Sample records for administered lna-antimir leads

  1. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat


    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  2. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)


    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  3. Oral Migalastat HCl Leads to Greater Systemic Exposure and Tissue Levels of Active α-Galactosidase A in Fabry Patients when Co-Administered with Infused Agalsidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Warnock

    Full Text Available Migalastat HCl (AT1001, 1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin is an investigational pharmacological chaperone for the treatment of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A deficiency, which leads to Fabry disease, an X-linked, lysosomal storage disorder. The currently approved, biologics-based therapy for Fabry disease is enzyme replacement therapy (ERT with either agalsidase alfa (Replagal or agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme. Based on preclinical data, migalastat HCl in combination with agalsidase is expected to result in the pharmacokinetic (PK enhancement of agalsidase in plasma by increasing the systemic exposure of active agalsidase, thereby leading to increased cellular levels in disease-relevant tissues. This Phase 2a study design consisted of an open-label, fixed-treatment sequence that evaluated the effects of single oral doses of 150 mg or 450 mg migalastat HCl on the PK and tissue levels of intravenously infused agalsidase (0.2, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/kg in male Fabry patients. As expected, intravenous administration of agalsidase alone resulted in increased α-Gal A activity in plasma, skin, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs compared to baseline. Following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase, α-Gal A activity in plasma was further significantly increased 1.2- to 5.1-fold compared to agalsidase administration alone, in 22 of 23 patients (95.6%. Importantly, similar increases in skin and PBMC α-Gal A activity were seen following co-administration of migalastat HCl and agalsidase. The effects were not related to the administered migalastat HCl dose, as the 150 mg dose of migalastat HCl increased α-Gal A activity to the same extent as the 450 mg dose. Conversely, agalsidase had no effect on the plasma PK of migalastat. No migalastat HCl-related adverse events or drug-related tolerability issues were NCT01196871.

  4. Lead (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  5. Township Administered Roads (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  6. Palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas Case: Administer Oy


    Vänttinen, Sakari


    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas sähköisen taloushallinnon palveluntarjoajalle Administer Oy:lle. Työn päätavoitteena oli luoda palkanlaskennan perehdytysopas Administer Oy:n sisäiseen käyttöön. Perehdytysoppaan on tarkoitus tukea ja selkeyttää uusien palkanlaskijoiden työn aloittamista ja työtehtävien omaksumista. Perehdytysoppaan tavoitteena on lisäksi nopeuttaa ja helpottaa perehdyttäjien työtä perehdytysprosessin aikana. Työ keskittyy vain palkanlaskentapalveluun...

  7. 22 CFR 196.4 - Administering office. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administering office. 196.4 Section 196.4... AFFAIRS/GRADUATE FOREIGN AFFAIRS FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 196.4 Administering office. The Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources, Office of Recruitment is responsible for administering the Thomas...

  8. Nurse-administered propofol sedation for endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J T; Vilmann, P; Horsted, T;


    The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program.......The aim of the present study was to perform a risk analysis during the implementation phase of nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) and to validate our structured training program....

  9. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests (United States)

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni


    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  10. Lead Poisoning (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  11. Lead Toxicity (United States)

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  12. The radiation dosimetry of intrathecally administered radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Evans, J.F. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    The radiation dose to the spine, spinal cord, marrow, and other organs of the body from intrathecal administration of several radiopharmaceuticals was studied. Anatomic models were developed for the spine, spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), spinal cord, spinal skeleton, cranial skeleton, and cranial CSF. A kinetic model for the transport of CSF was used to determine residence times in the CSF; material leaving the CSF was thereafter assumed to enter the bloodstream and follow the kinetics of the radiopharmaceutical as if intravenously administered. The radiation transport codes MCNP and ALGAMP were used to model the electron and photon transport and energy deposition. The dosimetry of Tc-99m DTPA and HSA, In-111 DTPA, I-131 HSA, and Yb-169 DTPA was studied. Radiation dose profiles for the spinal cord and marrow in the spine were developed and average doses to all other organs were estimated, including dose distributions within the bone and marrow.

  13. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David


    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Emanuela IONIŢĂ


    Full Text Available Both judicial practice and specialized texts have brought up the problem of what the punishment for breaking the legal provisions in the activity of evidence administration is, if a matter of fact had been presented by means that are not legally specified or if a piece of evidence was administered by means that are legally specified, but with the violation of legal provisions. Romania has adhered to the most important international juridical instruments adopted in the sphere of human rights by the adoption, modification or completion of internal legislation. As such, for the first time in Romanian criminal procedural legislation, a sanction for the exclusion of evidence has been introduced, as a corollary for the principle of legality and of loyalty in administering evidence. The New Criminal Procedure Code provides the sanction of exclusion as well, but this time the legislator didn’t resume his or herself to a mere conceptual regulation of the sanction, providing both a specific invalidation procedure as well as procedural solutions. In the New Criminal Procedure Code it is shown that in the sphere of evidence-showing a set of rules has been introduced that establishes the principle of loyalty in the obtainment of evidence. These rules, that provide the sanction of excluding evidence obtained through illegal or unloyal means, will determined the growth of professionalism in the ranks of the judiciary bodies on the subject of obtaining evidence and, on the other hand, will guarantee the firm upholding of the parties rights to a fair trial. “Truth, like all other good things, may be loved unwisely – may be pursued too keenly – may cost too much…” Lord Justice Sir James Lewis Knight-Bruce ”It is a deeply ingrained value in our democratic system that the ends do not justify the means. In particular, evidence or convictions may, at times, be obtained at too high a price”. – Antonio Lamer Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

  15. Lead Test (United States)

    ... months, and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. A blood lead level test should be done only if the risk ... recommended if the person is symptomatic at any level below 70 mcg/dL. Because lead will pass through the blood to an unborn child, pregnant ...

  16. Lead Poisoning (United States)

    ... menopause.) Once the lead is released from the mother's bones, it re-enters the blood stream and ... drinks. Avoid eating off any colorfully painted ceramic plates, and avoid drinking from any ceramic mugs unless ...

  17. Lead Poisoning (United States)

    ... Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... OTHERS: Lead has recently been found in some plastic mini-blinds and vertical blinds which were made ...

  18. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.


    -99% pure population of leukocytes. Viability was assessed using Trypan blue histological analysis. We successfully isolated and labeled ~25-30 x 10{sup 7} CD34+ lymphocytes in cytokine mobilized progenitor cell apharesis harvests. Cells were also subjected to a stat gram stain to look for bacterial contamination, stat endotoxin LAL to look for endotoxin contamination, flow cytometry for evaluation of the purity of the cells and 14-day sterility culture. Colony forming assays confirm the capacity of these cells to proliferate and function ex-vivo with CFU-GM values of 26 colonies/ 1 x 10{sup 4} cells plated and 97% viability in cytokine augmented methylcellulose at 10-14 days in CO{sub 2} incubation. We developed a closed-processing system for the product labeling prior to infusion to maintain autologous cell integrity and sterility. Release criteria for the labeled product were documented for viability, cell count and differential, and measured radiolabel. We were successful in labeling the cells with up to 500 uCi/10{sup 8} cells, with viability of >98%. However, due to delays in getting the protocol approved by the FDA, the cells were not infused in humans in this location (although we did successfully use CD34+ cells in humans in a study in Australia). The approach developed should permit labeling of progenitor cells that can be administered to human subjects for tracking. The labeling approach should be useful for all progenitor cell types, although this would need to be verified since different cell lines may have differential radiosensitivity.

  19. Ecotoxicology: Lead (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.


    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  20. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia


    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  1. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes


    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also...

  2. A Computer-Administered Examination in Professional Ethics. (United States)

    White, Michael J.


    Presents rationale and procedure for a computer-administered examination in professional ethics. Discusses advantages and implications of computer-administered testing in professional ethics, noting benefits for instructors and students of professional ethics in counseling and counseling psychology. (Author/NB)

  3. Findings from Survey Administered to Weatherization Training Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report summarizes results of a survey administered to directors of weatherization training centers that receive funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The survey presents results related to questions on training offered and future plans.

  4. Long-term evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy-like symptoms in rotenone administered rats. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Laura; Philip, Ann L; Martinez, Juan C; Guttierez, Juan C; Marella, Mathieu; Patki, Gaurav; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao; Thomas, Biju B


    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that lead to the loss of central vision. This study is aimed at evaluating the LHON symptoms in rats administered with rotenone microspheres into the superior colliculus (SC). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis showed substantial loss of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in rotenone injected rats. Optokinetic testing in rotenone treated rats showed decrease in head-tracking response. Electrophysiological mapping of the SC surface demonstrated attenuation of visually evoked responses; however, no changes were observed in the ERG data. The progressive pattern of disease manifestation in rotenone administered rats demonstrated several similarities with human disease symptoms. These rats with LHON-like symptoms can serve as a model for future investigators to design and implement reliable tests to assess the beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions for LHON disease.

  5. 40 CFR 282.68 - Louisiana State-Administered Program. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Louisiana State-Administered Program. 282.68 Section 282.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.68...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEChang-Hai; XUJian-Qiu; ZHUYue-Hua; SHIYong-En


    Comparative studies on pharmacokinetics of vaginally and orally administered levonorgestrel (LNG) tablet (Postinor) in one single dose containing 0,75mg LNG were performed. The pharmacokinetics of LNG and its effects on ovarian functions werealso studied after repeated vaginal administration.

  7. Hemodynamic effects of calcium gluconate administered to conscious horses. (United States)

    Grubb, T L; Foreman, J H; Benson, G J; Thurmon, J C; Tranquilli, W J; Constable, P D; Olson, W O; Davis, L E


    Calcium gluconate was administered to conscious horses at 3 different rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg/min for 15 minutes each). Serum calcium concentrations and parameters of cardiovascular function were evaluated. All 3 calcium administration rates caused marked increases in both ionized and total calcium concentrations, cardiac index, stroke index, and cardiac contractility (dP/dtmax). Mean arterial pressure and right atrial pressure were unchanged; heart rate decreased markedly during calcium administration. Ionized calcium concentration remained between 54% and 57% of total calcium concentration throughout the study. We conclude that calcium gluconate can safely be administered to conscious horses at 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg/min and that administration will result in improved cardiac function.

  8. Efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered by ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesgaard, Kristian Dahl; Nikolajsen, Lone; Giebner, Matthias


    BACKGROUND: Management of pain in the pre-hospital setting is often inadequate. In 2011, ambulance personnel were authorized to administer intravenous fentanyl in the Central Denmark Region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous fentanyl administered...... by ambulance personnel. METHODS: Pre-hospital medical charts from 2348 adults treated with intravenous fentanyl by ambulance personnel during a 6-month period were reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in pain intensity on a numeric rating scale (NRS) from before fentanyl treatment to hospital arrival...... patients (1.3%) and hypotension observed in 71 patients (3.0%). CONCLUSION: Intravenous fentanyl caused clinically meaningful pain reduction in most patients and was safe in the hands of ambulance personnel. Many patients had moderate to severe pain at hospital arrival. As the protocol allowed higher doses...

  9. The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin


    Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

  10. Fetal Tachycardia Treated Successfully with Maternally Administered Propylthiouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara V. Parilla


    Full Text Available Background. Fetal tachycardia may result from the transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins in a patient with hypothyroidism secondary to ablation of Graves’ disease. Case. A 32-year-old woman, gravida 4, para 2, and abortus 1, with hypothyroidism and a history of Graves’ disease, presented at 23 6/7 weeks of gestation with a persistent fetal tachycardia. The treatment of the fetal tachycardia with maternally administered digoxin and Sotalol was unsuccessful. Maternal thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were elevated, and treatment with maternally administered propylthiouracil (PTU resulted in a normal sinus rhythm for the remainder of the pregnancy. An induction of labor was performed at 37 weeks. Four to five days after delivery, the neonate exhibited clinical signs of hyperthyroidism necessitating treatment. Conclusion. Fetal tachycardia resulting from the transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins can be successfully treated with maternally administered PTU. The neonate needs to be followed up closely as clinical signs of hyperthyroidism may occur as thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins continue to circulate in the neonate, while the serum levels of PTU decline.

  11. A self administered reliable questionnaire to assess lower bowel symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelaris Peter H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bowel symptoms are considered indicators of the presence of colorectal cancer and other bowel diseases. Self administered questionnaires that elicit information about lower bowel symptoms have not been assessed for reliability, although this has been done for upper bowel symptoms. Our aim was to develop a self administered questionnaire for eliciting the presence, nature and severity of lower bowel symptoms potentially related to colorectal cancer, and assess its reliability. Methods Immediately before consulting a gastroenterologist or colorectal surgeon, 263 patients likely to have a colonoscopy completed the questionnaire. Reliability was assessed in two ways: by assessing agreement between patient responses and (a responses given by the doctor at the consultation; and (b responses given by patients two weeks later. Results There was more than 75% agreement for 78% of the questions for the patient-doctor comparison and for 92% of the questions for the patient-patient comparison. Agreement for the length of time a symptom was present, its severity, duration, frequency of occurrence and whether or not medical consultation had been sought, all had agreement of greater than 70%. Over all questions, the chance corrected agreement for the patient-doctor comparison had a median kappa of 65% (which represents substantial agreement, interquartile range 57–72%. The patient-patient comparison also showed substantial agreement with a median kappa of 75%, interquartile range 68–81%. Conclusion This self administered questionnaire about lower bowel symptoms is a useful way of eliciting details of bowel symptoms. It is a reliable instrument that is acceptable to patients and easily completed. Its use could guide the clinical consultation, allowing a more efficient, comprehensive and useful interaction, ensuring that all symptoms are assessed. It will also be a useful tool in research studies on bowel symptoms and their predictive

  12. Administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Miller, Douglas R.


    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for administering an epoch initiated for remote memory access that include: initiating, by an origin application messaging module on an origin compute node, one or more data transfers to a target compute node for the epoch; initiating, by the origin application messaging module after initiating the data transfers, a closing stage for the epoch, including rejecting any new data transfers after initiating the closing stage for the epoch; determining, by the origin application messaging module, whether the data transfers have completed; and closing, by the origin application messaging module, the epoch if the data transfers have completed.

  13. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice. (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A


    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  14. Urinary metabolites of daidzin orally administered in rats. (United States)

    Yasuda, T; Ohsawa, K


    In a study on the metabolism of flavonoids, the isoflavone glycoside daidzin was orally administered to rats. Urine samples were collected and treated with beta-glucuronidase and arylsulfatase. Aglycone daidzein (M3) and other three metabolites, 3',4',7-trihydroxyisoflavone (M1), 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavanone (M2) and 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavan (M4) were isolated from the urine following treatment with enzymes. The structures of M1, M2 and M4 were determined on the basis of chemical and spectral data.

  15. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  16. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  17. 45 CFR 400.66 - Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility and payment levels in a publicly-administered RCA program. 400.66 Section 400.66 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...-administered RCA program. (a) In administering a publicly-administered refugee cash assistance program,...

  18. A Controlled Study to Assess the Clinical Efficacy of Totally Self-Administered Systematic Desensitization (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald M.; And Others


    Highly anxious self-referred snake phobics received either (a) therapist-administered desensitization, (b) self-administered desensitization with weekly therapist phone calls, (c) totally self-administered desensitization, (d) self-administered double-blind placebo control, or (e) no treatment. Pretreatment to posttreatment measures revealed…

  19. Metabolism of exogenously administered natural surfactant in the newborn lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatz, T.; Ikegami, M.; Jobe, A.


    (/sup 3/H)-Palmitate labeled natural lamb surfactant and free (/sup 14/C)-choline were mixed with the lung fluid of 11 term lambs at cesarean section, before the first breath. After receiving the isotope, the lambs were delivered, allowed to breathe spontaneously, and were subsequently sacrificed from 5 min to 96 h of age. Alveolar washes, lung homogenates, microsomal and lamellar body fractions of lungs, and pulmonary alveolar macrophages were examined for the presence of labeled phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the labeled natural surfactant kinetic data revealed an apparent t 1/2 of phosphatidylcholine in the whole lung of 6.0 days. This half-life can be interpreted only as a rough estimate. Appearance of considerable (/sup 3/H) labeled phosphatidylcholine in the lung homogenates demonstrated uptake of phosphatidylcholine from alveoli into lung tissue. The surfactant-associated label in homogenates was localized preferentially to lamellar body fractions. Some of the administered (/sup 14/C)-choline appeared in phosphatidylcholine. Almost all of this labeled phosphatidylcholine was associated with the homogenate. Extremely small % of administered (3H) and (14C) were found in pulmonary alveolar macrophages.

  20. Biological index of environmental lead pollution: accumulation of lead in liver and kidney in mice. (United States)

    Takano, T; Okutomi, Y; Mochizuki, M; Ochiai, Y; Yamada, F; Mori, M; Ueda, F


    Lead (Pb) is known to be highly poisonous, and the acute poisoning of Cd causes the abdominal pains, vomiting, and shock. The digestive and nervous symptom is observed in the chronic lead poisoning. It was also known that the defect in hemoglobin synthesis by Pb produce anemia. The release of Pb into the environment presents a source of exposure for wild animals. In this study, we examined the utility of a new Pb-monitoring index in mice administered Pb. A solution containing 0.02, 0.2, 2, or 4 ppm lead chloride (PbCl2) was administered intraperitoneally to mice, and the Pb contents of the kidney and liver were determined at designated time points. The mean Pb content of both organs increased depending on the administered Pb dosage. Although the results of control was near the detection limits, the administration of 4 ppm in 4 weeks resulted in Pb levels of 260 mg ppm/wet weight and 110 ppm wet weight in the kidney and liver, respectively. However, there were no significant relationships among administered dose, duration of Pb treatment, and liver or kidney Pb content. Then, values in all mice administered control or 0.02 mg Pb were located inside the ellipse, representing the confidence area of the new index, and values in all mice administered more than 2 mg Pb were located outside the ellipse. These results confirm that animals exposed to high concentrations of Pb would be detected by this new index.

  1. The relationship between administered radiopharmaceutical activity in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and imaging outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, C.N.; Aswegen, A. van; Tout, D.A. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Julious, S.A. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Nunan, T.O. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Thomson, W.H. [Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Tindale, W.B. [Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Underwood, S.R. [Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Royal Brompton Hospital, London (United Kingdom)


    Lower radiopharmaceutical activities are used for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in the UK than in other countries. There is no evidence to suggest that higher activities improve imaging or clinical outcome. We undertook a multicentre study of the relationship between radiopharmaceutical activity and imaging outcome. Fifty-one patients with clinical referrals for MPS followed a 2-day protocol with an injection of 1,000 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin for each of the stress and rest images. ECG-gated acquisition was performed in three rotations occupying 25, 35 and 40% of a standard acquisition, and rotations were summed to simulate administered activities of 250, 400, 750 and 1,000 MBq. Each set of images was reported by an experienced physician who was blinded to all clinical information and to the simulated activity. Scores were assigned for image quality, low count, attenuation and reconstruction artefact, segmental tracer uptake, segmental and global defect classification, and confidence in the global classification. The images were reported twice to assess intra-observer variability. Positive relationships were found between administered activity and overall image quality, observer confidence and intra-observer agreement of uptake score, and a negative relationship was found with low-count artefact. For the majority of comparisons, there was no additional improvement with increasing activity from 750 to 1,000 MBq. Intra-observer agreement was found to be better in female patients and in those below average body mass index. We conclude that higher administered radiopharmaceutical activities lead to better quality images and improved surrogate parameters for clinical outcome, but that activities above 750 MBq may be unnecessary in average patients. (orig.)

  2. Techniques to administer oral, inhalational, and IV sedation in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Krystyna Harbuz


    Full Text Available Background Sedation in dentistry is a controversial topic given the variety of opinions regarding its safe practice. Aims This article evaluates the various techniques used to administer sedation in dentistry and specific methods practiced to form a recommendation for clinicians. Methods An extensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Google, and local library resources. Results Most of the literature revealed a consensus that light sedation on low-risk American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA groups, that is ASA I, and possibly II, is the safest method for sedation in a dental outpatient setting. Conclusion Formal training is essential to achieve the safe practice of sedation in dentistry or medicine. The appropriate setting for sedation should be determined as there is an increased risk outside the hospital setting. Patients should be adequately assessed and medication titrated appropriately, based on individual requirements.

  3. Moderate and deep nurse-administered propofol sedation is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Møller, Ann; Hornslet, Pernille;


    INTRODUCTION: Non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAPS/NAAP) is increasingly used in many countries. Most regimens aim for light or moderate sedation. Little evidence on safety of deep NAPS sedation is available. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of intermittent deep...... dose was 331.6 mg (standard deviation = 179.4 mg). The overall rate of hypoxia was 3.2%, and the rate of hypotension was 3.1%. Assisted ventilation was needed in 0.5%. Age (p ... with a higher rate of adverse events. CONCLUSION: Safety during intermittent deep sedation with NAPS was good. Age, ASA class 3 and total propofol dose were correlated with a higher rate of adverse events. Patients aged 60 years or more needed more handling during adverse events. FUNDING: Arvid Nilsson...

  4. Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E


    Administering truncated receive functions in a parallel messaging interface (`PMI`) of a parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PMI and through a data communications network, including: sending, through the PMI on a source compute node, a quantity of data from the source compute node to a destination compute node; specifying, by an application on the destination compute node, a portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application on the destination compute node and a portion of the quantity of data to be discarded; receiving, by the PMI on the destination compute node, all of the quantity of data; providing, by the PMI on the destination compute node to the application on the destination compute node, only the portion of the quantity of data to be received by the application; and discarding, by the PMI on the destination compute node, the portion of the quantity of data to be discarded.

  5. Registered nurse-administered sedation for gastrointestinalendoscopic procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The rising use of nonanesthesiologist-administeredsedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy has clinicalsignificances. Most endoscopic patients require someforms of sedation and/or anesthesia. The goals ofthis sedation are to guard the patient's safety, minimizephysical discomfort, to control behavior and todiminish psychological responses. Generally, moderatesedation for these procedures has been offered by thenon-anesthesiologist by using benzodiazepines and/oropioids. Anesthesiologists and non-anesthesiologistpersonnel will need to work together for these challengesand for safety of the patients. The sedationtraining courses including clinical skills and knowledgeare necessary for the registered nurses to facilitate thepatient safety and the successful procedure. However,appropriate patient selection and preparation, adequatemonitoring and regular training will ensure that the useof nurse-administered sedation is a feasible and safetechnique for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

  6. Peripherally administered orexin improves survival of mice with endotoxin shock (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Irukayama-Tomobe, Yoko; Murakoshi, Nobuyuki; Kiyama, Maiko; Ishikawa, Yui; Hosokawa, Naoto; Tominaga, Hiromu; Uchida, Shuntaro; Kimura, Saki; Kanuka, Mika; Morita, Miho; Hamada, Michito; Takahashi, Satoru; Hayashi, Yu; Yanagisawa, Masashi


    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, accounting for the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Here, we report that peripheral administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin improves the survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxin shock, a well-studied septic shock model. The effect is accompanied by a suppression of excessive cytokine production and an increase of catecholamines and corticosterone. We found that peripherally administered orexin penetrates the blood-brain barrier under endotoxin shock, and that central administration of orexin also suppresses the cytokine production and improves the survival, indicating orexin’s direct action in the central nervous system (CNS). Orexin helps restore body temperature and potentiates cardiovascular function in LPS-injected mice. Pleiotropic modulation of inflammatory response by orexin through the CNS may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for septic shock. DOI: PMID:28035899

  7. Lead and the Romans (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.


    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  8. Lead and the Romans (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.


    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  9. Opponent process properties of self-administered cocaine. (United States)

    Ettenberg, Aaron


    Over the past decade, data collected in our laboratory have demonstrated that self-administered cocaine produces Opponent-Process-like behavioral effects. Animals running a straight alley once each day for IV cocaine develop over trials an approach-avoidance conflict about re-entering the goal box. This conflict behavior is characterized by a stop in forward locomotion (usually at the very mouth of the goal box) followed by a turn and 'retreat' back toward the goal box. The results of a series of studies conducted over the past decade collectively suggest that the behavioral ambivalence exemplified by rats running the alley for IV cocaine stems from concurrent and opponent positive (rewarding) and negative (anxiogenic) properties of the drug--both of which are associated with the goal box. These opponent properties of cocaine have been shown to result from temporally distinct affective states. Using a conditioned place preference test, we have been able to demonstrate that while the initial immediate effects of IV cocaine are reinforcing, the state present 15 min post-injection is aversive. In our most recent work, the co-administration of IV cocaine with either oral ethanol or IV heroin was found to greatly diminish the development and occurrence of retreat behaviors in the runway. It may therefore be that the high incidence of co-abuse of cocaine with either ethanol or heroin, stems from the users' motivation to alleviate some of the negative side effects of cocaine. It would seem then that the Opponent Process Theory has provided a useful conceptual framework for the study of the behavioral consequences of self-administered cocaine including the notion that both positive and negative reinforcement mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of cocaine abuse.

  10. Safety of florfenicol administered in feed to tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Schleis, Susan M.; Tuomari, Darrell; Endris, Richard G.


    The safety of Aquaflor® (50% w/w florfenicol [FFC]) incorporated in feed then administered to tilapia for 20 days (2x the recommended duration) at 0, 15, 45, or 75 mg/kg body weight/day (0, 1, 3, or 5x the recommended dose of 15 mg FFC/kg BW/d) was investigated. Mortality, behavioral change, feed consumption, body size, and gross and microscopic lesions were determined. Estimated delivered doses were >96.9% of target. Three unscheduled mortalities occurred but were considered incidental since FFC-related findings were not identified. Feed consumption was only affected during the last 10 dosing days when the 45 and 75 mg/kg groups consumed only 62.5% and 55.3% of the feed offered, respectively. There were significant, dose-dependent reductions in body size in the FFC-dose groups relative to the controls. Treatment-related histopathological findings included increased severity of lamellar epithelial hyperplasia, increased incidence of lamellar adhesions, decreased incidence of lamellar telangiectasis in the gills, increased glycogen-type and lipid-type hepatocellular vacuolation in the liver, decreased lymphocytes, increased blast cells, and increased individual cell necrosis in the anterior kidney, and tubular epithelial degeneration and mineralization in the posterior kidney. These changes are likely to be of minimal clinical relevance, given the lack of mortality or morbidity observed. This study has shown that FFC, when administered in feed to tilapia at the recommended dose (15 mg FFC/kg BW/day) for 10 days would be well tolerated.

  11. Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience (United States)

    Repici, Alessandro; Pagano, Nico; Hassan, Cesare; Carlino, Alessandra; Rando, Giacomo; Strangio, Giuseppe; Romeo, Fabio; Zullo, Angelo; Ferrara, Elisa; Vitetta, Eva; Ferreira, Daniel de Paula Pessoa; Danese, Silvio; Arosio, Massimo; Malesci, Alberto


    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected. RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively. CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation. PMID:21987624

  12. Balanced propofol sedation administered by nonanesthesiologists: The first Italian experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Repici; Eva Vitetta; Daniel de Paula Pessoa Ferreira; Silvio Danese; Massimo Arosio; Alberto Malesci; Nico Pagano; Cesare Hassan; Alessandra Carlino; Giacomo Rando; Giuseppe Strangio; Fabio Romeo; Angelo Zullo; Elisa Ferrara


    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a balanced approach using midazolam in combination with propofol, administered by non-anesthesiologists, in a large series of diagnostic colonoscopies.METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy were sedated with a single dose of midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and low-dose propofol (starter bolus of 0.5 mg/kg and repeated boluses of 10 to 20 mg). Induction time and deepest level of sedation, adverse and serious adverse events, as well as recovery times, were prospectively assessed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were also collected.RESULTS: Overall, 1593 eligible patients were included. The median dose of propofol administered was 70 mg (range: 40-120 mg), and the median dose of midazolam was 2.3 mg (range: 2-4 mg). Median induction time of sedation was 3 min (range: 1-4 min), and median recovery time was 23 min (range: 10-40 min). A moderate level of sedation was achieved in 1561 (98%) patients, whilst a deep sedation occurred in 32 (2%) cases. Transient oxygen desaturation requiring further oxygen supplementation occurred in 8 (0.46%; 95% CI: 0.2%-0.8%) patients. No serious adverse event was observed. Cecal intubation and adenoma detection rates were 93.5% and 23.4% (27.8% for male and 18.5% for female, subjects), respectively.CONCLUSION: A balanced sedation protocol provided a minimalization of the dose of propofol needed to target a moderate sedation for colonoscopy, resulting in a high safety profile for non-anesthesiologist propofol sedation.

  13. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  14. Exposure variability of fosfomycin administered to pigs in food or water: impact of social rank. (United States)

    Soraci, Alejandro L; Amanto, Fabián; Tapia, María O; de la Torre, Eulalia; Toutain, Pierre-Louis


    The objective of this study was to document the effect of social ranking on the internal exposure of pigs to an antibiotic (fosfomycin) administered either in food or in drinking water. Signs of aggression were recorded at the feeder and drinker. The interindividual variability explained by the social rank was even greater when the test antibiotic was given in food despite the fact that the water consumption was less variable than the food intake. The range of plasma concentrations after administration of fosfomycin either in food or drinking water leads to a number of pigs in the treated group being exposed to rather low and highly variable concentrations of fosfomycin and not able to maintain adequate plasma concentrations above the typical minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Social rank clearly influences the level of exposure of pigs to fosfomycin both in food and drinking. However, its administration in drinking water is likely to be the best option to optimize antibiotic efficacy.

  15. Lead - nutritional considerations (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  16. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.


    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray. A study in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, P.D.; Jonker, D.M.; Hoeven, R.T. van der; Vermeij, T.A.; Edelbroek, P.M.; Brekelmans, G.J.; Haan, G.J. de


    AIMS: To investigate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of midazolam administered as a concentrated intranasal spray, compared with intravenous midazolam, in healthy adult subjects. METHODS: Subjects were administered single doses of 5 mg midazolam intranasally and intravenously in a cr

  18. Inducing and administering Tregs to treat human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Perdigoto


    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells control unwanted immune responses including those that mediate tolerance to self as well as to foreign antigens. Their mechanisms of action include direct and indirect effects on effector T cells and important functions in tissue repair and homeostasis. Regulatory T cells express a number of cell surface markers and transcriptional factors that have been instrumental in defining their origins and potentially their function. A number of immune therapies such as rapamycin, IL-2, as well as anti-T cell antibodies are able to induce regulatory T cells and are being tested for their efficacy in diverse clinical settings with exciting preliminary results. However, a balance exists with the use of some, such as IL-2 that may have effects on unwanted populations as well as promoting expansion and survival of regulatory T cells requiring careful selection of dose for clinical use. The use of cell surface markers has enabled investigators to isolate and expand ex vivo regulatory T cells more than 500-fold routinely. Clinical trials have begun, administering these expanded regulatory T cells to patients as a means of suppressing autoimmune and alloimmune response and potentially inducing immune tolerance. Studies in the future are likely to build on these initial technical achievements and use combinations of agents to improve the survival and functional capacity of regulatory T cells.

  19. Cardioprotective effect of Volvariella volvacea in streptozotocin administered rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soosaimanickam Carmel Punitha


    Full Text Available The present study examined the cardioprotective role of methanol extract of the edible mushroom Volvariella volvacea against oxidative stress in hyperglycemic rats. Rats divided into 6 groups were administered with nicotinamide and streptozotocin intraperitoneally, except Group I (control. Group II served as diabetic control. Group III was given glibenclamide. Two groups (IV and V of rats received (200 and 400 mg/kg mushroom extracts orally for 30 days and Group VI received vitamin E (40 mg/kg. After the treatment period, lipid peroxides, carbonyl end products, advanced glycation end products, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S transferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants (vitamin C and E were assessed in the heart tissues of experimental animals. Glycosylated hemoglobin was estimated in blood. Electrocardiography recordings of the treated groups were also done. The results showed that mushroom extract treatment reduced the lipid peroxides, advanced glycation end products and protein carbonyls significantly and reversed the altered anti-oxidant enzymes, and the vitamins.

  20. 45 CFR 400.65 - Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA program. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA... RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.65 Continuation of a publicly-administered RCA program. Sections 400.65 through 400.69 apply to publicly-administered RCA programs. If a State chooses to operate...

  1. 34 CFR 461.1 - What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic Grant Program? (United States)


    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ADULT EDUCATION STATE-ADMINISTERED BASIC GRANT PROGRAM General § 461.1 What is the Adult Education State-administered Basic...

  2. Bioequivalence in dogs of a meloxicam formulation administered as a transmucosal oral mist with an orally administered pioneer suspension product. (United States)

    Lees, P; Cheng, Z; Keefe, T J; Weich, E; Bryd, J; Cedergren, R; Cozzi, E


    A mucosal mist formulation of meloxicam, administered as a spray into the mouth (test article), was compared for bioequivalence to a pioneer meloxicam suspension for oral administration (reference article). Pharmacokinetic profiles and average bioequivalence were investigated in 20 dogs. The study design comprised a two-period, two-sequence, two-treatment cross-over design, with maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under plasma concentration-time curve to last sampling time (AUC(last)) used as pivotal bioequivalence variables. Bioequivalence of the products was confirmed, based on relative ratios of geometric mean concentrations (and 90% confidence intervals within the range 0.80-1.25) for C(max) of 101.9 (97.99-106.0) and for AUC(last) of 97.24 (94.44-100.1). The initial absorption of meloxicam was more rapid for the test article, despite virtually identical C(max) values for the two products. Mean elimination half-lives were 29.6 h (test article) and 30.0 h (reference article). The meloxicam plasma concentration-time profiles were considered in relation to published data on the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 isoenzymes by meloxicam.

  3. Rapid Lead Screening Test (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  4. Lead and tap water (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  5. Exposures to lead. (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L


    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  6. Lead and Your Baby (United States)

    ... who works with lead, like in auto repair, construction or in a plant that makes paint, batteries, ... who works with lead, like in auto repair, construction or in a plant that makes paint, batteries, ...

  7. Lead Poisoning (For Parents) (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  8. Occupational lead poisoning


    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.


    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  9. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Document Server


    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Children. (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.


    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  11. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Document Server


    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  12. Lead-Free Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahm, Sahn


    Ecological restrictions in many parts of the world are demanding the elimination of Pb from all consumer items. At this moment in the piezoelectric ceramics industry, there is no issue of more importance than the transition to lead-free materials. The goal of Lead-Free Piezoelectrics is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and developments in the field of lead-free materials and products to leading researchers in the world. The text presents chapters on demonstrated applications of the lead-free materials, which will allow readers to conceptualize the present possibilities and will be useful for both students and professionals conducting research on ferroelectrics, piezoelectrics, smart materials, lead-free materials, and a variety of applications including sensors, actuators, ultrasonic transducers and energy harvesters.

  13. Lead Poison Detection (United States)


    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  14. Comparison of total costs of administering calcium polycarbophil and psyllium mucilloid in an institutional setting. (United States)

    Mamtani, R; Cimino, J A; Cooperman, J M; Kugel, R


    The total cost of administering calcium polycarbophil per unit dose (two tablets) was compared with that of administering psyllium mucilloid (one packet dissolved in 8 oz of water) in 20 elderly nursing-home residents. Times for printing labels, checking and initialing labels, gathering materials needed, and preparing and administering the medications were recorded during at least 50 observations in each treatment group. Total cost included nurses' and pharmacists' time, materials, and medications. Calcium polycarbophil doses were prepared and administered more quickly (mean, 49.5 sec) than psyllium mucilloid (105.3 sec). The mean cost of preparing and administering a unit dose was 28.2 for calcium polycarbophil tablets and 59.9 for psyllium mucilloid. The results suggest that the use of calcium polycarbophil tablets would save time and money in institutions in which laxatives are frequently administered.

