The completeness of nexafluo...

  4. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  5. Nephropathy induced by intramuscularly administered glycerol and contrast media in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urine profiles (albumin, glucose, NAG, LDH, GGT, sodium, and phosphate) were followed for 14 days after intravenous injection of either diatrizoate, iohexol, ioxilan, or saline in 24 Wistar rats with a glomerular and tubular dysfunction induced by intramuscularly (i.m.) administered glycerol. Another 6 rats exposed to neither glycerol nor contrast media served as controls. The effect of ioxilan and saline on the albumin excretion was similar, whereas diatrizoate and iohexol increased it significantly. The contrast media had no further inhibitory effect on the reabsorption of glucose. Iohexol caused significantly increased excretion of all three enzymes, ioxilan of NAG and LDH, whereas diatrizoate only increased the excretion of LDH. The sodium excretion was further increased by ioxilan and diatrizoate, whereas none of the contrast media affected the phosphaturia. Both ioxilan and iohexol caused a round cell response around the tubules shown by light microscopy whereas diatrizoate caused no further changes. It is concluded that diatrizoate and iohexol increase glomerular dysfunction induced by glycerol i.m.; all three contrast media cause some further increase in the tubular dysfunction. Neither diatrizoate, iohexol nor ioxilan prolong nephropathy induced by glycerol i.m. determined by the chemical analyses. The histologic finding indicates a direct toxic effect of non-ionic low osmolar contrast media in this animal model of nephropathy. (orig.)

  6. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  7. Tissue Culture of Trigeminal Nerves from Rats Administered Transplacentally with Ethylnitrosourea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi,Kazuhiko

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and biological changes in long term culture cells of normal-appearing trigeminal nerves from 2, 8, and 30-day-old S-D rats administered transplacentaLly with 75 mg ENU/kg were examined. After a marked degeneration of cells, crisscross multiple proliferative foci of transformed spindle cells appeared at the 3rd passage culture from 2 and 8-day-old rats, but not form 30-day-old rats. The transformed cells with S-100 protein and basal lamina had Schwann cell characteristics. Transformed spindle cells continued to form a crisscross pattern more than 700 days and some transformed spindle cells became round in shape 3-6 months after the primary culture. These transformed cells were transplantable to newborn S-D rats and the transplanted tumors were histologically similar to those of malignant Schwannoma of trigeminal nerves induced by ENU. Round-shaped transformed cells were more malignant than spindle-shaped cells and produced rapidly growing transplanted tumors. Spontaneous transformation with multinucleated giant cells occurred in one of the control cultures. These results indicate that the sequential changes of ENU-treated trigeminal nerves in vitro were corresponded to developmental changes of malignant Schwannoma in vivo induced by ENU. This system will be useful for analysis of ENU-carcinogenesis.

  8. The ABCs of LDAP how to install, run, and administer LDAP services

    CERN Document Server

    Voglmaier, Reinhard E

    2004-01-01

    Until now, it has been difficult to find the right source of information on LDAP and directory server implementations: books on the subject are overly product-specific, and a search on the Web results in information overload. The ABCs of LDAP: How to Install, Run, and Administer LDAP Services strikes the right balance, providing a synopsis of LDAP fundamentals without getting wrapped up in one particular implementation.This book is for network and systems administrators who want to begin using LDAP more extensively. It delivers the theoretical background needed to understand how these servers work, resulting in clear, concise examples of implementations in both commercial and OpenLDAP environments.The text is structured so that each chapter can stand on its own, with brief descriptions of terms supplemented by references to more detailed explanations in other chapters. You also benefit from a concise overview of how to design a directory, preparing you to execute directory deployments for email, PKI, DNS, NIS...

  9. Safety evaluation of intravenously administered mono-thioated aptamer against E-selectin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical applications of aptamers have recently emerged. We developed an antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) against E-selectin. Previously, we showed that a single injection of ESTA at a dose of 100 μg inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice through the functional blockade of E-selectin. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of different doses of intravenously administered ESTA in single-dose acute and repeat-dose subacute studies in ICR mice. Our data indicated that intravenous administration of up to 500 μg ESTA did not result in hematologic abnormality in either study. Additionally, intravenous injection of ESTA did not affect the levels of plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) or complement split products (C3a and C5a) in either study. However, repeated injections of ESTA slightly increased plasma ALT and AST activities, in accordance with the appearance of small necrotic areas in the liver. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that intravenous administration of ESTA does not cause overt hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses under the experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Intravenous administration of ESTA was well tolerated. • ESTA up to 500 μg does not cause hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses. • ESTA-mediated hepatic abnormality was considered minor

  10. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE

  11. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media administered at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-03-01

    Adverse reactions after intravascular administration of iodine contrast media are common and prophylactic regiments consisting of the use of steroids and low osmolality contrast media are highly effective in significantly decreasing the adverse reactions rate. The same type of contrast media are also used for opacification of the biliary tree and the pancreatic duct at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Systemic absorption of contrast media after ERCP routinely occurs. Although the adverse reaction rate appears to be very low the exact incidence remains unknown due to the retrospective nature of all reports. Despite the lack of formal recommendations, numerous prophylactic regiments are routinely used prior to ERCP in patients with history of prior reaction to intravascular contrast media. Moreover, the use of prophylaxis has even expanded to patients with no prior reaction to intravascular contrast media who are somehow perceived to be at increase risk (e.g. shellfish allergy). Recently, the first large scale prospective study reported exceedingly low incidence of adverse reaction to high oslmolality iodine-containing contrast media administered at the time of ERCP done without prophylactic premedication even in patients considered to be at the highest risk (prior severe reaction to intravascular contrast media administration). These data suggest that the use of prophylactic regiments prior to ERCP appears to be unnecessary. PMID:19275689

  12. Tissue and subcellular distribution of zinc-65 in normal and zinc sulphate administered rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of 65Zn by various organs of normal and ZnSO4 administered rats has been studied. Except duodenum and blood all the organs show low 65Zn incorporation in treated rats. The lower 65Zn incorporation in the tissues of ZnSO4 treated rats is due to the active turnover of zinc in these tissues. The maximum activity of 65Zn is exhibited by skin, followed in decreasing order by liver, intestine, spleen, rectum, kidney, prostate, urinary bladder, stomach, pancreas, adrenals, trachea, lungs, heart, thymus, seminal vesicles, testis, cauda epididymis, caput epididymis, brain, and muscle. Since ZnSO4 administration enhanced the levels of inert zinc in liver and intestine it is likely that accumulated inert zinc in the tissues may inhibit the further incorporation of 65Zn in these tissues. At subcellular level, the cytosol fraction (11000 g supernatant fraction) exhibits the higher 65Zn activity, followed in decreasing order by 300 g fraction (cell membranes and cell debris), 900 g fraction (nuclei), 6000 g fraction (heavy mitochondria) and 1000 g fraction (light mitochondria). The 65Zn activity/mgprotein in 11000 g fraction (light mitochondria) is more than the 900 g fraction (nuclei) and 6000 g fraction (heavy mitochondria). Subcellular distribution pattern of 65Zn in liver, intestine, kidney and testis is similar. ZnSO4 administration does not change the tissue and subcellular distribution pattern of 65Zn. (author). 18 refs., 3 tables

  13. The effects of centrally administered fluorocitrate via inhibiting glial cells on working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Although prefrontal and hippocampal neurons are critical for spatial working memory,the function of glial cells in spatial working memory remains uncertain.In this study we investigated the function of glial cells in rats’ working memory.The glial cells of rat brain were inhibited by intracerebroventricular(icv) injection of fluorocitrate(FC).The effects of FC on the glial cells were examined by using electroencephalogram(EEG) recordings and delayed spatial alternation tasks.After icv injection of 10 μL of 0.5 nmol/L or 5 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectrum recorded from the hippocampus increased,but the power spectrum for the prefrontal cortex did not change,and working memory was unaffected.Following an icv injection of 10 μL of 20 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus increased,and working memory improved.The icv injection of 10 μL of 50 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and in the hippocampus decreased,and working memory was impaired.These results suggest that spatial working memory is affected by centrally administered FC,but only if there are changes in the EEG power spectrum in the prefrontal cortex.Presumably,the prefrontal glial cells relate to the working memory.

  14. In vivo release of bupivacaine from subcutaneously administered oily solution. Comparison with in vitro release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Joergensen, Stig; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    2002-01-01

    A non-randomized cross-over study was performed with bupivacaine HCl (5 mg x ml(-1)) aqueous solution and bupivacaine free base (4.44 mg x ml(-1)) in Viscoleo/castor oil 2:1 (v/v) administered s.c. to male Wistar rats. Plasma levels were analyzed by LC-MS. Plasma profiles obtained after...... 25,000+/-3000 ng min x ml(-1), respectively, while the corresponding data for the oil solution were 368+/-89 min, 334+/-186 min, 36+/-25 ng x ml(-1) and 25,000+/-6000 ng x min x ml(-1). The present data indicate the potential of designing an oil formulation of bupivacaine with a prolonged local...... analgetic effect exhibiting a minimum of systemic toxicity. In vivo release of bupivacaine from the oil solution was evaluated by a numerical deconvolution method. In vivo release kinetics was found to be first-order and corresponded well with in vitro release kinetics found using a rotating dialysis cell...

  15. OCCURRENCE OF CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE IN BAJAUR AGENCY, FEDERALLY ADMINISTERED TRIBAL AREAS, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In consanguineous marriage, the genetic and medical disorders are increased in the offspring with passage of time. It is a big challenge for our society to get complete information of their prevalence, their risk factors and to control these disorders. The present survey was conducted during January-March 2012 in different areas of the Bajaur Agency, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan including Alijan, Anatkali, Chamerkand, Gandaw, Loisam, Manudera, Nawagai, Nawaikali, Raghagan and Sadiqabad where they are dominant. Data were collected from 123 consanguineous married couples through questionnaire comprised of information about complete history and risk factors of the medical and genetic disorders. During cousin marriages, the couples’ parents were married to their 1st cousin 52% while married to their 2nd cousin 49%. The couples participated themselves were 1st cousin 87% while 2nd cousin 13%. They were obese 34%, weak 48%, and normal 18% while age was minimum 14 and maximum 30 years, however, maximum marriages were observed at the age of 20 year. The couples having genetic disorders like anemia, obesity and thalassemia were 20, 23 and 20%, respectively; however, non-genetic disorders, bone diseases, depressive illness and respiratory diseases were 21, 20 and 25 %, respectively. Such communities may require comprehensive genetic education and premarital genetic counseling programs for awareness and education.

  16. Comparative bioavailability study of cefixime administered as tablets or aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montay, G; Masala, F; Le Roux, Y; Le Liboux, A; Uhlrich, J; Chassard, D; Thebault, J J; Roche, G; Frydman, A

    1991-01-01

    The relative bioavailability of cefixime was studied in 24 healthy male volunteers, with each subject receiving a single 400mg dose of cefixime administered as an aqueous solution, a 400mg tablet and two 200mg tablets, in a randomised crossover sequence. Serum and urine samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Peak cefixime levels were achieved 3 hours after administration of the solution vs 4 hours for the 2 tablet formulations; however, the extent of absorption was only slightly improved with the solution (by 14 and 7% compared with the 1 x 400 and 2 x 200mg tablets, respectively). The 400mg and 2 x 200mg tablets were found to be bioequivalent. The pharmacokinetic profile of the 400mg cefixime tablet (mean maximum plasma concentrations of 4.4 mg/L at 4 hours, area under the concentration-time curve of 34.4 mg/L.h, and apparent terminal elimination half-life of 3.7 hours) supports the clinical evaluation of a 400mg once-daily dosage regimen for cefixime. PMID:1725153

  17. Lethal poisoning with theophylline in the form of rectally administered tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, P; Kula, K

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the case of death of a 56-year-old man who died in a municipal hospital from which his body was taken to the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow. The man was said to have been found unconscious by accidental passers-by. While being transported to the hospital's emergency department, he suffered an attack of convulsions and went into cardiac arrest. He was subsequently successfully resuscitated. A physical examination performed at the hospital revealed the presence of multiple, only slightly dissolved tablets in the man's rectum. The patient died on the 25th day of hospitalization. A toxicological analysis showed a toxic concentration of theophylline (25 mg/l) in the man's blood. Theophylline was identified as the main ingredient of the tablets. The cause of death was thus given as theophylline poisoning. The reported case is unusual in that the poisoning occurred as a result of overdosing on an oral drug which was administered by the victim rectally, and in that the chosen substance currently is not very commonly used in medicine, and does not cause symptoms of intoxication. PMID:25693173

  18. Effects of orally administered yeast-derived beta-glucans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Anne Berit C; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Knutsen, Svein H

    2014-01-01

    Yeast-derived beta-glucans (Y-BG) are considered immunomodulatory compounds suggested to enhance the defense against infections and exert anticarcinogenic effects. Specific preparations have received Generally Recognized as Safe status and acceptance as novel food ingredients by European Food Safety Authority. In human trials, orally administered Y-BG significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas significant differences were not seen in healthy individuals. Increased salivary IgA in healthy individuals, increased IL-10 levels in obese subjects, beneficial changes in immunological parameters in allergic patients, and activated monocytes in cancer patients have been reported following Y-BG intake. The studies were conducted with different doses (7.5-1500 mg/day), using different preparations that vary in their primary structure, molecular weight, and solubility. In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines and enhanced antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic agents. Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury have also been reported. In conclusion, additional studies following good clinical practice principles are needed in which well-defined Y-BG preparations are used and immune markers and disease endpoints are assessed. Since optimal dosing may depend on preparation characteristics, dose-response curves might be assessed to find the optimal dose for a specific preparation. PMID:24019098

  19. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James

    2016-08-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243111

  20. Safety evaluation of intravenously administered mono-thioated aptamer against E-selectin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Tsolmon, Bilegtsaikhan [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Mann, Aman P. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Zhao, Yan Daniel [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Volk, David E.; Lokesh, Ganesh L.-R. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Morris, Lynsie; Gupta, Vineet; Razaq, Wajeeha [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Rui, Hallgeir [Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust St, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Suh, K. Stephen [John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601 (United States); Gorenstein, David G. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Tanaka, Takemi, E-mail: takemi-tanaka@ouhsc.edu [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The medical applications of aptamers have recently emerged. We developed an antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) against E-selectin. Previously, we showed that a single injection of ESTA at a dose of 100 μg inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice through the functional blockade of E-selectin. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of different doses of intravenously administered ESTA in single-dose acute and repeat-dose subacute studies in ICR mice. Our data indicated that intravenous administration of up to 500 μg ESTA did not result in hematologic abnormality in either study. Additionally, intravenous injection of ESTA did not affect the levels of plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) or complement split products (C3a and C5a) in either study. However, repeated injections of ESTA slightly increased plasma ALT and AST activities, in accordance with the appearance of small necrotic areas in the liver. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that intravenous administration of ESTA does not cause overt hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses under the experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Intravenous administration of ESTA was well tolerated. • ESTA up to 500 μg does not cause hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses. • ESTA-mediated hepatic abnormality was considered minor.

  1. Individually administered or co-prescribed thiopurines and mesalamines for inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni C Actis, Rinaldo Pellicano, Mario Rizzetto, Muhammad Ayoubi, Nicola Leone, Gianfranco Tappero, Paola Pazienza, Floriano Rosina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from both basic research and clinical experience continue to suggest that mesalamines and thiopurines are effective and efficient for the maintenance of remission of inflammatory bowel diseases. Several decades following the formalization of their indications, attention on these two drugs has been fostered by recent achievements. Demonstration of the ability of mesalamine to activate a colonocyte differentiation factor has shed light on its chemopreventive effects on colorectal cancer; in addition to their anti-proliferative efficacy, thiopurines have been shown to be specific regulators of apoptosis. The two drugs are often co-administered in clinical practice. Recent advancements have shown that mesalamines exert a positive synergism in this context, insofar as they can inhibit side-methylation of thiopurines and hasten the function of the main immunosuppressive pathways. Considering that up to 40% of patients cannot tolerate thiopurines, such renovated targets have stimulated efforts to improve compliance by research on the toxicity mechanisms. The definition of genetic polymorphisms in the enzymes of thiopurine metabolism, and the uncovering of synergistic drug interactions, such as that with allopurinol, are just two of the results of such efforts. Interaction between basic research and clinical practice has continued to inform indications and refine the prescriptions of mesalamines and thiopurines; these have not been restrained (they have been implemented in some cases by the advent of the novel biological molecules with anti-cytokine activity.