  15. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))


    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  16. The role of capnography in endoscopy patients undergoing nurse-administered propofol sedation: a randomized study. (United States)

    Slagelse, Charlotte; Vilmann, Peter; Hornslet, Pernille; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Horsted, Tina I


    OBJECTIVE. Standard benzodiazepine/opioid cocktail has proven inferior to propofol sedation during complicated endoscopic procedures and in low-tolerance patients. Propofol is a short-acting hypnotic with a potential risk of respiratory depression at levels of moderate to deep sedation. The existing literature on capnography for endoscopy patients sedated with nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) is limited. Can the addition of capnography to standard monitoring during endoscopy with NAPS reduce the number, duration, and level of hypoxia. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study was a randomized controlled trial with an intervention group (capnography) and a control group (without capnography). Eligible subjects were consecutive patients for endoscopy at Gentofte Hospital compliant with the criteria of NAPS. RESULTS. Five hundred and forty patients, 263 with capnography and 277 without capnography, were included in the analysis. The number and total duration of hypoxia was reduced by 39.3% and 21.1% in the intervention group compared to the control group (p > 0.05). No differences in actions taken against insufficient respiration were found. Changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide (R = 0.177, p-value 0.05). Capnography is able to detect insufficient respiration that may lead to hypoxia prior to changes in pulse oximetry. However, due to a limited clinical benefit and additional costs associated with capnography, we do not find capnography necessary during the use of NAPS.

  17. Lead Time Study, (United States)


    AD-A128 318 LEAD TIME STUDY (U) ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CDMMAND DOVER NJ SYSTEMS ANALYSIS DIV dI-T~~ CHU MAY 82 ARRAA 82- 3/ /l N...EhhEEE--E 1111.0 U 1 - I 1120 1.25I1,,-. 11.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI CHARI NATIONAL BUREAU 01 STANDARDt 19t,3 A co LEAD TIME STUDY c*A JULIE CHU MAY...188 D I.-f . . .... .. - r - .. " ’- -~ L - - _ _ __ ARRAA 82-3 LEAD TIME STUDY Prepared by:_ JL CHU Reviewed by:Li t’ ( LAWRENCE J. QWUNI Chief, Sys

  18. Lead effects on fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullino, M.L.; Fiussello, N.


    Addition of 0.01M lead nitrate to media caused complete inhibition of most of a group of 80 strains of fungi of several genera. Those which did grow at all had an extended lag period in comparison to controls. At 0.001M all the fungi grew, but had thinner-than-normal mycelia and delayed fruiting body formation. Fusarium species and members of Class Basidiomycetes were among the most sensitive, and Penicillium and Aspergillus species were the most tolerant. Lead uptake rates varied positively with lead nitrate concentration in the media. 9 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Subchronic dispositional and toxicological effects of arsenate administered in drinking water to mice. (United States)

    Hughes, M F; Thompson, D J


    Exposure to the drinking water contaminant arsenate is a daily occurrence and there are concerns that this exposure may lead to cancer. Although the acute dispositional effects of arsenate have been studied in detail, there is minimal information on the disposition and toxicological effects of it after continuous exposure. The objective of this study was to examine in mice the effect of a 4-wk treatment with arsenate administered in drinking water. Female B6C3F1 mice (3/cage) were housed in metabolism cages and given water and food ad libitum. Two groups (A, B) of mice were treated (4 cages/treatment/group) with distilled water (control, C) or water containing 0.025 mg/L (L) or 2.5 mg/L (H) arsenate. Group A was sacrificed on d 28 and plasma and urine samples were taken for determination of clinical chemistry parameters. Liver and kidney tissue samples were taken for histopathological analysis. The reduced nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) content in several tissues was determined. Group B was gavaged with [73As]arsenate on d 28 and continued the arsenate drinking water exposure for 48 h. Excreta and tissues were collected and analyzed for 73As. Urine was further analyzed for arsenate and its metabolites. There were no effects on the mean daily amount of water and food consumed, whereas the mean daily urine volume excreted was significantly elevated by 10% in the H-treated animals compared to C and L. A dose-related hepatic vacuolar degeneration in the liver was observed, but no histological changes were evident in the kidney. Only clinical chemistry parameters in plasma were altered by the arsenate treatment. Glucose was significantly lower at the H dose compared to C and L, triglycerides were significantly greater in C than L and H, and creatinine was significantly greater in H than C. Hepatic NPSH content in the H animals was significantly lower than C and L animals, whereas no effects in lung and kidney were detected. The weights of liver, lung, and kidney, as well

  20. Learn about Lead (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... 2 pp, 291 K, About PDF ) The most important step parents, doctors, and others can take is ...

  1. Lead levels - blood (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  2. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry


    , deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case......User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create...

  3. Alliance in Two Telephone-Administered Treatments: Relationship with Depression and Health Outcomes (United States)

    Beckner, Victoria; Vella, Lea; Howard, Isa; Mohr, David C.


    The present study examined the relationship between therapeutic alliance and both depression and health outcomes in a randomized clinical trial of 2 telephone-administered treatments with 97 clients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The 16-week, manualized treatments compared were telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) and…

  4. Nurse administered propofol sedation for pulmonary endoscopies requires a specific protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Banning, Anne-Marie; Clementsen, Paul;


    This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline".......This study provides an evaluation and risk analysis of propofol sedation for endoscopic pulmonary procedures according to our unit's "gastroenterologic nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) guideline"....

  5. 42 CFR 447.520 - FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. 447.520 Section 447.520 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... § 447.520 FFP: Conditions relating to physician-administered drugs. (a) No FFP is available...

  6. 40 CFR 131.8 - Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (United States)


    ... administer a water quality standards program. 131.8 Section 131.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS General Provisions § 131.8 Requirements for Indian Tribes to administer a water quality standards program. (a) The Regional Administrator,...

  7. 47 CFR 64.1110 - State notification of election to administer FCC rules. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State notification of election to administer FCC rules. 64.1110 Section 64.1110 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Telecommunications Service Providers § 64.1110 State notification of election to administer FCC rules. (a)...

  8. 20 CFR 664.610 - How is the summer employment opportunities element administered? (United States)


    ... element administered? 664.610 Section 664.610 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... Opportunities § 664.610 How is the summer employment opportunities element administered? Chief elected officials... recipient or fiscal agent under WIA section 117(d)(3)(B). If, in the administration of the summer...

  9. 40 CFR 147.250 - State-administered program-Class II wells. (United States)


    ... State of California, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the California... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.250 Section 147.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  10. Proinflammatory effects of exogenously administered IL-10 in experimental autoimmune orchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneko, Tetsushi; Itoh, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yoichi;


    We studied the effects of exogenously administered recombinant murine interleukin (IL)-10 on the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in C3H/He mice. IL-10 significantly augments histological signs of EAO when administered for 6 consecutive days from days 15 to 20 after primary...

  11. Lead-210 contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)


    Nearly all scrap dealers, smelters and other recyclers routinely monitor for radioactivity in shipments entering their facility. These sensitive radiation gate monitors easily detect radium-226 and most other radioactive nuclides. However, the type of detector normally used, sodium iodide scintillation crystals, will not detect the low energy gamma radiation emitted by lead-210 and its progeny. Since lead-210 is a common radioactive contaminant in certain industries, contaminated scrap metal from these industries may avoid detection at the recycler. Lead-210 is a decay product of radon-222 which is produced in small concentrations with natural gas. As the natural gas liquids, particularly ethane and propane, are separated from the natural gas, the radon concentrates in the ethane/propane fraction. The natural gas industry, particularly gas processing facilities and industries using ethane and propane as feed stocks can be significantly contaminated with the radon decay products, especially lead-210, bismuth-210 and polonium-210. Unless the scrap metal is decontaminated before sending to the recycler, the lead-210 contaminated scrap may be processed, resulting in some degree of radioactive contamination of the recycling facilities. Methods of detecting the low energy gamma radiation associated with lead-210 include the pancake G-M detector and the thin crystal-thin window scintillation detector.

  12. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads (United States)

    Panek, John


    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  13. Prenatal lead exposure and bone growth. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.D.; O' Flaherty, E.J.


    An experimental system of lead (7439921) related prenatal and postnatal growth retardation in rats was developed. Sprague-Dawley-rats and Long-Evans-rats were used in these studies. Rats were exposed to lead in their drinking water at up to 1000 parts per million. A significant effect on fetal bone mineralization could not be excluded and there was a definite effect on fetal body weight following maternal lead exposure. Reduced food intake during the first week of lead exposure was the primary determinant of reduced body and skeletal growth in the lead exposed weanling female rats. When maternal lead exposure was continued during lactation a greater degree of lead related growth retardation in rat offspring occurred than when maternal lead exposure was terminated at parturition. Combined prenatal and postnatal lead exposure impaired bone resorption and increased growth plate widths. In studies using matrix induced endochondral bone plaques, locally applied lead enhanced plaque mineralization through comineralization of lead with calcium. When lead was administered in drinking water, plaque mineralization was also enhanced through the comineralization of lead with calcium.

  14. Leading healthcare in complexity. (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey


    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  15. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl


    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...... studies and organizational phenomena....

  16. Change, Lead, Succeed (United States)

    Munger, Linda; von Frank, Valerie


    Redefine leadership in your school, and create capacity through school leadership teams that successfully coordinate professional learning. "Change, Lead, Succeed" shows school leaders and teachers in leadership roles what they need to know to effectively create a culture for change. Find out what distinguishes a school leadership team from other…

  17. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    As well as accelerators to boost particles up to high energy, physicists need detectors to see what happens when those particles collide. This lead glass block is part of a CERN detector called OPAL. OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  18. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakib Uddin RAYHAN


    Full Text Available Aim: Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Material and Methods: Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a “Cloud” database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. Results: This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient’s progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Conclusions: Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data.

  19. Effect of Glycine on Lead Mobilization, Lead-Induced Oxidative Stress, and Hepatic Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Alcaraz-Contreras


    Full Text Available The effectiveness of glycine in treating experimental lead intoxication was examined in rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 3 g/L lead acetate in drinking water for 5 weeks and treated thereafter with glycine (100 and 500 mg/kg, orally once daily for 5 days or glycine (1000 mg/kg, orally once daily for 28 days. The effect of these treatments on parameters indicative of oxidative stress (glutathione and malondialdehyde levels, the activity of blood -aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and lead concentration in blood, liver, kidney, brain, and bone were investigated. Liver samples were observed for histopathological changes. Glycine was found to be effective in (1 increasing glutathione levels; (2 reducing malondialdehyde levels; (3 decreasing lead levels in bone with the highest dose. However, glycine had no effect on lead mobilization when 100 and 500 mg/kg glycine were administered. In microscopic examination, glycine showed a protective effect against lead intoxication.

  20. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndazo S Minka


    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  1. Multi-omic profiles of hepatic metabolism in TPN-fed preterm pigs administered new generation lipid emulsions. (United States)

    Guthrie, Gregory; Kulkarni, Madhulika; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Stoll, Barbara; Ng, Kenneth; Martin, Camilia; Belmont, John; Hadsell, Darryl; Heird, William; Newgard, Christopher B; Olutoye, Oluyinka; van Goudoever, Johannes; Lauridsen, Charlotte; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Burrin, Douglas


    We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT. The fatty acid and acyl-CoA content of the liver, muscle, brain, and plasma fatty acids reflected the composition of the dietary lipids administered. Free carnitine and acylcarnitine (ACT) levels were markedly reduced in the PN groups compared with ENT piglets. Genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were increased, whereas those associated with alternative pathways of fatty acid oxidation were decreased in all PN groups. Our results show that new generation lipid emulsions directly enrich tissue fatty acids, especially in the brain, and lead to improved growth and insulin sensitivity compared with a soybean lipid emulsion. In all total PN groups, carnitine levels are limiting to the formation of ACTs and gene expression reflects the stress of excess lipid on liver function.

  2. 26 CFR 20.2053-3 - Deduction for expenses of administering estate. (United States)


    ..., the law and practice in the jurisdiction in which the estate is being administered, and the skill and... expenses include such expenses as court costs, surrogates' fees, accountants' fees, appraisers' fees,...

  3. Open-label, multicenter study of self-administered icatibant for attacks of hereditary angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Reshef, A


    Historically, treatment for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks has been administered by healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patient self-administration could reduce delays between symptom onset and treatment, and attack burden. The primary objective was to assess the safety of self...

  4. Enhanced brain targeting efficiency of intranasally administered plasmid DNA: an alternative route for brain gene therapy. (United States)

    Han, In-Kwon; Kim, Mi Young; Byun, Hyang-Min; Hwang, Tae Sun; Kim, Jung Mogg; Hwang, Kwang Woo; Park, Tae Gwan; Jung, Woon-Won; Chun, Taehoon; Jeong, Gil-Jae; Oh, Yu-Kyoung


    Recently, nasal administration has been studied as a noninvasive route for delivery of plasmid DNA encoding therapeutic or antigenic genes. Here, we examined the brain targeting efficiency and transport pathways of intranasally administered plasmid DNA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measurements of plasmid DNA in blood and brain tissues revealed that intranasally administered pCMVbeta (7.2 kb) and pN2/CMVbeta (14.1 kb) showed systemic absorption and brain distribution. Following intranasal administration, the beta-galactosidase protein encoded by these plasmids was significantly expressed in brain tissues. Kinetic studies showed that intranasally administered plasmid DNA reached the brain with a 2,595-fold higher efficiency than intravenously administered plasmid DNA did, 10 min post-dose. Over 1 h post-dose, the brain targeting efficiencies were consistently higher for intranasally administered plasmid DNA than for intravenously administered DNA. To examine how plasmid DNA enters the brain and moves to the various regions, we examined tissues from nine brain regions, at 5 and 10 min after intranasal or intravenous administration of plasmid DNA. Intravenously administered plasmid DNA displayed similar levels of plasmid DNA in the nine different regions, whereas, intranasally administered plasmid DNA exhibited different levels of distribution among the regions, with the highest plasmid DNA levels in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, plasmid DNA was mainly detected in the endothelial cells, but not in glial cells. Our results suggest that intranasally applied plasmid DNA may reach the brain through a direct route, possibly via the olfactory bulb, and that the nasal route might be an alternative method for efficiently delivering plasmid DNA to the brain.

  5. Evaluation of administered dose using portal images in craniospinal irradiation of pediatric patients. (United States)

    Coelho, Carina Marques; Calçada, Raquel; Rodrigues, Sofia; Barragán, Juan Antonio; Sá, Ana Cravo; Macedo, Ana Paula; de Fátima Monsanto, Maria


    This study aimed to assess the administered dose based on portal imaging in craniospinal pediatric irradiation by evaluating cases in which portal images did or did not account for the total administered dose. We also intended to calculate the mean increase in total administered dose. Data were collected from General University Hospital Gregorio Marañón; we evaluated the total dose administered, total dose planned, number of portal images per treatment and corresponding monitor units of two different groups: one in which the dose from portal images is deducted from the total administered dose (D), and another in which it was not (N). We used descriptive statistics to analyze the collected data, including the mean and respective standard deviation. We used the Shapiro-Wilk and Spearman rank correlation coefficient tests and estimated the linear regression coefficients. Patients in group D received a mean dose of 29.00 ± 10.28 cGy based on the verification portal images, a quantity that was deducted from the planned dose to match the total administered dose. Patients in group N received a mean dose of 41.50 ± 30.53 cGy, which was not deducted from the planned dose, evidencing a mean increase of 41.50 ± 30.55 cGy over the total administered dose. The acquisition of the set-up verification portal images, without their inclusion in the total administered dose, reflects an average increase in total dose for craniospinal irradiation of pediatric patients. Subtraction of the monitor units used to acquire the verification images is recommended.

  6. Effects of orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji


    The effect of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was examined in mice. After 9 d of colitis induction, weight loss, colon shortening, and the histological score were significantly suppressed in mice orally administered LPO (62.5 mg/body/d) as compared to a group administered bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that LPO exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Leading Generation Y (United States)


    ensure the success of their child, failure is not often experienced. These successes and the ease of childhood lead to not only confidence but an...Messaging, chatting on the cell phone and working on homework is a common place scene for teens and college students. “The level of Gen Yers entering the workforce with unrealistic expectations and a sense of entitlement. Barbara Dwyer, CEO of the Job Journey, states that

  8. Superconductivity of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorse, H.A.; Cook, D.B.; Zemansky, W.M.


    Numerous determinations of the zero-field transition temperature of lead have been made. All of these observations except that of Daunt were made by the direct measurement of electrical resistance. Daunt`s method involved the shielding effect of persistent currents in a hollow cylinder. In the authors work on columbium to be described in a forthcoming paper an a.c. induction method was used for the measurement of superconducting transitions. The superconductor was mounted as a cylindrical core of a coil which functioned as the secondary of a mutual inductance. The primary coil was actuated by an oscillator which provided a maximum a.c. field within the secondary of 1.5 oersteds at a frequency of 1000 cycles per second. The secondary e.m.f. which was dependent for its magnitude on the permeability of the core was amplified, rectifie, and observed on a recording potentiometer. During the application of this method to the study of columbium it appeared that a further check on the zero-field transition temperature of lead would be worth while especially if agreement between results for very pure samples could be obtained using this method. Such result would help in establishing the lead transition temperature as a reasonably reproducible reference point in the region between 4 deg and 10 deg K.

  9. The scientific basis for chelation: animal studies and lead chelation. (United States)

    Smith, Donald; Strupp, Barbara J


    This presentation summarizes several of the rodent and non-human studies that we have conducted to help inform the efficacy and clinical utility of succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccincinic acid) chelation treatment. We address the following questions: (1) What is the extent of body lead, and in particular brain lead reduction with chelation, and do reductions in blood lead accurately reflect reductions in brain lead? (2) Can succimer treatment alleviate the neurobehavioral impacts of lead poisoning? And (3) does succimer treatment, in the absence of lead poisoning, produce neurobehavioral deficits? Results from our studies in juvenile primates show that succimer treatment is effective at accelerating the elimination of lead from the body, but chelation was only marginally better than the complete cessation of lead exposure alone. Studies in lead-exposed adult primates treated with a single 19-day course of succimer showed that chelation did not measurably reduce brain lead levels compared to vehicle-treated controls. A follow-up study in rodents that underwent one or two 21-day courses of succimer treatment showed that chelation significantly reduced brain lead levels, and that two courses of succimer were significantly more efficacious at reducing brain lead levels than one. In both the primate and rodent studies, reductions in blood lead levels were a relatively poor predictor of reductions in brain lead levels. Our studies in rodents demonstrated that it is possible for succimer chelation therapy to alleviate certain types of lead-induced behavioral/cognitive dysfunction, suggesting that if a succimer treatment protocol that produced a substantial reduction of brain lead levels could be identified for humans, a functional benefit might be derived. Finally, we also found that succimer treatment produced lasting adverse neurobehavioral effects when administered to non-lead-exposed rodents, highlighting the potential risks of administering succimer or other metal

  10. lead glass brick

    CERN Multimedia

    When you look through the glass at a picture behind, the picture appears raised up because light is slowed down in the dense glass. It is this density (4.06 gcm-3) that makes lead glass attractive to physicists. The refractive index of the glass is 1.708 at 400nm (violet light), meaning that light travels in the glass at about 58% its normal speed. At CERN, the OPAL detector uses some 12000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies.

  11. Leading change: 2--planning. (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  12. Optimization leads to symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenghong WANG; Yuqian GUO; Daizhan CHENG


    The science of complexity studies the behavior and properties of complex systems in nature and human society.Particular interest has been put on their certain simple common properties.Symmetry is one of such properties.Symmetric phenomena can be found in many complex systems.The purpose of this paper is to reveal the internal reason of the symmetry.Using some physical systems and geometric objects,the paper shows that many symmetries are caused by optimization under certain criteria.It has also been revealed that an evolutional process may lead to symmetry.

  13. Turning lead into gold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    For years the field of entrepreneurship has been blinded by the alchemical promise of turning lead into gold, of finding the ones most likely to become the next Branson, Zuckerberg or Gates. The promise has been created in the midst of political and scientific agendas where certain individuals...... is not to accumulate state or market wealth, but for entrepreneurial skills to become tools towards the liberation of the individual from oppressive systems of control – essentially to add public value rather than economic value. In this presentation I will sketch an anarchist perspective on entrepreneurship, looking...

  14. Cofilin takes the lead. (United States)

    DesMarais, Vera; Ghosh, Mousumi; Eddy, Robert; Condeelis, John


    Cofilin has emerged as a key regulator of actin dynamics at the leading edge of motile cells. Through its actin-severing activity, it creates new actin barbed ends for polymerization and also depolymerizes old actin filaments. Its function is tightly regulated in the cell. Spatially, its activity is restricted by other actin-binding proteins, such as tropomyosin, which compete for accessibility of actin filament populations in different regions of the cell. At the molecular level, it is regulated by phosphorylation, pH and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate binding downstream of signaling cascades. In addition, it also appears to be regulated by interactions with 14-3-3zeta and cyclase-associated protein. In vivo, cofilin acts synergistically with the Arp2/3 complex to amplify local actin polymerization responses upon cell stimulation, which gives it a central role in setting the direction of motility in crawling cells.

  15. Lead telluride alloy thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. LaLonde


    Full Text Available The opportunity to use solid-state thermoelectrics for waste heat recovery has reinvigorated the field of thermoelectrics in tackling the challenges of energy sustainability. While thermoelectric generators have decades of proven reliability in space, from the 1960s to the present, terrestrial uses have so far been limited to niche applications on Earth because of a relatively low material efficiency. Lead telluride alloys were some of the first materials investigated and commercialized for generators but their full potential for thermoelectrics has only recently been revealed to be far greater than commonly believed. By reviewing some of the past and present successes of PbTe as a thermoelectric material we identify the issues for achieving maximum performance and successful band structure engineering strategies for further improvements that can be applied to other thermoelectric materials systems.

  16. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of gemifloxacin administered orally to healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Allen, A; Bygate, E; Vousden, M; Oliver, S; Johnson, M; Ward, C; Cheon, A; Choo, Y S; Kim, I


    Gemifloxacin mesylate (SB-265805-S, LB-20304a) is a potent, novel fluoroquinolone agent with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral gemifloxacin were characterized in two parallel group studies in healthy male volunteers after doses of 160, 320, 480, and 640 mg once daily for 7 days. Multiple serum or plasma and urine samples were collected on days 1 and 7 and were analyzed for gemifloxacin by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence (study 1) or HPLC-mass spectrometry (study 2). Safety assessments included vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) readings, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, and adverse experience monitoring. Gemifloxacin was rapidly absorbed, with a time to maximum concentration of approximately 1 h after dosing followed by a biexponential decline in concentration. Generally, maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased linearly with dose after either single or repeat doses. Mean +/- standard deviation values of AUC(0-tau) on day 7 were 4.92 +/- 1.08, 9.06 +/- 2.20, 12.2 +/- 3.69, and 20.1 +/- 3.67 microg x h/ml following 160-, 320-, 480-, and 640-mg doses, respectively. The terminal-phase half-life was approximately 7 to 8 h, independent of dose, and was similar following single and repeated administrations. There was minimal accumulation of gemifloxacin after multiple dosing. Approximately 20 to 30% of the administered dose was excreted unchanged in the urine. The renal clearance was 160 ml/min on average after single and multiple doses, which was slightly greater than the accepted glomerular filtration rate (approximately 120 ml/min). These data show that the pharmacokinetics of gemifloxacin are linear and independent of dose. Gemifloxacin was generally well tolerated, although one subject was withdrawn from the study after 6 days at 640 mg for mild, transient elevations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate

  17. 34 CFR 692.80 - How does a State administer its community service work-study program? (United States)


    ... Its Community Service Work-Study Program? § 692.80 How does a State administer its community service work-study program? When administering its community service work-study program, a State must follow... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a State administer its community service...

  18. 75 FR 7440 - Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental Information... (United States)


    ... Forest Service Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest, Supplemental... report to the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by the Dixie National Forest Final Environmental... considered, the FS must receive written comments on the Oil and Gas Leasing on Lands Administered by...

  19. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats. (United States)

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista


    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  20. Comparative Discussion on Psychophysiological Effect of Self-administered Facial Massage by Treatment Method (United States)

    Nozawa, Akio; Takei, Yuya

    The aim of study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of self-administered facial massage, which was done by hand or facial roller. In this study, the psychophysiological effects of facial massage were evaluated. The central nerves system and the autonomic nervous system were administered to evaluate physiological system. The central nerves system was assessed by Electroencephalogram (EEG). The autonomic nervous system were assessed by peripheral skin temperature(PST) and heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, the high-frequency components (HF) were evaluated. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Profile of Mood Status (POMS) and subjective sensory amount with Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. These results suggest that kept brain activity and had strong effects on stress alleviation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Degtyarev


    Full Text Available The task of administering software-information complex occurs duringthe development of application systems for managing business-processes and is connected with the organization of access forusers to information resources in conditions of multi-user information systems for management. For solution of this problem proposed theapproach, which is based on a hierarchical system of access rightsto information resources on the levels: tool, object and procedural.Keywords: software-information complex, information resources,administering, permissions, separation of powers, access model.

  2. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice



    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administrati...

  3. Polymorphism of lead oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyulyupa, A.G. [Middle School, Sablinskoe, Stavropol region, 356322 (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, P.P., E-mail: [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Pb{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} melt undergoes statistical undercooling. • Orthorhombic nonlinear optical crystal Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is the metastable γ-polymorph. • Temperature of metastable melting of γ-Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is equal to 530 °C. - Abstract: The study of lead borate melt crystallization by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that, for Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (or 4PbO·B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) stoichiometric compound, its well-known orthorhombic modification (non-centrosymmetric Aba2 space symmetry group (SSG), a = 15.472(1), b = 10.802(1), c = 9.9486(6) Å unit cell parameters) is metastable. It forms from the undercooled melt and has a melting point of 530 ± 5 °C.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meshgi


    Full Text Available A survey on lead intoxication in lead mine workers was carried out among Khanehsorme, lead miners in NajafAabad and also in Ab-bagh lead miners in Shahreza, both located in district of Esfahan, Iran. The studies were carried out on 62 miners out of 82 employees in Khanehsorme, 25 miners out of 27 employees in Ab-bagh lead miners and 47 rural inhabitants in the surroundings of mines were selected as the Control group. Clinical examinations were done. Age and sex group, working hours, type of work, and duration of service and previous occupation of workers were questioned. The determination of lead in urine was done according to Truhaut et Boudene's method and the content of blood Hemoglobin was performed according to Sali method. Results obtained in lead miners in comparison with the control group showed the absorption of lead and consequently lead intoxication was observed some extent.

  5. Leading Your Leaders (United States)

    Hale, Wayne N.


    life is good. More often when an unbelievably difficult test fails, we are left with a very long discussion of why and what was wrong in the design or execution of the test. Make sure that the test is well defined. Even then, it is important to explain to your leaders what inherent accuracy (or error) the test conditions or equipment have and what the assumptions or initial conditions were for the test. Test results without a good understanding of the test's accuracy or the pedigree of the test assumptions are worth very little. Finally, there is flight test data. Always limited, never at the edge of the envelope, it still shows how the real hardware works in a combined environment. Flight experience is dangerous because it typically doesn't show how close to the edge of the cliff the equipment is operating, but it does demonstrate how the hardware really works. A flight test is the ultimate test, again taken with the knowledge that it is probably not the extreme but something more like the middle of the environmental and systems performance. Good understanding of a problem and its solution always relies on a combination of all these methods. Be sure to lead your leaders by using all the tools you have at your disposal. At the end of the day, decisions in space flight always come down to a risk trade. Our business is not remotely safe, not in the sense that the public, the media, or our legislators use the term. Everything we do has a risk, cost, schedule, or performance trade-off. For your leaders to make an appropriate decision, you need to educate them, lead them, talk with them, and engage them in the discussion until full understanding takes place. It's your job. *

  6. Drowning: a leading killer!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Domingos Garrido


    Full Text Available Drowning kills at least 372,000 people worldwide every year and is the 3rd leading cause of unintentional death, accounting for 7% of all deaths stemming from accidents (WHO, 2014. Conceptually, “drowning” is a complex and multi-faceted phenomenon, characterized as a chain of events (Bierens, 2006. Drowning is defined as the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from immersion or submersion in liquid. Research on drowning as a phenomenon presents several difficulties - most of all, that global data concerning the number of occurrences are not accurate. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of the registered incidents allows the identification of risk factors of drowning. An in-depth analysis of the risk factors is the basis for the creation of targeted and effective strategies to prevent drowning. Due to variability of situations which could lead to a drowning episode, experts suggest the adoption of a multi-layer prevention model, rather than opting for isolated measures, since no single measure can prevent all deaths and injuries caused by submersion. Among the preventive measures we would like to emphasize instruction in swimming and water safety. So, what does "knowing how to swim" really mean? Some authors define mastery of this competence as swimming a given distance, while others put the emphasis on how this/any given distance is swum (Stallman, Junge, & Blixt, 2008. It has long been realized that there is no contradiction between learning those competencies which make a person less susceptible to drowning and those competencies which prepare the path towards higher levels of performance and competition. Aquatic movement researchers and practitioners and drowning prevention researchers and practitioners, share in the responsibility for drowning prevention though they are often unaware of it. The question “What should be taught to children?” is too infrequently asked. There remains great variation in what is taught and programs

  7. Lead distribution in the saliva and blood fractions of rats after intraperitoneal injections. (United States)

    Mobarak, N; P'an, A Y


    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1, 2 or 3 i.p. injections of lead acetate (100 mg/kg) and sacrificed 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after the last injection. Lead concentration was determined by flameless AAS technique in whole blood, plasma, plasma filtrate, saliva and submaxillary gland tissue. The concentration of lead in saliva was about 5% of whole blood lead concentration and around 61% of plasma filtrate lead level. Saliva lead concentration was significantly related both to whole blood lead concentration and plasma filtrate lead concentration (r = 0.78, P less than 0.001; r = 0.80, P = 0.001 respectively). Lead was present in the submaxillary gland tissue; the amount of lead increased with increasing amounts administered.

  8. 24 CFR 511.50 - State election to administer a rental rehabilitation program. (United States)


    ... rental rehabilitation program. 511.50 Section 511.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... GRANT PROGRAM State Program § 511.50 State election to administer a rental rehabilitation program. (a) State allocations may be used to carry out eligible rehabilitation activities in accordance with...

  9. 40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds. (United States)


    ... Fracturing of Coal Beds. 147.52 Section 147.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Alabama § 147.52 State-administered program—Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds. The UIC program for hydraulic fracturing of coal beds in the State of Alabama, except those on Indian lands, is the...

  10. High efficacy with deep nurse-administered propofol sedation for advanced gastroenterologic endoscopic procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Hornslet, Pernille; Konge, Lars;


    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Whereas data on moderate nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) efficacy and safety for standard endoscopy is abundant, few reports on the use of deep sedation by endoscopy nurses during advanced endoscopy, such as Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ER...

  11. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. (United States)


    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  12. Metabolic effects of growth hormone administered subcutaneously once or twice daily to growth hormone deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl


    -term metabolic effects in GH deficient patients. An improved growth response is obtained in GH deficient children when a fixed weekly GH dose is administered by daily subcutaneous injections instead of twice or thrice-weekly intramuscular injections. A more pulsatile pattern and serum GH levels above zero might...

  13. Serum growth hormone (GH) profiles after nasally administered GH in normal subjects and GH deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Laursen, Torben; Mindeholm, Linda


    Abstract OBJECTIVE: GH-deficient patients are at present treated with daily subcutaneous GH injections. Further improvements in patient compliance and effects of treatment may occur with nasal administration. We have examined the absorption of nasally administered GH in healthy subjects and in GH...

  14. Improving the Estimation of Moderating Effects by Using Computer-Administered Questionnaires. (United States)

    Aguinis, Herman; And Others


    A program designed to administer questionnaires on IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers is described. The program prompts subjects to indicate responses by clicking on a graphic line segment or entering a numeric value. The program enhances accuracy in estimating moderating effects by overcoming transcriptional errors and scale coarseness.…

  15. 30 CFR 250.1508 - What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when MMS administers written or oral tests? 250.1508 Section 250.1508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Well Control...

  16. Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban


    of acetylcholine. Ten and 30 mg/kg lidocaine injected intravenously significantly increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. The effect of lidocaine could be reduced by pretreatment with intraspinally administered atropine or mecamylamine. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effect produced...

  17. Higher Education in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan after 9/11: Problems and Prospects (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Hafeez; Junaid, Fatima A.


    The troubled state of affairs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan portends serious repercussions and grave consequences, destined to affect education particularly higher education in the entire tribal belt. Ironically, no extensive study has been conducted, to investigate those dimensions of FATA higher education which…

  18. Employing Computer-Administered Exams in General Psychology: Student Anxiety and Expectations (United States)

    Schult, Carolyn A.; McIntosh, John L.


    Computer-administered exams offer many advantages, but instructors may be reluctant to use them due to concerns that computer anxiety may increase student test anxiety. Introductory psychology students (N = 265) completed surveys prior to their first exam about their anxiety related to the upcoming exam, computers in general, and taking exams on…

  19. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M J; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Oude Elberink, Joanne N G; Duiverman, Eric J; Hourihane, Jonathan O'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E J


    Background: Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. Objective: We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Fo

  20. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma. (United States)

    Horn, C R; Jones, R M; Lee, D; Brennan, S R


    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties. PMID:6439234

  1. Efficacy of recombinant factor VIIa administered by continuous infusion to haemophilia patients with inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauser-Bunschoten, EP; Koopman, MMW; Goede-Bolder, ADE; Leebeek, FWG; Van der Meer, J; Kooij, GMV; Van der Linden, PWG


    We have prospectively monitored treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors by recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) administered by continuous infusion to obtain more insight in the underlying factors of the clinical efficacy of this administration method. At present, 43 treatment episodes of 14 d

  2. Prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day: a WHO multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, P; Amin, M; Agarwal, A K


    OBJECTIVES: To study the prophylactic efficacy of lithium administered every second day to patients with bipolar disorder or recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. METHODS: The study was carried out as a WHO multicentre study in five different psychiatric clinics: Russia (Moscow), Canada (Montreal...

  3. Safety and efficiency of prehospital pain management with fentanyl administered by emergency medical technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Brogaard, Kjeld; Dahl, Michael


    minor, and were not treated with naloxone.   Conclusions: Our results suggest that non-medical personnel safely can administer IV fentanyl to selected groups of patients with a satisfactory result in terms of a considerable reduction in pain score and an acceptable rate of negative coincident events....

  4. 48 CFR 904.804-1 - Closeout by the office administering the contract. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closeout by the office administering the contract. 904.804-1 Section 904.804-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Government Contract Files 904.804-1 Closeout by the...

  5. The National Council for Geographic Education Standards-Based Geography Test. Intermediate Level. Directions for Administering. (United States)

    National Council for Geographic Education.

    This document contains a test designed by the National Council for Geographic Education for middle school students to determine what knowledge, skills, and understandings students have developed in geography. The document also contains directions for administering the test, test performance data from a sample of 468 middle school students in 18…

  6. Depression in People with Intellectual Disability: An Evaluation of a Staff-Administered Treatment Program (United States)

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Kershaw, Mavis M.


    The prevalence of co-morbid depression in people with intellectual disability (ID) provides a strong rationale for the early identification and treatment of individuals at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate a staff-administered group CBT program for the treatment of depression in people with mild ID. A sample of 13 staff employed at two…

  7. Telephone-Administered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Veterans Served by Community-Based Outpatient Clinics (United States)

    Mohr, David C.; Carmody, Timothy; Erickson, Lauren; Jin, Ling; Leader, Julie


    Objective: Multiple trials have found telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) to be effective for the treatment of depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate T-CBT for the treatment of depression among veterans served by community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs) outside of major urban areas. Method: Eighty-five veterans…

  8. 76 FR 22412 - Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot... (United States)


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot Contact Information Correction AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: On April 13, 2011, at 71 FR 20699, HUD published a notice announcing HUD's proposal to conduct...

  9. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids. (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others


    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  10. The role of capnography in endoscopy patients undergoing nurse-administered propofol sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagelse, Charlotte; Vilmann, Peter; Hornslet, Pernille;


    . The existing literature on capnography for endoscopy patients sedated with nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) is limited. Can the addition of capnography to standard monitoring during endoscopy with NAPS reduce the number, duration, and level of hypoxia. Materials and methods. This study...

  11. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead. (United States)

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D


    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  12. Safety evaluation of orally administered afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime in eight-week-old dogs. (United States)

    Drag, M; Saik, J; Harriman, J; Letendre, L; Yoon, S; Larsen, D


    The safety profile of afoxolaner (an isoxazoline molecule) when combined with milbemycin oxime (a macrocyclic lactone) was evaluated according to the regulatory requirements when administered six times orally in a soft chewable formulation at a dose of at least 1×, 3×, or 5× the maximum exposure dose in 8-week-old Beagle dogs. Thirty-two healthy puppies (16 males and 16 females) were enrolled and allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups. Three doses were administered at 28-day intervals (Days 0, 28, and 56), followed by three additional doses administered with 14-day intervals (Days 84, 98, and 112). The study ended on Day 126. Treatment groups were as follows: Group 1: untreated, sham-dosed control; Group 2: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 5 and 1 mg/kg, respectively (1×); Group 3: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 15 and 3 mg/kg, respectively (3); and Group 4: afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime chews administered at a dose of at least 25 and 5 mg/kg, respectively (5×). All dogs were examined for general health twice a day beginning on Day -14. Physical examinations, and blood collections for clinical pathology analysis and afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime plasma concentrations, were performed throughout the study. No afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime treatment-related changes were observed in growth, physical variables, clinical pathology variables, or tissues examined histologically. No clinically relevant or statistically significant health abnormalities related to the administration of afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime were observed. No signs of macrocyclic lactone sensitivity were observed at any time during the study. Vomiting and diarrhea were observed sporadically across all groups including the controls. Based upon the results of this study, afoxolaner/milbemycin oxime soft chewables were shown to be safe when administered repeatedly at up to 5× the maximum exposure dose in dogs as

  13. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization. (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis


    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  14. Safety evaluation of orally administered afoxolaner in 8-week-old dogs. (United States)

    Drag, Marlene; Saik, Judith; Harriman, Jay; Larsen, Diane


    The safety profile of afoxolaner, a new isoxazoline molecule, was evaluated following the regulatory requirements when administered six times orally in a soft chewable formulation at a dose of at least 1×, 3× or 5× the maximum exposure dose (6.3mg/kg) in 8-week-old Beagle dogs. Thirty-two healthy puppies (16 males and 16 females) were enrolled and allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups. Treatments were administered at three, one-month dose intervals (Days 0, 28 and 56) followed by three, 2-week dose intervals (Days 84, 98 and 112). The study ended at Day 126. The groups were: Group 1: non-treated control; Group 2: afoxolaner chews administered at a dosage of at least 6.3mg/kg (1×); Group 3: afoxolaner chews administered at a dosage of at least 18.9 mg/kg (3×); and Group 4: afoxolaner chews administered at a dosage of at least 31.5mg/kg (5×). All dogs were examined for general health twice a day beginning on at least Day-14. Physical examinations, and blood collections for clinical pathology analysis and afoxolaner plasma concentrations, were performed throughout the study. On Day 126, 2 weeks following the last treatment, all dogs were humanely euthanized prior to the conduction of a full necropsy with tissue collection. No afoxolaner-related changes were observed in growth, physical variables, clinical pathology variables, or tissues examined histologically. No clinically or statistically significant health abnormalities related to the administration of afoxolaner were observed. Vomiting and diarrhea were observed sporadically across all groups including the controls. The kinetics of afoxolaner plasma concentrations was linear following 6 doses of 6.3, 18.9 and 31.5mg/kg and dose proportionality was demonstrated. There were no statistical differences (pafoxolaner was shown to be safe when administered repeatedly in a soft chewable formulation at up to 5× the maximum exposure dose in dogs as young as 8 weeks of age.

  15. Lead in School Drinking Water. (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  16. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica. (United States)

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L


    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  17. Centrally administered urocortin 3 inhibits food intake and gastric emptying in mice. (United States)

    Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Sakoguchi, Takeo; Tanaka, Chie; Inui, Akio


    Urocortin 3 (Ucn3) is recognized as a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family, which plays an important role in regulating food intake. We investigated the effects of centrally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. Intracerebroventricular (ICV)administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of Ucn3 on food intake was less potent than that of centrally administered CRF and Urocortin 1. ICV administration of Ucn3 (0.1–1 nmol per mouse) decreased the gastric emptying rate in a dose-dependent manner. Ucn3 decreased food intake in high-fat diet-fed obese mice as well as in lean mice. These results indicated that Ucn3 influences feeding behavior and gut motility, and may be a promising therapeutic target in the treatment of eating and functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  18. Repetitive immunization enhances the susceptibility of mice to peripherally administered prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bremer

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of humans and animals to prion infections is determined by the virulence of the infectious agent, by genetic modifiers, and by hitherto unknown host and environmental risk factors. While little is known about the latter two, the activation state of the immune system was surmised to influence prion susceptibility. Here we administered prions to mice that were repeatedly immunized by two initial injections of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides followed by repeated injections of bovine serum albumin/alum. Immunization greatly reduced the required dosage of peripherally administered prion inoculum necessary to induce scrapie in 50% of mice. No difference in susceptibility was observed following intracerebral prion challenge. Due to its profound impact onto scrapie susceptibility, the host immune status may determine disease penetrance after low-dose prion exposure, including those that may give rise to iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  19. Regarding the inadvisability of administering postoperative analgesics in the drinking water of rats (Rattus norvegicus). (United States)

    Speth, R C; Smith, M S; Brogan, R S


    The feasibility of administering the pain reliever acetaminophen to rats via their water bottles was examined in this study. Two different preparations of acetaminophen were used, a cherry-flavored suspension and an alcohol-containing solution. Both preparations of acetaminophen were diluted to 6 mg/ml by using normal drinking water. When healthy unmanipulated rats were exposed to either of the acetaminophen preparations for the first time, the animals showed a dramatic reduction in fluid intake. A marked reduction in food intake also was associated with the cherry-flavored preparation. These reductions appear to be an expression of the well-characterized neophobic response that can be demonstrated by rodents when they encounter a novel taste. This neophobic behavior suggests that administering pain relievers to rats via their drinking water is counterproductive as a means of providing pain relief.

  20. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients]. (United States)

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi


    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  1. Lead resistant bacteria: lead resistance mechanisms, their applications in lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. (United States)

    Naik, Milind Mohan; Dubey, Santosh Kumar


    Lead (Pb) is non-bioessential, persistent and hazardous heavy metal pollutant of environmental concern. Bioremediation has become a potential alternative to the existing technologies for the removal and/or recovery of toxic lead from waste waters before releasing it into natural water bodies for environmental safety. To our best knowledge, this is a first review presenting different mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria to resist high levels of lead and their applications in cost effective and eco-friendly ways of lead bioremediation and biomonitoring. Various lead resistant mechanisms employed by lead resistant bacteria includes efflux mechanism, extracellular sequestration, biosorption, precipitation, alteration in cell morphology, enhanced siderophore production and intracellular lead bioaccumulation.

  2. 6-Hydroxydopamine inhibits some effects of mescaline centrally administered to rabbits. (United States)

    Ferri, S; Reina, R A; Braga, P


    The narcotic antagonist naloxone does not antagonize antinociception elicited in the rabbit by 100 microgram/kg of mescaline centrally administered, whereas pretreatment with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) inhibits this mescaline effect. Stereotyped behavior of rabbits following central mescaline administration is also prevented by 6-hda pretreatment. Since 6-OHDA in known to produce a degeneration of catecholamine containing nerve terminals, a crucial role of catecholamines is suggested in the complex of effects seen in the rabbit after central administration of the hallucinogen.

  3. Justification of administered dose level in brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO (United States)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, I.; Geronikola-Trapali, X.; Armeniakos, I.; Prentakis, A.; Soultanis, S.; Chatziioannou, S. N.


    Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-HMPAO is widely used in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The administered dose range recommended by the manufacturer and reported in bibliography is rather wide (~ 9.5 - 27 mCi), necessitating further quantitative analysis. In the framework of this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose was carried out, based on image quality indicators. Evaluation of image quality was based on wavelet-generated contrast, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted as CI, NI and CNR respectively. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator (denoted as PI). Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal distributions) showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p 0.05) values. Application of Tukey test for CI and NI normal distributions demonstrated that CI (10 mCi) = CI (20 mCi) NI (20 mCi), while NI (15 mCi) could not be characterised. Finally, application of non-parametric multiple comparisons showed that CNR (20 mCi) < CNR (10 mCi), while CNR (15 mCi) could not be characterised. Consequently, brain perfusion imaging, by means of 99mTc-HMPAO utilising an administered dose of 20 mCi, results in improved image quality on the basis of the estimated indicators. Additionally, this image quality improvement is sufficient to justify the increased patient radiation burden.

  4. Pain in adolescent girls receiving human papillomavirus vaccine with concomitantly administered vaccines. (United States)

    Walter, Emmanuel B; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Dunne, Eileen F


    Using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised, we assessed injection site pain 10 minutes after vaccination in young females randomized to receive either quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before or after concomitantly administered vaccines. Although pain was modestly more after HPV4 injection than after other vaccines, the pain intensity after HPV4 injection was significantly less in those who received HPV4 before receiving other concomitant vaccines.

  5. Influence of emotional stress on pharmacokinetics of isosorbide dinitrate intraperitoneally administered to rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The plasma level of isosorbide dinitrate intraperitoneally administered to rats stressed by foot-shock was almost the same as that in non-stressed control rats. However, levels of its metabolites, 5-isosorbide mononitrate and 2-isosorbide mononitrate, were lower in stressed rats than in non-stressed rats, suggesting that stress may influence the metabolism and/or excretion of the metabolites.

  6. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  7. In vivo release of bupivacaine from subcutaneously administered oily solution. Comparison with in vitro release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dorrit Bjerg; Joergensen, Stig; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;


    A non-randomized cross-over study was performed with bupivacaine HCl (5 mg x ml(-1)) aqueous solution and bupivacaine free base (4.44 mg x ml(-1)) in Viscoleo/castor oil 2:1 (v/v) administered s.c. to male Wistar rats. Plasma levels were analyzed by LC-MS. Plasma profiles obtained after administr....... This led to establishment of an in vitro/in vivo correlation for this particular formulation....

  8. Dissociable neural activity to self- vs. externally administered thermal hyperalgesia: a parametric fMRI study. (United States)

    Mohr, C; Leyendecker, S; Helmchen, C


    Little is known regarding how cognitive strategies help to modulate neural responses of the human brain in ongoing pain syndromes to alleviate pain. Under pathological pain conditions, any self-elicited contact with usually non-painful stimuli may become painful. We examined whether the human brain is capable of dissociating self-controlled from externally administered thermal hyperalgesia in the experimental capsaicin model. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, 17 male subjects were investigated in a parametric design with heat stimuli at topically capsaicin-sensitized skin. In contrast to external stimulation, self-administered pain was controllable. For both conditions application trials without noticeable thermal stimulation were introduced and used as high-level baseline (HLB) to account for the capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and other covariables. Following subtraction of the HLB, the anterior insula and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) but not the somatosensory cortices maintained parametric neural responses to thermal hyperalgesia. A stronger pain-related activity increase during self-administered stimuli was observed in the posterior insula. In contrast, prefrontal cortex showed stronger increases to uncontrollable external heat stimuli. In the state of ongoing pain (capsaicin), pain-intensity-encoding regions (anterior insula, ACC) but not those with sensory discriminative functions (SI, SII) showed graded, pain-intensity-related neural responses in thermal hyperalgesia. Some areas were able to dissociate between self- and externally administered stimuli in thermal hyperalgesia, which might be related to differences in perceived controllability. Thus, neural mechanisms maintain the ability to dissociate external from self-generated states of injury in thermal hyperalgesia. This may help to understand how cognitive strategies potentially alleviate chronic pain syndromes.

  9. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai S; Apiwathnasorn C; Leemingsawat S; Wongwit W; Overgaard HJ


    Objective: To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods: Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 μg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions: The Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques.

  10. Prevalence of lead disease among secondary lead smelter workers and biological indicators of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R. (City Univ. of New York); Fischbein, A.; Eisinger, J.


    The report concerns itself primarily with the assessment of medical and biochemical effects of chronic lead exposure and comparing the usefulness of various biological screening parameters. In addition it appraises the effects of chelation therapy to control blood lead levels in lead workers, which have recently attracted critical attention. It is of considerable importance to ascertain whether such a therapeutic approach may, under some circumstances, in fact contribute to the deleterious effects of undue lead exposure.

  11. Orally administered melatonin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fu

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, including fetal demise, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR, neural tube defects (NTDs and preterm delivery in rodent animals. Previous studies demonstrated that melatonin protected against LPS-induced fetal demise, IUGR and preterm delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on LPS-induced NTDs. All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (25 µg/kg daily from gestational day (GD8 to GD12. Some pregnant mice were orally administered with melatonin (MT, 50 mg/kg before each LPS injection. A five-day LPS injection resulted in 27.5% of fetuses with anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Additional experiment showed that maternal LPS exposure significantly down-regulated placental proton-coupled folate transporter (pcft and disturbed folate transport from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Interestingly, melatonin significantly attenuated LPS-induced down-regulation of placental pcft. Moreover, melatonin markedly improved the transport of folate from maternal circulation through the placentas into the fetus. Correspondingly, orally administered melatonin reduced the incidence of LPS-induced anencephaly, exencephaly or encephalomeningocele. Taken together, these results suggest that orally administered melatonin prevents LPS-induced NTDs through alleviating LPS-induced disturbance of folate transport from maternal circulation through the placenta into the fetus.

  12. Recommended administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides in paediatric nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, J.S.; Beykan, S.; Lassmann, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Herrmann, K. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The aim of this study was to establish a method for determining administered activities for {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides. Dose calculations were based on the weight-independent effective dose model proposed by the EANM paediatric dosage card for use in paediatric nuclear medicine. Previously published time-integrated activity coefficients for {sup 68}Ga-DOTATATE, {sup 68}Ga-DOTATOC and {sup 68}Ga-pentixafor were used to calculate age-independent effective doses. Consequently, the corresponding weight-dependent effective dose coefficients were rescaled according to the formalism of the EANM dosage card to determine the radiopharmaceutical class of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides (''multiples'') and to calculate the baseline activities based on an upper limit for administered activity (185 MBq) in an adult. All calculated normalization factors suggest that the {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides are class ''B'' radiopharmaceuticals. The baseline activity for all compounds is 12.8 MBq. In analogy to {sup 18}F-fluoride, we recommend a minimum activity of 14 MBq. For paediatric nuclear medicine applications involving {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides, we suggest determining administered activities based on the formalism proposed in this work. The corresponding effective doses from these procedures will remain age-independent. (orig.)

  13. Lysostaphin: immunogenicity of locally administered recombinant protein used in mastitis therapy. (United States)

    Daley, M J; Oldham, E R


    A recombinant bactericidal protein, recombinant lysostaphin (r-lysostaphin), that may be useful as an intramammary therapeutic for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle, was evaluated for immunogenicity to various hosts. Although immunogenicity could be demonstrated in a variety of other species when administered parenterally, oral administration failed to elicit a significant immunological response. Similarly, intramammary infusion of r-lysostaphin failed to elicit significant serum titers in the bovine until 18-21 infusions were administered (total administered dose of 2-3 g of protein). Antibody titers from dairy cattle which did develop an immune response were predominantly of the IgG1 subclass. Dairy cattle with significant anti-lysostaphin titers showed no deleterious symptoms (anaphylaxis, etc.) upon subsequent infusion, and these titers did not effect the in vitro bacteriostatic activity of r-lysostaphin. Intramammary infusion of r-lysostaphin does not elicit any observable effects on the host animal or on the potential efficacy of the recombinant molecule. Intramammary recombinant proteins may be suitable effective and safe infusion products that provide an alternative to classical antibiotic therapy.

  14. An Experimental Study on Blood according to the administered dosage of Carthami Flos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho, Hoo-Lee


    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to examine what are the effect of Carthami Flos on Blood according to the administered dosage. Methods : thrity Sprague-Dawleys rats of starved during 3 days were used and divided 3 groups ; Normal group ; Experimental group that were administered Carthmi Flos 117mg/200g(Sample1 ; Experimental group that were administered Carthmi Flos 936mg/200g(Sample2. and the observerd blood(RBC, Hct, Hb, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, WBC NEUT, LYM, MONO, EOSIN. Results : the result were obtained as follows ; 1. RBC, Hb, MCHC were significantly increased, and MCV were decreased in Sample1.(p<0.05 2. PLT, MCHC, LYM were significantly increased, and Hct, MCV were decreased in Sample2.(p<0.05 Conclusions : According th the above result, it was consided that a small quantity dosage of Carthami Flos was nourished the blood, and a large quantity of that was curative for thrombosis and elevated blood viscosity and it is suggested that more interest and study in the mechanism and clinical use were needed

  15. Treatment of verb anomia in aphasia: efficacy of self-administered therapy using a smart tablet. (United States)

    Lavoie, Monica; Routhier, Sonia; Légaré, Annie; Macoir, Joël


    Aphasia is a chronic condition that usually requires long-term rehabilitation. However, even if many effective treatments can be offered to patients and families, speech therapy services for individuals with aphasia often remain limited because of logistical and financial considerations, especially more than 6 months after stroke. Therefore, the need to develop tools to maximize rehabilitation potential is unquestionable. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a self-administered treatment delivered with a smart tablet to improve written verb naming skills in CP, a 63-year-old woman with chronic aphasia. An ABA multiple baseline design was used to compare CP's performance in verb naming on three equivalent lists of stimuli trained with a hierarchy of cues, trained with no cues, and not trained. Results suggest that graphemic cueing therapy, done four times a week for 3 weeks, led to better written verb naming compared to baseline and to the untrained list. Moreover, generalization of the effects of treatment was observed in verb production, assessed with a noun-to-verb production task. Results of this study suggest that self-administered training with a smart tablet is effective in improving naming skills in chronic aphasia. Future studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of new technologies in self-administered treatment of acquired language deficits.

  16. Study on the impact of lead acetate pollutant on immunotoxicity produced by thiamethoxam pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprita Sinha


    Full Text Available Objective: The curtailed knowledge about neonicotinoids that it has low affinity for vertebrate relative to insect nicotinic receptors is a major factor for its widespread use assuming that it is much safer than the previous generation insecticides. But literature regarding effect of thiamethoxam (second generation neonicotinoidon immune system is not available. Also, there might be chances of interaction of heavy persistent metals in the water table with these pesticides. So, this study was undertaken with the objective to find immunotoxic alterations of lead acetate after exposure with thiamethoxam in animal model. Materials and Methods: For this albino mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (numbered I to VI each containing 6 mice. Animals of groups I and II were administered 87.1 mg/kg b.w.( body weight and 43.5 mg/kg b.w. respectively of thiamethoxam. Group III animals, lead acetate was administered orally and IV and V mice were administered combination of lead acetate and thiamethoxam at higher and lower dose level for 28 days. The group VI was control group. On 29 th day and humoral and cell mediated immune responses, TLC (Total leukocyte count, DLC (Differential leukocyte count, serum total protein, globulin and albumin, and histopathological studies were conducted. Result: The result obtained clearly indicated that on oral administration of thiamethoxam immunotoxicity was induced in mice in dose related manner. Lead acetate when administered for 28 days showed immunotoxic potential. Thiamethoxam and lead acetate when administered together did not lead to any new altered immunotoxic response but additive toxic effects of both were observed.

  17. Prescription pattern of antibiotic and analgesic in endodontic treatment in Kuwaiti population: A self-administered Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal J Al-Maslamani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical and non-surgical endodontic treatment of involved teeth can necessitate prescription of analgesics and antimicrobials. The literature suggests confusion amongst practitioners regarding the need for adjunctive medication, mainly during non-surgical endodontic treatment, often leading to over-prescription. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the current clinical practice of dentists participated in this study with respect to antibiotic and analgesic prescription patterns in their endodontic treatment management in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: Prescription patterns for antibiotics and analgesics were analyzed based on the responses to self-administered questionnaire (n = 169. Information was collected based on different clinical endodontic diagnostic scenarios. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software version 17.0 to determine relationships between prescription patterns, age, gender, and dental qualification (specialists and general dentists. Results: Ninety-two percent of dentists prescribed analgesics for the management of endodontic pain. While 16% prescribed antibiotics for severe dental pain; 62% prescribed antibiotics for acute apical abscesses. Significantly more male dentists prescribed antibiotics for dental pain than female dentists. No significant difference was found between general dental practitioners′ and specialists′ attitude toward drug prescriptions. Amoxicillin and ibuprofen were the most commonly prescribed medications. Conclusion: While the majority of dentists appeared to prescribe antibiotics and analgesics appropriately, some did not. This research confirmed previous studies and established a need for imparting information of evidence-based prescriptions protocols for the dentists surveyed in this study in Kuwait.

  18. Survival and digestibility of orally-administered immunoglobulin preparations containing IgG through the gastrointestinal tract in humans. (United States)

    Jasion, Victoria S; Burnett, Bruce P


    Oral immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations are prime examples of medicinal nutrition from natural sources. Plasma products containing Ig have been used for decades in animal feed for intestinal disorders to mitigate the damaging effects of early weaning. These preparations reduce overall mortality and increase feed utilization in various animal species leading to improved growth. Oral administration of Ig preparations from human serum as well as bovine colostrum and serum have been tested and proven to be safe as well as effective in human clinical trials for a variety of enteric microbial infections and other conditions which cause diarrhea. In infants, children, and adults, the amount of intact IgG recovered in stool ranges from trace amounts up to 25% of the original amount ingested. It is generally understood that IgG can only bind to antigens within the GI tract if the Fab structure is intact and has not been completely denatured through acidic pH or digestive proteolytic enzymes. This is a comprehensive review of human studies regarding the survivability of orally-administered Ig preparations, with a focus on IgG. This review also highlights various biochemical studies on IgG which potentially explain which structural elements are responsible for increased stability against digestion.

  19. Integration of clinical chemistry, expression, and metabolite data leads to better toxicological class separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicker, Jeppe; Brunak, Søren; Frederiksen, K.S.;


    the three toxicants alpha-naphthyl-isothiocyanate, dimethylnitrosamine, and N-methylformamide administered to rats. Improved predictive ability of the different classes is seen, suggesting that this approach is a suitable method for data integration and visualization of biological data. Furthermore......, the method allows for correlation of biological parameters between the different data types, which could lead to an improvement in biological interpretation....

  20. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.


    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  1. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, N.; Der, R.; Ross, G.; Fahim, M.


    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg lead acetate and 0.5 mg cadmium chloride. The lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  2. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate. (United States)

    Khare, N; Der, R; Ross, G; Fahim, M


    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg. lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg. cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg. lead acetate and 0.5 mg. cadmium chloride. Results indicated that lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  3. Combined processing of lead concentrates (United States)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.


    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  4. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles (United States)

    Arnold, Michelle


    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  5. Undue Lead Absorption and Lead Poisoning in Children: An Overview. (United States)

    Lin-Fu, J. S.

    The toxic effects of lead, a useful metal ubiquitous in the human environment, have long been known. The occupational hazards of lead poisoning were well established by the early 19th century, but plumbism in children caused by paint ingestion was not reported until the turn of the century. Even in 1924, the child was said to live in a "lead…

  6. Taking the Lead : Gender, Social Context and Preference to Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, A.P.C.I.; Schaafsma, J.; van der Wijst, P.J.


    Previous research has demonstrated that women tend to emerge as leaders less often than men. In the present study, we examined to what extent women's and men's preference to lead is influenced by social context. It was hypothesized that women have a less strong preference to lead than men in a compe

  7. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  8. Teratogen update: lead and pregnancy. (United States)

    Bellinger, David C


    This review focuses on the impacts of lead exposure on reproductive health and outcomes. High levels of paternal lead exposure (>40 microg/dl or >25 microg/dl for a period of years) appear to reduce fertility and to increase the risks of spontaneous abortion and reduced fetal growth (preterm delivery, low birth weight). Maternal blood lead levels of approximately 10 microg/dl have been linked to increased risks of pregnancy hypertension, spontaneous abortion, and reduced offspring neurobehavioral development. Somewhat higher maternal lead levels have been linked to reduced fetal growth. Some studies suggest a link between increased parental lead exposure and congenital malformations, although considerable uncertainty remains regarding the specific malformations and the dose-response relationships. Common methodological weaknesses of studies include potential exposure misclassifications due to the frequent unavailability of exposure biomarker measurements at biologically appropriate times and uncertainty regarding the best exposure biomarker(s) for the various outcomes. A special concern with regard to the pregnant woman is the possibility that a fetus might be exposed to lead mobilized from bone stores as a result of pregnancy-related metabolic changes, making fetal lead exposure the result of exposure to exogenous lead during pregnancy and exposure to endogenous lead accumulated by the woman prior to pregnancy. By reducing bone resorption, increased calcium intake during the second half of pregnancy might reduce the mobilization of lead from bone compartments, even at low blood lead levels. Subgroups of women who incurred substantial exposures to lead prior to pregnancy should be considered to be at increased risk.

  9. Recovery of indium and lead from lead bullion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Lead and indium were recovered by electrolysis and nonequilibrium solvent extraction process from lead bullion.The effects of current density,electrolytic period and circle amnant of electrolyte on the electrochemical dissolution of lead and indium were investigated.The effects of extraction phase ratio and mixing time on solvent extraction of indium and striping phase ratio and stripping stage on the loaded organic phase stripping were also investigated.The experimental results indicate that under optimum conditions,the purity of lead deposited on cathode is 98.5% and the deposit rate of lead is 99.9%,the dissolution rate of indium is 94.28%,the extraction rate of indium is 98.69%,the stripping rate of indium is almost 100%,and the impurity elements,such as Zn,Fe and Sn can be removed.

  10. Safe Leads and Lead Changes in Competitive Team Sports

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, A; Redner, S


    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size $L$ and game time $t$. Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40,000 games across four professional or semi-professional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  11. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian


    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  12. High temperature superconductor current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)


    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  13. Estimating the Impacts of Educational Interventions Using State Tests or Study-Administered Tests. NCEE 2012-4016 (United States)

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Price, Cristofer; Jaciw, Andrew P.


    This report examines the differences in impact estimates and standard errors that arise when these are derived using state achievement tests only (as pre-tests and post-tests), study-administered tests only, or some combination of state- and study-administered tests. State tests may yield different evaluation results relative to a test that is…

  14. 40 CFR 147.1601 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. (United States)


    ... lands, is the program administered by the New Mexico Water Quality Control Commission, the Environmental...). (c)(1) The Memorandum of Agreement between EPA Region VI and the New Mexico Water Quality Control... CONTROL PROGRAMS New Mexico § 147.1601 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The...

  15. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1250 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. (United States)


    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Mississippi § 147.1250 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Mississippi, except those on Indian lands, is the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  17. 40 CFR 147.200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. (United States)


    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Arkansas § 147.200 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Arkansas, except those wells on Indian lands, is... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  18. 40 CFR 147.500 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. (United States)


    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Florida § 147.500 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV, and V wells in the State of Florida, except for those on Indian lands is... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  19. 40 CFR 147.700 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. (United States)


    ... CONTROL PROGRAMS Illinois § 147.700 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Illinois, except those on Indian lands, is the... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  20. 40 CFR 147.850 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells. (United States)


    ... PROGRAMS Kansas § 147.850 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Kansas, except those on Indian lands as described in § 147... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class...

  1. Validity and reproducibility of self-administered joint counts. A prospective longitudinal followup study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prevoo, MLL; Kuper, IH; vantHof, MA; vanLeeuwen, MA; vandePutte, LBA; vanRiel, PLCM


    Objective. To investigate the reproducibility and validity of self-administered joint counts (JC), measuring tenderness, swelling and the combination of both, in a longitudinal study, Methods. At the outpatient department a form self-administered by patients (SAI-form), was used to measure joint inv

  2. Lead-free primary explosives (United States)

    Huynh, My Hang V.


    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  3. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: a survey of dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H


    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls [i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth] was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  4. Precautionary practices for administering anesthetic gases: A survey of physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologist assistants. (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L


    Scavenging systems and administrative and work practice controls for minimizing occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases have been recommended for many years. Anesthetic gases and vapors that are released or leak out during medical procedures are considered waste anesthetic gases. To better understand the extent recommended practices are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted in 2011 among members of professional practice organizations representing anesthesia care providers including physician anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, and anesthesiologist assistants. This national survey is the first to examine self-reported use of controls to minimize exposure to waste anesthetic gases among anesthesia care providers. The survey was completed by 1,783 nurse anesthetists, 1,104 physician anesthesiologists, and 100 anesthesiologist assistants who administered inhaled anesthetics in the seven days prior to the survey. Working in hospitals and outpatient surgical centers, respondents most often administered sevoflurane and, to a lesser extent desflurane and isoflurane, in combination with nitrous oxide. Use of scavenging systems was nearly universal, reported by 97% of respondents. However, adherence to other recommended practices was lacking to varying degrees and differed among those administering anesthetics to pediatric (P) or adult (A) patients. Examples of practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: using high (fresh gas) flow anesthesia only (17% P, 6% A), starting anesthetic gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (35% P; 14% A); not routinely checking anesthesia equipment for leaks (4% P, 5% A), and using a funnel-fill system to fill vaporizers (16%). Respondents also reported that facilities lacked safe handling procedures (19%) and hazard awareness training (18%). Adherence to precautionary work practices was generally highest among

  5. Osteopathic medical student administered smoking cessation counseling is an effective tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Capozzi


    Full Text Available Background: Physician counseling on the risks of tobacco smoking and the benefits of cessation has been shown to be an effective method of increasing the rate of smoking cessation. Using the "Help Your Patients Quit Smoking: A Coaching Guide" also referred to as the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is thought to be effective to convey the importance of smoking cessation. Aim: To study the efficacy of the "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guideline counseling conducted by osteopathic medical students. Materials and Methods: Osteopathic medical students were trained to counsel smokers for 3-10 min based on New York City Department of Health′s "7A′s of Smoking Cessation" guidelines by a licensed physician. Students then counseled health fair participants who were cigarette smokers for 3-10 min. Postcounseling, participants were administered an 4 question survey to evaluate the effect counseling had on their desire to quit smoking. Survey data were collected and analyzed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. Results: A total of 13 anonymous health fair participants who were also smokers were administered both counseling sessions and surveys. 11/13 (84.6% participants stated that the session motivated them to quit smoking. 9/13 (69.2% participants responded that they were now motivated to discuss smoking cessation with their doctor after being counseled. Of these participants 12/13 (92.3% had previously attempted to quit smoking without success. Conclusion: Participants reported an increased willingness to stop smoking after being counseled by osteopathic medical students. Participants also reported an increased motivation to discuss smoking cessation with their physician. These findings indicate that smoking cessation counseling administered by osteopathic medical students effectively in encouraging smokers to consider reduction or cessation of tobacco

  6. Orally administered bisphenol a in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): estrogenicity, metabolism, and retention. (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Andersen, Sidsel B; Pedersen, Knud L; Pedersen, Søren N; Korsgaard, Bodil


    The estrogenic effect of orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated in a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) test system. Bisphenol A was administered orally to sexually immature rainbow trout every second day for up to 12 d in doses between 1.8 and 258 mg/kg every second day (/2d). Plasma vitellogenin was measured before and during the exposures, and the concentrations of BPA in plasma, liver, and muscle and the plasma concentrations of BPA glucuronic acid (BPAGA) were determined at the end of the experiments. Increases in average plasma vitellogenin levels were seen at oral exposure to 24 mg BPA/kg/2d; the most sensitive fish responded to 9.3 mg/kg/2d. At day 12, the 10, 50, and 90% effective doses for increase in vitellogenin synthesis were 13, 19, and 25 mg/kg/2d, respectively. Bisphenol A could be detected in liver, muscle, and plasma at the end of the exposure, generally in increasing concentrations with increasing doses; liver concentrations generally were higher than muscle concentrations. Four to five hours after the last feeding of doses between 3.6 and 24 mg BPA/kg, plasma BPA concentrations ranged between 400 and 1,200 nM, whereas BPAGA concentrations were between 2- and 10-fold higher. The difference between BPA and BPAGA concentrations increased with increasing BPA dose. Bisphenol A showed little tendency to bioaccumulate in rainbow trout; less than 1% of the total amount of BPA administered orally at doses between 1.8 and 258 mg/ kg/2d over the 10- or 12-d experimental period was retained in muscle and liver at 5 or 24 h after the end of the experiments.

  7. Surgeon-administered conscious sedation and local anesthesia for ambulatory anorectal surgery. (United States)

    Hina, Miss; Hourigan, Jon S; Moore, Richard A; Stanley, J Daniel


    Anorectal procedures are often performed in an outpatient setting using a variety of anesthetic techniques. One technique that has not been well studied is surgeon-administered conscious sedation along with local anesthetic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of this technique with emphasis on safety, efficacy, and patient satisfaction. Chart review was performed on 133 consecutive patients who had anorectal procedures at an outpatient surgery center. Additionally, 65 patients were enrolled prospectively and completed a satisfaction survey. Inclusively, charts of 198 patients who underwent outpatient anorectal surgery under conscious sedation and local anesthesia under the direction of a colorectal surgeon from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed. Parameters related to patient and procedural characteristics, safety, efficacy, and satisfaction were evaluated. Surgeon-administered sedation consisted of combined fentanyl and midazolam in 90 per cent. Eighty per cent of procedures were performed in the prone position and 23 per cent were in combination with an endoscopic procedure. Eighty-two per cent were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade 1 or 2. Transient mild hypoxemia or hypotension occurred in 4 and 3 per cent of the patients, respectively. Mean operative time was 29 minutes with a mean stay in the postanesthesia care unit of 37 minutes. There were no early major cardiac or respiratory complications. Ninety-seven per cent of the patients surveyed reported a high degree of satisfaction. Surgeon-administered conscious sedation with local anesthesia was well tolerated for outpatient anorectal surgeries. Additional studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of this technique.

  8. Interviewer versus self-administered health-related quality of life questionnaires - Does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackatz Lori E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of administration format is inconsistent and mainly available from cross-sectional studies our aim was to assess the effects of different administration formats on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes in participants with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods We included participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS (LSOCA who completed the Medical Outcome Study [MOS] -HIV questionnaire, the EuroQol, the Feeling Thermometer and the Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ 25 every six months thereafter using self- or interviewer-administration. A large print questionnaire was available for participants with visual impairment. Considering all measurements over time and adjusting for patient and study site characteristics we used linear models to compare HRQL scores (all scores from 0-100 between administration formats. We defined adjusted differences of ≥0.2 standard deviations [SD] to be quantitatively meaningful. Results We included 2,261 participants (80.6% males with a median of 43.1 years of age at enrolment who provided data on 23,420 study visits. The self-administered MOS-HIV, Feeling Thermometer and EuroQol were used in 70% of all visits and the VFQ-25 in 80%. For eight domains of the MOS-HIV differences between the interviewer- and self- administered format were Conclusions Our large study provides evidence that administration formats do not have a meaningful effect on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes. As a consequence, longitudinal studies may not need to consider the effect of

  9. Experience with intravascular lead extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian; TANG Kai; WANG Fang-zheng; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Cong-xin


    @@ With the increase of clinical use of cardiac pacemaker, a certain kinds of severe leads-related complications (especially infection) have presented in a few patients who underwent pacemaker implantation. The best way to manage this problem is to remove the transvenous leads.1,2 The technique for percutaneous removal of transvenous leads have undergone considerable development in western countries over the past 2 decades. However, there was scarce data on the application of this technique in China. This article reports the results of transvenous extraction of 171 permanent pacemaker leads with the standard lead extraction devices and intravascular countertraction technique during the period from January 1996 to May 2005 in the Center of Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Treatment, Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China.