  2. Comparison of radioisotopic studied calcium metabolism in the orally administered and inhaled cadmium rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotopic study of calcium metabolism in the rat after oral administration of cadmium, 8 mg/kg during 13 weeks, has shown two different effects of this ion: 1) in the intestine, cadmium inhibits the absorption of calcium by active transport; 2) in the deep bone compartment, the decrease of the bone calcium used for the crystallization and slowly exchangeable with the calcium central pool (serum, extracellular and soft tissues calcium) is combined with a reduction of the exchange rates between the two compartments. When administered through a microparticle aerosol inhalation (1 mg/m3 of air, 30 mn a day, during 12 weeks), cadmium's main target organ is the deep bone compartment. For both modes of administration, the slowing down of osteogenesis is confirmed by a drop in serum alkaline phosphatase after a four weeks period which reflects a decrease of the osteoblastic activity. Therefore it appears that the effects on bones observed during the chronic oral cadmium administration, do not result from a malabsorption of intestine calcium but also from the very action the Cd++ ion on the bone crystallization process

  3. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guangping; Sun Jiao, E-mail: jiaosun59@yahoo.com [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Biomaterials Research and Testing Center, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Zhong Gaoren [Fudan University, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2012-01-15

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  4. Analgesic and thermic responses to intravenously administered morphine in 8- and 24-week-old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, H N; Villar, V M

    1991-01-01

    The analgesic and thermic responses to morphine (5 and 10 mg/kg) injected intravenously to 8- and 24-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were determined. Greater analgesic and lower hyperthermic responses to morphine in 24-week-old rats in comparison to 8-week-old rats were observed. The pharmacokinetic parameters of morphine administered intravenously were also determined. Cmax for 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of morphine were smaller in 24-week-old rats in comparison to 8-week-old rats; however, AUC0----infinity was smaller only for 5 mg/kg dose. For 10 mg/kg dose, mean residence time (MRT) and the apparent steady state volume of distribution (Vss) for the older rats were higher than for the younger ones, but for 5 mg/kg dose the values did not differ. The enhanced responses to morphine in older age group of rats for 5 mg/kg dose cannot be explained solely on the basis of pharmacokinetics. However, for 10 mg/kg dose of morphine, the greater responses in 24-week-old rats could probably be related to increases in MRT and Vss. Factors other than serum kinetics, like kinetics of morphine in the brain as well as the brain opiate receptors, may also be involved in the differential effects of morphine in rats of different ages. PMID:1784625

  5. Nurses and subordination: a historical study of mental nurses' perceptions on administering aversion therapy for 'sexual deviations'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Tommy; Cook, Matt; Playle, John; Hallett, Christine

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the meanings that nurses attached to the 'treatments' administered to cure 'sexual deviation' (SD) in the UK, 1935-1974. In the UK, homosexuality was considered a classifiable mental illness that could be 'cured' until 1992. Nurses were involved in administering painful and distressing treatments. The study is based on oral history interviews with fifteen nurses who had administered treatments to cure individuals of their SD. The interviews were transcribed for historical interpretation. Some nurses believed that their role was to passively follow any orders they had been given. Other nurses limited their culpability concerning administering these treatments by adopting dehumanising and objectifying language and by focussing on administrative tasks, rather than the human beings in need of their care. Meanwhile, some nurses genuinely believed that they were acting beneficently by administering these distinctly unpleasant treatments. It is envisaged that this study might act to reiterate the need for nurses to ensure their interventions have a sound evidence base and that they constantly reflect on the moral and value base of their practice and the influence that science and societal norms can have on changing views of what is considered 'acceptable practice'. PMID:23876127

  6. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  7. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  8. Administering Examinations for Quality Control in Distance Education: The National Open University of Nigeria Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibara, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    Examination is an important tool for evaluating students learning outcome and require proper planning to meet high standards. This paper therefore examines the processes leading to administration of face-to-face examination in distance education with focus on the National Open University of Nigeria. It highlighted some procedures such as test…

  9. Norm Block Sample Sizes: A Review of 17 Individually Administered Intelligence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Woods, Isaac L.; Hawkins, Haley K.; Irby, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    The representativeness, recency, and size of norm samples strongly influence the accuracy of inferences drawn from their scores. Inadequate norm samples may lead to inflated or deflated scores for individuals and poorer prediction of developmental and academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to apply Kranzler and Floyd's method for…

  10. Blood Lead and Reading Readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of Maryland School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, and Department of Health, Providence, Rhode Island, evaluated the relationship between reading readiness test scores for children attending public kindergarten in Providence, RI, and state health department records of blood lead levels (BLLs.

  11. All Roads Lead To Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Vomlel, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    treewidth criterion for optimality of a triangulation. However, this criterion may lead to a somewhat harder inference problem than the total table size criterion. We therefore investigate new methods for depth-first search and best-first search for finding optimal total table size triangulations. The...

  12. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations. The...

  13. All roads lead to Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Vomlel, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    for existing methods to use the treewidth criterion for optimality of a triangulation. However, this criterion may lead to a somewhat harder inference problem than the total table size criterion. We therefore investigate new methods for depth-first search and best-first search for finding optimal...

  14. NA49: lead ion collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  15. NA49: lead ion collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma.

  16. Leading in a Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology is advancing more rapidly than at any time in history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, experts say that the world is leaving the Industrial Age of the 20th century and entering an Information Age that will lead into the future. These advances mean that important changes are being made in all areas of life--and…

  17. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  18. High temperature superconductor current leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The use of superconductors in high electrical current applications (magnets, transformers, generators etc.) usually requires cooling with liquid Helium, which is very expensive. The superconductor itself produces no heat, and the design of Helium dewars is very advanced. Therefore most of the heat loss, i.e. Helium consumption, comes from the current lead which connects the superconductor with its power source at room temperature. The current lead usually consists of a pair of thick copper wires. The discovery of the High Temperature Superconductors makes it possible to replace a part of the copper with superconducting material. This drastically reduces the heat losses because a) the superconductor generates no resistive heat and b) it is a very poor thermal conductor compared with the copper. In this work silver-sheathed superconducting tapes are used as current lead components. The work comprises both the production of the tapes and the overall design of the leads, in order to a) maximize the current capacity ('critical current') of the superconductor, b) minimize the thermal conductivity of the silver clad, and c) optimize the cooling conditions

  19. Silent hepatic lesions detected with computed tomography in aplastic anemia patients administered androgens for a long period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroscopic liver lesions were investigated with the use of computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide imaging (RN) in 15 aplastic anemia patients who were administered anabolic steroids for over one year and who showed no apparent physical and biochemical sign of liver tumor. In 3 patients, CT scans showed radiolucent areas in the liver. Contrast enhancements revealed these lesions to be well vascularized, suggesting they were not cysts but probably tumors. RN imaging could not demonstrate any definite space occupying lesions. Total dose of AS administered to each of the three patients exceeded 30,000 mg. It was felt that attention should be paid to the possible development of hepatic tumor when the dose of AS administered exceeds 30,000 mg. (author)

  20. Dose estimation and radiation control measures for individuals having close contact with patients administered in vivo nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who have been administered radiopharmaceuticals become a source of exposure to a non-occupational individual helping in support and comfort of these patients. We measured external dose rates at several distances from 84 adult patients administered radiopharmaceuticals, and urinary excretion of radioactivity in their patients. And we estimated the maximal dose for persons having close contact with patients administered radiopharmaceuticals from the combination of these measurement data and scenarios of contact with patients. On the basis of the estimated values, we proposed the following dose constraint for care givers. (1) The dose constraint for a non-occupational care givers to an adult nuclear medicine patient should in no case exceed 300 μSv per patient per examination of any kind. (2) The dose constraint in ordinary examinations employing a radionuclide should not be greater than 15 μSv per patient per examination. (3 tabs.)

  1. Changes in group treatment procedures of Danish finishers and its influence on the amount of administered antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee; Toft, Nils

    2016-01-01

    When treating groups of pigs orally, antimicrobials can be administered through either feed or water. During the last decade, the group treatment procedure for finishers has shifted from feed to water administration. We hypothesized that farms implementing this change in treatment procedure would...... administration to water administration between 2008 and 2009. In addition, we identified 221 farms where treatment was administered through feed (Cohort Feed), and another 553 farms where treatment was administered through water (Cohort Water). Both of these groups retained their original treatment procedure...... antimicrobials between the years was significantly different in Cohort Change when compared to both Cohort Water and Cohort Feed. Results from this study demonstrate that farms changing their procedure of group treatment from feed administration to water administration may increase their overall use of...

  2. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse. PMID:21965254

  3. Silent hepatic lesions detected with computed tomography in aplastic anemia patients administered androgens for a long period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Morihisa (Shiga Univ., Otsu (Japan)); Hiraoka, Atsumobu; Uchino, Haruto

    1982-07-01

    Macroscopic liver lesions were investigated with the use of computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide imaging (RN) in 15 aplastic anemia patients who were administered anabolic steroids for over one year and who showed no apparent physical and biochemical sign of liver tumor. In 3 patients, CT scans showed radiolucent areas in the liver. Contrast enhancements revealed these lesions to be well vascularized, suggesting they were not cysts but probably tumors. RN imaging could not demonstrate any definite space occupying lesions. Total dose of AS administered to each of the three patients exceeded 30,000 mg. It was felt that attention should be paid to the possible development of hepatic tumor when the dose of AS administered exceeds 30,000 mg.

  4. Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pérez; Romero, A.; Hernández, A.; Almaguer, I.; R. Benavides

    2012-01-01

    Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C). In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45) was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slag...

  5. Electrokinetics removal of lead from lead-contaminated red soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云国; 李欣; 曾光明; 黄宝荣; 张慧智

    2003-01-01

    Ex-situ electroremediation tests were conducted on the lead-contaminated red soils to find out the optimum condition for the most efficient removal of lead pollution from the red soil,and to examine the relation of the pH of the soil with the electroremediation efficiency.The results show that the electroremediation technology is efficient to remedy Pb contaminated red soils,and the removal efficiency can be enhanced by controlling pH value in the cathode reservoir with HNO3.The average removal efficiency of Pb is enhanced from 24.5% to 79.5%,and the energy consumption reaches 285kW·h per m3 red soil.

  6. IMPORTANCE OF 15 LEAD ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Posterior wall myocardial infarction is not uncommon acute myocardial infarction and has got its own therapeutic and prognostic implications. Management of Posterior wall myocardial infarction differs from inferior wall myocardial infarction alone. The presence of posterior wall myocardial infarction is known to increase the incidence of cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias and conduction blocks in case of myocardial infarction. Hence the present study was taken up to find out the incidence, clinical profile and complications of posterior wall myocardial infarction in a rural hospital using simple non-invasive investigations like 15 lead electrocardiography and echocardiography. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 50 patients of inferior wall myocardial infarction out of 228 Acute Myocardial Infarction proved by ECG standard and posterior leads (v7, v8, v9 were taken at the time of admission and repeated as necessary. A detailed case history was taken and a detailed physical examination was done at the time of admission and during follow up. For recording ECG 12 lead (3 standard leads, 3 augmented limb leads, 6 precordial leads machine was used. The recordings were made at 25 mm/ sec. speed and 1mV=10mm. Posterior leads were taken by using 3 precordial leads fixing on the posterior axillary (v7, infrascapular (v8 and paraspinal (v9 regions all in a same line with the 5th ICS anteriorly. RESULTS: Out of 50 cases of inferior wall myocardial infarction (IWMI studied only 13 (26% had ST elevation in posterior leads indicating posterior wall myocardial infarction (PWMI. Our study showed that complications and mortality was higher in patients of IWMI with PWMI compared to IWMI without PWMI. Out of 50 patients 33 (66% were males indicating a male predominance. Syncope was present in 18% of PWMI and 14% in overall IWMI. Palpitation was seen in 53% of PWMI and 21% of IWMI without PWMI. Smoking history was present in 14% of

  7. Electroextraction of lead from a lead trilonate solution

    OpenAIRE

    Anisimova, O. S.; Sergeev, V. A.; Mamyachenkov, S. V.; Karelov, S. V.; Sergeeva, Y. F.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the cathode process of the electroextraction of zinc from the trilonate electrolyte obtained after the purification of solutions after leaching lead cakes of zinc production are performed. The potential scan rate is determined by recording potentiodynamic curves; the optimal electrolyte acidity, the composition, and the temperature are established. Values of activation energy confirming the concentration nature of process polarization are found. © 2013 Allerton Press, Inc.

  8. Developments in lead-acid batteries: a lead producer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, P. C.

    Rapid progress is being made in many aspects of materials, design and construction for lead-acid batteries. Much of this work has taken place under the auspices of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). From the general tone of the literature, it seems likely that several of these developments will be adopted in commercial products, and that there will be cross-fertilization between the emerging electric vehicle (EV) battery technology and the starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery. Given the impetus for improvement from several different factors, the development process appears to be accelerating. To those not intimately involved in the battery design and specification process, it is not clear which of the possible developments will make it from the laboratory to general commercial adoption. Some of the possible changes in materials, design and construction could have an impact on the recovery, recycling, smelting and refining of lead-acid batteries. Some of the possible developments are outlined and their possible impact is discussed. It is likely that negative effects may be minimized if battery developments are considered from other perspectives, largely based on the overall life-cycle, as early in the design phase of new products as possible. Three strategies for minimizing undesirable effects are advocated: first, improved communication between car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and lead producers second, use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) to identify and optimize all attributes of the product throughout its life-cycle third, concerted and coordinated action to deal with issues important to the industry once trends are identified.

  9. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  10. Bupivacaine administered intrathecally versus rectally in the management of intractable rectal cancer pain in palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporowska-Stachowiak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,1,2 Grzegorz Kowalski,3 Jacek Łuczak,2 Katarzyna Kosicka,4 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,3 Maciej Sopata,3 Franciszek Główka4 1Chair and Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Palliative Medicine In-patient Unit, University Hospital of Lord's Transfiguration, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 3Palliative Medicine Chair and Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 4Department of Physical Pharmacy and Pharmacokinetics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland Background: Unacceptable adverse effects, contraindications to and/or ineffectiveness of World Health Organization step III "pain ladder" drugs causes needless suffering among a population of cancer patients. Successful management of severe cancer pain may require invasive treatment. However, a patient's refusal of an invasive procedure necessitates that clinicians consider alternative options. Objective: Intrathecal bupivacaine delivery as a viable treatment of intractable pain is well documented. There are no data on rectal bupivacaine use in cancer patients or in the treatment of cancer tenesmoid pain. This study aims to demonstrate that bupivacaine administered rectally could be a step in between the current treatment options for intractable cancer pain (conventional/conservative analgesia or invasive procedures, and to evaluate the effect of the mode of administration (intrathecal versus rectal on the bupivacaine plasma concentration.Cases: We present two Caucasian, elderly inpatients admitted to hospice due to intractable rectal/tenesmoid pain. The first case is a female with vulvar cancer, and malignant infiltration of the rectum/vagina. Bupivacaine was used intrathecally (0.25–0.5%, 1–2 mL every 6 hours. The second case is a female with ovarian cancer and malignant rectal infiltration. Bupivacaine was adminstered rectally (0.05–0.1%, 100 m

  11. Development and validation of a theoretical test in non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Savran, Mona Meral; Møller, Ann Merete;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Safety with non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAAP) during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is related to theoretical knowledge. A summative testing of knowledge before attempting supervised nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) in the clinic is advised. The aims...... II questions. The 50 MCQs showed mean (SD) intergroup differences (p = 0.001) between novices = 28.6 (4.82), intermediates = 36.8 (5.43) and experienced = 41.8 (4.65) and provided a pass score of 35.2. The course with pre-course test had significant effect on the knowledge of nurses (18% increase...

  12. Influence of caffeine administered at 45 °C on bone tissue development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tomaszewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction and objective[/b]. Caffeine is one of the world’s most commonly ingested alkaloids which easily permeates the placenta. The teratogenic and embryotoxic influence of large doses of caffeine has been established in many experimental studies on animals. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of caffeine, administered at 45 °C, on the development of the bone tissue of rats, with particular reference to elemental bone composition using an X-ray microprobe. [b]materials and methods[/b]. The research was conducted on white rats of the Wistar strain. The fertilized females were divided into two groups: an Experimental Group (Group E and a Control Group (Group C. The females in Group E were given caffeine orally (at 45 °C in 30 mg/day doses from the 8 [sup]th [/sup] to the 21 [sup]st[/sup] day of pregnancy. The females in Group C were given water at the same temperature. The fetuses were used to assess the growth and mineralization of the skeleton. A qualitative analysis of the morphology and mineralization of bones was conducted using the alcian-alizarin method. For calcium and potassium analysis, an X-ray microprobe was used. [b]results.[/b] By staining the skeleton using the alcian-alizarin method, changes in 52 of Group E fetuses were observed. The frequency of the development variants in the Group E rats was statistically higher, compared with Group C. [b]conclusions[/b]. Receiving caffeine at a higher temperature may result in different pharmacodynamics and significantly change tolerance to it. In Group E, a significant decrease in the calcium level, as well as an increase in the potassium level, was observed. The X-ray microprobe can be a perfect complement to the methods which enable determination of the mineralization of osseous tissue.