  10. Relative bioavailability in man of noscapine administered in lozenges and mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.N.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Jacobsen, L.


    The bioavailability of noscapine base administered in lozenges in a dose of 100 mg to twelve healthy volunteers, in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with that of 100 mg of noscapine hydrochloride given perorally as a mixture. The bioavailability of noscapine after...... administration in lozenges was significantly higher than that after administration of the drug as a mixture. It is concluded that the lozenges containing noscapine base may be a valuable alternative to the conventional noscapine hydrochloride mixture....

  11. A Review of "Challenging Situations When Administering Palliative 
Chemotherapy--A Nursing Perspective". (United States)

    Houlihan, Nancy G


    The December 2014 issue of the European Journal of Oncology Nursing published an article by Näppä, Rasmussen, Axelsson, and Lindqvist that reported on a qualitative study of the challenges experienced by Swedish nurses when administering palliative cancer treatment at the end of life. The study identified the various clinical scenarios that create dilemmas among nurses. The authors described why chemotherapy at the end of life has become so prevalent and offered strategies to minimize or prevent the moral distress that can occur. Research from the United States identified similar trends in end-of-life treatment and supportive recommendations for multidisciplinary palliative care team collaboration as a solution.

  12. Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)--development of a self-administered outcome measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    and recreation function, and knee-related quality of life. In this clinical study, the KOOS proved reliable, responsive to surgery and physical therapy, and valid for patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The KOOS meets basic criteria of outcome measures and can be used to evaluate......-term patient-relevant outcomes following knee injury, based on the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, a literature review, an expert panel, and a pilot study. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is self-administered and assesses five outcomes: pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport...

  13. Community Cognitive Screening Using the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE). (United States)

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu Ing; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Yager-Schweller, Jennifer; Murden, Robert A


    This study investigated the functionality of the Self-Administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) for cognitive screening in community settings and examined its characteristics as a cognitive screening assessment tool. From 45 community events, 1,047 individuals over age 50 were screened with SAGE. Cognitive impairment was identified in 28%. Principal-component and correlation analysis indicate that SAGE is an internally-consistent test that is very well balanced, with language, cognition, visuospatial, executive, and memory domains. Community cognitive screening using SAGE was found to be feasible and efficient in diverse settings with both small and large groups.

  14. Comparing portable computers with bedside computers when administering medications using bedside medication verification. (United States)

    Ludwig-Beymer, Patti; Williams, Phillip; Stimac, Ellen


    This research examined bedside medication verification administration in 2 adult critical care units, using portable computers and permanent bedside computers. There were no differences in the number of near-miss errors, the time to administer the medications, or nurse perception of ease of medication administration, care of patients, or reliability of technology. The percentage of medications scanned was significantly higher with the use of permanent bedside computers, and nurses using permanent bedside computers were more likely to agree that the computer was always available.

  15. Relative bioavailability of methadone hydrochloride administered in chewing gum and tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.


    Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....

  16. Intestinal absorption of coenzyme Q(10) administered in a meal or as capsules to healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Christine; Bysted, Anette; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed


    A randomized cross-over study by supplementation with single doses of coenzyme Q(10) (30 mg/person), administered either as a meal consisting of cooked pork heart or as 30 mg coenzyme Q(10) capsules was performed to investigate the bioavailability of dietary coenzyme Q(10) in humans. The increase...... in serum coenzyme Q(10) concentration was used as an index of the absorption, and reached a maximum six hours after the ingestion of either meal or capsules. Following intake of coenzyme Q(10) capsules, the serum coenzyme Q(10) concentrations increased significantly (p...

  17. Lead arthropathy: a cause of delayed onset lead poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong); Reinus, W.R. [Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology, Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)


    Patients who suffer gun shot wounds often have retained bullet fragments within their bodies. These are usually of no clinical consequence. We describe three patients with retained bullets within their hip joints. One of these patients, who had extensive ground intra-articular bullet fragments and secondary osteoarthritis of the hip, presented with signs, symptoms, and laboratory data consistent with lead intoxication. The bullet und metallic fragments were removed surgically with good clinical response. Two patients whose bullets were implanted entirely within the femoral head and whose joints showed smaller degrees of lead fragmentation had no symptoms of lead intoxication. The degree of intra-articular fragmentation of the bullet and the surface area of lead exposed to synovial fluid are emphasized as decisive factors with respect to appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  18. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ


    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  19. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;


    mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid......In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... or tetrathiomolybdate may be more suitable alternatives today. In copper-toxicity, a free radical scavenger might be recommended as adjuvant to the chelator therapy...

  20. Exploring a partially enclosed space by lead-exposed female rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    Lasky, R E; Laughlin, N K


    Beginning on Day 8 postpartum, lead acetate was administered to female rhesus monkeys (n=48). Their blood lead levels rose to 35-40 microg/dl (the level maintained for the duration of the study period) by 12 weeks of age. Weekly, these lead-exposed monkeys and their controls (n=23) were placed in a partially enclosed space from the second postnatal week until they escaped three times or were 26 weeks old. The lead-exposed monkeys exhibited more fear, were more likely to be agitated, and climbed more frequently during the first testing session. In subsequent sessions, they more frequently explored the periphery of the test area than the controls. The lead-exposed monkeys also tended to escape sooner although that trend did not consistently reach the.05 level of significance. The increased activity and agitation of the lead-exposed monkeys is suggestive of deficits reported in human children with high blood lead levels.

  1. Increased DNA damage in blood cells of rat treated with lead as assessed by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arif


    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is the key player in the pathogenesis of lead-induced toxicity. The present study investigated lead induced oxidative DNA damage, if any in rat blood cells by alkaline comet assay. Lead was administered intraperitoneally to rats at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days consecutively. Blood collected on day six from sacrificed lead-treated rats was used to assess the extent of DNA damage by comet assay which entailed measurement of comet length, olive tail moment, tail DNA (% and tail length. The results showed that treatment with lead significantly increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, our data suggests that lead treatment is associated with oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in rat blood cells which could be used as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity.

  2. Fate of orally administered {sup 15}N-labeled polyamines in rats bearing solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Samejima, Keijiro; Goda, Hitomi; Niitsu, Masaru [Josai Univ., Sakado, Saitama (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Xu Yongji [Qingdao Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Inst. of Chemical and Molecular Technology; Takahashi, Masakazu [Sasaki Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki [Kyoritsu Coll. of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)


    We studied absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the gastrointestinal tract using {sup 15}N-labeled polyamines as tracers and ionspray ionization mass spectrometry (IS-MS). The relatively simple protocol using rats bearing solid tumors provided useful information. Three {sup 15}N-labeled polyamines that were simultaneously administered were absorbed equally from gastrointestinal tract, and distributed within tissues at various concentrations. The uptake of {sup 15}N-spermidine seemed preferential to that of {sup 15}N-spermine since the concentrations of {sup 15}N-spermidine in the liver and tumors were higher, whereas those of {sup 15}N-spermine were higher in the kidney, probably due to the excretion of excess extracellular spermine. Most of the absorbed {sup 15}N-putrescine seemed to be lost, suggesting blood and tissue diamine oxidase degradation. Concentrations of {sup 15}N-spermidine and {sup 15}N-spermine in the tumor were low. We also describe the findings from two rats that were administered with {sup 15}N-spermine. The tissue concentrations of {sup 15}N-spermine were unusually high, and significant levels of {sup 15}N-spermidine were derived from {sup 15}N-spermine in these animals. (author)

  3. Effects of peripherally administered urocortin 3 on feeding behavior and gastric emptying in mice. (United States)

    Terashi, Mutsumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro; Chaolu, Huke; Ushikai, Miharu; Inui, Akio


    Human and mouse urocortin 3 (Ucn3) were first identified in 2001. Ucn3 binds selectively to corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2 (CRF-R2). Previous studies have shown that centrally administered Ucn3 decreases food intake in rats. However, the role of Ucn3 in the regulation of gut motility remains to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered Ucn3 on food intake and gastric emptying in mice. After intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of Ucn3, food intake was measured in the light and dark phases, and the rate of gastric emptying was determined. We found that i.p. administration of Ucn3 significantly inhibited feeding behavior in mice, and significantly delayed gastric emptying 1-2 h after administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Ucn3 contributes to the modulation of feeding behavior and gut motility. Thus, Ucn3 and CRF-R2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal and eating disorders.

  4. Mood changes by self-administered acupressure in Japanese college students: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Honda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Naruse, Mayu; Tsuchiyagaito, Aki


    The aim of this 2-week study was to examine the effects of self-administered acupressure intervention onlevels of mood of 54 students (34 males and 20 females) majoring in acupuncture and moxibustion medicineat a college located in Fukuoka, Japan. Eligibility criteria were the ability to complete the intervention accurately and no history of psychiatric diseases. The students were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 28) and a control group (CG, n = 26). The IG participants completed fiveacupressure sessions three times a day (morning, noon, and night), involving the application of pressure to six acupuncture points (GB12, SI17, and LI18 according to 2008 World Health OrganizationRegional Office in the Western Pacific standard), three on the left and three on the right side of the neck for 5 s each. The CG participants were requested to spend their time as usual. Self-reported levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, anger-hostility, vigor, fatigue, and confusion over the past week were measured before and after the study as the main outcomes. Side effects were not predicted and not assessed. The retention rate of this trial was 100%. Improvements in mood, defined as a change from baseline to 2 weeks later, were significantly greater in IG. Our results showed that self-administered intervention had the ability to alter mood levels in college students.

  5. The social behavior of male rats administered an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen. (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G


    The behavioral outcomes of a calorie restricted diet are often neglected in favour of a more physiological examination of the consequences of calorie restriction (CR). This is especially the case with social behavior. A few findings within the maternal CR literature suggest that adult male social behavior is altered by this regimen. Despite the paucity of findings within the maternal CR literature, a systematic investigation of the behavioral phenotype of males administered an adult-onset CR is completely lacking and was the focus of the current study. Adult male hooded Wistar rats were administered a three week CR, with one group receiving a 25% CR and another group receiving a 50% CR before male-to-male social behavior was examined and compared with ad libitium fed males. Various behavioral elements were modulated by CR, both the CR25% and 50% group initiated contact sooner and engaged in greater social activity compared to the ad libitum fed controls. The CR25% group also demonstrated less non-social (self-grooming) behavior and a greater frequency of walkovers compared to all groups, indicating a propensity towards dominance. The CR50% group demonstrated greater environmental assessment/exploration, as measured by the frequency of rearing. As with the maternal CR literature, an adult-onset chronic CR induces a more socially active behavioral phenotype and reduces interest in non-social behavior in the moderately CR group. Taken together, the social behavioral phenotype can be modulated by a CR initiated and maintained during adulthood.

  6. Hemato-biochemical responses to packing in donkeys administered ascorbic acid during the harmattan season. (United States)

    Olaifa, Folashade; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Ambali, Suleiman Folorunsho; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim


    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) in reducing hemato-biochemical changes in pack donkeys during the cold-dry (harmattan) season. Six experimental donkeys administered orally AA (200 mg/kg) and six control donkeys not administered ascorbic acid were subjected to packing. Blood samples were collected from all donkeys for hematological and biochemical analyses. In the control donkeys, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) decreased significantly (Ppacking. In the experimental donkeys, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-packing values of PCV, erythrocyte count and Hb. In the control donkeys, the neutrophil and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased significantly (Ppacking, but in the experimental donkeys, the pre- and post-packing values were not significantly different. The eosinophil count increased significantly (Ppacking. In conclusion, packing exerted significant adverse effects on the hematological parameters ameliorated by AA administration. AA may modulate neutrophilia and induce a considerable alteration of erythroid markers in donkeys subjected to packing during the harmattan season.

  7. Effect of self-administered stretching on NIRS-measured oxygenation dynamics. (United States)

    Kruse, Nicholas T; Scheuermann, Barry W


    This study determined human skeletal muscle oxygenation dynamics during and after a single bout of self-administered stretching (SAS) of the plantar flexors. Nine healthy recreationally fit men (n = 7; age = 25·7 years) and women (n = 2; age = 23·5 years) performed two protocols: (i) one bout of SAS for 4 min and (ii) one bout of moderate intensity cycling for 4 min. We used near infrared spectroscopy to measure changes in muscle deoxygenated haemoglobin-myoglobin ([HHb]) and blood volume ([Hbtot ]) of gastrocnemius medialis muscle before, during and after stretching. The SAS caused an increase (Pstretching between 60 and 240 s relative to baseline, but not at 30 s. No significant difference was found for [Hbtot ] at any time interval during SAS. Furthermore, the increase in local blood flow (suggested by [Hbtot ] changes) was found to be significantly increased relative to baseline at 1, 5 and 10 min after SAS, thus providing novel evidence for a poststretch hyperaemia. No significant interaction for [HHb] was found between stretching and cycling conditions, suggesting that the metabolic disturbance during stretching closely resembles moderate intensity exercise. These findings suggest that a single self-administered stretch for 60 s can produce a substantial microcirculatory event and that blood flow may be enhanced for up to 10 min after stretching.

  8. Administered activity optimization in renal static scanning using 99m-Tc DMSA

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    Perez, Marlen; Casas, Gladys [Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Dopico, Rolando; Estevez, Eric; Cabrera, Orlando [Hospital Universitario Celestino Hernandez Robau, Villa Clara (Cuba)


    The aim of this study was to determine the optimum administered activity to patients, of the DMSA-Tc-99m looking for good image quality in gamma camera and a best radiological protection for the patient. Three protocols and two activity values in each protocol were tested (71.2 MBq and 132.8 MBq) in six patients each. An observer blinded to the administered activity, graded the rear view of both kidneys in the 36 patients. The relation of the Rois in kidney/bladder and kidney/liver, and the labeling yield were the most important parameters in the construction of a discriminatory function of image quality (r=0.56, r=0.33 and r=0.461 respectively). The correlation between the observer's opinion and the prediction of the function was r=0.429. The function classified 91.7% of the cases correctly. The best results for the patient's radiological protection were obtained by using 71.2 MBq and 700 k Counts as stopped criterion. When the labeling yield was lower than 98% it was better to applied 132.8 MBq and to stop the scanning after 3 minutes to guarantee a best image quality. (author)

  9. Increased toxicity when fibrates and statins are administered in combination--a metabolomics approach with rats. (United States)

    Strauss, V; Mellert, W; Wiemer, J; Leibold, E; Kamp, H; Walk, T; Looser, R; Prokoudine, A; Fabian, E; Krennrich, G; Herold, M; van Ravenzwaay, B


    Combination therapies with fibrates and statins are used to treat cardiovascular diseases, because of their synergistic effect on lowering plasma lipids. However, fatal side-effects like rhabdomyolysis followed by acute renal necrosis sometimes occur. To elucidate biochemical changes resulting from the interaction of fibrates and statins, doses of 100 mg/kg fenofibrate, 50mg/kg clofibrate, 70 mg/kg atorvastatin and 200 mg/kg pravastatin as well as combinations thereof were administered to Crl:Wi(Han) rats for 4 weeks. Plasma metabolome profile was measured on study days 7, 14 and 28. Upon study termination, clinical pathology parameters were measured. In a separate experiment plasmakinetic data were measured in male rats after 1 week of drug administration in monotherapy as well as in combinations. Lowering of blood lipid levels as well as toxicological effects, like liver cell degradation (statins) and anemia (fibrates) and distinct blood metabolite level alterations were observed in monotherapy. When fibrates and statins were co-administered metabolite profile interactions were generally underadditive or at the utmost additive according to the linear mixed effect model. However, more metabolite levels were significantly altered during combination therapy. New effects on the antioxidant status and the cardiovascular system were found which may be related to a development of rhabdomyolysis. Accumulation of drugs during the combination therapy was not observed.

  10. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation in advanced interventional endoscopy. (United States)

    Burtea, Daniela Elena; Dimitriu, Anca; Maloş, Anca Elena; Săftoiu, Adrian


    Complex and lengthy endoscopic examinations like endoscopic ultrasonography and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography benefit from deep sedation, due to an enhanced quality of examinations, reduced discomfort and anxiety of patients, as well as increased satisfaction for both the patients and medical personnel. Current guidelines support the use of propofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverse effects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recovery time. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation has become an option in most of the countries, due to limited anesthesiology resources and the increasing evidence from prospective studies and meta-analyses that the procedure is safe with a similar rate of adverse events with traditional sedation. The advantages include a high quality of endoscopic examination, improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as well as decreased recovery and discharge time. Despite the advantages of non-anesthesiologist administered propofol, there is still a continuous debate related to the successful generalization of the procedures.

  11. Excitability scores of goats administered ascorbic acid and transported during hot-dry conditions. (United States)

    Ayo, J O; Minka, N S; Mamman, M


    In this study, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) administration on goat excitability due to transportation. Ten goats administered AA (p.o.) at 100 mg/kg of body weight before transportation served as the experimental group, and seven goats administered only 10 ml/kg of sterile water (p.o.) served as controls. Excitability scores were recorded for each goat; when weighed, before, immediately after, and 3 h after 8 h of transportation. A score of one to four was allocated to each goat; higher scores represent greater excitability. Immediately after transportation, excitability scores decreased significantly, especially those of control goats (p 0.05) different from their pre-transportation normal values, whereas those of control goats were significantly lower (p < 0.01). The correlation i.e. the relationship between excitability score values and percent excitability (percentage of goat with particular excitability score) for different excitability score group 3 h post-transportation was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001), in both experimental and control goats. Our results indicate that road transportation induces considerable stress (depression) in goats as evidenced by a lower excitability score posttransportation. Moreover, the administration of AA pretransportation facilitated the transition from a state of depression to excitation. In conclusion, AA administration to animals prior to transportation may ameliorate the depression often encountered after road transportation.

  12. Tolerability assessment of a lectin fraction from Tepary bean seeds (Phaseolus acutifolius orally administered to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferriz-Martínez


    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that a lectin rich fraction (TBLF extracted from Tepary bean seeds differentially inhibits cancer cells proliferation in vitro. Before testing the in vivo anticancer effect, the acute and subchronic toxicological assays in rats were conducted, where an oral dose of 50 mg/body weight kg was determined as the NOAEL. This study evaluated the resistance to digestion and complete blood count (CBC after 24 h of the orally administered 50 mg/kg TBLF. The digestion resistance test showed lectins activity retention after 72 h and the CBC study showed a high level of eosinophils, suggesting an allergic-like response. Tolerability was assayed after 6 weeks of treatment by dosing with an intragastric cannula every third day per week. It was observed a transient reduction in food intake and body weight in the first weeks, resulting in body weight gain reduction of 10% respect to the control group at the end of the study. Additionally, organs weight, histopathological analysis and blood markers for nutritional status and for liver, pancreas and renal function were not affected. Our results suggest that 50 mg/kg TBLF administered by oral route, exhibit no toxicity in rats and it was well tolerated. Further studies will focus on long-term studies.

  13. Assessing smoking status in disadvantaged populations: is computer administered self report an accurate and acceptable measure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Jamie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self report of smoking status is potentially unreliable in certain situations and in high-risk populations. This study aimed to determine the accuracy and acceptability of computer administered self-report of smoking status among a low socioeconomic (SES population. Methods Clients attending a community service organisation for welfare support were invited to complete a cross-sectional touch screen computer health survey. Following survey completion, participants were invited to provide a breath sample to measure exposure to tobacco smoke in expired air. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated. Results Three hundred and eighty three participants completed the health survey, and 330 (86% provided a breath sample. Of participants included in the validation analysis, 59% reported being a daily or occasional smoker. Sensitivity was 94.4% and specificity 92.8%. The positive and negative predictive values were 94.9% and 92.0% respectively. The majority of participants reported that the touch screen survey was both enjoyable (79% and easy (88% to complete. Conclusions Computer administered self report is both acceptable and accurate as a method of assessing smoking status among low SES smokers in a community setting. Routine collection of health information using touch-screen computer has the potential to identify smokers and increase provision of support and referral in the community setting.

  14. The effects of four different drugs administered through catheters on slime production in coagulase negative Staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sedef Göçmen


    Full Text Available Objectives: Higher rate of slime production has been found in pathogen bacteria strains. Accordingly, the factors thatcontribute to higher slime production rate increase the infection risk, while the factors that reduce the slime productionrate will reduce the infection risk. The effect of some drugs that are administered through catheters in intensive careunits on slime production with coagulase negative Staphylococci was investigated.Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of four different preparations containing Glyceryl trinitrate (Perlinganit®, Dexmedetomidine (Precedex®, Esmolol (Brevibloc®, and Propofol (Propofol® on slime production of 24Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from blood cultures of patients, and reference strain were investigated. Slimeproduction was determined using ‘the quantitative microdilution plaque test’ described by Christensen.Results: Under controlled medium, eight strains formed slimes, and in the media containing esmolol, glyceryl trinitrate,dexmedetomidine, and propofol slimes were positive for five, 21, 15, and 18 strains, respectively. The rate of slime productionin glyceryl trinitrate, dexmedetomidine, and propofol containing media were higher than that of the controls.Conclusions: In the light of the results of this study, it is concluded that the drugs and/or additives increase the rate ofslime production. The effects of the preparations administered through catheters on slime production should be investigated,and these effects should be kept in mind during their use. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 150-154Key words: Slime Production, Coagulase Negative Staphyloccoci, Parenteral drugs

  15. Pharmacokinetics of the Antiviral Lectin Griffithsin Administered by Different Routes Indicates Multiple Potential Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barton


    Full Text Available Griffithsin (GRFT is a red alga-derived lectin with demonstrated broad spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome–Coronavirus (SARS-CoV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2. However, its pharmacokinetic profile remains largely undefined. Here, Sprague Dawley rats were administered a single dose of GRFT at 10 or 20 mg/kg by intravenous, oral, and subcutaneous routes, respectively, and serum GRFT levels were measured at select time points. In addition, the potential for systemic accumulation after oral dosing was assessed in rats after 10 daily treatments with GRFT (20 or 40 mg/kg. We found that parenterally-administered GRFT in rats displayed a complex elimination profile, which varied according to administration routes. However, GRFT was not orally bioavailable, even after chronic treatment. Nonetheless, active GRFT capable of neutralizing HIV-Env pseudoviruses was detected in rat fecal extracts after chronic oral dosing. These findings support further evaluation of GRFT for pre-exposure prophylaxis against emerging epidemics for which specific therapeutics are not available, including systemic and enteric infections caused by susceptible enveloped viruses. In addition, GRFT should be considered for antiviral therapy and the prevention of rectal transmission of HIV-1 and other susceptible viruses.

  16. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N;


    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r......-dose and the steady-state study do not differ significantly from 1.0, the confidence limits exceed the acceptable values given by Poulsen & Juul (personal communication 1990) (a 20% decrease or increase of the ratio to 0.8 or 1.2).......Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr...... respectively) whereas differences in AUC, t1/2 and Cmax were not significant. The AUC (mean +/- S.D.) values following single dose administration of Cardil and Cardizem were 678.4 +/- 321.5 and 948.6 +/- 580.6 respectively. The mean and the 95% confidence limits for the observed ratio AUCCardil...

  17. [Clinical study of astromicin administered by intravenous drip infusion against chronic complicated urinary tract infections]. (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Takanashi, K; Nagakubo, I; Kiyosaki, H; Naide, Y


    Astromicin (ASTM) was administered by intravenous drip infusion (i.v.d.) to 22 patients with chronic complicated urinary tract infections and the clinical efficacy and safety of this drug were evaluated. The overall clinical efficacy rate obtained was 71.4% (excellent 6; moderate 9) of 21 evaluable cases by the UTI committee's criteria. Concerning the response on clinical isolates, the drug was highly effective especially against strains of Escherichia coli, indole positive Proteus and Serratia marcescens. It was not effective, however, against 2 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As for adverse reactions, there was one case which complained of headache on the 3rd day after starting treatment. In this case the drug administration was discontinued at the 5th day. The symptom disappeared within 24 hours without any treatment. No any other adverse reactions were noted. With regard to clinical test values for peripheral blood, liver and renal functions, no abnormality was observed in any of the cases treated with the drug. In conclusion, ASTM was found to be a highly effective and safe drug when administered by intravenous drip infusion in the treatment of chronic complicated urinary tract infections.

  18. Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms-workshop report. (United States)

    Reppas, Christos; Friedel, Horst-Dieter; Barker, Amy R; Buhse, Lucinda F; Cecil, Todd L; Keitel, Susanne; Kraemer, Johannes; Morris, J Michael; Shah, Vinod P; Stickelmeyer, Mary P; Yomota, Chikako; Brown, Cynthia K


    Biorelevant in vitro performance testing of orally administered dosage forms has become an important tool for the assessment of drug product in vivo behavior. An in vitro performance test which mimics the intraluminal performance of an oral dosage form is termed biorelevant. Biorelevant tests have been utilized to decrease the number of in vivo studies required during the drug development process and to mitigate the risk related to in vivo bioequivalence studies. This report reviews the ability of current in vitro performance tests to predict in vivo performance and generate successful in vitro and in vivo correlations for oral dosage forms. It also summarizes efforts to improve the predictability of biorelevant tests. The report is based on the presentations at the 2013 workshop, Biorelevant In Vitro Performance Testing of Orally Administered Dosage Forms, in Washington, DC, sponsored by the FIP Dissolution/Drug Release Focus Group in partnership with the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) and a symposium at the AAPS 2012 Annual meeting on the same topic.

  19. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps. (United States)

    Rushforth, Dominic P; Pratt, Brenda E; Chittenden, Sarah J; Murray, Iain S; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J; Gear, Jonathan I; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D


    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration.

  20. Cardiovascular effects of histamine administered intracerebroventricularly in critical haemorrhagic hypotension in rats. (United States)

    Jochem, J


    The study was designed to determine the cardiovascular effects of histamine administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) in a rat model of volume-controlled haemorrhagic shock. The withdrawal of approximately 50% of total blood volume resulted in the death of all control saline icv treated animals within 30 min. Icv injection of histamine produced a prompt dose-dependent (0.1-100 nmol) and long-lasting (10-100 nmol) increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR), with a 100% survival of 2h after treatment (100 nmol). The increase in MAP and HR after histamine administration in bled rats in comparison to the normovolaemic animals was 2.7-3.3- and 1.3-3.6-fold higher, respectively. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (50 nmol icv), H1 receptor antagonist, inhibited the increase in MAP, PP, HR and survival rate produced by histamine, while chlorpheniramine given alone had no effect. Neither ranitidine (50 nmol icv), H2 histamine receptor antagonist, nor thioperamide (50 nmol icv), H3 receptor blocker, influenced the histamine action, however, when given alone, both evoked the pressor effect with elongation of survival time. It can be concluded that histamine administered icv reverses the haemorrhagic shock conditions, and histamine H1 receptors are involved.

  1. Orally administered misoprostol for induction of labor with prelabor rupture of membranes at term. (United States)

    Radoff, Kari A


    Prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) occurs in approximately 8% to 10% of women with term pregnancies. The management of PROM continues to be controversial. Approaches include expectant management and immediate induction of labor. The use of orally administered misoprostol for the management of women with PROM may provide significant advantages when they choose immediate induction of labor. This literature review presents current evidence that supports the use of oral misoprostol for women with PROM, including the benefits of a decreased interval time from PROM to vaginal birth, good safety profile, and reductions in the use of oxytocin augmentation and epidural anesthesia. In addition to clinically proven benefits to women of oral misoprostol for PROM, it also has the potential to reduce chorioamnionitis by reducing the number of sterile vaginal examinations performed thereby reducing the risk of ascending bacteria. Women have also reported acceptability and satisfaction when using oral misoprostol for immediate induction of labor. This review of literature discusses what is known about the use of orally administered misoprostol for the management of term PROM and makes recommendations for clinical use.

  2. Memory Functions in Recreational Pistol Sport Shooters: Does Lead Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Asa-Mäkitaipale


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our study was to examine the memory functions of pistol sport shooters using powder charges when exposure to lead is expected to be considerably lower than in occupational circumstances.Methods: A neuropsychological battery of memory and intelligence tests was administered to 20 sport shooters and 20 controls whose mean ages (SDs were 55 (9.6 and 54 (9.3 years respectively. Memory functions were evaluated with three subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R and an incidental memory test. Intelligence was assessed with four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised (WAIS-R. The level of alcohol consumption and depression were examined in both groups. Blood lead level was determined among the shooters.Results: The shooters performed worse than the controls in the tests of incidental and logical memory. The groups did not differ in intelligence, mood or alcohol consumption. The mean (SD blood lead level of the sport shooters was 0.52 μmol/L (0.40, responding 10.76 μg/dl (8.28.Conclusions: Low lead exposure in recreational shooting conditions may impair verbal memory. Therefore it is important to ensure that lead exposure is prevented among those shooting for sport.

  3. Developmental neurotoxicity of monocrotophos and lead is linked to thyroid disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kala Kumar


    Full Text Available Aim: A role of thyroid disruption in developmental neurotoxicity of monocrotophos (MCP and lead is studied. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 female rats after conception were randomized into four groups of six each and treated as follows: Group I - Sham was administered distilled water orally. Group II - A positive control was administered methyl methimazole at 0.02% orally in drinking water. Group III - MCP orally at 0.3 mg/kg and Group IV - Lead acetate at 0.2% orally in drinking water. The drug was administered from gestation day 3 through post-natal day 21 in all the groups. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, thyroid profile (thyroid stimulating hormone, T3 and T4, neurodevelopment (brain wet weights, DNA, RNA and protein, and neurobehavioral (elevated plus maze, photoactometry, and Morris water maze parameters were assessed in pups. A histopathology of thyroid of dams and brain of progeny was conducted. Results: Inhibition of AChE was <20%. Thyroid profile decreased in the treatment groups. Neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral parameters did not reveal any significant changes. Thyroid architecture was affected significantly with MCP and lead. Cortical layers too were affected. The three layers of cerebellum either had abnormal arrangement or decreased cellularity in all treated groups relating to thyroid disruption. Conclusion: MCP and lead might have affected the development of cerebrum and cerebellum via thyroid disruption leading to developmental neurotoxicity.

  4. Lead- induced genotoxicity in wheat

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    Elena Truta


    Full Text Available The changes induced in cytogenetic parameters from root meristems of Triticum aestivum cv. Maruca seedlings have been studied after treatment with lead acetate and lead nitrate solutions, at four concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 μM containing 2.07, 5.18, 10.36, respectively 20.72 μg ml-1 Pb2+. Lead induced mitosis disturbances in root meristematic cells of wheat seedlings, expressed mainly in decrease of mitotic index and changes in preponderance of division phases. This heavy metal has genotoxic effects, expressed in the occurrence of many chromosomal aberrations in all Pb2+ treated variants. Pb2+ nitrate shows a more pronounced genotoxic potential than lead acetate trihydrate.

  5. Lead outside your comfort zone. (United States)

    Frisina, M E


    Successful leaders use their passion, values, and personal mission to create and maintain influence. Learn to define and develop a context that allows you to successfully lead nursing and non-nursing departments.

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of a CRM-conjugated meningococcal ACWY vaccine administered concomitantly with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age (United States)

    Nolan, Terry M; Nissen, Michael D; Naz, Aftab; Shepard, Julie; Bedell, Lisa; Hohenboken, Matthew; Odrljin, Tatjana; Dull, Peter M


    Background: Infants are at the highest risk for meningococcal disease and a broadly protective and safe vaccine is an unmet need in this youngest population. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 4-dose infant/toddler regimen of MenACWY-CRM given at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age concomitantly with pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Hemophilus influenzae type b-inactivated poliovirus-combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), 7- or 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). Results: Four doses of MenACWY-CRM induced hSBA titers ≥8 in 89%, 95%, 97%, and 96% of participants against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y, respectively. hSBA titers ≥8 were present in 76–98% of participants after the first 3 doses. A categorical linear analysis incorporating vaccine group and study center showed responses to routine vaccines administered with MenACWY-CRM were non-inferior to routine vaccines alone, except for seroresponse to the pertussis antigen fimbriae. The reactogenicity profile was not affected when MenACWY-CRM was administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. Conclusion: MenACWY-CRM administered with routine concomitant vaccinations in young infants was well tolerated and induced highly immunogenic responses against each of the serogroups without significant interference with the immune responses to routine infant vaccinations. Methods: Healthy 2 month old infants were randomized to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines (n = 258) or routine vaccines alone (n = 271). Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA). Medically attended adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and AEs leading to study withdrawal were collected throughout the study period. PMID:24220326

  7. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE YuFeng; ZHANG Zhang; MA YongJun; KANG JingWan


    @@ Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.

  8. Determination of Lead by Electrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; YuFeng


    Lead is one of the poisonous trace element for human body. It is important to find a way for measuring content of lead. Deternination of lead by electrochemistry is one of a method[1]. In this paper, lead is determined by single-sweep polarography. The absorption behavior of meso-tetra (4-sulfonylphenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS4) complex with lead ion has also been studied.In Na2B4O7-NaOH solution with pH=l 0.5, the reduction peaks of the ligand are P1 (Ep1=-0.38V), P2 (Ep2=-1.04V), which potentials are obtained vs. S.C.E. When lead ion has been added into above solution. The peak current of P1 and P2 decrease, and a new reduction peak P3 (Ep3=-1.10 V) appears. It shows that the TPPS4-Pb(Ⅱ) complex forms,and this method can be applied to study the complex.……

  9. [The effect of an organic gold compound on porphyrin metabolism, with reference to interaction with lead]. (United States)

    Harada, K; Pang, Y F; Miura, H


    Inhibition of the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase by heavy metals such as Cu, Cd and Au has been thought to be related to the inhibition of heme bio-synthesis in the bone marrow. This study investigates the interaction between lead and gold on porphyrin metabolism. Gold thiomalate (Au-T) was injected subcutaneously 10 times into the backs of rabbits in doses of 1, 10 and 100 mg per capita for 30 days. The latter two groups of animals showed mild anemia, but they showed neither reticulocytosis nor increase of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP). In rabbits administered lead only or lead plus gold thiomalate, however, reticulocytosis and an increase in FEP levels were observed. Therefore, the etiology of anemia may be different between rabbits administered gold thiomalate and rabbits administered lead. Rabbits injected with Au-T showed an increase in urinary coproporphyrin (CP-U) excretion. The maximum concentration of CP-U in the gold groups was about 3 times as high as that in the control group, but the increment was lower than that in the lead group. Rabbits injected with Au-T showed a higher concentration of gold in the kidneys than in other tissues. In those injected lead and Au-T together, concentration of gold in all tissues was higher than in those administered Au-T only. Proteinuria was observed in the rabbits injected Au-T. The increase in CP-U in the gold-injected rabbits was assumed to be related to the increase in gold concentration in the kidneys.

  10. How do patients with inflammatory bowel disease want their biological therapy administered?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Patrick B


    BACKGROUND: Infliximab is usually administered by two monthly intravenous (iv) infusions, therefore requiring visits to hospital. Adalimumab is administered by self subcutaneous (sc) injections every other week. Both of these anti-TNF drugs appear to be equally efficacious in the treatment of Crohn\\'s Disease and therefore the decision regarding which drug to choose will depend to some extent on patient choice, which may be based on the mode of administration.The aims of this study were to compare preferences in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients for two currently available anti-TNF agents and the reasons for their choices. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to IBD patients who had attended the Gastroenterology service (Ulster Hospital, Dundonald, Belfast, N. Ireland. UK) between January 2007 and December 2007. The patients were asked in a hypothetical situation if the following administering methods of anti-TNF drugs (intravenous or subcutaneous) were available, which drug route of administration would they choose. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were issued questionnaires, of these 78 questionnaires were returned (62 percent response). The mean age of respondent was 44 years. Of the total number of respondents, 33 patients (42 percent) preferred infliximab and 19 patients (24 percent) preferred adalimumab (p = 0.07). Twenty-six patients (33 percent) did not indicate a preference for either biological therapy and were not included in the final analysis. The commonest reason cited for those who chose infliximab (iv) was: "I do not like the idea of self-injecting," (67 percent). For those patients who preferred adalimumab (sc) the commonest reason cited was: "I prefer the convenience of injecting at home," (79 percent). Of those patients who had previously been treated with an anti-TNF therapy (n = 10, all infliximab) six patients stated that they would prefer infliximab if given the choice


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锡明; 闻大翔; 杭燕南; 孙大金


    Objective To investigate the effect of succinylcholine on the dose-response relationship of subsequently administered rocuronium in healthy patients. Methods Forty-eight ASA physical status Ⅰ-Ⅱ patients,aged 17 -65 years, scheduled for elective general surgery, were randomly assigned to either the rocuronium treatment group (R) or succinylcholine-rocuronium treatment group (SR). General anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4 to 6mg/kg and fentanyl 2 to 5μg/kg intravenously and maintained with 60% nitrous oxide in oxygen. Additional doses of thiopental or fentanyl were administered as required. The dose-response relationship of rocuronium was determined by the single dose-response technique. In R group ( n =24) , rocuronium was given after induction of anesthesia. In SR group (n =24 ) , patients were intubated after 1.5mg/kg of succinylcholine and rocuronium was given after the complete recovery of neuromuscular blockade from succinylcholine. Patients were further randomly divided into 4 subgroups receiving 150, 200, 250 or 300μg/kg of rocuronium respectively in both groups. Neuromuscular function was assessed accelographically with train-of-four (TOF) stimulation at the wrist every 12s (using the TOF Guard(R) accelerometer). The relationship between probit-tranformed percentage depression of first twitch height (Th) of train-of-four stimulation and logarithm dose of rocuronium was analyzed using linear regression.Results The dose-response curve of rocuronium after succinylcholine was shifted to the left in a parallel fashion compared with that of rocuronium given alone. ED50 and ED95 of rocuronium were 193 ±69 and 367 ± 73μg/kg respectively in R group, and 158 ± 35 and 317 ± 80μg/kg respectively in SR group ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Succinylcholine shifts the dose-response curve of rocuronium to the left and potentiates the effects of the neuromuscular blockade by about 15% of subsequently administered rocuronium. Lower doses of rocuronium are

  12. Tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of orally administered silica nanoparticles in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JA


    Full Text Available Jeong-A Lee,1 Mi-Kyung Kim,1 Hee-Jeong Paek,1 Yu-Ri Kim,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,2 Jong-Kwon Lee,3 Jayoung Jeong,3 Soo-Jin Choi1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk–do, Republic of Korea Purpose: The effects of particle size on the tissue distribution and excretion kinetics of silica nanoparticles and their biological fates were investigated following a single oral administration to male and female rats. Methods: Silica nanoparticles of two different sizes (20 nm and 100 nm were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. Tissue distribution kinetics, excretion profiles, and fates in tissues were analyzed using elemental analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The differently sized silica nanoparticles mainly distributed to kidneys and liver for 3 days post-administration and, to some extent, to lungs and spleen for 2 days post-administration, regardless of particle size or sex. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy studies in tissues demonstrated almost intact particles in liver, but partially decomposed particles with an irregular morphology were found in kidneys, especially in rats that had been administered 20 nm nanoparticles. Size-dependent excretion kinetics were apparent and the smaller 20 nm particles were found to be more rapidly eliminated than the larger 100 nm particles. Elimination profiles showed 7%–8% of silica nanoparticles were excreted via urine, but most nanoparticles were excreted via feces, regardless of particle size or sex. Conclusion: The kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen were found to be the target organs of orally-administered silica nanoparticles in rats, and this organ

  13. Leading to distraction: Driver distraction, lead car, and road environment. (United States)

    Kountouriotis, G K; Merat, N


    Driver distraction is strongly associated with crashes and near-misses, and despite the attention this topic has received in recent years, the effect of different types of distracting task on driving performance remains unclear. In the case of non-visual distractions, such as talking on the phone or other engaging verbal tasks that do not require a visual input, a common finding is reduced lateral variability in steering and gaze patterns where participants concentrate their gaze towards the centre of the road and their steering control is less variable. In the experiments presented here, we examined whether this finding is more pronounced in the presence of a lead car (which may provide a focus point for gaze) and whether the behaviour of the lead car has any influence on the driver's steering control. In addition, both visual and non-visual distraction tasks were used, and their effect on different road environments (straight and curved roadways) was assessed. Visual distraction was found to increase variability in both gaze patterns and steering control, non-visual distraction reduced gaze and steering variability in conditions without a lead car; in the conditions where a lead car was present there was no significant difference from baseline. The lateral behaviour of the lead car did not have an effect on steering performance, a finding which indicates that a lead car may not necessarily be used as an information point. Finally, the effects of driver distraction were different for straight and curved roadways, indicating a stronger influence of the road environment in steering than previously thought.

  14. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques. (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N


    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  15. Therapeutic time window for the neuroprotective effects of NGF when administered after focal cerebral ischemia. (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Ping; Liu, Huai-Jun; Yang, Hua; Feng, Ping-Yong


    In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotection time window for nerve growth factor (NGF) after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in rabbits as related to this anti-apoptosis mechanism. Male New Zealand rabbits were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 70 h of reperfusion. NGF was administered after injury to evaluate the time window. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, neural cell apoptosis and expressions of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 were measured. Compared to saline-treated control, NGF treatment at 2, 3 and 5 h after MCAO significantly reduced infarct volume, neural cell apoptosis and expression of caspase-3 (P NGF provides an extended time window of up to 5 h after ischemia/reperfusion brain injury, in part by attenuating the apoptosis.

  16. The antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered through the drinking water of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, L; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik; Christensen, Sten


    Postoperative pain management in laboratory animals is important for animal welfare and required under law in many countries. Frequent injection of analgesics to rodents after surgery is stressful for the animals and labour-intensive for animal care personnel. An alternative dosing scheme...... such as administration of analgesics in the drinking water would be desirable. However, the efficacy of a chronic oral analgesic treatment via this route has not yet been documented. This study investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of buprenorphine administered ad libitum via the drinking water of laboratory rats...... water may be a viable treatment option for the relief of pain in laboratory rats, but at the doses used in this study in pain-free rats it was associated with a decrease in water intake and some behavioural changes....

  17. Lymphatic fat absorption varies among rats administered dairy products differing in physiochemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruekilde, Maj-Britt; Høy, Carl-Erik


    We examined in rats the intestinal absorption of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Five dairy products (cream cheese, cream, sour cream, butter, and mixed butter) with minor differences in fatty acid composition were administered by gavage to rats, and lymphatic fat...... absorption was examined. Absorption was followed for 8 h after administration of 300 mg fat from the dairy products. Administration of cream and sour cream resulted in faster lymphatic fat absorption than cream cheese, butter, and mixed butter, and at 8 h the accumulated absorption of fat was significantly......, these results demonstrated different lymphatic absorption patterns of fat from dairy products differing in physiochemical properties. Because the fatty acid composition of the dairy products differed only slightly, other factors such as viscosity, type of emulsion, particle size, and likely also protein content...

  18. Sähköisen taloushallintojärjestelmän kirjanpidon opas - Case Administer Oy


    Hänninen, Eeva-Maria


    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana toimii Administer Oy, joka on sähköisiin taloushallintopalveluihin erikoistunut tilitoimisto. Yrityksellä on käytössään sen itse kehittämä taloushallintojärjestelmä eFina. Järjestelmälle ei ole ollut saatavissa käyttöohjeita, minkä vuoksi yrityksellä oli tarve oppaalle. Opas rajattiin koskemaan järjestelmän kirjanpidon osiota jättäen maksuliikenne, osto- ja myyntireskontra sekä muut järjestelmän osat työn ulkopuolelle. Tällä vältettiin opinnäytetyön liiallinen l...

  19. Development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of mescaline intraventricularly administered to rabbits. (United States)

    Ferri, S; Santagostino, A; Braga, P C


    Some effects of intraventricular injection of mescaline are examined in conscious rabbits. By means of electrical stimulation of the tooth pulp it is shown that an acute treatment with 70, 100, 150 mug/kg of mescaline elicits analgesia, the intensity of which is dose-dependent: with daily administration of 100 mug/kg for 5 days a complete tolerance develops to the antinociceptive effect. A tolerance also develops to the behavioral effects of mescaline after repeated administrations, with the exception of the stuporous state, a symptom which, on the contrary, is accentuated as the treatment proceeds. An EEG arousal is induced in the rabbit by acutely administered mescaline; the chronic treatment (100 mug/kg) makes the return of voltage to original levels progressively slower. Finally, the confrontation of certain of the mescaline-induced effects with those of morphine suggests some biochemical and neural patterns common to the 2 drugs.

  20. Effect of subcutaneously administered diclazuril on the output of Eimeria species oocysts by experimentally infected rabbits. (United States)

    Pan, B L; Zhang, Y F; Suo, X; Xue, Y


    The effect of subcutaneously injected diclazuril on the output of Eimeria species oocysts was studied in experimentally infected rabbits. Diclazuril was administered either prophylactically at 0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg bodyweight two days before each rabbit was inoculated with 20,000 oocysts of a mixed-species field isolate of Eimeria or therapeutically at 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg bodyweight five days after they were inoculated. The prophylactic treatments significantly reduced (PEimeria stiedae, Eimeria magna, Eimeria irresidua, Eimeria flavescens, Eimeria piriformis and Eimeria intestinalis was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in all the treated groups. The burden of oocysts in the livers of the therapeutic groups (4000 to 9000) were significantly lower (P<0.05) than in the inoculated but untreated control group (23,000), but higher than in the prophylactic groups (around 1000).

  1. Actions of salbutamol, disodium cromoglycate, and placebo administered as aerosols in acute asthma. (United States)

    Hasham, F; Kennedy, J D; Jones, R S


    The effects on the peak expiratory flow rate of the drug sequences, placebo-salbutamol-disodium cromoglycate and placebo-disodium cromoglycate-salbutamol administered via a nebuliser were examined in 35 children with asthma. Twenty children were each examined once within 4 hours of admission to hospital with an acute attack of asthma, and the remaining 15 children were examined later in the attack on two occasions. The placebo effect of sterile water accounted for about half of the total bronchodilator action both early and late in the attack. It is suggested that this effect is due to the action of water on the surface film of surfactant, causing collapse of bubbles and strands or webs of mucoid material, thus decreasing airways resistance. At this time salbutamol is significantly more potent than disodium cromoglycate as a bronchodilator agent. PMID:6794462

  2. Reduction in the Nephrotoxicity of Amphotericin B when Administered in 20% Intralipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzette Salama


    Full Text Available The administration of amphotericin B (AmB is often limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. In a pilot crossover trial, aqueous AmB followed by a new preparation of a mixture of AmB with 20% intralipid (AmB-IL was administered to 10 immunocompromised patients for systemic fungal infections caused by Candida species. Mean total dose and duration of therapy with AmB-IL exceeded that of aqueous AmB (649±165 mg versus 394±105 mg, P=0.061 and 13.2±2.5 days versus 9±2.1 days, P=0.31. However, mean creatinine clearance of the patients rose during AmB-IL therapy by 10.7±7.7 mL/min (P=0.03. AmB-IL warrants further investigation to assess its stability and efficacy for treating serious fungal infections.

  3. Influenza vaccine concurrently administered with a combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to young children. (United States)

    Lum, Lucy Chai See; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Breiman, Robert F; Vesikari, Timo; Sablan, Benjamin P; Chay, Oh Moh; Tantracheewathorn, Taweewong; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Lau, Yu-Lung; Bowonkiratikachorn, Piyaporn; Tam, John S; Lee, Bee Wah; Tan, Kah Kee; Pejcz, Jerzy; Cha, Sungho; Gutierrez-Brito, Maricruz; Kaltenis, Petras; Vertruyen, Andre; Czajka, Hanna; Bojarskas, Jurgis; Brooks, W Abdullah; Cheng, Sheau-Mei; Rappaport, Ruth; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D


    Children aged 11 to vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively).

  4. User requirements for a practice-integrated nurse-administered online communication service for cancer patients. (United States)

    Ruland, Cornelia M; Borosund, Elin; Varsi, Cecilie


    This paper describes the use of participatory design methods in the development of a nurse-administered online patient-provider communication (OPPC) service that is designed to be integrated into routine clinical practice. The OPPC service let patients stay connected with expert nurses and other health care providers to ask questions and receive advice from home. Through focus groups, workshops, heuristic evaluations and usability testing, we identified patients' and clinicians' (nurses' and physicians') user requirements, factors important for successful adoption, implementation and maintenance of the OPPC service, and usability. This paper shares important insights from these participatory design processes that may be helpful for other researchers who wish to implement clinical applications into routine practice.

  5. Current role of non-anesthesiologist administered propofolsedation in advanced interventional endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Complex and lengthy endoscopic examinations likeendoscopic ultrasonography and/or endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography benefit from deepsedation, due to an enhanced quality of examinations,reduced discomfort and anxiety of patients, as well asincreased satisfaction for both the patients and medicalpersonnel. Current guidelines support the use ofpropofol sedation, which has the same rate of adverseeffects as traditional sedation with benzodiazepines and/or opioids, but decreases the procedural and recoverytime. Non-anesthesiologist administered propofolsedation has become an option in most of the countries,due to limited anesthesiology resources and theincreasing evidence from prospective studies and metaanalysesthat the procedure is safe with a similar rate ofadverse events with traditional sedation. The advantagesinclude a high quality of endoscopic examination,improved satisfaction for patients and doctors, as wellas decreased recovery and discharge time. Despitethe advantages of non-anesthesiologist administeredpropofol, there is still a continuous debate related to thesuccessful generalization of the procedures.

  6. The effect of spinally administered WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoid agonist, on thermal pain sensitivity in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Jahanabadi


    Conclusion: These data show that cannabinoids have potent antinociceptive effects through direct actions in the spinal dorsal horn of nociceptive pathway. This suggests that intrathecally administered cannabinoids may offer hopeful strategies for the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.

  7. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour. (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E


    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  8. Efficient and lightweight current leads (United States)

    Bromberg, L.; Dietz, A. J.; Michael, P. C.; Gold, C.; Cheadle, M.


    Current leads generate substantial cryogenic heat loads in short length High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) distribution systems. Thermal conduction, as well as Joule losses (I2R) along the current leads, comprises the largest cryogenic loads for short distribution systems. Current leads with two temperature stages have been designed, constructed and tested, with the goal of minimizing the electrical power consumption, and to provide thermal margin for the cable. We present the design of a two-stage current lead system, operating at 140 K and 55 K. This design is very attractive when implemented with a turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator (two-stage), with substantial power and weight reduction. A heat exchanger is used at each temperature station, with conduction-cooled stages in-between. Compact, efficient heat exchangers are challenging, because of the gaseous coolant. Design, optimization and performance of the heat exchangers used for the current leads will be presented. We have made extensive use of CFD models for optimizing hydraulic and thermal performance of the heat exchangers. The methodology and the results of the optimization process will be discussed. The use of demountable connections between the cable and the terminations allows for ease of assembly, but require means of aggressively cooling the region of the joint. We will also discuss the cooling of the joint. We have fabricated a 7 m, 5 kA cable with second generation HTS tapes. The performance of the system will be described.

  9. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine. (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T; O'Nan, Audrey T; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E; Ashwell, Melissa S


    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole and known drug metabolizing genes.

  10. Muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats: effects of continuous and intermittent swimming training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Carla


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the effects of intermittent and continuous swimming training on muscle protein metabolism in neonatal alloxan-administered rats. Methods Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups: sedentary alloxan (SA, sedentary control (SC, continuous trained alloxan (CA, intermittent trained alloxan (IA, continuous trained control (CC and intermittent trained control (IC. Alloxan (250 mg/kg body weight was injected into newborn rats at 6 days of age. The continuous training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 5% of body weight; uninterrupted swimming for 1 h/day, five days a week. The intermittent training protocol consisted of 12 weeks of swimming training in individual cylinder tanks while supporting a load that was 15% of body weight; 30 s of activity interrupted by 30 s of rest for a total of 20 min/day, five days a week. Results At 28 days, the alloxan animals displayed higher glycemia after glucose overload than the control animals. No differences in insulinemia among the groups were detected. At 120 days, no differences in serum albumin and total protein among the groups were observed. Compared to the other groups, DNA concentrations were higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to continuous training, whereas the DNA/protein ratio was higher in the alloxan animals that were subjected to intermittent training. Conclusion It was concluded that continuous and intermittent training sessions were effective in altering muscle growth by hyperplasia and hypertrophy, respectively, in alloxan-administered animals.

  11. Antifertility effect of chronically administered Tabernaemontana divaricata leaf extract on male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Ankit Jain; Pritesh Paliwal; Shailendra Singh Solanki


    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the antifertility effect of chronically administeredTabernaemontana divaricata (T. divaricata) leaf extract on male rats.Methods:The effect of50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaves on reproduction was studied on male rats.The study was divided into four groups of five animals each.The first groups(I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second, third and fourth groups(II,II andIV) of animals were administered theleaf extract daily at50 mg/kg body weight,p.o.,100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., and200 mg/kg body weight, p.o., respectively, for a period of60 days.Results:Significant decreases in the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were observed.A dose related reduction in the testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility, number of fertile male, ratio between delivered and inseminated females and numbers of pups were observed.The testis showed a clear correlation between the dose and severity of lesions of seminiferous epithelium. In general, the seminiferous tubules appear reduced in size with a frequently filled eosinophilic material.Spermatogenesis arrested at the secondary spermatocyte stage.Pachytene spermatocytes were undergoing degeneration.Disorganigation and sloughing of immature germ cell were visible. Leydinf cells were atrophied.No morphological changes were observed inSertoli cells.Significant reduction in serum concentration of luteinizing hormone and testosterone were observed.No distinct change in serumFSH concentration was recorded.The final body weights of all groups were elevated markedly.No alterations were recorded in any hematologiocal parameters. Conclusions:It is concluded that the50% ethanol extract ofT. divaricata leaf produced dose related effect on male reproduction without altering general body metabolism.

  12. Optimising Controlled Human Malaria Infection Studies Using Cryopreserved P. falciparum Parasites Administered by Needle and Syringe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne H Sheehy

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies have become a routine tool to evaluate efficacy of candidate anti-malarial drugs and vaccines. To date, CHMI trials have mostly been conducted using the bite of infected mosquitoes, restricting the number of trial sites that can perform CHMI studies. Aseptic, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge provide a potentially more accurate, reproducible and practical alternative, allowing a known number of sporozoites to be administered simply by injection.We sought to assess the infectivity of PfSPZ Challenge administered in different dosing regimens to malaria-naive healthy adults (n = 18. Six participants received 2,500 sporozoites intradermally (ID, six received 2,500 sporozoites intramuscularly (IM and six received 25,000 sporozoites IM.Five out of six participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites ID, 3/6 participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites IM and 6/6 participants receiving 25,000 sporozoites IM were successfully infected. The median time to diagnosis was 13.2, 17.8 and 12.7 days for 2,500 sporozoites ID, 2,500 sporozoites IM and 25,000 sporozoites IM respectively (Kaplan Meier method; p = 0.024 log rank test.2,500 sporozoites ID and 25,000 sporozoites IM have similar infectivities. Given the dose response in infectivity seen with IM administration, further work should evaluate increasing doses of PfSPZ Challenge IM to identify a dosing regimen that reliably infects 100% of NCT01465048.

  13. Adherence to safe handling guidelines by health care workers who administer antineoplastic drugs. (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H


    The toxicity of antineoplastic drugs is well documented. Many are known or suspected human carcinogens where no safe exposure level exists. Authoritative guidelines developed by professional practice organizations and federal agencies for the safe handling of these hazardous drugs have been available for nearly three decades. As a means of evaluating the extent of use of primary prevention practices such as engineering, administrative and work practice controls, personal protective equipment (PPE), and barriers to using PPE, the National Institute for Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a web survey of health care workers in 2011. The study population primarily included members of professional practice organizations representing health care occupations which routinely use or come in contact with selected chemical agents. All respondents who indicated that they administered antineoplastic drugs in the past week were eligible to complete a hazard module addressing self-reported health and safety practices on this topic. Most (98%) of the 2069 respondents of this module were nurses. Working primarily in hospitals, outpatient care centers, and physician offices, respondents reported that they had collectively administered over 90 specific antineoplastic drugs in the past week, with carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel the most common. Examples of activities which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: failure to wear nonabsorbent gown with closed front and tight cuffs (42%); intravenous (I.V.) tubing primed with antineoplastic drug by respondent (6%) or by pharmacy (12%); potentially contaminated clothing taken home (12%); spill or leak of antineoplastic drug during administration (12%); failure to wear chemotherapy gloves (12%); and lack of hazard awareness training (4%). The most common reason for not wearing gloves or gowns was "skin exposure was minimal"; 4% of respondents, however, reported skin contact during handling and

  14. Pharmacokinetics of oral gabapentin alone or co-administered with meloxicam in ruminant beef calves. (United States)

    Coetzee, Johann F; Mosher, Ruby A; Kohake, Laura E; Cull, Charley A; Kelly, Lindsey L; Mueting, Stacy L; KuKanich, Butch


    Gabapentin is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue indicated for treatment of neuropathic pain. This study determined the pharmacokinetics of oral (PO) gabapentin alone or in combination with meloxicam in ruminant calves. Gabapentin capsules at 10mg/kg or gabapentin powder (from capsules at 15mg/kg) and meloxicam tablets (0.5mg/kg) were administered PO to six beef calves. Plasma drug concentrations were determined over 48h post-administration by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The mean (± standard deviation, SD) C(max), T(max) and elimination half-life (t(½)λz) for gabapentin (10mg/kg) alone was 2.97 ± 0.40μg/mL, 9.33 ± 2.73h and 11.02 ± 3.68h, respectively. The mean (± SD) C(max), T(max) and t(½)λz for gabapentin (15mg/kg) co-administered with meloxicam was 3.57±1.04μg/mL, 7.33 ± 1.63h and 8.12±2.11h, respectively. The mean (±SD) C(max), T(max) and t(½)λz for meloxicam was 2.11± 0.19μg/mL, 11.67 ± 3.44h and 20.47 ± 9.22h, respectively. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2μg/mL were maintained for up to 15h and meloxicam concentrations >0.2μg/mL for up to 48h. The pharmacokinetic profile of oral gabapentin and meloxicam supported clinical evaluation of these compounds for management of neuropathic pain in cattle.

  15. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in goats. (United States)

    Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, F S; Lees, P


    In a four-period cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to goats intramuscularly (IM) at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg, both alone and in combination with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA), also administered IM at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg. Using a tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the irritant actions of carrageenan, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA were determined. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were similar for serum (5.60 microg h/mL), inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate; 5.32 microg h/mL) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate; 4.82 microg h/mL). Values of mean residence time (MRT) of MB in exudate (15.5 h) and transudate (15.8 h) differed significantly from serum MRT (4.23 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB were investigated using a caprine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Integration of PK data with ex vivo bacterial time-kill curve data for serum, exudate and transudate provided AUC(24h)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratios of 160, 133 and 121 h, respectively, for the strain of organism used. Modelling of the ex vivo time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24h)/MIC values required for bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism of 27.6, 96.2 and 147.3 h, respectively. Corresponding values for MB+TA were 20.5, 66.5 and 103.0 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules of MB for subsequent clinical evaluation.

  16. Development of macrolide-resistant Campylobacter in broilers administered subtherapeutic or therapeutic concentrations of tylosin. (United States)

    Ladely, Scott R; Harrison, Mark A; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Berrang, Mark E; Englen, Mark D; Meinersmann, Richard J


    The use of antimicrobials in food animal production, particularly those commonly used to treat infections in humans, has become a source of debate in recent years. However, limited data are available regarding the development of resistance following the subtherapeutic or therapeutic administration of antimicrobials in animal production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of therapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin on the erythromycin susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from the ceca of treated broilers. In three replicated studies, day-of-hatch chicks were exposed to macrolide-susceptible C. jejuni or C. coli. At 2 weeks of age, tylosin was administered at subtherapeutic (22 ppm, continuously in the diet) or therapeutic concentrations (529 ppm, in the drinking water for 5 days). Broilers were sacrificed weekly. Total and erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter spp. were enumerated from individual ceca plus cecal contents. Overall erythromycin resistance was observed at a higher frequency (P tylosin administration. Across Campylobacter species, erythromycin resistance was observed at a higher frequency (P tylosin was administered at subtherapeutic (62.7%) than at therapeutic (11.4%) concentrations. Subtherapeutic administration resulted in the recovery of 83.3 and 56.1% erythromycin-resistant isolates compared with only 33.3 and 7.9% of the isolates expressing erythromycin resistance following the administration of therapeutic concentrations for C. coli and C. jejuni, respectively. Further studies are needed to determine the factors involved in the apparent difference in the acquisition of macrolide resistance in C. coli compared with C. jejuni.

  17. Chronic effects of the novel glucocorticosteroid RPR 106541 administered to beagle dogs by inhalation. (United States)

    Miller, G K; Valerio, M G; Pino, M V; Larson, J L; Viau, A; Hamelin, N; Labbé, R; Banks, C M


    The preclinical safety of RPR 106541, a novel 17-thiosteroid, was evaluated in young adult and mature dogs by inhalation exposure for 26 weeks and 52 weeks, respectively. A dry powder formulation of RPR 106541 in lactose was administered to young adult dogs (approximately 6 months of age at initiation) at doses of 0 (air and placebo controls), 10, 100, or 1,000 microg/kg/d for 26 weeks. A solution-based aerosol formulation was administered to mature dogs (approximately 10 months at initiation) from a pressurized metered dose inhaler at 0 (air and placebo controls), 10, 50, and 150 microg/kg/d for 52 weeks. Clinical evidence of glucocorticosteroid-induced immunosuppression was observed by weeks 20-26 following relatively high dose exposures (100 microg/kg/d and 1,000 microg/kg/d) in young dogs receiving the dry powder formulation for 26 weeks. Classic glucocorticosteroid effects were observed, including adrenocortical atrophy, reduced bone mass with retention of epiphyseal growth plates in long bones, prominence of stromal adipose tissue in bone marrow, and atrophy of lymphoid tissues. Inhalation administration of RPR 106541 to sexually mature dogs facilitated more definitive characterization of endocrine affects of RPR 106541 as compared with administration in younger, sexually immature animals. Significant effects in female reproductive organs included absence of corpora lutea in association with atresia of vesicular follicles within the ovaries, endometrial hyperplasia, and lobular development of mammary tissue. Discordant development of mammary tissue, accumulation of secretory material within hyperplastic endometrial glands, and hypertrophy of uterine lining epithelium in absence of ovulation were consistent with a secondary progestin effect by a potent glucocorticosteroid.

  18. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)


    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  19. Evidence of RNAi in humans from systemically administered siRNA via targeted nanoparticles (United States)

    Davis, Mark E.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Choi, Chung Hang J.; Seligson, David; Tolcher, Anthony; Alabi, Christopher A.; Yen, Yun; Heidel, Jeremy D.; Ribas, Antoni


    Therapeutics that are designed to engage RNA interference (RNAi) pathways have the potential to provide new, major ways of imparting therapy to patients.1,2 Fire et al. first demonstrated that long, double stranded RNAs mediate RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans,3 and Elbashir et al. opened the pathway to the use of RNAi for human therapy by showing that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs: ca. 21 base pair double stranded RNA) can elicit RNAi in mammalian cells without producing an interferon response.4 We are currently conducting the first-in-human Phase I clinical trial involving the systemic administration of siRNA to patients with solid cancers using a targeted, nanoparticle delivery system. Here we provide evidence of inducing an RNAi mechanism of action in a human from the delivered siRNA. Tumor biopsies from melanoma patients obtained after treatment reveal: (i) the presence of intracellularly-localized nanoparticles in amounts that correlate with dose levels of the nanoparticles administered (this is a first for systemically delivered nanoparticles of any kind), and (ii) reduction in both the specific mRNA (M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RRM2)) and the protein (RRM2) when compared to pre-dosing tissue. Most importantly, we detect the presence of an mRNA fragment that demonstrates siRNA mediated mRNA cleavage occurs specifically at the site predicted for an RNAi mechanism from a patient who received the highest dose of the nanoparticles. These data when taken in total demonstrate that siRNA administered systemically to a human can produce a specific gene inhibition (reduction in mRNA and protein) by an RNAi mechanism of action. PMID:20305636

  20. Developmental toxicity of orally administered sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in SWR/J mice. (United States)

    Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohamed; Abdel-Samad, Mohamed Fathy; Al-Meteri, Mokhlid Hamed


    Normal adult inbred SWR/J mice were used to investigate the teratogenic and other possible toxic effects of various dose levels of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on fetuses. Multiple dose levels of 6.5, 13.0, 19.5, 26.0, 32.5 or 40.0 mg of sildenafil citrate/kg body weight (which correspond to the multiples of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 of human 50 mg Viagra, respectively) were orally administered into pregnant mice on days 7-9, 10-12 or 13-15 of gestation. On day 17 of pregnancy, all fetuses were removed and examined for toxic phenomena (embryo-fetal toxicity) and for external, internal and skeletal malformations. A total of 285 pregnant mice were used in the present study. None of the dams treated with sildenafil citrate at any of the oral dose levels used in the present study died during the experimental period and all dams treated with the drug failed to reveal overt signs of maternal toxicity. Moreover, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate that none of the multiple oral dose levels of the drug at any time interval used has induced any external, internal or skeletal malformations in the fetuses obtained from treated females. However, the dose level of 40 mg/kg body weight of sildenafil citrate has a growth suppressing effect on alive fetuses when it was administered at all the time intervals used in the present study. Furthermore, the dose levels 26.0, 32.5 and 40 mg/kg of the drug have embryo-fetal toxicity when the drug is applied on days 13-15 of gestation. The possible mechanisms involved in the embryo-fetal toxicity and fetal growth suppressing effects of sildenafil citrate were discussed. The results of this study have important implications for the widespread use of this drug.

  1. Analgesic and cardiopulmonary effects of intrathecally administered romifidine or romifidine and ketamine in goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Aithal


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of romifidine alone (50 µg/kg and a combination of romifidine (50 µg/kg and ketamine (2.5 mg/kg after intrathecal administration in goats. Ten adult goats of either sex weighing between 15 and 20 kg were randomly placed in 2 groups (groups I and II. The agents were administered at the lumbosacral subarachnoid space. Clinico-physiological parameters such as analgesia, motor incoordination, sedation, salivation, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure and rectal temperature were studied. Other haematobiochemical parameters monitored were packed cell volume, haemoglobin, plasma proteins, glucose, urea and creatinine. The onset of analgesia was faster in group II (35.5 ±6.25 s compared to that of group I (5.2 ±0.54 min. Analgesia of the tail, perineum, hind limbs, flank and thorax was mild to moderate in group I, but complete analgesia of tail, perineum and hind limbs was recorded in group II. Motor incoordination was mild in group I and severe in group II. Significant reduction in heart rate (more pronounced in group I and respiratory rate (more pronounced in group II, and a significant increase in central venous pressure were recorded in both groups. Mean arterial pressure was reduced in both groups, but more markedly in group I. Sedation, electro-cardiogram, rectal temperature and haemato-biochemical parameters did not show significant differences between the 2 groups. The results of this study indicated a possible synergistic analgesic interaction between intrathecally administered romifidine and ketamine, without causing any marked systemic effects in goats.

  2. Development of a self-administered early inflammatory arthritis detection tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugwell Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barriers to care limit the potential benefits of pharmacological intervention for inflammatory arthritis. A self-administered questionnaire for early inflammatory arthritis (EIA detection may complement contemporary triage interventions to further reduce delays to rheumatologic care. The objective of this study was to develop a self-administered EIA detection tool for implementation in pre-primary care settings. Methods A core set of dimensions and constructs for EIA detection were systematically derived from the literature and augmented by investigative team arbitration. Identified constructs were formulated into lay language questions suitable for self-administration. A three-round Delphi consensus panel of EIA experts and stakeholders evaluated the relevance of each question to EIA detection and suggested additional items. Questions accepted by less than 70% of respondents in rounds one or two were eliminated. In round three, questions accepted by at least 80% of the panel were selected for the tool. Results Of 584 citations identified, data were extracted from 47 eligible articles. Upon arbitration of the literature synthesis, 30 constructs encompassing 13 dimensions were formulated into lay language questions and posed to the Delphi panel. A total of 181 EIA experts and stakeholders participated on the Delphi panel: round one, 60; round two, 59; and, round three, 169; 48 participated in all three rounds. The panel evaluated the 30 questions derived from the literature synthesis, suggested five additional items, and eliminated a total of 24. The eleven-question instrument developed captured dimensions of articular pain, swelling, and stiffness, distribution of joint involvement, function, and diagnostic and family history. Conclusions An eleven-question, EIA detection tool suitable for self-administration was developed to screen subjects with six to 52 weeks of musculoskeletal complaints. Psychometric and performance

  3. Effect of self-administered auricular acupressure on smoking cessation --a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Lawrence


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is still a worldwide health risk. Current pharmacotherapies have at best, a success rate of no more than 50%. Auricular (ear acupressure has been purported to be beneficial in achieving smoking cessation in some studies, while in others has been deemed insignificant. We hereby describe the protocol for a three-arm randomised controlled trial to examine the possible benefits of self-administered acupressure for smoking cessation. Methods Sixty consenting participants with confirmed habit of tobacco smoking will be recruited and randomized into three arms to receive either auricular acupressure at five true acupoints (NADA protocol, auricular acupressure at five sham points, or no auricular acupressure at all. Participants having auricular acupressure will exert firm pressure to each acupoint bilaterally via the bead in the attached plasters whenever they feel the urge to smoke. The treatment phase will last for six weeks during which all participants will be assessed weekly to review their smoking log, state of abstinence, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and possible adverse effects including withdrawal reactions and stress levels. At any time, a successful quit date will be defined with continuous abstinence for the following consecutive 7 days. From then on, participants will be evaluated individually for continuous abstinence rate (CAR, end-exhalation carbon monoxide levels and adverse effects of stress and withdrawal at specified intervals up to 26 weeks. Expectancy of treatment will be assessed with a four-item Borkovec and Nau self-assessment credibility scale during and after intervention. Discussion We incorporate validated outcome measures of smoking cessation into our randomised controlled trial design with the objectives to evaluate the feasibility and possible benefits of self-administered auricular acupressure as a non-invasive alternative to pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Trial

  4. Chrysophanol attenuates lead exposure-induced injury to hippocampal neurons in neonatal mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhang; Chunlin Yan; Shu Wang; Yong Hou; Guiping Xue; Li Zhang


    Previous studies have shown that chrysophanol protects against learning and memory impairments in lead-exposed adult mice. In the present study, we investigated whether chrys-ophanol can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction and hippocampal neuronal injury in lead-exposed neonatal mice. At the end of lactation, chrysophanol (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg) was administered to the neonatal mice by intraperitoneal injection for 15 days. Chrysophanol signifi-cantly alleviated injury to hippocampal neurons and improved learning and memory abilities in the lead-poisoned neonatal mice. Chrysophanol also significantly decreased lead content in blood, brain, heart, spleen, liver and kidney in the lead-exposed neonatal mice. The levels of malondialdehyde in the brain, liver and kidney were significantly reduced, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly increased after chrysophanol treatment. Collectively, these findings indicate that chrysophanol can significantly reduce damage to hippocampal neurons in lead-exposed neonatal mice.