  13. Radiosensitizing activity and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose administered KU-2285 in peripheral nerve tissue in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a clinical trial in which a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer was administered repeatedly, the dose-limiting toxicity was found to be peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, the in vivo radiosensitizing activity of KU-2285 in combination with radiation dose fractionation, and the pharmacokinetics of cumulative dosing of KU-2285 in the peripheral nerves were examined. The ability of three nitroimidazoles, misonidazole (MISO), etanidazole (SR-2508) and KU-2285, to sensitize SCCVII tumors to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-200 mg/kg. Single radiation doses or two different fractionation schedules (6 Gy/fractions x three fractions/48 h or 5 Gy/fractions x five fractions/48 h) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using an in vivo/in vitro colony assay. The pharmacokinetics in the sciatic nerves were undertaken, when KU-2285 or etanidazole were injected at a dose of 200 mg/kg intravenously one, two, three, or four times at 2-h intervals. At less than 100 mg/kg, KU-2285 sensitized SCCVII tumors more than MISO and SR-2508 by fractionated irradiation. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics in the peripheral nerves showed that the apparent biological half-life of SR-2508 increased with the increases in the number of administrations, whereas that of KU-2285 became shorter. Since most clinical radiotherapy is given in small multiple fractions, KU-2285 appears to be a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer that could be useful in such regimens, and that poses no risk of chronic peripheral neurotoxicity. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Gender and estrous cycle influences on behavioral and neurochemical alterations in adult rats neonatally administered ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Célia Moreira Borella, Vládia; Seeman, Mary V; Carneiro Cordeiro, Rafaela; Vieira dos Santos, Júnia; Romário Matos de Souza, Marcos; Nunes de Sousa Fernandes, Ethel; Santos Monte, Aline; Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Silvânia; Quinn, John P; de Lucena, David F; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade in rodents triggers schizophrenia (SCZ)-like alterations during adult life. SCZ is influenced by gender in age of onset, premorbid functioning, and course. Estrogen, the hormone potentially driving the gender differences in SCZ, is known to present neuroprotective effects such as regulate oxidative pathways and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, the aim of this study was to verify if differences in gender and/or estrous cycle phase during adulthood would influence the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations in animals neonatally administered ketamine. The results showed that ketamine-treated male (KT-male) and female-in-diestrus (KTF-diestrus, the low estrogen phase) presented significant deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex and spatial working memory, two behavioral SCZ endophenotypes. On the contrary, female ketamine-treated rats during proestrus (KTF-proestrus, the high estradiol phase) had no behavioral alterations. This correlated with an oxidative imbalance in the hippocampus (HC) of both male and KTF-diestrus female rats, that is, decreased levels of GSH and increased levels of lipid peroxidation and nitrite. Similarly, BDNF was decreased in the KTF-diestrus rats while no alterations were observed in KTF-proestrus and male animals. The changes in the HC were in contrast to those in the prefrontal cortex in which only increased levels of nitrite in all groups studied were observed. Thus, there is a gender difference in the adult rat HC in response to ketamine neonatal administration, which is based on the estrous cycle. This is discussed in relation to neuropsychiatric conditions and in particular SCZ. PMID:26215537

  15. Enhanced anxiety in the male offspring of sires that self-administered cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Vassoler, Fair M; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher; Wimmer, Mathieu E

    2016-07-01

    We previously showed that paternal cocaine exposure reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in male offspring. Here, we sought to determine whether paternal cocaine experience could also influence anxiety levels in offspring. Male rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (controls received saline passively) for 60 days and then were bred with naïve females. Measures of anxiety and cocaine-induced anxiogenic effects were assessed in the adult offspring. Cocaine-sired male offspring exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviors, as measured using the novelty-induced hypophagia and defensive burying tasks, relative to saline-sired males. In contrast, sire cocaine experience had no effect on anxiety-like behaviors in female offspring. When challenged with an anxiogenic (but not anorectic) dose of cocaine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiety-like behavior was enhanced in all animals to an equal degree regardless of sire drug experience. Since anxiety and depression are often co-morbid, we also assessed measures of depressive-like behavior. Sire cocaine experience had no effect on depression-like behaviors, as measured by the forced swim task, among male offspring. In a separate group of naïve littermates, select neuronal correlates of anxiety were measured. Male offspring of cocaine-experienced sires showed increased mRNA and protein expression of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 in the hippocampus. Together, these results indicate that cocaine-experienced sires produce male progeny that have increased baseline anxiety, which is unaltered by subsequent cocaine exposure. PMID:25923597

  16. Market surveillance panel monitoring report on the IMO-administered electricity markets : Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity market in Ontario was opened on May 1, 2002. This document provides the executive summary for the first monitoring report prepared by the Market Surveillance Panel covering the period May to August 2002. In the introductory chapter of the main report, explanations are provided on why competition, when effective, benefits consumers, as well as touching on the conditions for the design of an effective competitive electricity market with special emphasis on the electricity market in Ontario and its operations. For the period under review, the report presents a description and analysis of the activities and operations of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO)-administered markets (focus on energy markets). Rising costs for hydroelectric power and very high temperatures combined in July and August resulting in record levels of demand. It became apparent that the province relies on imports to satisfy demand. The figures reveal that reliability in July and August depended on imports 21 per cent of the time. A serious shortage of generating capacity exists in Ontario and steps to rectify the situation should be initiated to ensure reliability of electricity supply for next summer. Prospective entrants in the electricity market in Ontario may not be receiving clear, credible and consistent signals. Effective use of existing or potential transmission capacity may not always be made by the system. The lowering of consumption by consumers is difficult since consumers are not properly equipped, resulting in their lack of power to discipline price increases from suppliers. The future evolution of the market must be planned and measures implemented to enhance the effectiveness of competition. The incentives effects for some aspects of the market design do not completely satisfy the Panel

  17. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Intranasal Insulin Spray (Nasulin™) Administered to Healthy Male Volunteers:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Andrew C.; Dowling, Muiris; Cussen, Kathleen; O'Brien, Jackie; Stote, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    Background The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a Bentley Pharmaceuticals proprietary intranasal (IN) insulin formulation (Nasulin™) were studied in healthy volunteers. Methods Thirteen fasting healthy male volunteers received five doses of medication (one dose of 4 international units [IU] subcutaneous (SC) regular insulin and four doses of 25 IU IN insulin) at least 48 h apart. Serum insulin, serum C-peptide, and plasma glucose were measured in the 4 h after dosing. Profiles were compared for IN insulin spray following administration into the dominant nostril (more open at time of dosing) and into the nondominant nostril (less open at time of dosing). Results The formulation was generally well tolerated. A rise in serum insulin levels accompanied by a decrease in plasma glucose was seen following all doses. For IN doses, peak insulin levels were generally attained in 10–20 min and remained elevated for approximately 40–50 min; the resultant effect on glucose peaked at 40 min and waned approximately 2 h postdosing. As reported in other studies, the interindividual response to insulin was variable. The comparative absorption of IN insulin relative to SC insulin was 12.0% (dominant nostril) or 15.4% (nondominant nostril) over 2 h. This increased somewhat if sneezers and volunteers with moderately blocked nostrils were removed from the analysis. Conclusions This IN formulation was generally well tolerated and relatively well absorbed. While both insulin data (maximal plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration time curve) and glucose data (% fall) support a trend toward better absorption from the nondominant nostril, this did not reach statistical significance. Nasulin can be administered without reference to the nasal cycle. PMID:19885293

  18. Safety of Curcuma aromatica oil gelatin microspheres administered via hepatic artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Gui Deng; Zhi-Feng Wu; Wei-Ying Li; Zhi-Gang Yang; Gang Chang; Fan-Zhe Meng; Li-Li Mo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Curcuma aromatica oilgelatin microspheres (CAO-GMS) infused via hepatic artery against primary liver cancer.METHODS: The safety of CAO-GMS was evaluated in view of its acute toxicity in rats, long-term toxicity in Beagle dogs and general pharmacology in rats and mongrel dogs. RESULTS: The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CAO-GMS infusedvia the hepatic artery was 17.19 mg/kg, and the serum biochemical indices of dying rats after the administration changed markedly while those of survived rats did not. Subsequent pathological examination of the tissues from the dead rats indicated improper embolism. Similar edema and small necrotic foci in the hepatic Iobule were found in the hepatic tissue of rats receiving 10 and 5 mg/kg CAO GMS and GMS 60 d after the last administration, while not in the rats of the blank control group, indicating that microspheres infused via the hepatic artery may induce irreversible liver damage dose-dependently. General pharmacological study showed that the activities (postureand gait), respiration frequency, blood pressure or heart rate of the dogs were not affected by CAO-GMS, nor were salivation, tremor or pupil changes of the rats observed or their balancing ability compromised, suggesting CAO-GMSinfused via the hepatic artery did not significantly affect the nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. CONCLUSION: CAO-GMS embolization administered via the hepatic artery is safe but undesired embolization induced by vascular variation should be given due attention in its clinical application. Individualized embolization dosage and super-selective catheterization technique are recommended to avoid undesired embolism and reduce complications.

  19. Human pharmacokinetics and toxicity of high-dose metronidazole administered orally and intravenously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is part of a clinical program to assess the use of nitroimidazoles as radiosensitizers of hypoxic tumor cells. A total of 37 patients with malignant tumors have been entered into the study to receive oral high-dose metronidazole in conjunction with radiation. Twenty-eight patients with malignant brain tumors received 6 gm/m2 three times a week for 3 weeks (a mean total dose of 5.3 gm/m2). Maximum mean plasma drug concentration of 1 mM was obtained at 4 hours after drug ingestion with a mean half-life of 13 hours. Tissue and cerebrospinal fluid levels of 80% to 90% of the plasma levels were obtained at 4 to 6 hours. A linear relationship between increased drug dose and increased plasma concentration was observed at doses of 2.5 gm/m2 up to 6 gm/m2. Acute gastrointestinal and central nervous system toxicity was the dose-limiting factor (50% and 25%, respectively, at total doses of 5.3 gm/m2). Pharmacokinetic studies of intravenous metronidazole were performed in eight consenting patients. Single doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 gm were administered intravenously by zero-order infusion pump. Seven of the eight patients received a second identical dose orally 1 week later and the results were compared. Open two-compartment kinetic characteristics of metronidazole were computed from simultaneous plasma infusion and urine excretion rate equations, by use of a nonlinear least-squares regression analysis program (NONLIN). The mean (+/- SD) for alpha half-life was 1.2 +/- 1.3 hours, and that for the beta half-life was 9.8 +/- 5.9 hours. The absolute oral bioavailability was estimated to approximate 100%

  20. Long-lived effects of administering β-glucans: Indications for trained immunity in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jules; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2016-11-01

    Over the past decades, it has become evident that immune-modulation of fish with β-glucans, using injection, dietary or even immersion routes of administration, has stimulating but presumed short-lived effects on both intestinal and systemic immunity and can increase protection against a subsequent pathogenic challenge. Although the exact effects can be variable depending on, among others, fish species and administration route, the immune-stimulating effects of β-glucans on the immune system of fish appear to be universal. This review provides a condensed update of the most recent literature describing the effects of β-glucans on the teleost fish immune system. We shortly discuss possible mechanisms influencing immune-stimulation by β-glucans, including microbial composition of the gut, receptor recognition and downstream signalling. Of interest, in mammalian monocytes, β-glucans are potent inducers of trained immunity. First, we screened the literature for indications of this phenomenon in fish. Criteria that we applied include indications for at least one out of three features considered characteristic of trained immunity; (i) providing protection against a secondary infection in a T- and B-lymphocyte independent manner, (ii) conferring increased resistance upon re-infection and, (iii) relying on key roles for innate immune cell types such as natural killer cells and macrophages. We conclude that several indications exist that support the notion that the innate immune system of teleost fish can be trained. Second, we screened the literature for indications of long-lived effects on innate immunity of fish after administering β-glucans, a criterion which could help to identify key roles for macrophages on resistance to infection. We discuss whether β-glucans, as well-known immune-stimulants, are able to train the immune system of fish and argue in favour of further studies designed to specifically investigate this phenomenon in fish. PMID:26945622

  1. Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and propofol combination administered as ketofol via continuous infusion in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonca, A; Ravasio, G; Gallo, M; Montesissa, C; Carli, S; Villa, R; Cagnardi, P

    2012-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of the extemporaneous combination of low doses of ketamine and propofol, known as 'ketofol', frequently used for emergency procedures in humans to achieve safe sedation and analgesia was studied in cats. The study was performed to assess propofol, ketamine and norketamine kinetics in six female cats that received ketamine and propofol (1:1 ratio) as a loading dose (2 mg/kg each, IV) followed by a continuous infusion (10 mg/kg/h each, IV, 25 min of length). Blood samples were collected during the infusion period and up to 24 h afterwards. Drug quantification was achieved by HPLC analysis using UV-visible detection for ketamine and fluorimetric detection for propofol. The pharmacokinetic parameters were deduced by a two-compartment bolus plus infusion model for propofol and ketamine and a monocompartmental model for norketamine. Additional data were derived by a noncompartmental analysis. Propofol and ketamine were quantifiable in most animals until 24 and 8 h after the end of infusion, respectively. Propofol showed a long elimination half-life (t(1/2λ2) 7.55 ± 9.86 h), whereas ketamine was characterized by shorter half-life (t(1/2λ2) 4 ± 3.4 h) owing to its rapid biotransformation into norketamine. The clinical significance of propofol's long elimination half-life and low clearance is negligible when the drug is administered as short-term and low-dosage infusion. The concurrent administration of ketamine and propofol in cats did not produce adverse effects although it was not possible to exclude interference in the metabolism. PMID:22283551

  2. Peripherally administered oxytocin modulates latent inhibition in a manner consistent with antipsychotic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifel, D.; Shilling, P. D.; Hillman, J.; Maisel, M.; Winfield, J.; Melendez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) has produced antipsychotic drug (APD)-like effects in animal tests that are predictive of APD efficacy. However, these effects have mainly been demonstrated using animal models of schizophrenia-like deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. Another schizophrenia-relevant abnormality that is the basis of a predictive animal test for APD efficacy is deficient latent inhibition (LI). LI is the normal suppression of a classically conditioned response when the subject is pre-exposed to the conditioned stimulus (CS) before it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Conditioned taste aversion (CTA), the normal avoidance of ingesting a food or liquid by animals when its taste is associated with an aversive experience, was used to test whether OT facilitates LI consistent with APDs. Methods Brown Norway rats, known to naturally display attenuated LI, were aversively conditioned on two consecutive exposures to flavored drinking water (0.1% saccharin) by pairing it with malaise-inducing lithium chloride injections. Concurrent with conditioning, rats received subcutaneous OT (0.02, 0.1, 0.5 mg/kg) or saline. Some rats were pre-exposed to the flavored water prior to its aversive conditioning (pre-exposed) while others were not (non pre-exposed). Two days after aversive conditioning the amount of flavored water consumed during a 20-minute session was recorded. Results As expected, LI, defined as greater consumption by pre-exposed vs. non pre-exposed rats was only weakly exhibited in Brown Norway rats and OT enhanced LI by reducing CTA in pre-exposed rats in a dose-dependent manner, with the 0.02 mg/kg dose producing the strongest effect. Conclusions The facilitation of LI by OT is consistent with the effects produced by APDs and provides further support for the notion that OT has therapeutic potential for schizophrenia. PMID:25447298

  3. Effect of lead on cholinergic contractile function in the forestomach, ileum and colon of the male Wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryden, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms, including colic, are signs of lead poisoning in man, but the mechanism of these effects has not been elucidated. In order to understand the effects of lead on acetylcholine (ACh)-mediated responses, studies were undertaken to determine the isometric contractile response to methacholine, KCl and electric field stimulation in rat forestomach, ileum and colon under conditions of in vitro and in vivo treatment with lead acetate. Rats were dosed with 4% lead acetate in their diet, NIH-07, for 7 weeks, which resulted in renal and hematologic toxicity and blood lead levels of 180-389 ug/dl (1.2 x 10/sup -5/ M). Tissues from in vivo treated rats were exposed to 1.2 x 10/sup -5/ M lead acetate during in vitro contractile studies. E/sub max/ or ED/sub 50/ methacholine was not affected by 1.2 x 10/sup -5/ M lead acetate, administered in vitro to control tissue. In the forestomach, a 10-fold higher concentration of lead (16 x 10/sup -5/ M), administered in vitro, increased baseline tension and inhibition response to methacholine. However, in vivo lead treatment potentiated response to methacholine in the forestomach and increased baseline tension in the presence of physostigmine. The EFS response, attributable to ACh release, was not affected in the forestomach or ileum by 1.2 x 10/sup -5/ M in vitro lead treatment. These data indicate that lead, administered in vivo in concentrations which cause renal and hematologic toxicity, does not impair cholinergic contractile response in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Instead, the response to methacholine may be potentiated in the forestomach. Possible mechanisms of lead-induced potentiation of baseline or evoked tension include increased levels of non-elicited ACh release, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase or sensitization of muscarinic receptors.

  4. The nondermatophyte molds: Emerging as leading cause of onychomycosis in south-east Rajasthan

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Raghavendra; Devendra Yadav; Akshay Kumar; Mukul Sharma; Jitendra Bhuria; Anita E Chand

    2015-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal disease of the nail apparatus caused by both dermatophytic and nondermatophytic strains. Treatment involves long duration antifungal therapy. However, long treatment duration without identifying the causative species may lead to resistance. Confirmation of diagnosis and speciation by culture before administering antifungal therapy is ideal. Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological aspects of onychomycosis in Hadoti region (south-east Rajasthan) and...

  5. ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads following administration of class Ic antiarrhythmic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, M.; Nakazato, Y.; Yamashita, H.; Sekita, G; Kawano, Y.; Mineda, Y; Nakazato, K.; Tokano, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Nakata, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Electrocardiographic changes were evaluated retrospectively in five patients without previous episodes of syncope or ventricular fibrillation who developed abnormal ST segment elevation mimicking the Brugada syndrome in leads V1-V3 after the administration of class Ic antiarrhythmic drugs. Pilsicainide (four patients) or flecainide (one patient) were administered orally for the treatment of symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or premature atrial contractions. The QRS duration, QTc, and...

  6. Leading Hadron Production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buniatyan Armen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep → e' pX, ep → e'nX, ep → e'γX as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of dijets (ep → ejjXn. The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated.

  7. ADMINISTERING EXAMINATIONS FOR QUALITY CONTROL IN DISTANCE EDUCATION: The National Open University of Nigeria Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    IBARA, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Examination is an important tool for evaluating students learning outcome and require proper planning to meet high standards. This paper therefore examines the processes leading to administration of face-to-face examination in distance education with focus on the National Open University of Nigeria. It highlighted some procedures such as test development, test administration and post test administration/award procedures. It also identified some quality control practices adopted in a...

  8. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages. PMID:2211174

  9. Lead and cadmium in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amounts of lead and cadmium produced and processed in these days are considerable. As a result, our environment is increasingly polluted by heavy metals and industrial installations, motor vehicles or incinerating plants appear to be among the main culprits here. Air and water are the media permitting the entry of heavy metals into our natural environment where they accumulate in the soil and then gradually migrate into the plants. Their further transport in the food constitutes the third step in the environmental spread of heavy metals. The consumption of muscle and organ meats, of vegetables, fruits, canned food and drinking water is unavoidably associated with some ingestion of lead and cadmium. The degree to which they are taken up and stored in different tissues is determined by absorption properties and the nutritional state of the organism. Cadmium tends to accumulate in the kidneys, lead is mainly stored in the bones. A continuously increasing uptake finally results in health injuries that range from unspecific complaints to damaged kidneys or bones and disorders of liver function. Children and elderly people are at a particular risk here. The level of food contamination is such that screening for heavy metals must be rigorously carried out once appropriate legal thresholds have been set, which ought to be based on proven detrimental effects of lead and cadmium on our health and also take account of infants and children or any other risk groups, where particular caution must be exercised. It should be pointed out that such thresholds have so far not been determined. (orig./MG)

  10. Leading sustainability in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Hallenberg, K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary findings from a small-scale research project on the experiences and changing identities of ‘ESD leaders’ in HE context. The key aims is to explore three interconnected ‘stories’ of 1) participants’ personal relationship with sustainability, 2) their experience of leading a specific sustainability focussed project, and 3) their conceptualisation of sustainability leadership and identity as an ESD leader. This is done via five narrative interviews with academics i...

  11. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  12. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I;

    1996-01-01

    A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test-retest re...

  13. Amelioration of radiation esophagitis by orally administered p53/Mdm2/Mdm4 inhibitor (BEB55) or GS-nitroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Hyun; Bernard, Mark E.; Epperly, Michael W.; Shen, Hongmei; Amoscato, Andrew; Dixon, Tracy M.; Doemling, Alexander S.; Li, Song; Gao, Xiang; Wipf, Peter; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Xichen; Kagan, Valerian E.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Esophagitis is a significant toxicity of radiation therapy for lung cancer. In this study, reduction of irradiation esophagitis in mice, by orally administered p53/Mdm2/Mdm4 inhibitor, BEB55, or the GS-nitroxide, JP4-039, was evaluated. Materials and Methods: BEB55 or JP4-039 in F15

  14. Rationale and Specifications for a Prototype, Group-Administered End-of-Unit Assessment Instrument for the SWRL Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahito; Besel, Ronald

    This document describes the purposes, rationale, and specifications of a prototype group-administered criterion exercise to be used with blocks 1-8 of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Reading Program. A description of the sampling domains, sampling procedures, and the methods employed in the construction of test items is presented. Also…

  15. 7 CFR 1.29 - Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.29 Section 1.29 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Departmental Proceedings § 1.29 Subpoenas relating to...

  16. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  17. Silver nanoparticles administered to chicken affect VEGFA and FGF2 gene expression in breast muscle and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotowy, Anna Malgorzata; Sawosz, Ewa; Pineda, Lane Manalili;

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of colloidal silver (AgNano) can influence gene expression. Concerning trials of AgNano application in poultry as antimicrobial and metabolic agents, it is useful to reveal whether they affect the expression of genes crucial for bird development. AgNano were administered to broiler...

  18. An Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Manual for Teaching Individuals How to Administer the Revised ABLA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, Ashley L.; Awadalla, Nardeen; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.; Kaminski, Lauren; Miljkovic, Morena

    2015-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tool that is used to assess the learning ability of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and children with autism. The ABLA was recently revised and is now referred to as the ABLA-Revised (ABLA-R). A self-instructional manual was prepared to teach individuals how to administer the…

  19. 40 CFR 147.2400 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. 147.2400 Section 147.2400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... between the Washington Department of Ecology and Department of Social and Health Services, Related to...

  20. Pharmacokinetics of nasally administered tobramycin, colistin sulphomethate sodium and a combination of tobramycin and colistin sulphomethate sodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Velzen, A.J.; Berkhout, M.C.; Touw, D.J.; De Kok, B.M.; Heijerman, H.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The paranasal sinuses can constitute a niche for bacteria which can migrate to the lungs. Nasal administration of antibiotics may be effective, but safety of this treatment has to be established first. Objectives: Investigation of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of nasally administered tobramycin (T), col

  1. Protocol compliance of administering parenteral medication in Dutch hospitals: an evaluation and cost-estimation of the implementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilp, J.; Boot, S.; Blok, C. de; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Preventable adverse drug events (ADEs) are closely related to administration processes of parenteral medication. The Dutch Patient Safety Program provided a protocol for administering parenteral medication to reduce the amount of ADEs. The execution of the protocol was evaluated and a co

  2. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., are also part of the approved State-administered UIC program: (1) Water Quality Act, New Mexico Statutes Annotated sections 74-6-1 through 74-6-13 (1978 and Supp. 1982); (2) Geothermal Resources Conservation Act, New Mexico Statutes Annotated sections 71-5-1 through 71-5-24 (1978 and Supp. 1982);...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and 281. (ii) Vernon's Texas Codes Annotated, Water Code, Chapters 5, 7, 26, and 32, Health and Safety... the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission a predecessor to the Texas Commission on... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND...

  4. Satisfaction with Therapist-Delivered vs. Self-Administered Online Cognitive Behavioural Treatments for Depression Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Participants with symptoms of depression received either eight sessions of therapist-delivered email cognitive behaviour therapy (eCBT; n = 37), or eight sessions of computerised CBT self-administered treatment (cCBT; n = 43). At post-treatment participants completed a questionnaire to determine what they found satisfying about their online…

  5. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  6. Making Instruction and Assessment Responsive to Diverse Students' Progress: Group-Administered Dynamic Assessment in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) x 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control…

  7. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 CFR chapter I. Such ceremonies shall be conducted at regular intervals as frequently as necessary... applicant's name shall be removed from the list of eligible persons as provided in § 335.5 of 8 CFR chapter... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration...

  8. Endoscopy nurse-administered propofol sedation performance. Development of an assessment tool and a reliability testing model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Konge, Lars; Møller, Ann;

    2014-01-01

    training and for future certification. The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool for measuring competency in propofol sedation and to explore the reliability and validity of the tool. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The nurse-administered propofol assessment tool (NAPSAT) was developed in a Delphi...

  9. Measuring Sensory Reactivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Application and Simplification of a Clinician-Administered Sensory Observation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Bellesheim, Katherine; Siper, Paige M.; Wang, A. Ting; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Grodberg, David; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new DSM-5 criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current study aims to validate a clinician-administered sensory observation in ASD, the Sensory Processing Scale Assessment (SPS). The SPS and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP) parent-report were used to measure sensory reactivity in children with ASD (n = 35) and…

  10. Response of shortgrass Plains vegetation to chronic and seasonally administered gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, L. Jr.

    1971-08-01

    In order to determine the effect of radiation on the structure of native shortgrass plains vegetation, an 8750 Ci 137Cs source was installed on the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado; The experimental area was divided into 6 treatment sectors, a control, 2 sectors for chronic exposure (irradiation initiated April 1969 and continuing as of August 1971), and one each for spring, summer and late fall seasonal semi-acute (30 day), exposures which were administered during April, July and December, 1969, respectively. Community structure was measured by coefficient of community and diversity index. Yield was determined by clipping plots in September 1970 and visual estimates in September 1969 and 1970 for the grass-sedge component of the vegetation. Individual species sensitivity was determined by density data recorded in April, June and September of 1969 and 1970 and by a phenological index recorded at weekly intervals during the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons. The response of the vegetation was similar whether determined by coefficient of community or diversity with diversity being a more sensitive measure of effects. In the chronically exposed sectors, the exposure rate which resulted in a 50 per cent reduction in these 2 parameters (CC50 or D50) was still decreasing the second growing season and was approximately 18 R/hr for the CC50 as of June 1970 and 10 R/hr for the D50 as of September 1970. For the seasonally exposed sectors, the late fall period (December, 1969) was the most sensitive, summer (July, 1969) the least sensitive and spring (April, 1969) intermediate with CC50 and D50 values of 195 and 90, 240 and 222, and 120 and 74 R/hr for the spring, summer and late fall exposed sectors, respectively. Yield and density data indicated a rapid revegetation of the spring and summer exposed sectors during 1970 as a result of an influx of invader species such as Salsola kali tenuifolia, Chenopodium leptophyllum and Lepidium densiflorum and the

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Budesonide Administered with Surfactant in Premature Lambs: Implications for Neonatal Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jessica K; Stockmann, Chris; Dahl, Mar Janna; Albertine, Kurt H; Egan, Edmund; Lin, Zhenjian; Reilly, Christopher A; Ballard, Philip L; Ballard, Roberta A; Ward, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of premature human infants, which may persist through adulthood. Airway inflammation has been firmly established in the pathogenesis of BPD. Previous studies to reduce airway inflammation with high-dose dexamethasone demonstrated adverse neurological outcomes, despite lower incidences of BPD. Instillation of budesonide and surfactant can facilitate early extubation and reduce the incidence of BPD and death among very low birth weight infants. However, the pharmacokinetics of budesonide and its distribution into the lung and brain are unknown. Therefore, 5 premature lambs were administered 0.25 mg/kg budesonide, with surfactant as the vehicle. Plasma and tissue samples were taken from the lambs for measurement of budesonide, 16α- hydroxy prednisolone, and budesonide palmitate using LC/MS/MS. Peak plasma budesonide concentrations were inversely correlated with the oxygenation index (correlation coefficient of -0.75). plasma budesonide concentrations were extremely low (~10% of expected) for two lambs that had high oxygenation indices and were excluded from further analyses. For the remaining 5 premature lambs, a non-compartmental analysis demonstrated an AUCinf of 148.77 ± 28.16 h*μg/L, half-life of 4.76 ± 1.79 h, and Cmax of 46.17 ± 17.71 µg/L. Using population pharmacokinetic methods, a onecompartment model with exponential residual error and first-order absorption adequately described the data. The apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution of budesonide were estimated at 6.29 L/h (1.99 L/h/kg) and 29.1 L (9.2 L/kg), respectively. Budesonide and budesonide palmitate, but not 16α-hydroxy prednisolone, were detected in lung tissue. In this study, budesonide and its metabolites were not detected in the brain, which suggests that intratracheal instillation suggests that after local pulmonary deposition, there is no evidence of budesonide accumulation in the central nervous system. Overall

  12. Effects of chelating agent CBMIDA on the toxicity of depleted uranium administered subcutaneously in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the acute toxicity of depleted uranium (DU) after subcutaneous injection as a simulated wounds model, and the effects of the chelating agent catechol-3,6-bis(methyleiminodiacetic acid) (CBMIDA), by local treatment in rats. First, to examine the initial behavior and toxicity of uranium of different chemical forms, male Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with 4 and 16 mg/kg DU (pH 1) in a solution of pH 1 and 7, respectively, and were killed 1, 3, 6 and 24 hours later. After the injection of DU(pH1), about 60 % of the uranium was retained for first 1-3 hours at the injected sites, and then decreased to 16% at 24 hours in the 4 mg/kg DU group; however, the uranium did not change significantly in the 16 mg/kg DU group. Urinary excretion rates of uranium increased in a time-independent manner after the injection. Depositions of uranium in the liver, kidneys and femur were found at 1 hour after DU injection, with significant increases in serum and urinary biochemical markers indicating acute and severe damage. The results of the DU (pH 7) injection were useful for estimating the toxicity of uranium by the chemical changes in the body. Second, CBMIDA (480mg/kg) was infused into the DU-injected site at 0, 10, 30, 60 min and 24 hours after the subcutaneous injection of 4 mg/kg DU (pH 1 and 7). When CBMIDA was administered within 120 min after DU (pH 1) injection, the uranium at the injected sites decreased to 4-17% of that in the no-treatment DU (pH 1) group, and was excreted effectively in the urine and feces, with decreased levels in the kidneys and femur. The results indicated that the subcutaneously injected uranium acutely induced severe damage in the DU-injected sites and organs after DU intake, relating to chemical forms of uranium by pH and that local treatment of CBMIDA was effective in decreasing the acute toxicity of uranium if carried out as early as possible (at least within 2 hours) after DU administration. (author)

  13. Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnert MB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo B Dohnert1,2, Mirelli Venâncio1, Jonathann C Possato1, Rodrigo C Zeferino1, Luciana H Dohnert2, Alexandra I Zugno1, Cláudio T De Souza1, Marcos MS Paula1, Thais F Luciano11Postgraduation Program in Health Sciences, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Santa Catarina, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilIntroduction: Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins. Purpose: This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis.Methods: Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15: (1 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2 iontophoresis + GNP; and (3 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15. Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm² electrodes. Results: The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha, which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P < 0.05. A significant decrease was observed in expression of cytokines interleukin 1 beta in the three treatment groups, in comparison with untreated challenged tendons, although, in the group treated with diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239 (P < 0

  14. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► There is rising concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. ► Few studies have investigated the effect of nanomaterials on the reproductive system. ► Here, we evaluated the intra-testicular distribution of nanosilica particles. ► We showed that nanosilica particles can penetrate the blood-testis barrier. ► These data provide basic information on ways to create safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24 h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin–eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the nuclear membranes of spermatocytes without producing apparent testicular injury.

  15. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Yuki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Satoh, Hiroyoshi; Nojiri, Nao [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nabeshi, Hiromi [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ytsutsumi@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is rising concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies have investigated the effect of nanomaterials on the reproductive system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Here, we evaluated the intra-testicular distribution of nanosilica particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that nanosilica particles can penetrate the blood-testis barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide basic information on ways to create safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24 h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the

  16. Trace amounts of residual lead content in fuels without lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaegler, S.H.

    1984-12-01

    The standard method of performance for unleaded gasolines, DIN 51 607, specifies as upper limit a concentration of max. 0.01 g/l Pb, the determination of which is already possible today by atomic absorption spectrometry with a high precision (reproducibility 2 mg/l Pb). Pending the new issue of the DIN 51 769, part 8, based on the first results of the new series of round robin tests, the precision data for the range of mass concentration 7 to 25 mg/l Pb must be handled as follows: repeatability r=2 mg/l Pb, reproducibility R=3 mg/l Pb. By other standardized methods (e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, or the 'Dithizon' method) either a poorer reproducibility of the results is obtained due to insufficient detection limits, i.e. with X-ray spectrometers of the first generation, or the determination is disturbed by gasoline components (olefins) as encountered by the 'Dithizon' method. The relatively good results of the first round robin test of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 19, WG 16), and also of the FAM-sub-working groups for round robin tests UA 642.1 and UA 643.1 (FAM = Fachausschuss Mineraloel- und Brennstoffnormung) would possibly enable the publishing of the paper of the first draft proposal for an European standard in this year, based on the DIN 51 769, part 8 (flame AAS). For a further reduction of the prescribed maximum lead concentration to 5 mg or 1 mg lead per liter gasoline this concentration range can be determined with a good repeatability by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method in the addition mode. However, for such a method the value for the reproducibility in the concentration range from 0.1 to <= 5 mg/l Pb should still be defined by further round robin tests. Nevertheless, it is also possible to determine by a modified DIN 51 769, part 8, with flame AAS the lead values in the gasolines for the concentration range of 1 mg/l Pb to <= 5 mg/l Pb with a good precision.

  17. Caloric Restriction Prevents Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rat Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Mohammadi; Rana Ghaznavi; Rana Keyhanmanesh; Hamid Reza Sadeghipour; Roya Naderi; Hossein Mohammadi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of caloric restriction on liver of lead-administered rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: Ad libitum fed group (AL, free access to normal rat chow) and caloric restriction group (CR, fed 65% of AL animals' food intake). After 6 weeks, half of the animals of each group were injected lead acetate and the other half were injected saline. Liver tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiments. Gl...