  5. Successful treatment of acute hereditary angioedema attacks with self-administered icatibant in patients with venous access problems. (United States)

    Wiednig, Michaela


    Hereditary angioedema is a rare and potentially fatal autosomal dominant disorder characterised by unpredictable skin, gastrointestinal tract or respiratory tract oedema. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitors are effective in the prophylaxis or treatment of hereditary angioedema type I and II attacks, but must be administered intravenously. This may be problematic in patients with venous access difficulties. Icatibant, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, is administered subcutaneously. In July 2008 icatibant received approval for healthcare professional-administered treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks in adults. In 2011 it received European Medicines Agency and US Food and Drug Administration licences for patient-administered treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks. Given these approvals, and with the appropriate training, icatibant could provide the opportunity for patients to self-administer treatment. This is one of the first long-term follow-up reports of patients with hereditary angioedema using self-administered icatibant. During follow-up, icatibant remained effective and patient satisfaction was high.

  6. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin


    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  7. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  8. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  9. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel


    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  10. Leading in a Technological Age (United States)

    Yadgir, Sheri A.


    Technology is advancing more rapidly than at any time in history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, experts say that the world is leaving the Industrial Age of the 20th century and entering an Information Age that will lead into the future. These advances mean that important changes are being made in all areas of life--and…

  11. Succimer chelation normalizes reactivity to reward omission and errors in lead-exposed rats. (United States)

    Beaudin, Stéphane A; Stangle, Diane E; Smith, Donald R; Levitsky, David A; Strupp, Barbara J


    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 3-week course of succimer treatment to alleviate behavioral deficits in rats exposed to lead (Pb) for the first 4 weeks of life. A 3 x 2 factorial design was used: three levels of lead exposure (No Pb, Moderate, and High Pb) and two levels of chelation (succimer or vehicle). Behavioral testing was conducted following chelation therapy, from 2 to 9 months of age; this report presents the results of two of the administered tasks: (1) a conditional olfactory discrimination task (baseline task), and (2) a conditional olfactory discrimination task with periodic reward omission on some correct trials (RO task). In the RO task, the performance disruption produced by committing an error on the previous trial was significantly greater for both unchelated lead-exposed groups than for controls. The High Pb rats were also more sensitive to reward omission than controls, providing converging evidence for impaired regulation of arousal or emotion. Importantly, succimer treatment was effective in normalizing the heightened reactivity of the lead-exposed animals to both errors and reward omission. In addition, non-lead-exposed rats that were treated with succimer tended to be more affected by a prior error than controls in their latency to respond on post-error trials. In sum, these findings provide new evidence that succimer chelation can significantly lessen the lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction produced by early lead exposure, but also suggest that there may be risks of administering the drug to individuals without elevated blood lead levels.

  12. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)


    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  13. Electrokinetics removal of lead from lead-contaminated red soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云国; 李欣; 曾光明; 黄宝荣; 张慧智


    Ex-situ electroremediation tests were conducted on the lead-contaminated red soils to find out the optimum condition for the most efficient removal of lead pollution from the red soil,and to examine the relation of the pH of the soil with the electroremediation efficiency.The results show that the electroremediation technology is efficient to remedy Pb contaminated red soils,and the removal efficiency can be enhanced by controlling pH value in the cathode reservoir with HNO3.The average removal efficiency of Pb is enhanced from 24.5% to 79.5%,and the energy consumption reaches 285kW·h per m3 red soil.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Posterior wall myocardial infarction is not uncommon acute myocardial infarction and has got its own therapeutic and prognostic implications. Management of Posterior wall myocardial infarction differs from inferior wall myocardial infarction alone. The presence of posterior wall myocardial infarction is known to increase the incidence of cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias and conduction blocks in case of myocardial infarction. Hence the present study was taken up to find out the incidence, clinical profile and complications of posterior wall myocardial infarction in a rural hospital using simple non-invasive investigations like 15 lead electrocardiography and echocardiography. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 50 patients of inferior wall myocardial infarction out of 228 Acute Myocardial Infarction proved by ECG standard and posterior leads (v7, v8, v9 were taken at the time of admission and repeated as necessary. A detailed case history was taken and a detailed physical examination was done at the time of admission and during follow up. For recording ECG 12 lead (3 standard leads, 3 augmented limb leads, 6 precordial leads machine was used. The recordings were made at 25 mm/ sec. speed and 1mV=10mm. Posterior leads were taken by using 3 precordial leads fixing on the posterior axillary (v7, infrascapular (v8 and paraspinal (v9 regions all in a same line with the 5th ICS anteriorly. RESULTS: Out of 50 cases of inferior wall myocardial infarction (IWMI studied only 13 (26% had ST elevation in posterior leads indicating posterior wall myocardial infarction (PWMI. Our study showed that complications and mortality was higher in patients of IWMI with PWMI compared to IWMI without PWMI. Out of 50 patients 33 (66% were males indicating a male predominance. Syncope was present in 18% of PWMI and 14% in overall IWMI. Palpitation was seen in 53% of PWMI and 21% of IWMI without PWMI. Smoking history was present in 14% of

  15. Lead time TTO: leading to better health state valuations? (United States)

    Attema, Arthur E; Versteegh, Matthijs M; Oppe, Mark; Brouwer, Werner B F; Stolk, Elly A


    Preference elicitation tasks for better than dead (BTD) and worse than dead (WTD) health states vary in the conventional time trade-off (TTO) procedure, casting doubt on uniformity of scale. 'Lead time TTO' (LT-TTO) was recently introduced to overcome the problem. We tested different specifications of LT-TTO in comparison with TTO in a within-subject design. We elicited preferences for six health states and employed an intertemporal ranking task as a benchmark to test the validity of the two methods. We also tested constant proportional trade-offs (CPTO), while correcting for discounting, and the effect of extending the lead time if a health state is considered substantially WTD. LT-TTO produced lower values for BTD states and higher values for WTD states. The validity of CPTO varied across tasks, but it was higher for LT-TTO than for TTO. Results indicate that the ratio of lead time to disease time has a greater impact on results than the total duration of the time frame. The intertemporal ranking task could not discriminate between TTO and LT-TTO.

  16. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells (United States)

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on ... remove lead from my drinking water? What is lead? Lead is a naturally occurring bluish-gray metal ...

  17. Phase I trial of orally administered pentosan polysulfate in patients with advanced cancer. (United States)

    Marshall, J L; Wellstein, A; Rae, J; DeLap, R J; Phipps, K; Hanfelt, J; Yunmbam, M K; Sun, J X; Duchin, K L; Hawkins, M J


    Tumor angiogenesis is critically important to tumor growth and metastasis. We have shown that pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is an effective inhibitor of heparin-binding growth factors in vitro and can effectively inhibit the establishment and growth of tumors in nude mice. Following completion of our Phase I trial of s.c. administered PPS, we performed a Phase I trial of p.o. administered PPS in patients with advanced cancer to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and toxicity profile and to search for any evidence for biological activity in vivo. Patients diagnosed with advanced, incurable malignancies who met standard Phase I criteria and who did not have a history of bleeding complications were enrolled, in cohorts of three, to receive PPS p.o. t.i.d., at planned doses of 180, 270, 400, 600, and 800 mg/m2. Patients were monitored at least every 2 weeks with physical exams and weekly with hematological, chemistry, stool hemoccult, and coagulation blood studies, and serum and urine samples for PPS and basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) levels were also taken. The PPS dose was escalated in an attempt to reach the MTD. Eight additional patients were enrolled at the highest dose to further characterize the toxicity profile and biological in vivo effects of PPS. A total of 21 patients were enrolled in the three cohorts of doses 180 (n = 4), 270 (n = 3), and 400 (n = 14) mg/m2. The most severe toxicities seen were grade 3 proctitis and grade 4 diarrhea; however, 20 of the 21 patients had evidence of grade 1 or 2 gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These toxicities became evident at a much earlier time point as the dose was increased, but their severities were similar at all dose levels. There were no objective responses, although three patients had prolonged stabilization of previously progressing disease. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggested marked accumulation of PPS upon chronic administration. Serum and urine bFGF levels failed to show a consistent, interpretable

  18. Bispectral index monitoring as an adjunct to nurse-administered combined sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Se Young Jang; Hyun Gu Park; Min Kyu Jung; Chang Min Cho; Soo Young Park; Seong Woo Jeon; Won Young Tak


    AIM:TO determine whether bispectral index (BIS)monitoring is useful for propofol administration for deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).METHODS:Fifty-nine consecutive patients with a variety of reasons for ERCP who underwent the procedure at least twice between 1 July 2010 and 30 November 2010.This was a randomized cross-over study,in which each patient underwent ERCP twice,once with BIS monitoring and once with control monitoring.Whether BIS monitoring was done during the first or second ERCP procedure was random.Patients were intermittently administered a mixed regimen including midazolam,pethidine,and propofol by trained nurses.The nurse used a routine practice to monitor sedation using the Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scale or the BIS monitoring.The total amount of midazolam and propofol used and serious side effects were compared between the BIS and control groups.RESULTS:The mean total propofol dose administered was 53.1 ± 32.2 mg in the BIS group and 54.9± 30.8 mg in the control group (P =0.673).The individual propofol dose received per minute during the ERCP procedure was 2.90 ± 1.83 mg/min in the BIS group and 3.44 ± 2.04 mg in the control group (P =0.103).The median value of the MOAA/S score during the maintenance phase of sedation was comparable for the two groups.The mean BIS values throughout the procedure (from insertion to removal of the endoscope) were 76.5 ± 8.7 for all 59 patients in using the BIS monitor.No significant differences in the frequency of < 80% oxygen saturation,hypotension (< 80 mmHg),or bradycardia (< 50 beats/min) were observed between the two study groups.Four cases of poor cooperation occurred,in which the procedure should be stopped to add the propofol dose.After adding the propofol,the procedure could be conducted successfully (one case in the BIS group,three cases in the control group).The endoscopist rated patient sedation as excellent for

  19. Effect of Mesalamine and Prednisolone on TNBS Experimental Colitis, following Various Doses of Orally Administered Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Triantafillidis


    Full Text Available Background. Experimental data suggest that oral iron (I. supplementation can worsen colitis in animals. Aim. To investigate the influence of various concentrations of orally administered I. in normal gut mucosa and mucosa of animals with TNBS colitis, as well as the influence of Mesalamine (M. and Prednisolone (P. on the severity of TNBS colitis following orally administered I. Methods and Materials. 156 Wistar rats were allocated into 10 groups. Colitis was induced by TNBS. On the 8th day, all animals were euthanatized. Activity of colitis and extent of tissue damage were assessed histologically. The levels of tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (t-TNF-α and tissue malondialdehyde (t-MDA were estimated in all animal groups. Results. Moderate and high I. supplementation induced inflammation in the healthy colon and increased the activity of the experimentally induced TNBS colitis. Administration of M. on TNBS colitis following moderate iron supplementation (0.3 g/Kg diet resulted in a significant improvement in the overall histological score as well as in two individual histological parameters. M. administration, however, did not significantly reduce the t-TNF-α levels (17.67±4.92 versus 14.58±5.71, P=0.102, although it significantly reduced the t-MDA levels (5.79±1.55 versus 3.67±1.39, P=0.000. Administration of M. on TNBS colitis following high iron supplementation (3.0 g/Kg diet did not improve the overall histological score and the individual histological parameters, neither reduced the levels of t-TNF-α (16.57 ± 5.61 versus 14.65±3.88, P=0.296. However, M. significantly reduced the t-MDA levels (5.99±1.37 versus 4.04±1.41, P=0.000. Administration of P. on TNBS colitis after moderate iron supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in the overall histological score as well as in three individual histological parameters. P. also resulted in a significant reduction in the t-TNF-α levels (17.67±4.92 versus 12.64±3

  20. Brachytherapy Application With In Situ Dose Painting Administered by Gold Nanoparticle Eluters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Neeharika [Department of Sciences, Wentworth Institute of Technology, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cifter, Gizem [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sajo, Erno [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Kumar, Rajiv; Sridhar, Srinivas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Electronic Materials Research Institute and Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Nguyen, Paul L.; Cormack, Robert A.; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ngwa, Wilfred, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)


    Purpose: Recent studies show promise that administering gold nanoparticles (GNP) to tumor cells during brachytherapy could significantly enhance radiation damage to the tumor. A new strategy proposed for sustained administration of the GNP in prostate tumors is to load them into routinely used brachytherapy spacers for customizable in situ release after implantation. This in silico study investigated the intratumor biodistribution and corresponding dose enhancement over time due to GNP released from such GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers (GBS). Method and Materials: An experimentally determined intratumoral diffusion coefficient (D) for 10-nm nanoparticles was used to estimate D for other sizes by using the Stokes-Einstein equation. GNP concentration profiles, obtained using D, were then used to calculate the corresponding dose enhancement factor (DEF) for each tumor voxel, using dose painting-by-numbers approach, for times relevant to the considered brachytherapy sources' lifetimes. The investigation was carried out as a function of GNP size for the clinically applicable low-dose-rate brachytherapy sources iodine-125 (I-125), palladium-103 (Pd-103), and cesium-131 (Cs-131). Results: Results showed that dose enhancement to tumor voxels and subvolumes during brachytherapy can be customized by varying the size of GNP released or eluted from the GBS. For example, using a concentration of 7 mg/g GNP, significant DEF (>20%) could be achieved 5 mm from a GBS after 5, 12, 25, 46, 72, 120, and 195 days, respectively, for GNP sizes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 nm and for 80 nm when treating with I-125. Conclusions: Analyses showed that using Cs-131 provides the highest dose enhancement to tumor voxels. However, given its relatively longer half-life, I-125 presents the most flexibility for customizing the dose enhancement as a function of GNP size. These findings provide a useful reference for further work toward development of potential new brachytherapy application

  1. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in calves. (United States)

    Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, M H S; Toutain, P L; Lees, P


    In a four-period, cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to calves, alone and in combination with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA). Both drugs were administered intramuscularly (IM) at doses of 2 mg/kg. A tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the actions of the mild irritant carrageenan, was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were 15.1 μg·h/mL for serum, 12.1 μg·h/mL for inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and 9.6 μg·h/mL for noninflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). Values of C(max) were 1.84, 0.35 and 0.31 μg/mL, respectively, for serum, exudate and transudate. Mean residence time (MRT) of 23.6 h (exudate) and 22.6 h (transudate) also differed significantly from serum MRT (8.6 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB was investigated using a bovine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Time-kill curves were established ex vivo on serum, exudate and transudate samples. Modelling the ex vivo serum time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24 h) /MIC values required for bacteriostatic (18.3 h) and bactericidal actions (92 h) of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism was 139 h. Corresponding values for MB + TA were 20.1, 69 and 106 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules for a bactericidal action, assuming a MIC(90) value of 0.24 μg/mL, a dose of 2.6 mg/kg for MB and 2.19 mg/kg for MB + TA were determined, which are similar to the currently recommended dose of 2.0 mg/kg.

  2. An estimate of the cost of administering intravenous biological agents in Spanish day hospitals (United States)

    Nolla, Joan Miquel; Martín, Esperanza; Llamas, Pilar; Manero, Javier; Rodríguez de la Serna, Arturo; Fernández-Miera, Manuel Francisco; Rodríguez, Mercedes; López, José Manuel; Ivanova, Alexandra; Aragón, Belén


    Objective To estimate the unit costs of administering intravenous (IV) biological agents in day hospitals (DHs) in the Spanish National Health System. Patients and methods Data were obtained from 188 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, collected from nine DHs, receiving one of the following IV therapies: infliximab (n=48), rituximab (n=38), abatacept (n=41), or tocilizumab (n=61). The fieldwork was carried out between March 2013 and March 2014. The following three groups of costs were considered: 1) structural costs, 2) material costs, and 3) staff costs. Staff costs were considered a fixed cost and were estimated according to the DH theoretical level of activity, which includes, as well as personal care of each patient, the DH general activities (complete imputation method, CIM). In addition, an alternative calculation was performed, in which the staff costs were considered a variable cost imputed according to the time spent on direct care (partial imputation method, PIM). All costs were expressed in euros for the reference year 2014. Results The average total cost was €146.12 per infusion (standard deviation [SD] ±87.11; CIM) and €29.70 per infusion (SD ±11.42; PIM). The structure-related costs per infusion varied between €2.23 and €62.35 per patient and DH; the cost of consumables oscillated between €3.48 and €20.34 per patient and DH. In terms of the care process, the average difference between the shortest and the longest time taken by different hospitals to administer an IV biological therapy was 113 minutes. Conclusion The average total cost of infusion was less than that normally used in models of economic evaluation coming from secondary sources. This cost is even less when the staff costs are imputed according to the PIM. A high degree of variability was observed between different DHs in the cost of the consumables, in the structure-related costs, and in those of the care process. PMID:28356746

  3. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Howard

    Full Text Available Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169 spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15 of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control, flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007 basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038 transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038 transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin

  4. Differential Gene Expression across Breed and Sex in Commercial Pigs Administered Fenbendazole and Flunixin Meglumine (United States)

    Howard, Jeremy T.; O’Nan, Audrey T.; Maltecca, Christian; Baynes, Ronald E.; Ashwell, Melissa S.


    Characterizing the variability in transcript levels across breeds and sex in swine for genes that play a role in drug metabolism may shed light on breed and sex differences in drug metabolism. The objective of the study is to determine if there is heterogeneity between swine breeds and sex in transcript levels for genes previously shown to play a role in drug metabolism for animals administered flunixin meglumine or fenbendazole. Crossbred nursery female and castrated male pigs (n = 169) spread across 5 groups were utilized. Sires (n = 15) of the pigs were purebred Duroc, Landrace, Yorkshire or Hampshire boars mated to a common sow population. Animals were randomly placed into the following treatments: no drug (control), flunixin meglumine, or fenbendazole. One hour after the second dosing, animals were sacrificed and liver samples collected. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to measure liver gene expression of the following genes: SULT1A1, ABCB1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A22 and CYP3A29. The control animals were used to investigate baseline transcript level differences across breed and sex. Post drug administration transcript differences across breed and sex were investigated by comparing animals administered the drug to the controls. Contrasts to determine fold change were constructed from a model that included fixed and random effects within each drug. Significant (P-value <0.007) basal transcript differences were found across breeds for SULT1A1, CYP3A29 and CYP3A22. Across drugs, significant (P-value <0.0038) transcript differences existed between animals given a drug and controls across breeds and sex for ABCB1, PS and CYP1A2. Significant (P <0.0038) transcript differences across breeds were found for CYP2E1 and SULT1A1 for flunixin meglumine and fenbendazole, respectively. The current analysis found transcript level differences across swine breeds and sex for multiple genes, which provides greater insight into the relationship between flunixin meglumine and

  5. Leading Hadron Production at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buniatyan Armen


    Full Text Available Data from the recent measurements of very forward baryon and photon production with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at electron-proton collider HERA are presented and compared to the theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo models. Results are presented of the production of leading protons, neutrons and photons in deep inelastic scattering (ep → e' pX, ep → e'nX, ep → e'γX as well as the leading neutron production in the photoproduction of dijets (ep → ejjXn. The forward baryon and photon results from the H1 and ZEUS Experiments are compared also with the models of the hadronic interactions of high energy Cosmic Rays. The sensitivity of the HERA data to the differences between the models is demonstrated.

  6. Assessment of the toxicity of cyclohexanone administered intravenously to Wistar and Gunn rats. (United States)

    Greener, Y; Martis, L; Indacochea-Redmond, N


    The toxicity of cyclohexanone, used as a solvent cement in polyvinyl chloride medical devices, was assessed in Wistar and Gunn rats. The Gunn rat was used because it has a negligible activity of UDP glucuronosyltransferase toward bilirubin and certain other aglycones. Cyclohexanone was administered iv for 28 consecutive days to Wistar and Gunn rats in two doses (50 and 100 mg/kg), using solutions containing 0.25 and 0.50 g per 100 ml, respectively, at a constant volume of 20 mg/kg. Saline (0.9% NaCl) was used as the control. Daily observations for signs of toxicity showed no adverse effects in Wistar or Gunn rats injected with either dose. Daily weight changes of control and test animals were similar. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed no treatment-related structural lesions. No adverse effects were noted when the data from the hemogram or clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated. Gross pathological and histopathologic assessment showed no alterations due to cyclohexanone treatment. Urinary excretions of total and glucuronide conjugates of cyclohexanol were similar for Wistar and Gunn rats; less than 1% was excreted as free cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. It is concluded that the Gunn rat is capable of forming glucuronides of cyclohexanol and that cyclohexanone at these doses has a negligible toxic potential.

  7. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hayashi


    Full Text Available Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV, a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism.

  8. Expanding the scope of practice--should dental nurses be permitted to administer local analgesia? (United States)

    Noble, Rowan


    Dumbing down the profession or meeting the need of more patients by the optimum management of resources? Unequivocally, patient safety and non-maleficence are central to this issue. Restrictions must be imposed to ensure this. Without doubt, continuing competence would have to be demonstrated by the registrant and they would only administer local analgesia after a written prescription by a dentist. Restrictions to infiltration analgesia would also seem prudent. if all involved, including patient representatives, consider this of merit, several issues would have to be resolved such as who wouldnd be responsible for training, the content of the programme a funding for training. This is fundamental for the conception and implementation of such a qualification. Recently, the issue of direct access has been opened. The profession has changed in recent years with more focus being placed on dentists to meet the need of patients burdened by dental disease, particularly the disenfranchised, by utilising the whole dental team. Notwithstanding this and it may seem counter intuitive, but if this role was extended to dental nurses, it may be most adopted in services where time is not so important such as the salaried and other secondary services.

  9. Safety evaluation of intravenously administered mono-thioated aptamer against E-selectin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Tsolmon, Bilegtsaikhan [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Mann, Aman P. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Zhao, Yan Daniel [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Volk, David E.; Lokesh, Ganesh L.-R. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Morris, Lynsie; Gupta, Vineet; Razaq, Wajeeha [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Rui, Hallgeir [Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust St, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Suh, K. Stephen [John Theurer Cancer Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601 (United States); Gorenstein, David G. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Department of NanoMedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1825 Hermann Pressler, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Tanaka, Takemi, E-mail: [Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 975 NE, 10th, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States)


    The medical applications of aptamers have recently emerged. We developed an antagonistic thioaptamer (ESTA) against E-selectin. Previously, we showed that a single injection of ESTA at a dose of 100 μg inhibits breast cancer metastasis in mice through the functional blockade of E-selectin. In the present study, we evaluated the safety of different doses of intravenously administered ESTA in single-dose acute and repeat-dose subacute studies in ICR mice. Our data indicated that intravenous administration of up to 500 μg ESTA did not result in hematologic abnormality in either study. Additionally, intravenous injection of ESTA did not affect the levels of plasma cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) or complement split products (C3a and C5a) in either study. However, repeated injections of ESTA slightly increased plasma ALT and AST activities, in accordance with the appearance of small necrotic areas in the liver. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that intravenous administration of ESTA does not cause overt hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses under the experimental conditions. - Highlights: • Intravenous administration of ESTA was well tolerated. • ESTA up to 500 μg does not cause hematologic, organs, and immunologic responses. • ESTA-mediated hepatic abnormality was considered minor.

  10. Toxic effects of methoxychlor administered subcutaneously on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult rats. (United States)

    Lafuente, A; Cabaleiro, T; Caride, A; Esquifino, A I


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of methoxychlor MTX at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in adult male rats. This global objective comprises three major aims: (1) to analyze the possible differential MTX effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence; (2) to evaluate effects induced by MTX exposure on gonadotropins and testosterone; 93 to elucidate whether the regulatory interactions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are modified by this pesticide. Animals were administered subcutaneously 25mg/kg/day of MTX for 1 month. MTX increased norepinephrine and serotonin content in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05), but decreased serotonin concentration in posterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.05). MTX diminished serotonin turnover in anterior hypothalamus (P < or = 0.01) and decreased plasma LH (P < or = 0.001) and testosterone (P < or = 0.05) levels but those of FSH remained unmodified. We can conclude that MTX exposure: (1) could exert differential effects in norepinephrine and serotonin concentration an in serotoninergic metabolism in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus and median eminence, being the anterior hypothalamus the most sensitive region to the pesticide; (2) could inhibit LH and testosterone secretion without changing FSH; (3) four potential pathways might be involved in MTX effects on testosterone secretion (changing LH secretion; modifying serotonin and norepinephrine at the hypothalamic level; alterating the direct neural pathway between brain and testes; and/or by a direct effect in testes).

  11. Reducing children's social anxiety symptoms: exploring a novel parent-administered cognitive bias modification training intervention. (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Pettit, Eleanor; Creswell, Cathy


    Social fears and worries in children are common and impairing. Yet, questions have been raised over the efficacy, suitability and accessibility of current frontline treatments. Here, we present data on the effectiveness of a novel parent-administered Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) training tool. CBM-I capitalises on findings demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and biased interpretations, the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively. Through CBM-I training, participants are exposed to benign resolutions, and reinforced for selecting these. In adults and adolescents, CBM-I training is effective at reducing symptoms and mood reactivity. In the present study, we developed a novel, child-appropriate form of CBM-I training, by presenting training materials within bedtime stories, read by a parent to the child across three consecutive evenings. Compared to a test-retest control group (n = 17), children receiving CBM-I (n = 19) reported greater endorsement of benign interpretations of ambiguous situations post-training (compared to pre-training). These participants (but not the test-retest control group) also showed a significant reduction in social anxiety symptoms. Pending replication and extensions to a clinical sample, these data may implicate a cost-effective, mechanism-driven and developmentally-appropriate resource for targeting social anxiety problems in children.

  12. Aminothiol Receptors for Decorporation of Intravenously Administered 60Co in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Morris, James E.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Woodstock, Angela D.; Luders, Teresa; Curry, Terry L.; Thrall, Karla D.


    The reported investigation provides a comparison of the oral decorporation efficacy of L-glutathione (GSH), L-cysteine (Cys), and a liposomal GSH formulation (ReadiSorb) toward systemic cobalt-60 (60Co) to that observed following intravenous administration of GSH and Cys in F344 rats. L-histidine (His) was tested intravenously to compare in vivo efficacy of the aminothiol GSH and Cys chelators with that of aminoimidazole (His) chelator. 60Co was administered to animals by intravenous injection, followed by intravenous or oral gavage doses of a chelator repeated at 24 hour intervals for a total of 5 doses. The results suggest that GSH and Cys are potent decorporation agents for 60Co in the rat model, although the efficacy of treatment depends largely on systemic availability of a chelator. The intravenous GSH or Cys were most effective in reducing tissue 60Co levels and in increasing excretion of radioactivity compared to control animals. Liposomal encapsulation was found to markedly enhance the oral bioavailability of GSH compared to non-formulated GSH. Oral administration of ReadiSorb reduced 60Co levels in nearly all tissues by 12-43% compared to that observed for non-formulated GSH. Efficacy of oral Cys was only slightly reduced in comparison with intravenous Cys. Further studies to optimize the dosing regimen in order to maximize decorporation efficiency are warranted.

  13. Lack of selective developmental toxicity of three butanol isomers administered by inhalation to rats. (United States)

    Nelson, B K; Brightwell, W S; Khan, A; Burg, J R; Goad, P T


    As part of an ongoing study of the developmental toxicology of industrial alcohols, this report presents the results of the teratology assessments of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and t-butanol administered by inhalation to rats. Groups of approximately 15 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed at 8000, 6000, 3500, or 0 ppm 1-butanol, 7000, 5000, 3500, or 0 ppm 2-butanol, or 5000, 3500, 2000, or 0 ppm t-butanol for 7 hr/day on Gestation Days 1-19 (sperm = 0). In each case, the highest concentration was selected to produce maternal toxicity. Dams were sacrificed on Gestation Day 20, and fetuses were individually weighed, tagged, and examined for external malformations. One-half of the fetuses were stained and examined for skeletal abnormalities, and the other half were examined for visceral defects using the Wilson technique. For each butanol isomer examined, the highest concentration (and the intermediate in some cases) was maternally toxic, as manifest by reduced weight gain and feed intake. Even at a maternally toxic dose, and in spite of a dose-dependent reduction in fetal weights for each isomer, the only teratogenicity observed was a slight increase in skeletal malformations (primarily rudimentary cervical ribs), seen with the highest concentration of 1-butanol. Thus, although teratogenicity was observed at 8000 ppm 1-butanol, and developmental toxicity was observed with each of the butyl alcohol isomers studied, concentrations 50 times the current permissible exposure limits for these three butanol isomers do not produce teratogenicity in rats.

  14. Disposition kinetics of tylosin tartrate administered intravenously and intramuscularly to normal and water-deprived camels. (United States)

    Ziv, G; Creveld, C V; Ben-Zvi, Z; Glickman, A; Yagil, R


    The disposition kinetics of tylosin tartrate administered intravenously (i.v.) at 10 mg/kg and intramuscularly (i.m.) at 20 mg/kg were studied in normal camels and in the same camels at the end of a 14 day water-deprivation period. After i.v. treatment, serum tylosin concentrations in the water-deprived camels were significantly higher, rate of drug elimination was slower, the volume of distribution was significantly smaller, and total body clearance was significantly slower than in the normal camels. On the other hand, serum drug concentrations were lower in the water deprived camels after i.m. dosing, the mean absorption time was significantly shorter and the i.m. availability was significantly smaller than in the normal camels. Water-deprivation was thought to cause reduced rate of tylosin elimination by the liver, as was shown for antipyrine--a drug which is eliminated from the body exclusively by the liver. Redistribution of tylosin in tissues concomitant with a greater proportion of drug in blood and extracellular fluid of water-deprived camels was suggested as a partial explanation for the higher serum drug levels seen after i.v. dosing. The low i.m. availability observed in the water-deprived camels implies that i.v. is the route of choice for tylosin administration to ill, dehydrated camels.

  15. Evaluation of ATC as an Orally Administered Drug in Treatment of Cadmium Toxicity of Rat Organs

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    S. Nabilaldine Fatemi


    Full Text Available The effect of N-tetramethylene dithiocarbamate (ATC as a chelating agent on the excretion of cadmium was evaluated in cadmium-poisoned Wistar rats following administration through food and drink. The present research aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of ATC as an orally administered chelator drug after cadmium administration for 60 days. This chelator significantly enhanced the urinary and biliary excretion of cadmium and restored the altered levels of iron. Cadmium and iron concentrations in different tissues were determined by graphite furnace and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS and F AAS methods, respectively. The chelation therapy results show that ATC is able to remove cadmium ions from different tissues while iron concentration returned to the normal level and the clinical symptoms were also reduced. In summary, we conclude that ATC is able to mobilize and promote the excretion of cadmium in rat organs and reduce the side effects and general symptoms of toxicity caused by cadmium and might be useful for preliminary testing of the efficacy of chelating agents in human body. However, these results should be confirmed in different experimental models before extrapolation to other systems. This testing procedure of course does not provide all the relevant answers for evaluating the efficiency of chelating agents in cadmium toxicity.

  16. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.


    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  17. Lethal poisoning with theophylline in the form of rectally administered tablets

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    Paweł Kopacz


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the case of death of a 56-year-old man who died in a municipal hospital from which his body was taken to the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow. The man was said to have been found unconscious by accidental passers-by. While being transported to the hospital’s emergency department, he suffered an attack of convulsions and went into cardiac arrest. He was subsequently successfully resuscitated. A physical examination performed at the hospital revealed the presence of multiple, only slightly dissolved tablets in the man’s rectum. The patient died on the 25th day of hospitalization. A toxicological analysis showed a toxic concentration of theophylline (25 mg/l in the man’s blood. Theophylline was identified as the main ingredient of the tablets. The cause of death was thus given as theophylline poisoning. The reported case is unusual in that the poisoning occurred as a result of overdosing on an oral drug which was administered by the victim rectally, and in that the chosen substance currently is not very commonly used in medicine, and does not cause symptoms of intoxication.

  18. Developmental toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate administered in the diet to Sprague Dawley rats. (United States)

    Jay Murray, F; Tyl, Rochelle W; Sullivan, Frank M; Tiwary, Asheesh K; Carey, Sandra


    Molybdenum is an essential nutrient for humans and animals and is a constituent of several important oxidase enzymes. It is normally absorbed from the diet and to a lesser extent from drinking water and the typical human intake is around 2μg/kg bodyweight per day. No developmental toxicity studies to contemporary standards have been published and regulatory decisions have been based primarily on older studies where the nature of the test material, or the actual dose levels consumed is uncertain. In the current study the developmental toxicity of sodium molybdate dihydrate as a representative of a broad class of soluble molybdenum(VI) compounds, was given in the diet to Sprague Dawley rats in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 414. Dose levels of 0, 3, 10, 20 and 40mgMo/kgbw/day were administered from GD6 to GD20. No adverse effects were observed at any dose level on the dams, or on embryofetal survival, fetal bodyweight, or development, with no increase in malformations or variations. Significant increases in serum and tissue copper levels were observed but no toxicity related to these was observed. The NOAEL observed in this study was 40mgMo/kgbw/day, the highest dose tested.

  19. Factors determining the ability of parents to effectively administer intramuscular adrenaline to food allergic children. (United States)

    Arkwright, Peter D; Farragher, Alex J


    Intramuscular adrenaline is the treatment of choice for food-related anaphylactic reactions. Although auto-injectable adrenaline devices are routinely prescribed for patients at risk of serious reactions, previous studies have shown that only one-third to one and a half of patients or their carers are able to properly use these devices. The aim of this study was to determine which factors are most strongly associated with the effective use of these devices. A 122 children with food allergies who had previously been prescribed EpiPens and were attending a single specialist pediatric allergy center in the UK. were studied prospectively. A 69% of parents were unable to use the EpiPen, did not have it available, or did not know when it should be administered. A prior practical demonstration was associated with a 4-5 fold greater chance that parents would be able to use the device (p EpiPens to be used safely and effectively it is essential to educate the carer at the time the device is prescribed.

  20. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines. (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Aoshi, Taiki; Haseda, Yasunari; Kobiyama, Kouji; Wijaya, Edward; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Standley, Daron M; Yamada, Hiroshi; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Saito, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Coban, Cevayir; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Ishii, Ken J


    Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th)2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV), a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs) and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism.

  1. A Novel Application of RFID in Hospitals for Involuntary Administering to Incorporate Authentication and Tracking

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    A.Mohamed Syed Ali


    Full Text Available Today many hospitals use RFID system to monitor the health records for patient to update the patient information to doctors and patients relatives. In this system Customers can view and update their personal medical information via the web site, which seamlessly sync with one another. RFID is a total system, as opposed to a single product. It provides electronic identity to any object. Electronic information about the object is stored in RFID chip embedded of attached to the object. With an RFID reader the electronic identity can be read wirelessly. We have analyzed completely about the various applications of the RFID and we have come to a conclusion that the RFID can be effectively implemented in the hospitals to manage and monitor various systems of the hospitals automatically. This project is too costly to be implemented now, but the rates of the RFID accessories are expected to come down in the near future. For this automated administering the project needs a Central Monitoring Unit which we have decided to be controlled by software made in a high level language (C. For the reference of the reader we have attached the implementation files with this paper. This paper explains the basics of RFID, its working and our contribution towards RFID.

  2. The effects of centrally administered fluorocitrate via inhibiting glial cells on working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Although prefrontal and hippocampal neurons are critical for spatial working memory,the function of glial cells in spatial working memory remains uncertain.In this study we investigated the function of glial cells in rats’ working memory.The glial cells of rat brain were inhibited by intracerebroventricular(icv) injection of fluorocitrate(FC).The effects of FC on the glial cells were examined by using electroencephalogram(EEG) recordings and delayed spatial alternation tasks.After icv injection of 10 μL of 0.5 nmol/L or 5 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectrum recorded from the hippocampus increased,but the power spectrum for the prefrontal cortex did not change,and working memory was unaffected.Following an icv injection of 10 μL of 20 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus increased,and working memory improved.The icv injection of 10 μL of 50 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and in the hippocampus decreased,and working memory was impaired.These results suggest that spatial working memory is affected by centrally administered FC,but only if there are changes in the EEG power spectrum in the prefrontal cortex.Presumably,the prefrontal glial cells relate to the working memory.

  3. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex. Roem. & Schult.) DC. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. interactions when administered with diazepam. (United States)

    Quílez, A M; Saenz, M T; García, M D


    The safety of natural drugs is defined by their side effects and toxicity as well as any interactions that may occur if taken together with other drugs. In particular, it is essential to identify synergies, antagonisms and other types of interference with other drugs so that the correct choice can be made from the range of phytomedicines available. The aim of this work was to investigate changes in the pharmacological effect of diazepam (2 mg/kg) on the CNS when administered together with a medicinal plant: Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (eucalyptus 6 mg/kg and 3.25 mg/kg) or Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult). DC. (cat's claw, 7.14 mg/kg and 3.54 mg/kg). Various different psychopharmacological effects were evaluated through assessing exploratory behavior, muscle relaxation and spontaneous motor activity. Both phytodrugs interacted with the benzodiazepine. Eucalyptus had an inhibitory effect at both doses and could be useful at the highest dose in cases where the desired effect of the depressant is moderate anxiolytic activity without marked muscle relaxation. Cat's claw, at both doses, enhanced the action of diazepam on spontaneous motor activity and, at the lowest dose, exploratory ability. These herbal drugs could be useful for their antiinflammatory activity in musculoskeletal pathologies treated with benzodiazepines.

  4. The influence of dexamethasone administered prenatally on cartilage of newborn spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) offspring. (United States)

    Iwaniak, P; Dobrowolski, P; Tomaszewska, E; Hułas-Stasiak, M; Tomczyk, A; Gawron, A


    Considering the negative effects of glucocorticoid treatment, especially during fetal development it is important to investigate effectors decreasing such disadvantages. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatally administered dexamethasone (Dex), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on the histomorphometry of the femur in the offspring of spiny mice. The study was performed on 24 pregnant spiny mice. The time of the experiment included the prenatal period between the 20th day of gestation until birth (pregnancy lasts on average of 36-38 days). The mice from the experimental group received dexamethasone per os in a dose of 125 mg/kg birth weight daily. At the end, the newborns from the experimental and control group were weighted and euthanized. Maternal Dex treatment resulted in a 17% decrease in birth weight in newborns. Dex administration significantly reduced the thickness of the hypertrophy zone of the growth plate by 34% and total thickness by 8,7%. In addition, Dex decreased the number of cells in the articular cartilage by 27% and significantly decreased their diameter by 5%. Dex also affected the structure and spatial distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers, lowering the proportion of thin fibers compared with the control group. Moreover, Dex treatment considerably lowered the amount of proteoglycans in articular and growth cartilages. Exposure to glucocorticoids in pregnant spiny mice affects cartilage development by accelerating maturity of collagen fibers and growth plate, presumably along with further disruption of longitudinal growth of long bones.

  5. Action of peripherally administered cholecystokinin on monoaminergic and GABAergic neurons in the rat brain.

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    Full Text Available In an acute study, cholecystokinin octapeptide sulfate (CCK in doses of 1, 10 or 100 micrograms/kg body weight was injected intraperitoneally into rats just prior to the dark cycle. Rats were sacrificed two hours following the CCK injection. Norepinephrine levels were elevated in the dorsal amygdala of rats injected with 10 micrograms of CCK as well as in the septum of rats injected with 1 and 10 micrograms of CCK. The dopamine level in the septum of rats injected with 1 microgram of CCK as well as the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA level in the lateral hypothalamus of rats injected with 10 micrograms of CCK were also elevated. In a chronic study, CCK (1 microgram/kg body weight/h was subcutaneously infused into rats with Alzet osmotic minipump for seven consecutive days. The daily food consumption did not change during the 7 days of CCK infusion. The dopamine turnover in the striatum accelerated and the GABA level increased. On the contrary, dopamine metabolism in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus decreased. Furthermore, the serotonin level in the substantia nigra decreased. Norepinephrine levels decreased in the nucleus paraventricularis, the locus coeruleus and the substantia nigra. The results suggest that peripherally administered CCK may act on the monoaminergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the brain.

  6. Neuroprotective activity of peripherally administered liver growth factor in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Rafael Gonzalo-Gobernado

    Full Text Available Liver growth factor (LGF is a hepatic mitogen purified some years ago that promotes proliferation of different cell types and the regeneration of damaged tissues, including brain tissue. Considering the possibility that LGF could be used as a therapeutic agent in Parkinson's disease, we analyzed its potential neuroregenerative and/or neuroprotective activity when peripherally administered to unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA-lesioned rats. For these studies, rats subjected to nigrostriatal lesions were treated intraperitoneally twice a week with LGF (5 microg/rat for 3 weeks. Animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the last LGF treatment. The results show that LGF stimulates sprouting of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive terminals and increases tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter expression, as well as dopamine levels in the denervated striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. In this structure, LGF activates microglia and raises tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein levels, which have been reported to have a role in neuroregeneration and neuroprotection. Besides, LGF stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and CREB, and regulates the expression of proteins which are critical for cell survival such as Bcl2 and Akt. Because LGF partially protects dopamine neurons from 6-OHDA neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra, and reduces motor deficits in these animals, we propose LGF as a novel factor that may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Pharmacodynamic comparison of prostaglandin E1 administered by different routes to rats. (United States)

    Gu, Fu-gen; Cui, Fu-de; Gao, Yong-liang


    The pharmacodynamics of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) administered by different routes to rats was investigated in this paper. The hypotensive effect of PGE, was used as an index of drug efficacy, pharmacodynamic parameters such as time to reach peak effect (Tmax), maximal percentage of blood pressure decrease (Emax, %), duration of effect (Td), and the area under the blood pressure decrease percent-time curves (AUC, % x min) were determined after PGE1 given to rats intranasally, sublingually, intraperitoneally (ip), and intramuscularly (im), separately, and compared with those obtained from intravenous (iv) administration. Similar to iv route, the pharmacodynamic parameters of PGE1 from the other administration routes, Emax, Td and in particular AUC values were all increased with increasing doses, showing dose-efficacy relationship. Tmax was found to be approximately 3-4 min for nasal route, 3-8 min for im, 6-8 min for ip and 12-30 min for sublingual route, separately. Thus, the order of magnitude of absorption rate of the drug was as follows: nasal approximately = im > ip > sublingual. If the pharmacological bioavailability (PF) for each administration route was used as a tentative measure of drug absorption extent, the order of magnitude of absolute bioavailability appeared as follows: nasal > im approximately = ip > sublingual. Furthermore, the interindividual difference was found to be larger for im and ip route than that for nasal and sublingual route. These results indicate nasal and sublingual routes are two promising routes for the systemic delivery of PGE1 in clinical applications.

  8. Individually administered or co-prescribed thiopurines and mesalamines for inflammatory bowel disease. (United States)

    Actis, Giovanni-C; Pellicano, Rinaldo; Rizzetto, Mario; Ayoubi, Muhammad; Leone, Nicola; Tappero, Gianfranco; Pazienza, Paola; Rosina, Floriano


    Data from both basic research and clinical experience continue to suggest that mesalamines and thiopurines are effective and efficient for the maintenance of remission of inflammatory bowel diseases. Several decades following the formalization of their indications, attention on these two drugs has been fostered by recent achievements. Demonstration of the ability of mesalamine to activate a colonocyte differentiation factor has shed light on its chemopreventive effects on colorectal cancer; in addition to their anti-proliferative efficacy, thiopurines have been shown to be specific regulators of apoptosis. The two drugs are often co-administered in clinical practice. Recent advancements have shown that mesalamines exert a positive synergism in this context, insofar as they can inhibit side-methylation of thiopurines and hasten the function of the main immunosuppressive pathways. Considering that up to 40% of patients cannot tolerate thiopurines, such renovated targets have stimulated efforts to improve compliance by research on the toxicity mechanisms. The definition of genetic polymorphisms in the enzymes of thiopurine metabolism, and the uncovering of synergistic drug interactions, such as that with allopurinol, are just two of the results of such efforts. Interaction between basic research and clinical practice has continued to inform indications and refine the prescriptions of mesalamines and thiopurines; these have not been restrained (they have been implemented in some cases) by the advent of the novel biological molecules with anti-cytokine activity.

  9. Tissue biodistribution and blood clearance rates of intravenously administered carbon nanotube radiotracers (United States)

    Singh, Ravi; Pantarotto, Davide; Lacerda, Lara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Klumpp, Cédric; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Kostarelos, Kostas


    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are intensively being developed for biomedical applications including drug and gene delivery. Although all possible clinical applications will require compatibility of CNT with the biological milieu, their in vivo capabilities and limitations have not yet been explored. In this work, water-soluble, single-walled CNT (SWNT) have been functionalized with the chelating molecule diethylentriaminepentaacetic (DTPA) and labeled with indium (111In) for imaging purposes. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of these functionalized SWNT (f-SWNT) followed by radioactivity tracing using gamma scintigraphy indicated that f-SWNT are not retained in any of the reticuloendothelial system organs (liver or spleen) and are rapidly cleared from systemic blood circulation through the renal excretion route. The observed rapid blood clearance and half-life (3 h) of f-SWNT has major implications for all potential clinical uses of CNT. Moreover, urine excretion studies using both f-SWNT and functionalized multiwalled CNT followed by electron microscopy analysis of urine samples revealed that both types of nanotubes were excreted as intact nanotubes. This work describes the pharmacokinetic parameters of i.v. administered functionalized CNT relevant for various therapeutic and diagnostic applications. nanomedicine | blood circulation half-life | drug delivery | pharmacokinetics | nanotoxicology

  10. CHEERUP: A General Software-Environment for Building, Using and Administering Predictive Monitoring Portals

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    MUSSI, S.


    Full Text Available The intended meaning of the term predictive monitoring used in the paper is the following. A population of subjects (living beings, machines, works of art, etc. is monitored by a domain expert with regard to the possible occurrence of an undesired/desired event E. More precisely, an expert periodically (e.g. every two years, every week, etc. depending on the specific application examines the single subjects and, for each of them, enters examination outcomes in a database where statistical data are automatically processed in order to produce probabilistic inferences about the occurrence in the future of E for the subject under examination (individualized prediction. This allows the expert to take suitable measures in advance in order to prevent/favour the occurrence of E for the subject. Such an approach to predictive monitoring requires that the expert who monitors subjects has at his/her disposal a suitable software system provided with database and algorithms for both properly managing monitoring-processes and producing probabilistic predictions. The paper presents CHEERUP : a prototype product, usable via Internet, that consists in a general software-environment for building, using and administering specific predictive monitoring software-systems (in the paper called portals.

  11. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination administered after measles vaccine: increased female mortality? (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter


    In low-income countries, children should receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. However, there is often a delay in administering the vaccines, and DTP is often given after measles vaccine. Previous observations suggest that this practice is associated with increased mortality for female, but not for male children. Within a vitamin A trial in Guinea-Bissau, vaccination status was registered at the time of measles vaccination at 9 months; 141 (31%) of 455 children were missing 1 or more DTP vaccines and were likely to receive them afterward. We examined whether missing DTP vaccine at this time point was associated with sex-differential effects on mortality. In female children, missing DTP was associated with 3.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.26) times higher risk of dying before 36 months of age, whereas it made no difference in male children (0.97 [0.34-2.80]). The result supports that receiving DTP after measles vaccine affects female children negatively.


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    Farzana Perveen


    Full Text Available In consanguineous marriage, the genetic and medical disorders are increased in the offspring with passage of time. It is a big challenge for our society to get complete information of their prevalence, their risk factors and to control these disorders. The present survey was conducted during January-March 2012 in different areas of the Bajaur Agency, Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan including Alijan, Anatkali, Chamerkand, Gandaw, Loisam, Manudera, Nawagai, Nawaikali, Raghagan and Sadiqabad where they are dominant. Data were collected from 123 consanguineous married couples through questionnaire comprised of information about complete history and risk factors of the medical and genetic disorders. During cousin marriages, the couples’ parents were married to their 1st cousin 52% while married to their 2nd cousin 49%. The couples participated themselves were 1st cousin 87% while 2nd cousin 13%. They were obese 34%, weak 48%, and normal 18% while age was minimum 14 and maximum 30 years, however, maximum marriages were observed at the age of 20 year. The couples having genetic disorders like anemia, obesity and thalassemia were 20, 23 and 20%, respectively; however, non-genetic disorders, bone diseases, depressive illness and respiratory diseases were 21, 20 and 25 %, respectively. Such communities may require comprehensive genetic education and premarital genetic counseling programs for awareness and education.

  13. An Atypical Case of Methemoglobinemia due to Self-Administered Benzocaine

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    Thomas M. Nappe


    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy that results from exposure to oxidizing agents, such as chemicals or medications. Although, as reported in the adult population, it happens most often due to prescribed medication or procedural anesthesia and not due to easily accessed over-the-counter medications, the authors will describe an otherwise healthy male adult with no known medical history and no prescribed medications, who presented to the emergency department reporting generalized weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, and pale gray skin. In addition, the patient reported that he also had a severe toothache for several days, which he had been self-treating with an over-the-counter oral benzocaine gel. Ultimately, the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made by clinical history, physical examination, and the appearance of chocolate-colored blood and arterial blood gas (ABG with cooximetry. After 2 mg/kg of intravenous methylene blue was administered, the patient had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. This case illustrates that emergency physicians should be keenly aware of the potential of toxic hemoglobinopathy secondary to over-the-counter, nonprescribed medications. Discussion with patients regarding the dangers of inappropriate use of these medicines is imperative, as such warnings are typically not evident on product labels.

  14. An Atypical Case of Methemoglobinemia due to Self-Administered Benzocaine. (United States)

    Nappe, Thomas M; Pacelli, Anthony M; Katz, Kenneth


    Acquired methemoglobinemia is an uncommon hemoglobinopathy that results from exposure to oxidizing agents, such as chemicals or medications. Although, as reported in the adult population, it happens most often due to prescribed medication or procedural anesthesia and not due to easily accessed over-the-counter medications, the authors will describe an otherwise healthy male adult with no known medical history and no prescribed medications, who presented to the emergency department reporting generalized weakness, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, and pale gray skin. In addition, the patient reported that he also had a severe toothache for several days, which he had been self-treating with an over-the-counter oral benzocaine gel. Ultimately, the diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made by clinical history, physical examination, and the appearance of chocolate-colored blood and arterial blood gas (ABG) with cooximetry. After 2 mg/kg of intravenous methylene blue was administered, the patient had complete resolution of all signs and symptoms. This case illustrates that emergency physicians should be keenly aware of the potential of toxic hemoglobinopathy secondary to over-the-counter, nonprescribed medications. Discussion with patients regarding the dangers of inappropriate use of these medicines is imperative, as such warnings are typically not evident on product labels.

  15. Urinary excretion of orally administered oxalic acid in saccharin and o-phenylphenol-fed NMRI mice. (United States)

    Salminen, E; Salminen, S


    Both saccharin and o-phenylphenol have been suggested to be carcinogenic to the urinary bladder in experimental animals, but the mechanism has remained unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary saccharin and o-phenylphenol on the urinary excretion of dietary oxalic acid. Male NMRI mice were gradually adapted to either 3% o-phenylphenol or 5% saccharin in their diet. Having being adapted to these diets for 1 week or after consuming them for 3 months, the animals were fasted for 6 h and given a 2.5-microCi oral dose of U-14C-oxalic acid. Dosed animals were kept in metabolism cages for 48 h to monitor urinary and fecal excretion of the label. Adaptation to dietary o-phenylphenol appeared to increase the urinary excretion of orally administered U-14C-oxalic acid when food and water were available during urinary and fecal collections. Adaptation to dietary saccharin had little effect on urinary oxalate levels when compared to control animals. These results indicate that changes in urinary oxalate levels should be more carefully studied in connection with potential urinary bladder carcinogens to avoid the possibility of bladder irritation by increased urinary oxalate excretion.

  16. Curative and preventive efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against Ctenocephalides canis infestation in dogs. (United States)

    Dumont, Pascal; Gale, Boyd; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane L


    The efficacy of orally administered afoxolaner against adult dog fleas, Ctenocephalides canis, was evaluated in a controlled, blinded study. A total of 32 dogs were infested with 100 adult unfed fleas approximately 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 5 weeks after treatment. Live fleas were counted upon removal at 12h (for 16 dogs) and 24h (for the remaining 16 dogs) after treatment (for counts performed the first week) or after infestation (for counts performed on subsequent weeks). In addition, flea eggs were collected from each pen and counted for the dogs with flea removal at 24h. Dosing of individual dogs was achieved using a combination of the chewable tablets to be as close as possible to the minimum effective dose of 2.5mg/kg. The percent efficacy of the afoxolaner treatment was ≥ 99.0% for all 24-h flea counts. For flea counts performed 12h after treatment or infestations, the percent efficacy was ≥ 94.1% up to Day 21. After Day 1, no flea eggs were recovered from the afoxolaner treated group, providing 100% reduction in numbers of flea eggs recovered versus untreated control group. This study confirmed that a single oral treatment with afoxolaner provided excellent efficacy against infestations by C. canis within 12-24h after treatment, prevented re-infestations, and completely prevented egg production from new flea infestations for up to 5 weeks.

  17. Recovery of Cognitive Dysfunction via Orally Administered Redox-Polymer Nanotherapeutics in SAMP8 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert

    Full Text Available Excessively generated reactive oxygen species are associated with age-related neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated whether scavenging of reactive oxygen species in the brain by orally administered redox nanoparticles, prepared by self-assembly of redox polymers possessing antioxidant nitroxide radicals, facilitates the recovery of cognition in 17-week-old senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8 mice. The redox polymer was delivered to the brain after oral administration of redox nanoparticles via a disintegration of the nanoparticles in the stomach and absorption of the redox polymer at small intestine to the blood. After treatment for one month, levels of oxidative stress in the brain of SAMP8 mice were remarkably reduced by treatment with redox nanoparticles, compared to that observed with low-molecular-weight nitroxide radicals, resulting in the amelioration of cognitive impairment with increased numbers of surviving neurons. Additionally, treatment by redox nanoparticles did not show any detectable toxicity. These findings indicate the potential of redox polymer nanotherapeutics for treatment of the neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change. (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James


    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Identification and quantification of metabolites of orally administered naringenin chalcone in rats. (United States)

    Yoshimura, Mineka; Sano, Atsushi; Kamei, Jun-Ichi; Obata, Akio


    Naringenin chalcone is the main active component of tomato skin extract, which has an antiallergic activity. In this study, naringenin chalcone was orally administered to rats, and the chemical structures and levels of the major metabolites in the plasma and urine of rats were determined. HPLC analysis indicated the presence of three major metabolites in the urine. LC-MS and NMR analyses tentatively identified these as naringenin chalcone-2'-O-beta-D-glucuronide, naringenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide, and naringenin-4'-O-beta-D-glucuronide. Naringenin chalcone-2'-O-beta-D-glucuronide was the only metabolite detected in the plasma, and its peak plasma level was observed 1 h after naringenin chalcone administration. Naringenin chalcone-2'-O-beta-D-glucuronide also inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with compound 48/80. This activity might contribute to the antiallergic activity of naringenin chalcone in vivo. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report determination of naringenin chalcone metabolites in rat plasma and urine.

  20. Should anesthesiologists have to confirm effective facemask ventilation before administering the muscle relaxant? (United States)

    Priebe, Hans-Joachim


    There is ongoing controversy as to whether effective facemask ventilation (FMV) should be established following induction of anesthesia before a muscle relaxant is administered. The rationale for such practice is the belief that, should FMV be ineffective, non-paralyzed patients can be woken up, and subsequently an alternative airway management can be considered. However, the chances of successfully restoring adequate spontaneous respiration before severe hypoxemia develops in an anesthetized, apneic patient who is prone to anesthetic-induced respiratory depression and airway collapse are very small. On the other hand, the overall evidence shows that muscle relaxation is likely to improve or leave unchanged, but not to worsen, the quality of FMV. Furthermore, muscle relaxation will facilitate placement of a supraglottic airway device and endotracheal intubation, interventions which may become essential should the patient become hypoxemic during failed FMV. Thus, the earliest administration of a muscle relaxant following induction of anesthesia may well be the most effective and safest practice. Insistence on demonstration of adequate FMV before administration of a muscle relaxant is more of a ritual than an evidence-based practice. It should therefore be abandoned.

  1. Gene delivery to dendritic cells by orally administered recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mice. (United States)

    Kiflmariam, Meron G; Yang, Hanjiang; Zhang, Zhiying


    DNA vaccination has caught the attention of many for triggering humoral as well as cellular immune responses. And delivering DNA into the antigen presenting cells (APCs) in order to induce efficient immunoresponse has become the backbone of this field. It has been confirmed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though non-pathogenic, is being engulfed by the dendritic cells and macrophages and delivers not only proteins, but also DNA materials (already confirmed in vitro). In this research, S. cerevisiae is used to deliver green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene controlled under cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in living organism (mice). The recombinant yeast, transfected with the plasmid containing the GFP gene, was heat killed and orally administered to mice. After 60 h of yeast administration, mice were sacrificed and intestine was separated, washed and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissues were cut at the size of 10 μm using Cryostat machine, and GFP expression was successfully detected under a fluorescence microscope. After 45 days Western blot was able to detect GFP antibody in the blood of mice. These results imply that S. cerevisiae, being non-pathogenic, cheap, and easy to culture could be a good candidate to deliver DNA materials to the immune cells for vaccination.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and penetration into synovial fluid of systemical and electroporation administered sinomenine to rabbits. (United States)

    Yan, Huan; Yan, Miao; Li, Huan-De; Jiang, Pei; Deng, Yang; Cai, Hua-Lin


    Sinomenine is an anti-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) drug derived from the Sinomenium acutum. The major site of RA treatment is within the synovial compartment. However, the pharmacokinetic and penetration into synovial fluid (SF) of sinomenine have not been reported. In our study, the pharmacokinetics and penetration into SF of systemic and electroporation administered sinomenine were investigated by microdialysis incorporated with HPLC-MS/MS. Sinomenine went into plasma and SF more rapidly with higher peak concentration (Cmax ) by intramuscular injection compared with oral administration. The area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-∞ ) of intramuscularly injected sinomenine was 1,403,294.75 ± 125,534.567 ng min/mL in plasma and 456,116.37 ± 62,648.36 ng min/mL in SF, which were equivalent with those for an oral dose. These results indicated that equal amounts of sinomenine could penetrate into SF by the two administration routes, and the permeation ratios were approximately 1:3. The AUC0-∞ and Cmax were lower with electroporation compared with systemic administration, but the CSF /CPlasma (concentration of sinomenine in SF vs that of plasma) at 90, 120, 150, 180, 240 and 480 min by electroporation was 3- to 10-fold higher relative to systemic administration. This illustrated that sinomenine can be targeted into joints by electroporation, and electroporation is a potential technique for sinomenine's transdermal delivery.

  3. Treatment of hepatoma with liposome-encapsulated adriamycin administered into hepatic artery of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Sheng Sun; Jiang-Hao Chen; Rui Ling; Qing Yao; Ling Wang; Zhong Ma; Yu Li


    AIM: To observe the therapeutic effects of liposomeencapsulated adriamycin (LADM) on hepatoma in comparison with adriamycin solution (FADM) and adriamycin plus blank liposome (ADM + BL) administered into the hepatic artery of rats.METHODS: LADM was prepared by pH gradient-driven method. Normal saline, FADM (2 mg/kg), ADM+BL (2 mg/kg), and LADM (2 mg/kg) were injected via the hepatic artery in rats bearing liver W256 carcinosarcoma,which were divided into four groups randomly. The therapeutic effects were evaluated in terms of survival time,tumor enlargement ratio, and tumor necrosis degree.The difference was determined with ANOVA and Dunnett test and log rank test.RESULTS: Compared to FADM or ADM + BL, LADM produced a more significant tumor inhibition (tumor volume ratio: 1.243 ± 0.523 vs 1.883 ± 0.708, 1.847 ± 0.661,P < 0.01), and more extensive tumor necrosis. The increased life span was prolonged significantly in rats receiving LADM compared with FADM or ADM+BL (231.48 v's 74.66, 94.70) (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: The anticancer efficacies of adriamycin on hepatoma can be strongly improved by liposomal encapsulation through hepatic arterial administration.

  4. The ABCs of LDAP how to install, run, and administer LDAP services

    CERN Document Server

    Voglmaier, Reinhard E


    Until now, it has been difficult to find the right source of information on LDAP and directory server implementations: books on the subject are overly product-specific, and a search on the Web results in information overload. The ABCs of LDAP: How to Install, Run, and Administer LDAP Services strikes the right balance, providing a synopsis of LDAP fundamentals without getting wrapped up in one particular implementation.This book is for network and systems administrators who want to begin using LDAP more extensively. It delivers the theoretical background needed to understand how these servers work, resulting in clear, concise examples of implementations in both commercial and OpenLDAP environments.The text is structured so that each chapter can stand on its own, with brief descriptions of terms supplemented by references to more detailed explanations in other chapters. You also benefit from a concise overview of how to design a directory, preparing you to execute directory deployments for email, PKI, DNS, NIS...

  5. Leading Edge Device Aerodynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gabriel COJOCARU


    Full Text Available Leading edge devices are conventionally used as aerodynamic devices that enhance performances during landing and in some cases during takeoff. The need to increase the efficiency of the aircrafts has brought the idea of maintaining as much as possible a laminar flow over the wings. This is possible only when the leading edge of the wings is free from contamination, therefore using the leading edge devices with the additional role of shielding during takeoff. Such a device based on the Krueger flap design is aerodynamically analyzed and optimized. The optimization comprises three steps: first, the positioning of the flap such that the shielding criterion is kept, second, the analysis of the flap size and third, the optimization of the flap shape. The first step is subject of a gradient based optimization process of the position described by two parameters, the position along the line and the deflection angle. For the third step the Adjoint method is used to gain insight on the shape of the Krueger flap that will extend the most the stall limit. All these steps have been numerically performed using Ansys Fluent and the results are presented for the optimized shape in comparison with the baseline configuration.

  6. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Kinser


    Full Text Available Health disparities (HD continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP, can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities.

  7. Impact of adherence on subcutaneous interferon beta-1a effectiveness administered by Rebismart® in patients with multiple sclerosis (United States)

    Edo Solsona, María Dolores; Monte Boquet, Emilio; Casanova Estruch, Bonaventura; Poveda Andrés, José Luis


    Background Adherence to disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) is one of the key factors for achieving optimal clinical outcomes. Rebismart® is an injection device for subcutaneous administration of interferon beta-1a (INF β-1a) that is also able to monitor adherence objectively. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to INF β-1a using the said electronic autoinjection device and to explore the relationship between adherence and relapses in a Spanish cohort. Methods This is a retrospective observational study in which 110 Spanish patients self-administered INF β-1a subcutaneously using an electronic autoinjection device between June 2010 and June 2015. The primary end point was the percentage of adherence measured by Rebismart® to subcutaneous INF β-1a injections calculated as number of injections received in time period versus number of injections scheduled in time period. Other variables recorded were demographic and clinical data. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 19.0 software. Results Median adherence for the total study period was 96.5% (interquartile range [IQR]: 91.1–99.1). Similar values were observed during the first 6 months: 98.7% (IQR: 91.3–100), and the last 6 months: 97.6% (IQR: 91.1–99.8). Median duration of treatment was 979 days (IQR: 613.8–1,266.8). During the entire treatment period, 77.3% of patients were relapse free and mean annualized relapse rate was 0.14 (standard deviation: 0.33). Increased adherence was associated with better clinical outcomes, leading to lower relapse risk (odds ratio: 0.953; 95% confidence interval: 0.912–0.995). Specifically, every percentage unit increase in adherence resulted in a 4.7% decrease in relapse. Conclusion Patients with multiple sclerosis who self-injected INF β-1a with Rebismart® had excellent adherence, correlating with a high proportion of relapse-free patients and very low annualized relapse rate. PMID:28280313

  8. Administering Examinations for Quality Control in Distance Education: The National Open University of Nigeria Perspective (United States)

    Ibara, E. C.


    Examination is an important tool for evaluating students learning outcome and require proper planning to meet high standards. This paper therefore examines the processes leading to administration of face-to-face examination in distance education with focus on the National Open University of Nigeria. It highlighted some procedures such as test…

  9. Norm Block Sample Sizes: A Review of 17 Individually Administered Intelligence Tests (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Woods, Isaac L.; Hawkins, Haley K.; Irby, Sarah M.


    The representativeness, recency, and size of norm samples strongly influence the accuracy of inferences drawn from their scores. Inadequate norm samples may lead to inflated or deflated scores for individuals and poorer prediction of developmental and academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to apply Kranzler and Floyd's method for…

  10. Use of sympathomimetic drugs leads to increased risk of hospitalization for arrhythmias in patients with congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvy, M L; Heerdink, E R; De Bruin, M L;


    BACKGROUND: Sympathomimetic agents have a direct positive chronotropic effect on heart rate and may cause hypokalemia, even when administered by inhalation. In selected patients (e.g., patients with congestive heart failure [CHF]) this can lead to arrhythmias. Despite the potential adverse effects...

  11. A novel route for the removal of bodily heavy metal lead (II) (United States)

    Huang, Weirong; Zhang, Penghua; Xu, Hui; Chang, Shengli; He, Yongju; Wang, Fei; Liang, Gaowei


    The lead ion concentration in bile is considerably higher than in blood, and bile is released into the alimentary tract. Thiol-modified SBA-15 administered orally can combine with lead ions in the alimentary tract. In this paper, the in vitro lead absorption of bile was investigated. This thiol-modified SBA-15 material was used in pharmacodynamics studies on rabbits. The result that the lead content in faeces was notably higher indicates that thiol-modified SBA-15 can efficiently remove lead. The mechanism could include the following: thiol-modified SBA-15 material cuts off the heavy metal lead recirculation in the process of bile enterohepatic circulation by chelating the lead in the alimentary tract, causing a certain proportion of lead to be removed by the thiol mesoporous material, and the lead is subsequently egested out of the body in faeces. The results indicate that this material might be a potential non-injection material for the removal bodily heavy metal lead in the alimentary tract. This material may also be a useful means of lead removal, especially for non-acute sub-poisoning symptoms.

  12. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics. (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L


    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  13. Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O Salawu


    Full Text Available Background: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. Aim: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum : Source of antioxidants paste (TP was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. Materials and Methods: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5, were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II acetate (LA. Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: A Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyse the results obtained. Results: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life-death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. Conclusion: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress.

  14. Lead Isotopes in Highway Runoff (United States)

    Ferreira, M.; Lau, S.; Green, P. G.; Stenstrom, M. K.


    Lead (Pb) isotopes have been used extensively to study the provenance of lead pollution on air, water, and sediments. In this study, we measured Pb isotopes and Pb aqueous concentration in highway runoff in three west Los Angeles sites. Those three sites, part of a long-term study sponsored by the California Department of Transportation, represent small catchment areas, and host heavy traffic. In addition, there were no inputs of sand or salt to the highway because the sites are almost completely impervious and also due to the lack of snow to be controlled. Highway runoff from the three sites was collected for 7 storms during the 2004-2005 Winter. Grab samples were collected every 15 minutes during the first hour, and hourly afterwards. A total of 202 samples were collected and filtered into five size fractions (100μm). Aqueous concentration of Pb range from 0.08μg/L to 46.95μg/L (7.98±10.89μg/L) and it is not correlated with any of the lead isotope ratios. The 208Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 1.983 to 2.075 (2.024±0.026) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 208Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). However, the 208Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils yield 2.060±0.021 and it is statistically different from the ratios obtained for the highway runoff. This hints that the lead present in highway runoff does not come from local soils. The 207Pb/206Pb ratio ranges from 0.804 to 0.847 (0.827±0.011) and there is no statistical difference for the mean value of the 207Pb/206Pb ratio for the four particulate size fractions (0.45-8μm, 8-20μm, 20-100μm, >100μm). Surprisingly, there is also no statistical difference with the 207Pb/206Pb ratio of nearby soils (0.833±0.009).

  15. Relational Leading and Dialogic Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Hersted

    and knowledge building as related to relational leading. The practices developed in the thesis research demonstrate that it is possible to create organizational learning and development through collaborative, dialogic practices in groups and teams, for instance combined with the use of roleplaying. In the work...... with the thesis, dialogically based practices inspired by action research with the aim to enhance collaborative knowledge building, reflexivity and dialogical skills in groups and teams were carried out, analyzed and documented. Participants included school principals, leaders of kindergartens, teachers...

  16. All Roads Lead To Rome

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xin


    This short article presents a class of projection-based solution algorithms to the problem considered in the pioneering work on compressed sensing - perfect reconstruction of a phantom image from 22 radial lines in the frequency domain. Under the framework of projection-based image reconstruction, we will show experimentally that several old and new tools of nonlinear filtering (including Perona-Malik diffusion, Total-Variation diffusion, Translation-Invariant thresholding and SA-DCT thresholding) all lead to perfect reconstruction of the phantom image.

  17. Current leads and magnetic bearings (United States)

    Hull, J. R.


    Since the discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS's), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been active in a broad spectrum of activities in developing these materials for applications. Work at every stage of development has involved industrial collaboration in order to accelerate commercialization. While most of the development work has been devoted to improving the properties of current-carrying wires, some effort has been devoted to applications that can utilize HTS's with properties available now or in the near future. In this paper, advances made in the area of current leads and magnetic bearings are discussed.

  18. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian


    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  19. Target engagement in lead generation. (United States)

    Durham, Timothy B; Blanco, Maria-Jesus


    The pharmaceutical industry is currently facing multiple challenges, in particular the low number of new drug approvals in spite of the high level of R&D investment. In order to improve target selection and assess properly the clinical hypothesis, it is important to start building an integrated drug discovery approach during Lead Generation. This should include special emphasis on evaluating target engagement in the target tissue and linking preclinical to clinical readouts. In this review, we would like to illustrate several strategies and technologies for assessing target engagement and the value of its application to medicinal chemistry efforts.

  20. All roads lead to Rome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Thorsten Jørgen; Vomlel, Jiri


    for existing methods to use the treewidth criterion for optimality of a triangulation. However, this criterion may lead to a somewhat harder inference problem than the total table size criterion. We therefore investigate new methods for depth-first search and best-first search for finding optimal total table...... is generic in the sense that it can be used with other algorithms than just Bron-Kerbosch. The algorithms for finding optimal triangulations are mainly supposed to be off-line methods, but they may form the basis for efficient any-time heuristics. Furthermore, the methods make it possible to evaluate...

  1. Application of the yeast-surface-display system for orally administered salmon calcitonin and safety assessment. (United States)

    Sun, Ping-Nan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Chen, Yun-Song; Zang, Xiao-Nan


    High manufacturing costs and oral delivery are the constraints in clinical application of calcitonin. We selected surface-displayed Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a low-cost and safe carrier for oral delivery of salmon calcitonin (sCT). The sCT DNA fragment, optimized according to the codon preference of S. cerevisiae, was synthesized and cloned into the plasmid M-pYD1 to yield recombinant yAGA2-sCT, which was induced to express sCT by galactose for 0, 12, and 24 h. sCT expression was detected on the cell surface by indirect immunofluorescence and peaked at 12 h. About 65% recombinants expressed sCT on flow cytometry. The in vivo and in vitro activity of recombinant sCT was determined by detecting bioactivity of antiosteoclastic absorption on bone wafers and orally administering yAGA2-sCT to Wistar rats, respectively. For safety assessment of yAGA2-sCT, we observed abnormalities, morbidity, and mortality and determined body weight, serum chemistry parameters, hematological parameters, and organ weight. In vitro bioactivity of the recombinant sCT was similar to that of commercial sCT, Miacalcic; oral administration of 5 g/kg yAGA2-sCT induced a long-term hypocalcemic effect in Wistar rats and no adverse effects. This study demonstrates that yAGA2-sCT anchoring sCT protein on a S. cerevisiae surface has potential for low-cost and safe oral delivery of sCT.