  18. Learning to lead the liberated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-06-01

    The historical relationship between employer and employee has changed dramatically in the past few years. Incentives that were once available to motivate staff are no longer a part of the managers' reward "power." Employees recognize that their manager has little control over many things that impact them, and what they are looking for in the way of security and certainty is not being provided by managers. This fundamental shift in relationship has caused those in management to search from new methods to lead their employees. PMID:9214945

  19. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  20. The Self-Leading Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to a Ph.D. design research, conducted in a medium sized Danish bank. The research demonstrates a human-centred perspective and resulted in a radical new type of banking service represented in the MoneyWorkshop. The MoneyWorkshop helps customers uncover their dominant values...... and emotions and makes them increasingly aware of their preferred personal values related to money. Participation in this workshop made customers increasingly empowered and ‘self-leading’. People even changed their ‘money behaviour’ – now in accordance with their values. The paper explains the Money......-Leading Customer...

  1. Lead reactor strategy economical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • A first attempt to evaluate LFR power plant electricity production cost has been performed; • Electricity price is similar to Gen III + plants; • The estimation accuracy is probably low; • Possible costs reduction could arise from coolant characteristics that may improve safety and simplicity by design; • Accident perception, not acceptable by public opinion, may be changed with low potential energy system (non exploding coolant); • Sustainability improvement could open to a better Public acceptance, depending on us. • Problems may arise in coupling a high capital cost low fuel cost plant in a grid with large amount of intermittent sources with priority dispatch. • Lead fast reactors can compete

  2. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  3. Ameliorative potential of stem bromelain on lead-induced toxicity in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Wedad Refaiea; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the protective efficacy of stem bromelain against lead-induced toxicity in male Wistar rats. There were six experimental groups; Group I was negative control, Group II was administered only 20 mg/kg of stem bromelain. Group III and V were orally exposed to 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day of lead acetate, respectively. Group IV and Group VI were exposed to both low and high dose of lead acetate, respectively, and treated with 20 mg/kg stem bromelain. The experimental period was 21 days. The end points evaluated were, lead accumulation in kidney, liver and spleen, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, serum malonaldehyde (MDA) cholesterol and triglycerides levels. Co-administration of stem bromelain with lead markedly reduced the lead accumulation in the kidney and spleen. The treatment of stem bromelain also reduced the serum MDA levels in the group exposed to lower dose of lead and serum triglyceride level in the group exposed to higher dose of lead. The lead-induced modulated levels of serum ALT and AST were also alleviated by bromelain treatment. Our key findings suggest a chelating potential of stem bromelain for combating lead toxicity and oxidative stress. Bromelain represents a novel approach to the treatment of metal toxicity and metabolic disorders with a limited therapeutic window. PMID:26081271

  4. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale

    2011-01-01

    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  5. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  6. Finland's leading natural gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ownership structure of Finland's leading natural gas company, Gasum, changed fundamentally in 1999, and the company is now no longer a subsidiary of Fortum Corporation. 'Our new strong and broad ownership base will enable us to develop the natural gas business and pipeline network in Finland in response to the requirements of our Finnish customers', says Antero Jaennes, Gasum's Chairman and CEO, who stresses that Gasum is committed to remaining the leading developer of the Finnish natural gas market and the number-one gas supplier. Natural gas usage in Finland in 1999 totalled 3.9 billion m3 (38.7 TWh), unchanged from 1998. Natural gas accounted for 11% of Finland's total primary energy need, as it did in 1998. The proportion of natural gas used in district heating rose by 2% to 36%, and moved down 2% in power generation to 10%. Industry's use of natural gas fell 1% to 17%. 75% of natural gas was used in combined heat and power (CHP) generation in industry and district heating. In 2000, Gasum expects to sell 4 billion m3 of natural gas (40 TWh)

  7. Lead -- supply/demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Japan goes--so goes the world. That was the title of a recent lead article in The Economist that soberly discussed the potential of much more severe global economic problems occurring, if rapid and coordinated efforts were not made to stabilize the economic situation in Asia in general, and in Japan in particular. During the first 6 months of last year, commodity markets reacted violently to the spreading economic problems in Asia. More recent currency and financial problems in Russia have exacerbated an already unpleasant situation. One commodity after another--including oil, many of the agricultural commodities, and each of the base metals--have dropped sharply in price. Many are now trading at multiyear lows. Until there is an overall improvement in the outlook for these regions, sentiment will likely continue to be negative, and metals prices will remain under pressure. That being said, lead has maintained its value better than many other commodities during these difficult times, finding support in relatively strong fundamentals. The author takes a closer look at those supply and demand fundamentals, beginning with consumption

  8. Toxicity of colloidal silica nanoparticles administered orally for 90 days in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1,* Seung-Young Lee,3,* Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,4 Nak-won Seong,3 Heung-Sik Seo,3 Sung-Sup Shin,3 Seon-Ju Kim,3 Eun-Ho Meang,3 Myeong-Kyu Park,3 Min-Seok Kim,3 Cheol-Su Kim,5 Soo-Ki Kim,5 Sang Wook Son,2 Young Rok Seo,6 Boo Hyon Kang,7 Beom Seok Han,8 Seong Soo A An,9 Beom-Jun Lee,10 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, 3General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 5Department of Microbiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Gangwon, 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, 7Nonclinical Research Institute, Chemon Inc, Gyeonggi, 8Toxicological Research Center, Hoseo University, Chungnam, 9Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi, 10College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the potential toxicity and establish the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL and target organ(s of negatively charged colloidal silica particles of different sizes, ie, SiO2EN,20(- (20 nm or SiO2EN,100(- (100 nm, administered by gavage in Sprague-Dawley rats. After verification of the physicochemical properties of the SiO2 particles to be tested, a preliminary dose range-finding study and 90-day repeated dose study were conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline. Based on the results of the 14-day dose range-finding study, a high dose was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg, and middle and low doses were set at 1,000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the 90-day toxicity study, there were no animal deaths in relation to administration of SiO2 particles of

  9. Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C. In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45 was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO2 and diminishing the Fe/SiO2 ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system.

    Se realizaron dos estudios experimentales de solubilidad de metal en escorias a 1.473 K (1.200 °C. En el primero se estudió la solubilidad de plomo en el sistema PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” bajo una atmósfera reductora (PCO/PCO2 = 2,45. En la segunda parte, escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” fueron equilibradas con aleaciones Pb - 1,3 % Ag en atmósfera inerte. En ambos casos la relación CaO/SiO2 fue variada de 1.0 a 1.6 y la relación Fe/SiO2 fue de 1,1 y 1,7. La solubilidad de plomo en las escorias de ambas etapas experimentales disminuye con el incremento de la basicidad (CaO/SiO2 y la disminución de la relación Fe/SiO2. El óxido de plomo es el único compuesto que puede ser reducido bajo la atmósfera reductora y a la temperatura en el nivel de las toberas del horno alto, 1.473 K. La solubilidad de la plata en la escoria decrece con el aumento de las relaciones CaO/SiO2 y Fe/SiO2 en las escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3”.

  10. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Armeniakos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  11. Anti-cancer Lead Molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2014-04-17

    Derivatives of plumbagin can be selectively cytotoxic to breast cancer cells. Derivative `A` (Acetyl Plumbagin) has emerged as a lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer and has shown low hepatotoxicity as well as overall lower toxicity in nude mice model. The toxicity of derivative `A` was determined to be even lower than vehicle control (ALT and AST markers). The possible mechanism of action identified based on the microarray experiments and pathway mapping shows that derivative `A` could be acting by altering the cholesterol-related mechanisms. The low toxicity profile of derivative `A` highlights its possible role\\'as future anti-cancer drug and/or as an adjuvant drug to reduce the toxicity of highly toxic chemotherapeutic\\'drugs

  12. Scintillation properties of lead sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO4), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm3, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO4 crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45 degrees C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25 degrees C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at -145 degrees C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO4 (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs

  13. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/207Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/207Pb, and a significant negative correlation for 208Pb/206Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden

  14. Evaluation and management of lead exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Jang, Tae-Won; Chae, Hong-Jae; Choi, Won-Jun; Ha, Mi-Na; Ye, Byeong-Jin; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Jeon, Man-Joong; Kim, Se-Yeong; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2015-01-01

    Lead, which is widely used in industry, is a common element found in low concentrations in the Earth’s crust. Implementations to reduce environmental lead concentrations have resulted in a considerable reduction of lead levels in the environment (air) and a sustained reduction in the blood lead levels of the average citizen. However, people are still being exposed to lead through a variety of routes in everyday commodities. Lead causes health problems such as toxicity of the liver, kidneys, h...

  15. Certain aspects of lead in the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoell, W.; Hampp, R.

    1974-07-01

    Studies on the origin, distribution, and health effects of lead in the atmosphere are reviewed. Most of the lead present in the atmosphere originates from leaded gasoline, while the contribution by natural sources of lead and lead smelters is almost negligible. As emitted in the exhaust gases, most of the lead is in the form of its halogenides, 10 to 20 percent of which is in gaseous form, while the rest is aerosol. Once emitted, lead is present in the atmosphere for up to 30 days. Washout of the lead, especially by slow rain, and conversion of the halogenides into lead carbonate and oxides after a residence time of 18 hr in the atmosphere were observed. The distribution of lead in the year rings of trees can not be used as an indicator of the variations in the atmospheric lead concentration as relocation and migration were evidenced, while positive correlation between the lead content in leaves and the traffic density was established. The resorption of lead from the intestines was found to amount to 2.0 to 6.8 percent of the lead resorbed from the lungs. Anemia, asthenia, loss of weight, chronic renal lesion, and neurological changes due to lead were observed. Once retained in the bones, lead may be mobilized by changes in the calcium turnover. Lead interferes with the hemosynthesis, and lead acetate causes chromosomal aberrations in test animals.

  16. [Hypnosis and self-hypnosis administered and taught by nurses for relief of chronic pain: a controlled clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchser, E

    1999-02-01

    In this controlled clinical trial hypnosis and self-hypnosis were evaluated when used as an adjuvant treatment to instrumental and pharmacological management of chronic pain. The study took place in a hospital specialized in the treatment of outpatients suffering from chronic pain. Hypnosis and self-hypnosis were administered and taught by nurses who had been trained just recently for this very purpose. Under the conditions of the study it was not possible to measure an effect of hypnosis on pain despite some subjective feeling of usefulness. However, it should be taken into account that this form of adjuvant therapy was used for the first time in that hospital for the purpose of the study and, therefore, took place in an artificial setting. It could well be that the same therapy administered in the proper therapeutic environment of a specialized institution could show beneficial effects on pain. PMID:10077717

  17. Bronchodilation and bronchoprotection in asthmatic preschool children from formoterol administered by mechanically actuated dry-powder inhaler and spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the bronchodilatory and the bronchoprotective effect of the long-acting beta(2)-agonist formoterol administered as dry powder from a mechanically actuated dry-powder inhaler (DPI) using spacer in 12 asthmatic children 2 to 5 yr of age. Lung function was measured as the specific airway...... resistance (sRaw) in a whole body plethysmograph. Hyperventilation of cold, dry air was used as bronchial challenge, and the responsiveness was estimated as change in sRaw. The bronchoprotective effect of formoterol Turbohaler 9 microg was compared with salbutamol 200 microg and placebo at 15 min, 4 and 8 h...... postdose in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All treatments were administered from DPI (Turbohaler) actuated mechanically into a spacer. Formoterol and salbutamol caused similar and significant bronchodilation at the first measurement 3 min postdose. Formoterol offered a...

  18. Directly Observed versus Self-administered Antiretroviral Therapies: Preference of HIV-Positive Jailed Inmates in San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Saberi, Parya; Caswell, Nikolai H.; Jamison, Ross; Estes, Milton; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.

    2012-01-01

    Directly observed therapy (DOT) of antiretroviral (ARV) medications has beneficial effects on HIV treatment for incarcerated inmates but has been associated with limited continuation after release and inadvertent disclosure of HIV status. Guided self-administered therapy (g-SAT) may be a preferred method of ARV delivery and may encourage medication-taking behavior. We surveyed the preference of 102 HIV-positive jailed inmates at the San Francisco City and County Jails regarding receiving ARVs...

  19. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Zhang; Chwan-Li Shen; Kim Peck; Jean-Michel Brismée; Susan Doctolero; Di-Fan Lo; Yik Lim; Lixing Lao

    2012-01-01

    Background. Osteoarthritis (OA) is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 21) for 12 weeks. Feasibility...

  20. Development and Reliability of a Telephone-Administered Perceived Racism Scale (TPRS): A Tool for Epidemiological Use

    OpenAIRE

    Vines, Anissa I.; McNeilly, Maya Dominguez; Stevens, June; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Bohlig, Michael; Baird, Donna D.

    2001-01-01

    The conceptualization of perceived racism as a chronic stressor is relatively new to epidemiology. The Telephone-Administered Perceived Racism Scale (TPRS) captures the complexity of racism within five scales: Experience of Racism (by Blacks as a group and by the respondent), Emotional Responses, Behavioral Responses, Concern for Child(ren), and Past Experiences of Racism. The TPRS was developed for employed Black women. Exploratory factor analyses and tests of internal consistency were compl...

  1. Assessment of pain in patients with dementia. Development of a staff-administered behavioural pain assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this thesis is to develop a staff-administered behavioural pain assessment tool for older persons with dementia, to test the instrument with respect to reliability and validity, and to use it in the clinical setting of an entire nursing home (NH) population. Methods: In Paper I, the development of the Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia (MOBID) Pain Scale was described. In MOBID, the assessment of inferred pain intensity was based on the...

  2. Patient Impression and Satisfaction of a Self-administered, Automated Medical History Taking Device in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sanjay; Goldberg, Andrew D.; Menchine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated patient impressions and satisfaction of an innovative self-administered, hand-held touch-screen tablet to gather detailed medical information from emergency department (ED) patients in the waiting room prior to physician contact. Methods: Adult, medically stable patients presenting to the ED at Los Angeles County Hospital used the PatientTouche system to answer a series of questions about their current history of present illness and past medical/surgical hi...

  3. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Uma Pathak; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 ...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of concomitant cisplatin and paclitaxel administered by hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy to patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ansaloni, L.; Coccolini, F.; Morosi, L; Ballerini, A; Ceresoli, M; Grosso, G.; P. Bertoli; Busci, L M; Lotti, M.; Cambria, F; Pisano, M; Rossetti, D; Frigerio, L; D'Incalci, M; Zucchetti, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is advised as a treatment option for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with peritoneal carcinomatosis. This study was designed to define the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) administered together during HIPEC. Methods: Thirteen women with EOC underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC, with CDDP and PTX. Blood, peritoneal perfusate and tissue samples were harvested to determine drug exposure by high-perf...

  5. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    OpenAIRE

    Ndazo S Minka; Olusegun J Ayo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control ...

  6. Comparison of the efficacy of administering a combination of ezetimibe plus fenofibrate versus atorvastatin monotherapy in the treatment of dyslipidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lahey Karen A; Kumar Shoba; Day Andrew; LaHaye Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This trial compares the efficacy of administering a combination of ezetimibe plus fenofibrate as an alternative to statin monotherapy for the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this randomized, unblinded crossover study, 43 patients with documented hypercholesterolemia requiring pharmacotherapy were randomized to receive six weeks of either a combination of 10 mg of ezetimibe plus 160 mg of fenofibrate (combination) or 10 mg of atorvastatin monotherapy (atorvastatin). The prima...

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of the self-administered interview© for witnesses with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maras, K. L.; Mulcahy, S.; Memon, A; Picariello, F.; Bowler, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    The widely used evidence-based police interviewing technique, the Cognitive Interview, is not effective for witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined whether a modification of the Cognitive Interview that removes the social element, the Self-Administered Interview©, is more useful in facilitating recall by ASD witnesses. One of the main components of the Cognitive Interview is context reinstatement, where the witness follows verbal instructions from the intervi...

  8. Comparison of Two Brief Parent-Training Interventions for Child Distress During Parent-Administered Needle Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Slifer, Keith J.; DeMore, Melissa; Vona-Messersmith, Natalie; Pulbrook-Vetter, Valerie; Beck, Melissa; Dalhquist, Lynnda; Bellipanni, Kimberly; Johnson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial employed a 2-group (general child behavior management training vs. distraction for pain management training) design across repeated parent-administered needle procedures. Forty-seven children with a chronic illness requiring recurrent injections were observed at baseline and 2 intervention sessions. Videotaped observations of parent–child interactions were coded for child behavioral distress and parents’ use of behavior management strategies. Across groups, many...

  9. Lead uptake and lead loss in the fresh water field crab, Barytelphusa guerini, on exposure to organic and inorganic lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulasi, S.J.; Yasmeen, R.; Reddy, C.P.; Rao, J.V.R.

    1987-07-01

    Lead is a heavy metal which is widely used in paint industry, pigments, dyes, electrical components and electronics, plastic chemicals and in various other things. Since some of the lead salts are soluble in water, lead presents a potential threat to aquatic organisms. Studies dealing with invertebrates include those on mortality, growth and lead uptake in Lymnaea palustris and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters and mussels. Little information exists regarding the effect of lead on the fresh water crustaceans. Hence the present investigation has been undertaken to study the uptake and loss of lead on exposure to subtoxic levels or organic and inorganic lead.

  10. The Solar System primordial lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichert-Toft, Janne; Zanda, Brigitte; Ebel, Denton S.; Albarède, Francis

    2010-11-01

    Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB-IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan (pallasite). Lead abundances and isotopic compositions typically vary from one troilite inclusion to another, even within the same meteorite. The most primitive Pb was found in three leach fractions of two exceptionally Pb-rich Nantan troilite nodules. Its 204Pb/ 206Pb is identical to that of Canyon Diablo troilite as measured by Tatsumoto et al. [M. Tatsumoto, R.J. Knight, C.J. Allègre, Time differences in the formation of meteorites as determined from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, Science 180(1973) 1279-1283]. However, our measurements of 207Pb/ 206Pb and 208Pb/ 206Pb are significantly higher than theirs, as well as other older literature data obtained by TIMS, while consistent with the recent data of Connelly et al. [J.N. Connelly, M. Bizzarro, K. Thrane, J.A. Baker, The Pb-Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(2008) 4813-4824], a result we ascribe to instrumental mass fractionation having biased the older data. Our current best estimate of the Solar System primordial Pb is that of Nantan troilite, which has the following isotopic composition: 204Pb/ 206Pb = 0.107459(16), 207Pb/ 206Pb = 1.10759(10), and 208Pb/ 206Pb = 3.17347(28). This is slightly less radiogenic than the intercept of the bundle of isotopic arrays formed in 207Pb/ 206Pb- 204Pb/ 206Pb space by our measurements of Canyon Diablo, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Cape York, and Mundrabilla, as well as literature data, which, in spite of rather large uncertainties, suggests a common primordial Pb component for all of these meteorites. The radiogenic Pb present in most of these irons is dominantly

  11. Leading time domain seismic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, A. C.; Gkasios, M.; Keskebes, A.; Tselikas, N. T.

    2014-08-01

    The problem of predicting the occurrence of earthquakes is threefold. On one hand it is necessary to predict the date and magnitude of an earthquake, and on the other hand the location of the epicenter. In this work after a brief review of the state of earthquake prediction research, we report on a new leading time precursor for determining time onset of earthquake occurrence. We report the linking between earthquakes of the past with those which happen in the future via Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers (FDL) numbers. We demonstrate it here with two example seed earthquakes at least 100 years old. Using this leading indicator method we can predict significant earthquake events >6.5R, with good accuracy approximately +- 1 day somewhere in the world. From a single seed we produce at least 100 trials simultaneously of which 50% are correct to +- 1day. The indicator is based on Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers (FDL). This result hints that the log periodic FDL numbers are at the root of the understanding of the earthquake mechanism. The theory is based on the assumption that each occurred earthquake discontinuity can be thought of as a generating source of FDL time series. (The mechanism could well be linked to planetary orbits). When future dates are derived from clustering and convergence from previous strong earthquake dates at an FDL time distance, then we have a high probability for an earthquake to occur on that date. We set up a real time system which generates FDL time series from each previous significant earthquake (>7R) and we produce a year to year calendar of high probability earthquake dates. We have tested this over a number of years with considerable success. We have applied this technique for strong (>7R) earthquakes across the globe as well as on a restricted region such as the Greek geographic region where the magnitude is small (>4R-6.5R). In both cases the success of the method is impressive. It is our belief that supplementing this method with

  12. A Pharmacokinetic Study Comparing Eslicarbazepine Acetate Administered Orally as a Crushed or Intact Tablet in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkaraneni, Soujanya; Kharidia, Jahnavi; Schutz, Ralph; Blum, David; Cheng, Hailong

    2016-07-01

    The relative bioequivalence of crushed versus intact eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) tablets (800 mg) administered orally in healthy adults was evaluated in an open-label, randomized, 2-period crossover study with a 5-day washout between treatments. Sample blood levels of eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine were determined; pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for eslicarbazepine. Bioequivalence was established if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean treatment ratios of eslicarbazepine AUC(0-∞) and Cmax were within the prespecified 80%-125% range. Twenty-seven subjects in the intent-to-treat population (n = 28) completed both treatment periods. Eslicarbazepine exposure measures were similar for crushed versus intact ESL tablets: average Cmax , 11 700 versus 11 500 ng/mL; AUC(0-∞) , 225 000 versus 234 000 ng·h/mL; AUC(0-last) , 222 000 versus 231 000 ng·h/mL, respectively. Geometric least squares mean ratios (90%CIs) comparing eslicarbazepine exposure measures were within the 80%-125% range (Cmax , 102.63% [97.07%-108.51%]; AUC(0-∞) , 96.72% [94.36%-99.13%]; AUC0-last , 96.69% [94.24%-99.21%]). In conclusion, ESL administered orally as a crushed tablet sprinkled on applesauce, or intact were bioequivalent in healthy subjects. Eslicarbazepine bioavailability was not significantly altered by crushing, indicating that ESL tablets can be administered intact or crushed. PMID:27249205

  13. The in vivo situation of 3H-Aescin which had been administered orally and subcutaneously to rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo situation of the Aescin, a product of aesculus hippocastanum, was examined by administering the 3H labelled compounds to rats. The following results were obtained: 1) The intestinal absorption from oral administration was not so fast. The blood concentration was low, and its combination with plasma protein was slight. 2) As for the distribution in the organs after an oral administration, the affinity was relatively high in the following organs: Pancreas>heart>kidney>adrenal>gland>lung>muscle>liver. However, the concentrations were extremely low being shown by a ng unit per g tissue in the organs. 3) When it was administered orally to the pregnant rats, the concentrations which were transmitted to the fetuses were low. 4) On the 7th day after oral administration, excretion into the urine was less than 3% and in the feces was more than 70%. The bile excretion was also observed. 5) The metabolic products in the excretion after the oral administration were examined by the method. A large amount of Aescin was excreted in an unchanged form or in compounds. From this, Aescin is presumed to be metabolised by the activity of intestinal bacterial enzymes. 6) The absorption of this drug into the body was low when it was intracutaneously administered. (Saito, K.)

  14. Barriers to administering non-oral formulations in a paediatric population: A semi-structured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Rebecca; Batchelor, Hannah; Stirling, Heather; Marriott, John

    2016-01-30

    There is a paucity of research exploring barriers to non-oral medicines administration in paediatric patients; however, these undoubtedly influence medicines adherence. Studies conducted with healthcare professionals have identified various issues with the administration and acceptance of non-oral medicines and devices (Venables et al., 2012; Walsh et al., 2015). EMA (2014) guidelines specify that formulation teams should demonstrate 'acceptability' of paediatric formulations when developing pharmaceutical formulations. Semi-structured interviews exploring barriers to administering non-oral medicines were conducted with young persons and the parents/legal guardians of children (0-17 years) with chronic conditions at the University Hospital of Coventry and Warwickshire, UK. 90 children prescribed a total of 148 non-oral medicines were recruited to the study; 88 barriers to administering non-oral medicines were reported. The most commonly reported barriers were: poor acceptance of face mask/difficulties with spacer for inhaled formulations (38% of reports); disliking parenteral/preferring alternative formulations (38% of reports); greasy texture of topical preparations; difficulty with administering an ocular ointment and the large dose volume of a nasal preparation. Formulation teams should consider the use of child-friendly, age-appropriate designs to improve usability and acceptance, thus medicines adherence. These findings should be used to inform future development of non-oral formulations and devices, suitable in terms of safety, efficacy and acceptability to paediatric patients. PMID:26611666

  15. D1 dopamine receptor-mediated LTP at GABA synapses encodes motivation to self-administer cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Michal; Mason, Xenos; DeBacker, Julian; Sharma, Robyn; Normandeau, Catherine P; Hawken, Emily R; Di Prospero, Cynthia; Chiang, Cindy; Martinez, Audrey; Jones, Andrea A; Doudnikoff, Évelyne; Caille, Stephanie; Bézard, Erwan; Georges, François; Dumont, Éric C

    2013-07-17

    Enhanced motivation to take drugs is a central characteristic of addiction, yet the neural underpinning of this maladaptive behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we report a D1-like dopamine receptor (DRD1)-mediated long-term potentiation of GABAA-IPSCs (D1-LTPGABA) in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis that was positively correlated with motivation to self-administer cocaine in rats. Likewise, in vivo intra-oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis DRD1 pharmacological blockade reduced lever pressing for cocaine more effectively in rats showing enhanced motivation toward cocaine. D1-LTPGABA resulted from enhanced function and expression of G-protein-independent DRD1 coupled to c-Src tyrosine kinases and required local release of neurotensin. There was no D1-LTPGABA in rats that self-administered sucrose, in those with limited cocaine self-administration experience, or in those that received cocaine passively (yoked). Therefore, our study reveals a novel neurophysiological mechanism contributing to individual motivation to self-administer cocaine, a critical psychobiological element of compulsive drug use and addiction. PMID:23864683

  16. Self-administered sample collection for screening of sexually transmitted infection among reservation-based American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Strom, Rachel; Hastings, Ranelda; Parker, Anthony; Barlow, Allison; Rompalo, Anne; Gaydos, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    American Indians suffer a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infection, particularly adolescents. Screening access barriers in rural and reservation-based communities necessitate alternatives to clinic-based options. Self-administered screening for three sexually transmitted infections was piloted among 32 American Indian adolescents aged 18 to 19. Participants self-collected in a private location; specimens were processed by trained, American Indian paraprofessionals and analysis was conducted by an outside laboratory. Participants testing positive were treated by a Public Health Nurse from the Indian Health Service. Results suggest high overall acceptability: 69% preferred a self-administered method over clinic-based screening, 75% would encourage their friends to use this method and 100% would use it again. A self-administered screening method has the ability to reach this and other high-risk populations that might not otherwise access screening, with added potential within the Indian Health Services system for uptake and dissemination in rural, reservation communities facing significant screening barriers. PMID:25228666

  17. A radiation detector. Lead tungstate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susuki, Yoshiyuki [Furukawa Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ishii, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Masaaki

    2000-05-01

    Lead tungstate (PbWO) is a material for scintillator luminous by irradiation of gamma-ray, X-ray, UV-light, and so forth. As it has short attenuation time of light after its luminescence and the largest density among the scintillator materials producible industrially at present. It is focussed by decision of its adoption to the next accelerator, LHC (large Hadron collider) in CERN. On the other hand, it is also under development onto lower energy application such as SPring-8 and medical PET (position emission tomography). However, it has many problems such as evaporation of PbO which is a raw element, fragile crystal, presence of cleavage, anisotropy in thermal expansion coefficient, low radiation resistance, and so forth. By optimization of pulling-up condition, a production technique of large size crystal could be established at this time. And, by addition of rare earth elements with three equivalence such as La, and so forth, it transmission and radiation resistance were extremely improved, which was confirmed to be used for actual applications. (G.K.)

  18. Leading local politicians visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Left to right:  Professor Maiani, Ernest Nycollin, Anne-Marie Comparini, and Jean Pépin surrounded by young PRAC. On the 13th of November leading local politicians : Mme Anne-Marie Comparini, Présidente du Conseil régional de Rhône-Alpes, M. Ernest Nycollin, Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie et M. Jean Pépin, Président du Conseil général de l'Ain took part in a ceremony which featured the insertion of one of the first LHC magnets into its cryostat.  The department of l'Ain financed a large part of the contruction of building SMA 18 which will see intense activity during the assembly of LHC magnets over the next four years. The department of Haute-Savoie helped in the development of the ultrasonic welding machine for the superconducting cables and the conception of integrated circuits that will be used to measure temperature and pressure inside the magnets. T...

  19. Darwinian selection leads to Gaia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Mark

    2002-09-01

    The Gaia hypothesis, in its strongest form, states that the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and biota form a tightly coupled system that maintains environmental conditions close to optimal for life. According to Gaia theory, optimal conditions are intrinsic, immutable properties of living organisms. It is assumed that the role of Darwinian selection is to favor organisms that act to stabilize environmental conditions at these optimal levels. In this paper, an alternative form of Gaia theory based on more traditional Darwinian principles is proposed. In the new approach, environmental regulation is a consequence of population dynamics, not Darwinian selection. The role of selection is to favor organisms that are best adapted to prevailing environmental conditions. However, the environment is not a static backdrop for evolution, but is heavily influenced by the presence of living organisms. The resulting co-evolving dynamical process eventually leads to the convergence of equilibrium and optimal conditions. A simple Daisyworld model is used to illustrate this convergence phenomenon. Sensitivity analysis of the Daisyworld model suggests that in stable ecosystems, the convergence of equilibrium and optimal conditions is inevitable, provided there are no externally driven shocks to the system. The end result may appear to be the product of a cooperative venture, but is in fact the outcome of Darwinian selection acting upon "selfish" organisms. PMID:12297068

  20. mAbs and Ad-vectored IFN-α therapy rescue Ebola-infected nonhuman primates when administered after the detection of viremia and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiangguo; Wong, Gary; Fernando, Lisa; Audet, Jonathan; Bello, Alexander; Strong, Jim; Alimonti, Judie B; Kobinger, Gary P

    2013-10-16

    ZMAb is a promising treatment against Ebola virus (EBOV) disease that has been shown to protect 50% (two of four) of nonhuman primates (NHPs) when administered 2 days post-infection (dpi). To extend the treatment window and improve protection, we combined ZMAb with adenovirus-vectored interferon-α (Ad-IFN) and evaluated efficacy in EBOV-infected NHPs. Seventy-five percent (three of four) and 100% (four of four) of cynomolgus and rhesus macaques survived, respectively, when treatment was initiated after detection of viremia at 3 dpi. Fifty percent (two of four) of the cynomolgus macaques survived when Ad-IFN was given at 1 dpi, followed by ZMAb starting at 4 dpi, after positive diagnosis. The treatment was able to suppress viremia reaching ~10(5) TCID50 (median tissue culture infectious dose) per milliliter, leading to survival and robust specific immune responses. This study describes conditions capable of saving 100% of EBOV-infected NHPs when initiated after the presence of detectable viremia along with symptoms. PMID:24132638

  1. Activities of radiopharmaceuticals administered for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine in Argentina: results of a national survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine in Argentine is carried out at 292 centres, distributed all over the country, mainly concentrated in the capital cities of the provinces. With the purpose of knowing the activity levels of radiopharmaceuticals that were administered to patients for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in nuclear medicine, a national survey was conducted, during 2001 and 2002. This survey was answered voluntarily by 107 centres. Sixty-four percent of the participants centres are equipped with SPECT system while the other centres have a gamma camera or scintiscanner. There were 37 nuclear medicine procedures, chosen among those most frequently performed, were included in the survey. In those diagnostic procedures were included tests for: bone, brain, thyroid, kidney, liver, lung and cardiovascular system; and also activities administered for some therapeutic procedures. The nuclear medicine physicians reported the different radiopharmaceutical activities administered to typical adult patients. In this paper are presented the average radiopharmaceutical activity administered for each of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures included in the survey and the range and distribution of values. In order to place these data in a frame of reference, these average values were compared to the guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine mentioned at the Safety Series no. 115. From this comparison it was noticed that the activities administered in the 40% of the diagnostic procedures included in the survey were between ±30% of the reference values. For those nuclear medicine procedures that could not be compared with the above mentioned guidance levels, the comparison was made with values published by UNSCEAR or standards recommended by international bodies. As a result of this study, it is important to point out the need to continue the gathering of data in a wider scale survey to increase the knowledge about national trends. It is also essential to widely

  2. Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of testing MICE spectrometer magnet current leads on a test apparatus that combines both the copper leads and the high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads with a single Cryomech PT415 cooler and liquid helium tank. The current is carried through the copper leads from 300 K to the top of the HTS leads. The current is then carried through the HTS leads to a feed-through from the vacuum space to the inside of a liquid helium tank. The experiment allows one to measure the performance of both cooler stages along with the performance of the leads. While the leads were powered we measured the voltage drops through the copper leads, through the HTS leads, through spliced to the feed-through, through the feed-through and through the low-temperature superconducting loop that connects one lead to the other. Measurements were made using the leads that were used in spectrometer magnet 1A and spectrometer magnet 2A. These are the same leads that were used for Superbend and Venus magnets at LBNL. The IL/A for these leads was 5.2 x 106 m-1. The leads turned out to be too long. The same measurements were made using the leads that were installed in magnet 2B. The magnet 2B leads had an IL/A of 3.3 x 106 A m-1. This report discusses the cooler performance and the measured electrical performance of the lead circuit that contains the copper leads and the superconducting leads. All of the HTS leads that were installed in magnet 2B were current tested using this apparatus.

  3. Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, N; Shiojima, S; Hasegawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

  4. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Study subjects with more siblings also tended to have higher blood lead levels (p home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity. PMID:25015713

  5. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O' Leary, L.M.; London, S. (University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  6. Fetal lead exposure: Encephalopathy in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Dsouza, Herman S.; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that lead exposure in the early period of pre pregnancy and antenatal life leads to serious health complications. In this case report, a five month old child who was suffering from encephalopathy was finally confirmed a victim of lead exposure, the source being the environment and the family. We report this case with complete clinical investigation including blood lead analysis. This case report highlights the various ways in which lead may accumulate in the body. It is also ...

  7. Lead exchange in teeth and bone--a pilot study using stable lead isotopes.

    OpenAIRE

    Gulson, B L; Gillings, B R

    1997-01-01

    Stable lead isotopes and lead concentrations were measured in the enamel and dentine of permanent (n = 37) and deciduous teeth (n = 14) from 47 European immigrants to Australia to determine whether lead exchange occurs in teeth and how it relates to lead exchange in bone. Enamel exhibits no exchange of its European-origin lead with lead from the Australian environment. In contrast, dentine lead exchanges with Australian lead to the extent of approximately 1% per year. In one subject, trabecul...

  8. Design and development of a lead jar for oral administration of radioiodine In hyperthyroid patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear Medicine practices involve use of radioisotopes for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radioiodine is one of such radioisotopes, being used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases since 1942. Handling of radioiodine involves radiation hazards both for the patients as well as for the technologists. Though radioiodine is supplied in a lead container, for treatment purpose, it is administered after dispensing into a glass jar that does not adequately protect radiation hazards. For this reason, we designed and developed a lead jar and radioiodine is dispensed into that lead jar to minimize radiation hazards. For oral administration of radioiodine to hyperthyroid patients, a lead jar was designed and developed with lead in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound, Khulna in December 2004 by own expertise and technologies in such a way that a glass jar could be introduced into that lead jar. The thickness of lead was 4.04 mm and the thickness of glass jar was 0.7 mm and thus the whole thickness of lead jar became 4.74 mm. The desired dose of radioiodine (8 mCi) that should be given to the patients were dispensed into that lead jar and administered orally to the patients. Radiation levels in 10 such cases were measured by Mini-Rad Series-1000 survey meter at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances both lead jar and glass jar. The mean radiation level of lead jar and glass jar during oral administration of 8 mCi of Na131I solution in 10 cases at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances were 62.4 ± 1.96 microSv/h, 17.7 ±1.95 microSv/h, 3.39 ± .12 microSv/h and 20.3± 2.16 microSv/h, 79.8 ± 0.79 microSv/h, 1.97 ± 0.23 microSv/h respectively. We have found that radiation level reduced by 67.47%, 61.58%, and 41.89% with lead jar at 0.5 meter, 1 meter and 3 meters distances. In conclusion, the locally designed and developed lead jar is safe, easy to handle and reduces radiation burden significantly in oral administration of radioiodine to

  9. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  10. Discovery of sarolaner: A novel, orally administered, broad-spectrum, isoxazoline ectoparasiticide for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Tom L; Chubb, Nathan; Curtis, Michael P; Hedges, Laura; Inskeep, Gregory A; Knauer, Christopher S; Menon, Sanjay; Mills, Brian; Pullins, Aleah; Zinser, Erich; Woods, Debra J; Meeus, Patrick

    2016-05-30

    The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide, sarolaner, was identified during a lead optimization program for an orally-active compound with efficacy against fleas and ticks on dogs. The aim of the discovery program was to identify a novel isoxazoline specifically for use in companion animals, beginning with de novo synthesis in the Zoetis research laboratories. The sarolaner molecule has unique structural features important for its potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, including spiroazetidine and sulfone moieties. The flea and tick activity resides in the chirally pure S-enantiomer, which was purified to alleviate potential off-target effects from the inactive enantiomer. The mechanism of action was established in electrophysiology assays using CHO-K1 cell lines stably expressing cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) RDL (resistance-to-dieldrin) genes for assessment of GABA-gated chloride channel (GABACls) pharmacology. As expected, sarolaner inhibited GABA-elicited currents at both susceptible (CfRDL-A285) and resistant (CfRDL-S285) flea GABACls with similar potency. Initial whole organism screening was conducted in vitro using a blood feeding assay against C. felis. Compounds which demonstrated robust activity in the flea feed assay were subsequently tested in an in vitro ingestion assay against the soft tick, Ornithodoros turicata. Efficacious compounds which were confirmed safe in rodents at doses up to 30mg/kg were progressed to safety, PK and efficacy studies in dogs. In vitro sarolaner demonstrated an LC80 of 0.3μg/mL against C. felis and an LC100 of 0.003μg/mL against O. turicata. In a head-to-head comparative in vitro assay with both afoxolaner and fluralaner, sarolaner demonstrated superior flea and tick potency. In exploratory safety studies in dogs, sarolaner demonstrated safety in dogs≥8 weeks of age upon repeated monthly dosing at up to 20mg/kg. Sarolaner was rapidly and well absorbed following oral dosing. Time to maximum plasma concentration

  11. A Further Examination of the Effects of Administering the Metropolitan Reading Tests in Spanish and English to Spanish-Speaking School Entrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sylvia; And Others

    In a study designed to assess effects of administering the Metropolitan Reading Test (MRT) in Spanish versus English, 100 Puerto Rican kindergarten pupils were randomly split into two groups. The MRT was administered in English to one group and in a Spanish translation to the other group. The group who took the Spanish version significantly…

  12. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  13. Effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during pregnancy, on neonatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Klis, FRM; van der Dijs, FPL; van Beusekom, CM; Landman, H; Capello, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    2001-01-01

    Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) status during pregnancy is important. We studied the effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during uncomplicated pregnancy, on neonatal LCP status at term delivery. Supplements were administered from the second trimester to de

  14. Industrial flow of lead in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian-su; YANG Zhi-feng; LU Zhong-wu

    2007-01-01

    The rules on industrial flow of lead were studied for theoretical foundation of nonrenewable resource conservation and environmental improvement. A model of lead flow in lead product life cycle was developed through lead flow analysis and was used to analyze the relationship between lead product system and its environment, thus the rules on industrial flow of lead were obtained. The results show that increasing eco-efficiency will favor both resource conservation and environmental improvement. Several indices were proposed to evaluate the lead flow. As for application, the lead-flow for China in 1999 was analyzed and the reasons for low eco-efficiency were identified. In the end, some countermeasures were proposed to improve eco-efficiency, and the future lead ore consumption and environment quality were forecasted.

  15. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.

    1972-07-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  16. Leading Gravitational Corrections and a Unified Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Codello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Leading order gravitational corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action can lead to a consistent picture of the universe by unifying the epochs of inflation and dark energy in a single framework. While the leading local correction induces an inflationary phase in the early universe, the leading non-local term leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We argue that both the leading UV and IR terms can be obtained within the framework of a covariant effective field theory of gravity. The perturbative gravitational corrections therefore provide a fundamental basis for understanding a possible connection between the two epochs.

  17. The conjoint influence of home enriched environment and lead exposure on children's cognition and behaviour in a Mexican lead smelter community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Sue; Ialongo, Nick; López, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Ronquillo, Dolores; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    A range of studies has been conducted on the detrimental effects of lead in mining and smelting communities. The neurocognitive and behavioural health effects of lead on children are well known. This research characterized the conjoint influence of lead exposure and home enriched environment on neurocognitive function and behaviour for first-grade children living in a Mexican lead smelter community. Structural equation models were used for this analysis with latent outcome variables, Cognition and Behaviour, constructed based on a battery of assessments administered to the first-grade children, their parents, and teachers. Structural equation modelling was used to describe complex relationships of exposure and health outcomes in a manner that permitted partition of both direct and indirect effects of the factors being measured. Home Environment (a latent variable constructed from information on mother's education and support of school work and extracurricular activities), and child blood lead concentration each had a main significant effect on cognition and behaviour. However, there were no statistically significant moderation relationships between lead and Home Environment on these latent outcomes. Home Environment had a significant indirect mediation effect between lead and both Cognition and Behaviour (p-valueeffect with respect to lead effects on Behaviour (β=0.305) and a lower mediation effect on Cognition (β=0.184). The extent of home enrichment in this study was most highly related to the mother's support of schoolwork and slightly less by the mother's support of extracurricular activities or mother's education. Further research may be able to develop approaches to support families to make changes within their home and child rearing practices, or advocate for different approaches to support their child's behaviour to reduce the impact of lead exposure on children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes. PMID:23110976

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Intraurethrally Administered Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in a Murine Model of Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Watanuki, Masaaki; Yokokura, Teruo

    2001-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the intraurethrally administered probiotic Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota against Escherichia coli in a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model was examined. UTI was induced by intraurethral administration of Escherichia coli strain HU-1 (a clinical isolate from a UTI patient, positive for type 1 and P fimbriae), at a dose of 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 CFU in 20 μl of saline, into a C3H/HeN mouse bladder which had been traumatized with 0.1 N HCl followed immediate...

  19. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8

    OpenAIRE

    Grijota Martínez, María del Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized ...

  20. Kinetics of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP administered by intramuscular injection in man and in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of assessing the kinetics of a diphosphonate administered by intramuscular injection, we have studied the behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-labelled 1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate in man and in experimental animals, after intramuscular injection. The curves of plasma and urine radioactivity were analyzed in a six-compartment kinetic model containing seven transition coefficients. The results show that the diphosphonate given by intramuscular injection is absorbed rapidly and completely. Therefore the possibility of using this way of administration should be considered in the pathological conditions in which diphosphonates are used as therapeutic agents. (orig.)

  1. How Valid Is the Self-Administered Visual Analogue Scale for Assessing the Health Status of Elderly People?

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Tomoaki; Hayashida, Kenshi; Araki, Yoshimitsu; Morita, Takako; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Eboshida, Akira

    2008-01-01

    The population of Japan is aging rapidly, and maintaining the quality of life of elderly people has become an important issue in contemporary Japan. This study was conducted to verify the validity of the self-administered visual analogue scale (VAS) for assessing the health status of elderly people. A survey was conducted in two villages in western Japan in 2003. A total of 2040 participants, aged between 60 and 75 years, completed questionnaires comprising the VAS and six Likert-type items f...

  2. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Hyvärinen

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA or sham stimulation (0.3 mA for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, was found (mean change -5.0 points, p < 0.05, but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response-as measured by THI-with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study

  3. Agreement between a self-administered questionnaire on musculoskeletal disorders of the neck-shoulder region and a physical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisson Chantal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In epidemiological studies on neck-shoulder disorders, physical examination by health professionals, although more expensive, is usually considered a better method of data collection than self-administered questionnaires on symptoms. However, little is known on the comparison of these two methods of data collection. The agreement between self-administered questionnaires and the physical examination on the presence of neck-shoulders disorders was assessed in the present study. Methods This study was conducted among clerical workers using video display units. Prevalent cases were workers for whom neck-shoulder symptoms were present for at least 3 days during the previous 7 days and for whom pain intensity was greater than 50 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. All 85 workers meeting this definition and a random sample of 102 workers who did not meet this definition were selected. Physical examination included measures of active range of motion and musculoskeletal strength. Cohen's kappa and global percent agreement were calculated to compare the two methods of data collection. The effect on the agreement of different question and physical examination definitions and the importance of the time interval elapsed between the administrations of the tests were also evaluated. Results Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.19 to 0.54 depending on the definitions used to ascertain disorders. The agreement was highest when the two instruments were administered 21 days apart or less (Kappa = 0.54, global agreement = 77%. It was not substantially improved by the addition of criteria related to functional limitations or when comparisons were made with alternative physical examination definitions. Pain intensity recorded during physical examination maneuvers was an important element of the agreement between questionnaire and physical examination findings. Conclusion These results suggest a fair to good agreement between the presence of

  4. First Experimental Demonstration of the Multipotential Carcinogenic Effects of Aspartame Administered in the Feed to Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Esposti, Davide Degli; Lambertini, Luca; Tibaldi, Eva; Rigano, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the European Ramazzini Foundation has conducted a long-term bioassay on aspartame (APM), a widely used artificial sweetener. APM was administered with feed to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (100–150/sex/group), at concentrations of 100,000, 50,000, 10,000, 2,000, 400, 80, or 0 ppm. The treatment lasted until natural death, at which time all deceased animals underwent complete necropsy. Histopathologic evaluation of all pathologic lesions and of all...

  5. Virginia Solar Pathways Project: Economic Study of Utility-Administered Solar Programs: Soft Costs, Community Solar, and Tax Normalization Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-23

    This report presents economic considerations for solar development in support of the Virginia Solar Pathways Project (VSPP), an effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative that seeks to develop a collaborative utility-administered solar strategy for the Commonwealth of Virginia. The results presented are intended to be considered alongside the results of other studies conducted under the VSPP that evaluate the impacts of solar energy on the electric distribution, transmission, and generation systems in Virginia.

  6. A closed cabinet system with water flushers and a blender for breeding small animal administered 3HHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A closed cabinet system was developed for breeding small animals administered 3HHO. 3HHO vapor released from the animals in the chamber was absorbed with water in a water bubbler. Feces and urine which were washed out with water were ground in a blender, diluted, and then released. With this cabinet system we were successful in safely breeding mice even given a total single injection of 15.5 GBq (420 mCi) of 3HHO without storing the 3H-slops for a long time and without any significant leakage of 3H from the cabinet. (author)

  7. Influence of nutrient intake on blood lead levels of young children at risk for lead poisoning.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Scherer, Roberta W.; Sexton, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Although removal of lead paint hazards from at-risk houses remains the primary means of preventing elevated blood lead among young children, reduction of risk through nutritional factors has also been of interest. In this study we evaluated the effect of nutrient intake on blood lead levels by analyzing whether the intakes of certain dietary components a) were associated with blood lead levels independent of lead exposure or b) modified the effect of lead exposure on blood lead. Subjects were...

  8. Effects of low level exposure to lead on neurophysiological functions among lead battery workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovala, T; Matikainen, E; Mannelin, T.; Erkkilä, J; Riihimäki, V; Hänninen, H.; Aitio, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Assessment of neurophysiological functions in workers with low level exposure to lead and evaluation of the efficacy of bone lead measurements in the prediction of effects of lead. METHODS: Exposure to lead of 60 workers from a lead battery battery factory was estimated from historical blood lead measurements and analysis of lead in the tibial and calcaneal bones with x ray fluorescence. Peripheral and central nervous system functions were assessed by measuring conduction velociti...

  9. Determination of lead in plasma and studies on its relationship to lead in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    deSilva, P E

    1981-01-01

    Plasma lead concentrations were determined in 103 subjects, including lead workers and those not occupationally exposed to lead. The plasma lead concentrations in each blood lead group were about half those previously reported, and this difference was shown to be due to the use of heparin instead of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA) as the anticoagulant. The method for the determination of lead in plasma is detailed and its accuracy discussed. The plasma lead concentration was found to ...

  10. Flint's Lead-Contamination Crisis 'Entirely Preventable'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159554.html Flint's Lead-Contamination Crisis 'Entirely Preventable' CDC looks at kids' ... of Flint, Mich., shows they had much more lead in their blood when the city used local ...

  11. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning English 鉛毒 - 無形的禍害 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Hmong (Hmoob) Lead Exposure during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding English Raug Lead thaum Cev Xeeb ...

  12. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Violence-Related Injury Deaths, United States - 2013 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age ...

  13. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  14. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  15. LEAD CYCLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Bhattar; S. L. Bhattar

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of Lead Lass Been a problem which has been involving in air, water and soil. It is more rapidly in the air than in soil air water .The natural background of lead and its compounds in air must be very low due to low vapor pressure values lead emission in to the atmosphere have been of two types namely particulate and gaseous compounds. Toxicity of lead is very wide ranging and includes impaired blood synthesis hypertension, hyperactivity and brain dam...

  16. Status of Lead Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the global context, China boasts rich reserve of lead resources, up till 2009 China’s reserve of lead resources ranks second in the world,accounting for 15.19% of global total reserve.By the end of 2009, there were 1634 lead mines nationwide, up by 127 over the figure in 2008.

  17. Lead transformation to pyromorphite by fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Young Joon; Hillier, Stephen; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2012-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a serious environmental pollutant in all its chemical forms [1]. Attempts have been made to immobilize lead in soil as the mineral pyromorphite using phosphate amendments (e.g., rock phosphate, phosphoric acid, and apatite [2-5]), although our work has demonstrated that soil fungi are able to transform pyromorphite into lead oxalate [6, 7]. Lead metal, an important structural and industrial material, is subject to weathering, and soil contamination also occurs through hunting and shooting [8, 9]. Although fungi are increasingly appreciated as geologic agents [10-12], there is a distinct lack of knowledge about their involvement in lead geochemistry. We examined the influence of fungal activity on lead metal and discovered that metallic lead can be transformed into chloropyromorphite, the most stable lead mineral that exists. This is of geochemical significance, not only regarding lead fate and cycling in the environment but also in relation to the phosphate cycle and linked with microbial transformations of inorganic and organic phosphorus. This paper provides the first report of mycogenic chloropyromorphite formation from metallic lead and highlights the significance of this phenomenon as a biotic component of lead biogeochemistry, with additional consequences for microbial survival in lead-contaminated environments and bioremedial treatments for Pb-contaminated land. PMID:22245002

  18. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  19. Self-administered outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a report of three years experience in the Irish healthcare setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, J

    2012-02-01

    Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) was first reported in 1972. OPAT programmes are not well established in Ireland, with no reported outcomes in the literature. An OPAT programme was established at St. James Hospital in 2006. Demographics, diagnoses and outcomes of the first 60 courses are reported. A retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data was performed on patients treated from March 2006 to February 2009. The data was analysed using SPSS v.17. Sixty OPAT courses were administered to 56 patients, 57 percent of which were male. The median age was 50 years, the median inpatient stay was 19 days, the median duration of OPAT was 16 days and 1,289 inpatient bed days were saved. The additional cost per day of OPAT was 167.60 euros. Vancomycin was the most prescribed antimicrobial, administered to 35%. Musculoskeletal infection was the indication for treatment in 50%. Confirmatory microbiological diagnosis was identified in 72%, most frequently due to Staphylococcus aureus (68%). Only minor adverse events were recorded. Clinical cure was achieved in 92.8%. A patient satisfaction survey showed high satisfaction. OPAT is a safe and effective way of providing parenteral antibiotic therapy in the Irish healthcare system. Better integration of funding and the appointment of Infectious Diseases specialists will facilitate its expansion.

  20. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n=15 or the control group (n=21 for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes (e.g., compliance and adverse effects and clinical outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, and physical function were assessed. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. Results. The training materials were well received. The feedback from participants suggests that self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home, although no statistically significant results of the clinical outcome were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure compared with usual care. Conclusion. Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.

  1. Variability of [18F]FDG administered activities among patients undergoing PET examinations: an international multicenter survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the large number of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET examinations performed annually throughout the world, reduction of the administered activity without compromise of the clinical information being sought is encouraged. Guidelines issued by the SNMMI and European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) differ greatly on the choice of the activity that should be administered to patients: the EANM suggests a personalised activity based on the patient's body weight, whereas the SNMMI recommends the administration of fixed activities. The authors analysed a database of 24 716 [18F]FDG administrations performed worldwide in 15 PET centres to assess the degree of heterogeneity, in relation to available technology, operational protocols and reference guidelines. Median activities based on the patients' body weight were 43 % lower than fixed-activity administrations (p < 0.001). When TOF scanners are available, the median activity is lowered, but when comparing centres with the same technology or those that use the same operational protocols, weight-based activities are still significantly lower than fixed activities. (authors)

  2. [Research on early warning signals of adverse drug reactions to parenterally administered xiyanping based on spontaneous reporting system (SRS) data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Fei; Xiang, Yong-Yang; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2013-09-01

    This article focused on early warning signals regarding the safety of parenterally administered Xiyanping. The study data was obtained from reports made between 2005-2012 from the national spontaneous reporting system (SRS). Proportion reporting ratio (PRR) and Bayesian confidence propagation neural network (BCPNN) algorithms were used to analyse: erythra, pruritus, anaphylactoid reactions and shiver with cold, these 4 adverse drug reactions had a total count of more than 500 events. The article found that Xiyanping's incidence rate of erythra was higher than for background-drugs in every year and in every season. Pruritus was an early warning signal in the second season of 2009, and anaphylactoid reaction was an early warning signal in the fourth season of 2011 and in the second season of 2012. There was however no early warning signal indicated by shiver with cold. This data indicates that erythra maybe an adverse drug reactions to parenterally administered Xiyanping, and if the incidence rate of pruritus and anaphylactoid reaction rises attention should be paid to its safety. PMID:24471321

  3. Safety profile and pharmacokinetic analyses of the anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab administered as a one hour infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas Antoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTLA4 blocking monoclonal antibodies provide a low frequency but durable tumor responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, which led to the regulatory approval of ipilimumab based on two randomized clinical trials with overall survival advantage. The similarly fully human anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab had been developed in the clinic at a fixed rate infusion, resulting in very prolonged infusion times. A new formulation of tremelimumab allowed testing a shorter infusion time. Methods A phase 1 multi-center study to establish the safety and tolerability of administering tremelimumab as a 1-hour infusion to patients with metastatic melanoma. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of tremelimumab. Results No grade 3 or greater infusion-related adverse events or other adverse events preventing the administration of the full tremelimumab dose were noted in 44 treated patients. The overall side effect profile was consistent with prior experiences with anti-CTLA4 antibodies. Objective tumor responses were noted in 11% of evaluable patients with metastatic melanoma, which is also consistent with the prior experience with CTLA4 antagonistic antibodies. Conclusions This study did not identify any safety concerns when tremelimumab was administered as a 1-hour infusion. These data support further clinical testing of the 1-hour infusion of tremelimumab. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00585000.

  4. Bone mineral density and the relationship between lipid profile and bone mineral density in the rats administered juniperus communis linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship of Juniperus Communis Lynn. with the bone mineral density in the rats fed with a high cholesterol (1%) diet. Thirty five Wistar albino rats weighed approximately 250-300 were used in this study. The rats are divided in five groups of seven each. Groups I and II were administered 0.5 ml of 0.5% Sodium Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (SCMC), while Groups II, IV and V administered 0.5 ml of juniperus communis linn dissolved in 25, 50, 100 mg/kg. Group I and Group II were fed with normal pellets while the other four groups were fed with pellets containing 1% cholesterol. Levels of lipid profile and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) were defined in all the groups. Furthermore, bone mineral density (B M D) of the animals were obtained with DEXA scanner. BMD values of the rats did not show a different among the groups. Significant negative correlations were determined between BMD measurements and LDL-C levels in all groups connected with dose of Juniperus Communis oil. However, this relationship was not linear. (author)

  5. Assessing the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of human rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route: results of a metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, Mysore K; Gangaboraiah, Bilagumba; Ravish, Haradanahalli S; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath

    2010-07-01

    The metadata of 10 published studies and 3 vaccine trial reports comprising of 19 vaccine cohorts from four countries conducted over a period of 23 years (1986 - 2009) was used for metaanalysis. The vaccines studied were purified chick embryo cell vaccine (Rabipur, India & Germany), purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Verorab, France; Indirab, India) & human diploid cell vaccine (MIRV, France).The potency of these vaccines varied from 0.55 IU to 2.32 IU per intradermal dose of 0.1 ml per site. The vaccines were administered to 1,011 subjects comprising of 19 cohorts and using five different ID regimens. The immunogenicity was measured by assays of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titres using rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) [15 cohorts] and mouse neutralization test (MNT) [4 cohorts]. The statistical analysis of the data was done by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity. It was revealed that, there was no significant linear relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route. (p> 0.230 and p>0.568). PMID:20523131

  6. [Real-world study in analysis of effects on concomitant medications with parenterally administered shenmai for coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun-Jie; Tang, Hao; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Hu; Zhuang, Yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand the treatment of coronary heart disease with parenterally administered Shenmai and the efficacy of combination therapies, the study selected 18 hospitals for analysis. Data from each hospital's hospital injection system (HIS) was collected. Data of in-patients receiving parenterally administered Shenmai for a diagnosis of coronary heart disease was analyzed using; the Apriori algorithm to model use, Clementine 12.0 linkage analysis to find correlations between various drugs, and chi-square test for commonly used combination therapies to ascertain the cure rate. In 5 583 patients with coronary heart disease, it was found that Shenmai was commonly used with isosorbide mononitrate, aspirin, clopidogrel hydrogen and common combinations of combination therapy, and that the cure rate was better in these combinations than for other treatment regimes. When Shenmai is used with combination therapies for coronary heart disease, treatment guidelines should be complied with. In clinical application, the types of concomitant medications and their interactions, should be observed so as to prevent of adverse reactions. PMID:24471341

  7. Effect of packing on changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde concentration in donkeys administered with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folashade Olaifa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of packing on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in donkeys, and the effect of ascorbic acid (AA. Twelve apparently healthy donkeys raised under the traditional extensive system served as experimental subjects. Six donkeys administered orally with AA (200 mg/kg and subjected to packing were used as experimental animals, whilst six others not administered with AA served as controls. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-packing from all the donkeys for the determination of MDA and EOF. At 0.3% Sodium Chloride (NaCl concentration, the percentage haemolysis was 93.69% ± 2.21% in the control donkeys and the value was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than the value of 71.31% ± 8.33%, recorded in the experimental donkeys. The post-packing MDA concentration obtained in the control donkeys was 39.62 µmol ± 4.16 µmol, and was not significantly different (P > 0.05 from the value of 35.97 µmol ± 2.88 µmol recorded in the experimental donkeys. In conclusion, the increase in haemolysis obtained in the donkeys suggested that packing induced oxidative stress, which was ameliorated by AA administration.

  8. Effect of carbamazepine or phenytoin therapy on blood level of intravenously administered midazolam: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    Dental treatment of intellectually disabled patients is frequently performed under general anesthesia or sedation. Many of these patients have epilepsy and are medicated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) are known to promote the metabolism of midazolam, and the blood levels of midazolam in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT may be different from those in healthy individuals. In this study, we clarified the influences of CBZ and PHT on the blood level of intravenously administered midazolam in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT. The subjects were divided into the following groups: not medicated with AEDs (control group), medicated with only CBZ or PHT (mono CBZ/PHT group), and medicated with CBZ or PHT or both and other AEDs (poly CBZ/PHT group). General anesthesia was achieved using midazolam, propofol, and remifentanil, and then the blood midazolam level was measured at 10, 30, and 60 min after intravenous midazolam administration. According to the results, the blood midazolam level was significantly lower in the mono and poly CBZ/PHT groups than in the control group. This finding suggests that intravenously administered midazolam may have a weaker effect in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT. PMID:26272251

  9. The short- and long-term effects of orally administered high-dose reduced graphene oxide nanosheets on mouse behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding; Zhang, Zheyu; Liu, Yayun; Chu, Maoquan; Yang, Chengyu; Li, Wenhao; Shao, Yuxiang; Yue, Yan; Xu, Rujiao

    2015-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO), a carbon-based nanomaterial, has enormous potential in biomedical research, including in vivo cancer therapeutics. Concerns over the toxicity remain outstanding and must be investigated before clinical application. The effect of rGO exposure on animal behaviors, such as learning and memory abilities, has not been clarified. Herein, we explored the short- and long-term effects of orally administered rGO on mouse behaviors, including general locomotor activity level, balance and neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and anxiety behaviors, and learning and memory abilities using open-field, rotarod, and Morris water maze tests. Compared with mice administered buffer-dispersed mouse chow or buffer alone, mice receiving a high dose of small or large rGO nanosheets showed little change in exploratory, anxiety-like, or learning and memory behaviors, although general locomotor activity, balance, and neuromuscular coordination were initially affected, which the mechanisms (e.g. the influence of rGO exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase in mouse serum) were discussed. The results presented in this work look to provide a deep understanding of the in vivo toxicity of rGO to animals, especially its effect on learning and memory and other behaviors. PMID:26276695

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  11. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca2+], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  12. Radiopharmaceutical activities administered for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine in the first six months of the gamma camera use in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine procedures have carried out in the Clinical Center of Montenegro - Podgorica since 2006 by the dual-headed SPECT and Digital gamma camera NUCLINE Spirit DH-V. In the first six months of the gamma camera use (from September 2006 to March 2007) examinations of skeleton, kidneys, thyroid and lung were performed. For diagnostic skeletal imaging (102 patients) the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-MDP is used, and administered activities were in the range from 555 to 740 MBq. For thyroid imaging (203 patients) 99mTc-pertechnetate is used, and administered activities were in the range (37-111) MBq. Lung imaging is performed for 3 patients, using 99mTc-MAA and administered activities in the range (111-185) MBq. Renal imaging is carried out for 72 patients: 42 dynamic studies of kidneys were performed with 99mTc-DTPA and administered activities from 207 to 282 MBq, and 30 static kidneys scintigraphies were performed using the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-DMSA. 6 patients in the last mentioned group were children with year of birth between 2000 and 2006, and administered activities were from 16.6 to 55.5 MBq. In the same group, activities 28.5 MBq, 74.4 MBq and 120 MBq were administered to three patients with age between 6 and 18 years, and in the other cases, administered activities to the patients (adults) were in the range (59.2 to 196) MBq. The administered activities presented here are basis for further estimations of cumulated activity and absorbed dose to the various organs, which is useful for comparison of the average dose to patient organs in various nuclear medicine procedures and calculation of effective dose equivalent and total effective dose, significant for an estimation of potential risk due to the radioactivity administered to a patient during nuclear medicine procedures. It is very important for procedures optimization and improvement of the radiation protection. (author)

  13. Quantitative eye tracking tests in lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloh, R.W.; Langhofer, L.; Brown, C.P.; Spivey, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer system for on-lone analysis of saccadic and smooth-pursuit tracking eye movements is described. Results from a longitudinal study of lead workers and matched controls reveal a consistent decrease in saccade accuracy in the lead workers compared to the controls. Saccade peak velocity and latency and smooth pursuit were not significantly different in the two groups. The abnormal saccade accuracy measurements may indicate a subclinical effect of increased lead absorption, but because of the large scatter in normal values, saccade accuracy measurements are not a reliable indicator of early lead toxicity in a single lead worker.

  14. How lead loses its toxicity to plants

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of the problem of lead-in the environment, particularly constitutional tolerance to lead about which little is known. Taking Allium cepa L. roots as a model it has been shown that after an initial phase in which lead is toxic to cells, defence processes appear with the results that lead is no longer poisonous. The lead which penetrates into the root symplast is detoxified in vacuoles, cell walls and dictiosomal vesicles. Initial cells of the meristem (quescent cen...

  15. “Four overall”Lead New Development of Chinesecharacteristics socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝志强

    2015-01-01

    “Four overall”is strategic policy of the Party and the State under the new circumstances,including building a moderately prosperous society,comprehensively deepen reforms,promoting the rule of law,comprehensive strictly administering the party.“Four overall”isnot only self -contained,and interconnected,which exists throughout the great practice of Chinese characteristics socialism.“Four overall”reflects China's development of new needs,and responses new law of socialism with Chinese characteristics,it responds to new expectations withpeople.Thus,it must lead the new development socialism of Chinese characteristics.

  16. A neuropsychological study of children with elevated dentine lead level: Assessment of the effect of lead in different socio-economic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, O.N.; Trillingsgaard, A.; Beese, I.; Lyngbye, T.; Grandjean, P. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-05-01

    The study was carried out in the municipality of Aarhus, a city of 250,000 inhabitants. The study was designed as a cross-sectional cohort study of school children in first grade in 1982-83. A total of 2,412 children were contacted and asked to submit their shed teeth to the teacher, and 1,291 children delivered at least one usable tooth (response rate, 54 percent). The lead level in circumpulpal dentin showed an average of 10.7 micrograms/g. Eight percent of the children (N = 110) had a lead level above 18.7 micrograms/g and were selected as a high lead exposure group. This group was matched by sex and socio-economic status of the parents with control children with a dentin lead level below 5 micrograms/g. Following a detailed interview with the parents, children were excluded from the study if medical risk factors were present. A clinical psychologist, blind to the lead data, administered selected psychometric tests to 162 of the children selected. The high-lead children scored lower on the WISC when compared to low-lead children, especially on the Verbal IQ (p less than 0.001) and Full Scale IQ (p less than 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the high- and low-exposure groups on the Performance IQ and on several experimental tests. Impaired function associated with lead exposure was also found on the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test (p less than 0.001) and on a behavioral rating scale (p less than 0.01). These results remained statistically significant even after controlling for socio-economic status and other confounding variables.

  17. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert;

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eider......, contain high concentrations of lead. In a cross-sectional population survey in Greenland in 1993-1994, blood lead adjusted for age and sex was found to be associated with the reported consumption of sea birds. Participants reporting less than weekly intake of sea birds had blood lead concentrations of...... approximately 75 microg/L, whereas those who reported eating sea birds several times a week had concentrations of approximately 110 microg/L, and those who reported daily intake had concentrations of 170 microg/L (p = 0.01). Blood lead was not associated with dietary exposure to other local or imported food...

  18. Experimental oral lead toxicity in young dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, H.D.; Goyer, R.A.; Krigman, M.M.; Wilson, M.; Cates, M.

    1973-02-01

    Litter-mate male pups were fed a calcium-and-phosphorus-low purified diet with and without 100 ppm of lead as lead acetate from age 6 to 18 weeks. Lead-toxic dogs exhibited cyclic but terminally severe anorexia and cachexia, significant anemia, normoblastocytosis and leukopenia within six weeks, hypoproteinemia, decreased serum albumin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-globulin, ..beta../sub 2/-globulin, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase 1, elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases, delayed closure of the thoracic vertebral epiphyses, lead lines in the distal radii and thoracic spinous processes, enlargement of liver, kidney, and brain, hepatic fatty metamorphosis, focal proximal renal tubular necrosis, hydropic degeneration of spermatognia, and lead inclusion body formation. Approximately 97% of the tissue lead was estimated to be skeletal; the greatest concentration of lead in the brain was found in the occipital gray matter.

  19. How lead loses its toxicity to plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Wierzbicka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief review of the problem of lead-in the environment, particularly constitutional tolerance to lead about which little is known. Taking Allium cepa L. roots as a model it has been shown that after an initial phase in which lead is toxic to cells, defence processes appear with the results that lead is no longer poisonous. The lead which penetrates into the root symplast is detoxified in vacuoles, cell walls and dictiosomal vesicles. Initial cells of the meristem (quescent centre which play a basic role in the root regeneration processes are protected against lead penetration. This surprising result is in agreement with the absence of any symptoms of lead poisoning in plants growing in natural conditions, and suggests that there is a defence mechanism specific only for plant cells.

  20. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention. PMID:27314364