  2. Orally administered tylosin for the control of pneumonia in neonatal calves. (United States)

    Matsuoka, T; Muenster, O A; Ose, E E; Tonkinson, L


    The effectiveness of orally administered tylosin tartrate for the control of naturally occurring pneumonia was determined in 287 neonatal calves. Tylosin tartrate was mixed with reconstituted milk replacer at the time of feeding. Daily doses of 1.0 g (0.5 g BID), 2.0 g (1.0 g BID) and 4.0 g (2.0 g BID) were evaluated for periods ranging from seven to 28 days. Tylosin at the optimum dose of 2.0 g daily reduced mortality to 12 out of 95 (12.6 per cent) compared to 38 out of 89 (42.7 per cent) in the non-medicated control calves. The 1.0 g daily dose did not reduce mortality. The number of calves with moderate to severe lung lesions was also reduced by treatment at 2.0 g daily to 13 out of 95 (13.7 per cent) compared to 45 out of 89 (50.6 per cent) in the control group. All dose levels had a similar effect in reducing the severity of clinical signs indicative of respiratory disease. Tylosin treatment at all dose levels reduced the number of Pasteurella multocida isolations from lung tissue to 15/146 (10.3 per cent) compared to 61/141 (43.3 per cent) for the controls. However, there were no differences between treated and controls in the number of P haemolytica isolations. The frequency of mycoplasma isolations from lung tissue were reduced significantly by tylosin treatment at the 4.0 g and 2.0 g dose levels to 36/93 (38.7 per cent) compared to 61/86 (70.9 per cent) for the control calves.

  3. In vitro viability effects on apheresis and buffy-coat derived platelets administered through infusion pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandgren P


    Full Text Available Per Sandgren,1,2 Veronica Berggren,3 Carl Westling,1,2 Viveka Stiller1 1Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 3Department of Neonatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Different infusion pump systems as well as gravity infusion have been widely used in neonatal transfusion. However, the limited number of published studies describing the use of infusion pumps on platelets illustrates the necessity for more robust data.Methods: To evaluate the potential in vitro effects on the cellular, metabolic, functional and phenotypic properties of platelets, we set up a four-arm paired study simultaneously comparing the use of different infusion pumps (Alaris® CC/GP with unexposed platelets. The platelet units (n=8 were either produced by the apheresis technique and suspended in 100% plasma or derived from buffy coats to yield platelet units stored in approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+. Fresh and 5-day old platelets were tested.Results: Regardless of the production system or storage time used, no significant differences were observed in glucose and lactate concentration, pH, adenosine triphosphate levels, response to extent of shape change, hypotonic shock response reactivity, and CD62P expression. Similarly, no differences were observed in expression of the conformational epitope on glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, determined using procaspase-activating compound 1, or in the expression of CD42b and platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in a comparison between platelets administered through infusion pumps versus unexposed platelets.Conclusion: Using Alaris CC/GP infusion pumps had no influence on the cellular, functional, and phenotypic in vitro properties of platelets. This fact seems not to be affected by different production systems or storage time.Keywords: platelets, neonatal platelet transfusion

  4. Capric acid and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose increase the immunogenicity of nasally administered peptide vaccines. (United States)

    Nordone, Sushila K; Peacock, James W; Kirwan, Shaun M; Staats, Herman F


    Immunization by the nasal route is an established method for the induction of mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated antigen-specific responses. However, the effectiveness of nasal immunization is often hampered by the need for increased doses of antigen. Bioadhesives and absorption enhancers were investigated for their ability to enhance immune responses in mice after nasal immunization with model HIV-1 peptide and protein immunogens. Two additives, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and capric acid, consistently enhanced antigen-specific serum IgG endpoint titers under conditions in which antigen dose was limiting. Nasal immunization of mice with 20 microg of an HIV-1 peptide immunogen plus cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant induced serum antipeptide IgG titers of 1:9.5log2 after four immunizations while the addition of CA or HPMC to the vaccine formulation increased serum antipeptide IgG titers to 1:15.4log2 and 1:17.6log2, respectively. When 5 microg recombinant HIV-1 gp41 was used as the immunogen, the addition of CA or HPMC to the vaccine formulation increased serum anti-gp41 IgG titers to 1:11.6log2 and 1:8.8log2, respectively, compared to 1:5.2log2 after three nasal immunizations with 5 microg gp41 + CT alone. Thus, HPMC and capric acid may be useful additives that increase the immunogenicity of nasally administered vaccines and permit less antigen to be used with each immunization.

  5. Immunotoxicity of dibromoacetic acid administered via drinking water to female B₆C₃F₁ mice. (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Germolec, Dori R; Luebke, Robert W; Sheth, Christopher M; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Guo, Tai L; White, Kimber L


    Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a disinfection by-product commonly found in drinking water as a result of chlorination/ ozonation processes. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that more than 200 million people consume disinfected water in the United States. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential immunotoxicological effects of DBA exposure when administered for 28 days via drinking water to B₆C₃F₁ mice, at concentrations of 125, 500, and 1000 mg/L. Multiple endpoints were evaluated to assess innate, humoral, and cell-mediated immune components, as well as host resistance. Standard toxicological parameters were unaffected, with the exception of a dose-responsive increase in liver weight and a decrease in thymus weight at the two highest exposure levels. Splenocyte differentials were affected, although the effects were not dose-responsive. Exposure to DBA did not significantly affect humoral immunity (immunoglobulin M [IgM] plaque assay and serum IgM anti-sheep erythrocyte titers) or cell-mediated immunity (mixed-leukocyte response). No effects were observed on innate immune function in either interferon-γ-induced in vitro macrophage cytotoxic activity or basal natural killer (NK)-cell activity. Augmented NK-cell activity (following exposure to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid) was decreased at the low dose, however the effect was not dose-responsive. Finally, DBA exposure had no effect on resistance to infection with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Plasmodium yoelii, or challenge with B16F10 melanoma cells. With the exception of changes in thymus weight, these results indicate that DBA exposure resulted in no immunotoxic effects at concentrations much larger than those considered acceptable in human drinking water.

  6. Diazepam promotes choice of abstinence in cocaine self-administering rats. (United States)

    Augier, Eric; Vouillac, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H


    When facing a choice between cocaine and a potent, albeit inessential, non-drug alternative (i.e. water sweetened with saccharin), most cocaine self-administering rats abstain from cocaine in favor of the non-drug pursuit, regardless of the dose available and even after extended drug use. Only a minority continues to take the drug despite the opportunity of making a different choice and increasing stakes. This pattern of individual variation could suggest that the majority of rats are resilient to addiction, taking cocaine by default of other options. Only a minority would be vulnerable to addiction. This study tested the hypothesis that rats choose to refrain from cocaine self-administration because cocaine would be conflictual, having both rewarding and anxiogenic properties. Contrary to this hypothesis, however, we report here that diazepam-a broad-spectrum benzodiazepine anxiolytic-did not decrease, but instead, further increased cocaine abstinence. Interestingly, although diazepam decreased locomotion, rats adapted to this effect by spending more time near the lever associated with the preferred reward, a behavior that minimized the need for locomotion at the moment of choice. When responding for cocaine or saccharin was analyzed separately, we found that diazepam decreased responding for cocaine without affecting responding for saccharin. Finally, the abstinence-promoting effects of diazepam were also induced in cocaine-preferring rats treated chronically with diazepam. Overall, this study demonstrates that abstinence from cocaine cannot be explained away by the anxiogenic effects of cocaine, thereby reinforcing the notion of resilience to addiction. It also supports the use of benzodiazepines in the treatment of cocaine addiction.

  7. The pharmacokinetics of orally administered ivermectin in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): implications for parasite elimination. (United States)

    Gandolf, A Rae; Lifschitz, A; Stadler, C; Watson, B; Galvanek, L; Ballent, M; Lanusse, C


    Loxodonta africana are susceptible to a wide variety of parasites that are often treated with the broad spectrum antiparasitic ivermectin (IVM) based on empirical knowledge. The objectives of this study were to 1) measure plasma IVM levels following administration of 0.1 mg/kg IVM p.o., 2) compare plasma IVM levels following administration with regular versus restricted feed rations, 3) measure IVM excretion in feces, and 4) use these findings to generate dosing recommendations for this species. Using a crossover design, six African elephants were divided into two groups. Ivermectin was administered and typical grain rations were either provided or withheld for 2 hr. Blood and fecal samples were collected for 7 days following drug administration. After a 5-wk washout period, groups were switched and the procedure repeated. Plasma and fecal IVM were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. There was no statistically significant difference detected in the pharmacokinetic data between the fed and fasted groups. Peak plasma concentration, area under the curve, and half-life for plasma ranged between 5.41-8.49 ng/ml, 17.1-20.3 ng x day/ml, and 3.12-4.47 day, respectively. High IVM concentrations were detected in feces. The peak concentration values in feces were between 264-311-fold higher than those obtained in plasma. The comparatively large area under the curve and short time to maximum concentration in feces indicate elimination prior to absorption of much of the drug. Plasma IVM concentrations were low when compared to other species. Based on these findings, administration of 0.2-0.4 mg/kg p.o. should be appropriate for eliminating many types of parasites in elephants, and could minimize development of parasite resistance.

  8. Evaluation of the first pharmacist-administered vaccinations in Western Australia: a mixed-methods study (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Sim, T Fei; Parsons, R; Czarniak, P; Vickery, A; Ayadurai, S


    Objectives This study evaluated the uptake of Western Australian (WA) pharmacist vaccination services, the profiles of consumers being vaccinated and the facilitators and challenges experienced by pharmacy staff in the preparation, implementation and delivery of services. Design Mixed-methods methodology with both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys, pharmacy computer records and immuniser pharmacist interviews. Setting Community pharmacies in WA that provided pharmacist vaccination services between March and October 2015. Participants Immuniser pharmacists from 86 pharmacies completed baseline surveys and 78 completed exit surveys; computer records from 57 pharmacies; 25 immuniser pharmacists were interviewed. Main outcome measures Pharmacy and immuniser pharmacist profiles; pharmacist vaccination services provided and consumer profiles who accessed services. Results 15 621 influenza vaccinations were administered by immuniser pharmacists at 76 WA community pharmacies between March and October 2015. There were no major adverse events, and managed. Between 12% and 17% of consumers were eligible to receive free influenza vaccinations under the National Immunisation Program but chose to have it at a pharmacy. A high percentage of vaccinations was delivered in rural and regional areas indicating that provision of pharmacist vaccination services facilitated access for rural and remote consumers. Immuniser pharmacists reported feeling confident in providing vaccination services and were of the opinion that services should be expanded to other vaccinations. Pharmacists also reported significant professional satisfaction in providing the service. All participating pharmacies intended to continue providing influenza vaccinations in 2016. Conclusions This initial evaluation of WA pharmacist vaccination services showed that vaccine delivery was safe. Convenience and accessibility were important aspects in usage of services. There is scope to expand pharmacist

  9. Reduction of Pavlovian Bias in Schizophrenia: Enhanced Effects in Clozapine-Administered Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Albrecht

    Full Text Available The negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ are associated with a pattern of reinforcement learning (RL deficits likely related to degraded representations of reward values. However, the RL tasks used to date have required active responses to both reward and punishing stimuli. Pavlovian biases have been shown to affect performance on these tasks through invigoration of action to reward and inhibition of action to punishment, and may be partially responsible for the effects found in patients. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 30 demographically-matched controls completed a four-stimulus reinforcement learning task that crossed action ("Go" or "NoGo" and the valence of the optimal outcome (reward or punishment-avoidance, such that all combinations of action and outcome valence were tested. Behaviour was modelled using a six-parameter RL model and EEG was simultaneously recorded. Patients demonstrated a reduction in Pavlovian performance bias that was evident in a reduced Go bias across the full group. In a subset of patients administered clozapine, the reduction in Pavlovian bias was enhanced. The reduction in Pavlovian bias in SZ patients was accompanied by feedback processing differences at the time of the P3a component. The reduced Pavlovian bias in patients is suggested to be due to reduced fidelity in the communication between striatal regions and frontal cortex. It may also partially account for previous findings of poorer "Go-learning" in schizophrenia where "Go" responses or Pavlovian consistent responses are required for optimal performance. An attenuated P3a component dynamic in patients is consistent with a view that deficits in operant learning are due to impairments in adaptively using feedback to update representations of stimulus value.

  10. Oncobiguanides: Paracelsus' law and nonconventional routes for administering diabetobiguanides for cancer treatment (United States)

    Menendez, Javier A.; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge


    “The dose makes the poison”, the common motto of toxicology first expressed by Paracelsus more than 400 years ago, may effectively serve to guide potential applications for metformin and related biguanides in oncology. While Paracelsus' law for the dose-response effect has been commonly exploited for the use of some anti-cancer drugs at lower doses in non-neoplastic diseases (e.g., methotrexate), the opposite scenario also holds true; in other words, higher doses of non-oncology drugs, such as anti-diabetic biguanides, might exert direct anti-neoplastic effects. Here, we propose that, as for any drug, there is a dose range for biguanides that is without any effect, one corresponding to “diabetobiguanides” with a pharmacological effect (e.g., insulin sensitization in type 2 diabetes, prevention of insulin-dependent carcinogenesis, indirect inhibition of insulin and growth factor-dependent cancer growth) but with minimal toxicity and another corresponding to “oncobiguanides” with pharmacological (i.e., direct and strong anticancer activity against cancer cells) as well as toxic effects. Considering that biguanides demonstrate a better safety profile than most oncology drugs in current use, we should contemplate the possibility of administering biguanides through non-conventional routes (e.g., inhaled for carcinomas of the lung, topical for skin cancers, intravenous as an adjunctive therapy, rectal suppositories for rectal cancer) to unambiguously investigate the therapeutic value of high-dose transient biguanide exposure in cancer. Perhaps then, the oncobiguanides, as we call them here, could be viewed as a mechanistically different type of anti-cancer drugs employed at doses notably higher than those used chronically when functioning as diabetobiguanides. PMID:24909934

  11. Development and validation of a theoretical test in non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeppe Thue; Savran, Mona Meral; Møller, Ann Merete;


    OBJECTIVE: Safety with non-anaesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation (NAAP) during gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy is related to theoretical knowledge. A summative testing of knowledge before attempting supervised nurse-administered propofol sedation (NAPS) in the clinic is advised. The aims...... of this study were to develop a theoretical test about propofol sedation, to gather validity evidence for the test and to measure the effect of a NAPS-specific training course. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A three-phased psychometric study on multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) test development, gathering of validity...

  12. Measurement of intravenously administered γ-Fe2O3 particle amount in mice tissues using vibrating sample magnetometer. (United States)

    Kishimoto, Mikio; Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya; Ohara, Yusuke; Yanagihara, Hideto; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro; Kita, Eiji


    Dispersions of platelet γ-Fe2O3 particles 30-50nm in size were intravenously administered to mice and the amount of particles accumulated in each tissue was obtained by magnetization measurement using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Background noise was greatly reduced by measuring dried tissues under a magnetic field of 500 Oe so that the effect of diamagnetism was slight. Remarkable particle accumulation was observed in the liver and spleen. Considerable particle accumulation was observed in the lung when a large quantity of γ-Fe2 O3 particles was administered. There was no significant particle accumulation in the kidney and heart.

  13. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale


    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  14. Distribution of lead and silver under lead blast furnace conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, M.


    Full Text Available Two experimental studies of metal solubility in slags were carried out at 1473 K (1200 °C. In the first one the solubility of lead in the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” slag system under a reducing atmosphere (PCO/PCO2 = 2.45 was studied. In the second part, slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system were equilibrated with Pb - 1.3 mass % Ag alloys under an inert atmosphere. In both cases the CaO/SiO2 mass ratio was from 1.0 to 1.6 and Fe/SiO2 mass ratio was 1.1 and 1.7. The lead solubility in the slags of both experimental parts diminishes with increasing the slag basicity (CaO/SiO2 and diminishing the Fe/SiO2 ratio. Lead oxide is the only compound that can be reduced under the reducing atmosphere and at the temperature at the tuyeres level, 1473 K. Silver solubility in slags decreases with increasing both CaO/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 ratios in the slags of the CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” system.

    Se realizaron dos estudios experimentales de solubilidad de metal en escorias a 1.473 K (1.200 °C. En el primero se estudió la solubilidad de plomo en el sistema PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” bajo una atmósfera reductora (PCO/PCO2 = 2,45. En la segunda parte, escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3” fueron equilibradas con aleaciones Pb - 1,3 % Ag en atmósfera inerte. En ambos casos la relación CaO/SiO2 fue variada de 1.0 a 1.6 y la relación Fe/SiO2 fue de 1,1 y 1,7. La solubilidad de plomo en las escorias de ambas etapas experimentales disminuye con el incremento de la basicidad (CaO/SiO2 y la disminución de la relación Fe/SiO2. El óxido de plomo es el único compuesto que puede ser reducido bajo la atmósfera reductora y a la temperatura en el nivel de las toberas del horno alto, 1.473 K. La solubilidad de la plata en la escoria decrece con el aumento de las relaciones CaO/SiO2 y Fe/SiO2 en las escorias del sistema CaO-SiO2-“Fe2O3”.

  15. Anti-cancer Lead Molecule

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil


    Derivatives of plumbagin can be selectively cytotoxic to breast cancer cells. Derivative `A` (Acetyl Plumbagin) has emerged as a lead molecule for testing against estrogen positive breast cancer and has shown low hepatotoxicity as well as overall lower toxicity in nude mice model. The toxicity of derivative `A` was determined to be even lower than vehicle control (ALT and AST markers). The possible mechanism of action identified based on the microarray experiments and pathway mapping shows that derivative `A` could be acting by altering the cholesterol-related mechanisms. The low toxicity profile of derivative `A` highlights its possible role\\'as future anti-cancer drug and/or as an adjuvant drug to reduce the toxicity of highly toxic chemotherapeutic\\'drugs

  16. Lead sulphide nanocrystal photodetector technologies (United States)

    Saran, Rinku; Curry, Richard J.


    Light detection is the underlying principle of many optoelectronic systems. For decades, semiconductors including silicon carbide, silicon, indium gallium arsenide and germanium have dominated the photodetector industry. They can show excellent photosensitivity but are limited by one or more aspects, such as high production cost, high-temperature processing, flexible substrate incompatibility, limited spectral range or a requirement for cryogenic cooling for efficient operation. Recently lead sulphide (PbS) nanocrystals have emerged as one of the most promising new materials for photodetector fabrication. They offer several advantages including low-cost manufacturing, solution processability, size-tunable spectral sensitivity and flexible substrate compatibility, and they have achieved figures of merit outperforming conventional photodetectors. We review the underlying concepts, breakthroughs and remaining challenges in photodetector technologies based on PbS nanocrystals.

  17. [XANES study of lead speciation in duckweed]. (United States)

    Chu, Bin-Bin; Luo, Li-Qiang; Xu, Tao; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Jian-Ling; Zeng, Yuan; Ma, Yan-Hong; Yi, Shan


    Qixiashan lead-zinc mine of Nanjing was one of the largest lead zinc deposits in East China Its exploitation has been over 50 years, and the environmental pollution has also been increasing. The lead concentration in the local environment was high, but lead migration and toxic mechanism has not been clear. Therefore, biogeochemistry research of the lead zinc mine was carried out. Using ICP-MS and Pb-L III edge XANES, lead concentration and speciation were analyzed respectively, and duckweed which can tolerate and enriched heavy metals was found in the pollution area. The results showed that the lead concentration of duckweed was 39.4 mg x kg(-1). XANES analysis and linear combination fit indicated that lead stearate and lead sulfide accounted for 65% and 36.9% respectively in the lead speciation of duckweed, suggesting that the main lead speciation of duckweed was sulfur-containing lead-organic acid.

  18. Protective Effects of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid in Lead Acetate Exposed Diabetic Male Rats: Evaluation of Blood Biochemical Parameters and Testicular Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza AYOUBI


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C against lead toxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying histopathology of testis in diabetic male rats. Wister rats (42 were randomly assigned into7 groups: I healthy; II fed lead acetate only; III vitamin C administered only; IV diabetic; V diabetic rats administered by vitamin C; VI diabetic rats given lead acetate and VII diabetic rats received lead acetate and vitamin C. The diabetic and lead groups had higher glucose, cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and lower insulin and HDL concentration than the control group. It was found that vitamin C administration led to a lower level of blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and higher HDL concentration in diabetic rats significantly. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of vitamin C resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of lead acetate in diabetic rats.

  19. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail:; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)


    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, and a significant negative correlation for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  20. Systemic and Mucosal Antibody Responses to Soluble and Nanoparticle-Conjugated Antigens Administered Intranasally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah E. Howe


    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs are increasingly being used for drug delivery, as well as antigen carriers and immunostimulants for the purpose of developing vaccines. In this work, we examined how intranasal (i.n. priming followed by i.n. or subcutaneous (s.c. boosting immunization affects the humoral immune response to chicken ovalbumin (Ova and Ova conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova. We show that i.n. priming with 20 mg of soluble Ova, a dose known to trigger oral tolerance when administered via gastric gavage, induced substantial systemic IgG1 and IgG2c, as well as mucosal antibodies. These responses were further boosted following a s.c. immunization with Ova and complete Freund’s adjuvant (Ova+CFA. In contrast, 100 µg of Ova delivered via NPs induced an IgG1-dominated systemic response, and primed the intestinal mucosa for secretion of IgA. Following a secondary s.c. or i.n. immunization with Ova+CFA or NP-Ova, systemic IgG1 titers significantly increased, and serum IgG2c and intestinal antibodies were induced in mice primed nasally with NP-Ova. Only Ova- and NP-Ova-primed mice that were s.c.-boosted exhibited substantial systemic and mucosal titers for up to 6 months after priming, whereas the antibodies of i.n.-boosted mice declined over time. Our results indicate that although the amount of Ova delivered by NPs was 1000-fold less than Ova delivered in soluble form, the antigen-specific antibody responses, both systemic and mucosal, are essentially identical by 6 months following the initial priming immunization. Additionally, both i.n.- and s.c.-boosting strategies for NP-Ova-primed mice were capable of inducing a polarized Th1/Th2 immune response, as well as intestinal antibodies; however, it is only by using a heterogeneous prime-boost strategy that long-lasting antibody responses were initiated. These results provide valuable insight for future mucosal vaccine development, as well as furthering our understanding of mucosal antibody responses.

  1. Response of shortgrass Plains vegetation to chronic and seasonally administered gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, L. Jr.


    In order to determine the effect of radiation on the structure of native shortgrass plains vegetation, an 8750 Ci 137Cs source was installed on the Central Plains Experimental Range near Nunn, Colorado; The experimental area was divided into 6 treatment sectors, a control, 2 sectors for chronic exposure (irradiation initiated April 1969 and continuing as of August 1971), and one each for spring, summer and late fall seasonal semi-acute (30 day), exposures which were administered during April, July and December, 1969, respectively. Community structure was measured by coefficient of community and diversity index. Yield was determined by clipping plots in September 1970 and visual estimates in September 1969 and 1970 for the grass-sedge component of the vegetation. Individual species sensitivity was determined by density data recorded in April, June and September of 1969 and 1970 and by a phenological index recorded at weekly intervals during the 1969 and 1970 growing seasons. The response of the vegetation was similar whether determined by coefficient of community or diversity with diversity being a more sensitive measure of effects. In the chronically exposed sectors, the exposure rate which resulted in a 50 per cent reduction in these 2 parameters (CC50 or D50) was still decreasing the second growing season and was approximately 18 R/hr for the CC50 as of June 1970 and 10 R/hr for the D50 as of September 1970. For the seasonally exposed sectors, the late fall period (December, 1969) was the most sensitive, summer (July, 1969) the least sensitive and spring (April, 1969) intermediate with CC50 and D50 values of 195 and 90, 240 and 222, and 120 and 74 R/hr for the spring, summer and late fall exposed sectors, respectively. Yield and density data indicated a rapid revegetation of the spring and summer exposed sectors during 1970 as a result of an influx of invader species such as Salsola kali tenuifolia, Chenopodium leptophyllum and Lepidium densiflorum and the

  2. Orally administered extract from Prunella vulgaris attenuates spontaneous colitis in mdr1a-/-mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelley; MK; Haarberg; Meghan; J; Wymore; Brand; Anne-Marie; C; Overstreet; Catherine; C; Hauck; Patricia; A; Murphy; Jesse; M; Hostetter; Amanda; E; Ramer-Tait; Michael; J; Wannemuehler


    AIM: To investigate the ability of a Prunella vulgaris(P. vulgaris) ethanolic extract to attenuate spontaneous typhlocolitis in mdr1a-/- mice. METHODS: Vehicle(5% ethanol) or P. vulgaris ethanolic extract(2.4 mg/d) were administered daily by oral gavage to mdr1a-/- or wild type FVBWT mice from 6 wk of age up to 20 wk of age. Clinical signs of disease were noted by monitoring weight loss. Mice experiencingweight loss in excess of 15% were removed from the study. At the time mice were removed from the study, blood and colon tissue were collected for analyses that included histological evaluation of lesions, inflammatory cytokine levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Administration of P. vulgaris extracts to mdr1a-/- mice delayed onset of colitis and reduced severity of mucosal inflammation when compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Oral administration of the P. vulgaris extract resulted in reduced(P < 0.05) serum levels of IL-10(4.6 ± 2 vs 19.4 ± 4), CXCL9(1319.0 ± 277 vs 3901.0 ± 858), and TNFα(9.9 ± 3 vs 14.8 ± 1) as well as reduced gene expression by more than two-fold for Ccl2, Ccl20, Cxcl1, Cxcl9, IL-1 α, Mmp10, VCAM-1, ICAM, IL-2, and TNFα in the colonic mucosa of mdr1a-/- mice compared to vehicle-treated mdr1a-/-mice. Histologically, several microscopic parameters were reduced(P < 0.05) in P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/-mice, as was myeloperoxidase activity in the colon(2.49 ± 0.16 vs 3.36 ± 0.06, P < 0.05). The numbers of CD4+ T cells(2031.9 ± 412.1 vs 5054.5 ± 809.5) and germinal center B cells(2749.6 ± 473.7 vs 4934.0 ± 645.9) observed in the cecal tonsils of P. vulgaris-treated mdr1a-/- were significantly reduced(P < 0.05) from vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice. Vehicle-treated mdr1a-/- mice were found to produce serum antibodies to antigens derived from members of the intestinal microbiota, indicative of severe colitis and a loss of adaptive tolerance to the members of the microbiota. These serum antibodies were greatly reduced or

  3. Gold nanoparticles and diclofenac diethylammonium administered by iontophoresis reduce inflammatory cytokines expression in Achilles tendinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohnert MB


    Full Text Available Marcelo B Dohnert1,2, Mirelli Venâncio1, Jonathann C Possato1, Rodrigo C Zeferino1, Luciana H Dohnert2, Alexandra I Zugno1, Cláudio T De Souza1, Marcos MS Paula1, Thais F Luciano11Postgraduation Program in Health Sciences, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, Santa Catarina, 2Department of Physiotherapy, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilIntroduction: Tendinitis affects a substantial number of people in several occupations involving repetitive work or direct trauma. Iontophoresis is a therapeutic alternative used in the treatment of injury during the inflammatory phase. In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNP have been studied due to their therapeutic anti-inflammatory capacity and as an alternative to the transport of several proteins. Purpose: This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of iontophoresis using GNPs and diclofenac diethylammonium on inflammatory parameters in rats challenged with traumatic tendinitis.Methods: Wistar rats were divided in three treatment groups (n = 15: (1 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium; (2 iontophoresis + GNP; and (3 iontophoresis + diclofenac diethylammonium + GNP. External control was formed by challenged tendons without treatment (n = 15. Iontophoresis was administered using 0.3 mA direct current on 1.5 cm² electrodes. Results: The levels of both inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in untreated challenged rats, when compared with the control (5.398 ± 234 for interleukin 1 beta and 6.411 ± 432 for tumor necrosis factor alpha, which confirms the occurrence of an inflammatory stage in injury (P < 0.05. A significant decrease was observed in expression of cytokines interleukin 1 beta in the three treatment groups, in comparison with untreated challenged tendons, although, in the group treated with diclofenac and GNP, results were similar to the control (1.732 ± 239 (P < 0

  4. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered ibuprofen in African and Asian elephants (Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus). (United States)

    Bechert, Ursula; Christensen, J Mark


    The pharmacokinetic parameters of S(+) and R(-) ibuprofen were determined in 20 elephants after oral administration of preliminary 4-, 5-, and 6-mg/kg doses of racemic ibuprofen. Following administration of 4 mg/kg ibuprofen, serum concentrations of ibuprofen peaked at 5 hr at 3.9 +/- 2.07 microg/ml R(-) and 10.65 +/- 5.64 microg/ml S(+) (mean +/- SD) in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) and at 3 hr at 5.14 +/- 1.39 microg/ml R(-) and 13.77 +/- 3.75 microg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), respectively. Six-milligram/kilogram dosages resulted in peak serum concentrations of 5.91 +/- 2.17 microg/ml R(-) and 14.82 +/- 9.71 microg/ml S(+) in African elephants, and 5.72 +/- 1.60 microg/ml R(-) and 18.32 +/- 10.35 microg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants. Ibuprofen was eliminated with first-order kinetics characteristic of a single-compartment model with a half-life of 2.2-2.4 hr R(-) and 4.5-5.1 hr S(+) in African elephants and 2.4-2.9 hr R(-) and 5.9-7.7 hr S(+) in Asian elephants. Serum concentrations of R(-) ibuprofen were undetectable at 24 hr, whereas S(+) ibuprofen decreased to below 5 microg/ml 24 hr postadministration in all elephants. The volume of distribution was estimated to be between 322 and 356 ml/kg R(-) and 133 and 173 ml/kg S(+) in Asian elephants and 360-431 ml/kg R(-) and 179-207 ml/kg S(+) in African elephants. Steady-state serum concentrations of ibuprofen ranged from 2.2 to 10.5 microg/ml R(-) and 5.5 to 32.0 microg/ml S(+) (mean: 5.17 +/- 0.7 R(-) and 13.95 +/- 0.9 S(+) microg/ml in African elephants and 5.0 +/- 1.09 microg/ml R(-) and 14.1 +/- 2.8 microg/ml S(+) in Asian elephants). Racemic ibuprofen administered at 6 mg/kg/12 hr for Asian elephants and at 7 mg/kg/12 hr for African elephants results in therapeutic serum concentrations of this antiinflammatory agent.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and safety study of posaconazole intravenous solution administered peripherally to healthy subjects. (United States)

    Kersemaekers, Wendy M; van Iersel, Thijs; Nassander, Ulla; O'Mara, Edward; Waskin, Hetty; Caceres, Maria; van Iersel, Marlou L P S


    This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of a posaconazole i.v. (intravenous) solution. This was a single-center, 2-part, randomized, rising single- and multiple-dose study in healthy adults. In part 1, subjects received 0 (vehicle), 50, 100, 200, 250, or 300 mg posaconazole in a single dose i.v. by 30-min peripheral infusion (6 cohorts of 12 subjects each [9 active and 3 placebo], making a total of 72 subjects). Blood samples were collected until 168 h postdose. In part 2, subjects were to receive 2 peripheral infusions at a 12-h interval on day 1 followed by once-daily infusion for 9 days. However, part 2 was terminated early because of high rates of infusion site reactions with multiple dosing at the same infusion site. The pharmacokinetics results for part 1 (n=45 subjects) showed that the mean posaconazole exposure (area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity [AUC0-∞]) ranged from 4,890 to 46,400 ng · h/ml (range of coefficient of variation values, 26 to 50). The dose-proportionality slope estimate (90% confidence interval) for AUC0-∞ was 1.30 (1.19 to 1.41), indicating a greater-than-dose-proportional increase. The data for safety in part 1 show that 29/72 subjects had ≥1 adverse event. Infusion site reactions were reported in 2/9 vehicle subjects, 0/18 placebo subjects, and 7/45 i.v. posaconazole subjects. The data for safety in part 2 show that infusion site reactions were reported in 1/4 (25%) placebo subjects, 3/9 (33%) vehicle control subjects, and 4/5 (80%) i.v. posaconazole (100 mg) subjects (3 posaconazole recipients subsequently developed thrombophlebitis and were discontinued from treatment). In conclusion, the posaconazole i.v. solution showed a greater-than-dose-proportional increase in exposure, primarily at doses below 200 mg. When administered peripherally at the same infusion site, multiple dosing of i.v. posaconazole led to unacceptably high rates of infusion site reactions. Intravenous

  6. Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Yuki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Satoh, Hiroyoshi; Nojiri, Nao [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nabeshi, Hiromi [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Tomoaki [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tsutsumi, Yasuo, E-mail: [Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saitoasagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is rising concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies have investigated the effect of nanomaterials on the reproductive system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Here, we evaluated the intra-testicular distribution of nanosilica particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that nanosilica particles can penetrate the blood-testis barrier. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide basic information on ways to create safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Amorphous nanosilica particles (nSP) are being utilized in an increasing number of applications such as medicine, cosmetics, and foods. The reduction of the particle size to the nanoscale not only provides benefits to diverse scientific fields but also poses potential risks. Several reports have described the in vivo and in vitro toxicity of nSP, but few studies have examined their effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the testicular distribution and histologic effects of systemically administered nSP. Mice were injected intravenously with nSP with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70) or conventional microsilica particles with diameters of 300 nm (nSP300) on two consecutive days. The intratesticular distribution of these particles 24 h after the second injection was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. nSP70 were detected within sertoli cells and spermatocytes, including in the nuclei of spermatocytes. No nSP300 were observed in the testis. Next, mice were injected intravenously with 0.4 or 0.8 mg nSP70 every other day for a total of four administrations. Testes were harvested 48 h and 1 week after the last injection and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histologic analysis. Histologic findings in the testes of nSP70-treated mice did not differ from those of control mice. Taken together, our results suggest that nSP70 can penetrate the blood-testis barrier and the

  7. Assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms in women by a self-administered questionnaire: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Sejr, T; Able, I


    A self-administered questionnaire assessing female lower urinary tract symptoms and their impact on quality of life is described and validated, on 56 females in six participating departments. The patients answered two identical questionnaires on separate occasions before treatment. Test-retest re...

  8. Vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) administered as rapid intravenous infusion for first-line treatment in untreated multiple myeloma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, CM; Sonneveld, P; van der Holt, B; Baars, JW; Biesma, DH; Cornellissen, JJ; Croockewit, AJ; Dekker, AW; Fibbe, WE; Lowenberg, B; Kooy, MV; van Oers, MHJ; Richel, DJ; Vellenga, E; Verhoef, GEG; Wijermans, PW; Wittebol, S; Lokhorst, HM


    We examined the feasibility of achieving a rapid response in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma by administering vincristine 0.4mg and doxorubicin 9 mg/m(2) as a rapid intravenous infusion for 4d together with intermittent high-dose dexamethasone 40 mg (VAD) for remission induction

  9. An Evaluation of a Self-Instructional Manual for Teaching Individuals How to Administer the Revised ABLA Test (United States)

    Boris, Ashley L.; Awadalla, Nardeen; Martin, Toby L.; Martin, Garry L.; Kaminski, Lauren; Miljkovic, Morena


    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tool that is used to assess the learning ability of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and children with autism. The ABLA was recently revised and is now referred to as the ABLA-Revised (ABLA-R). A self-instructional manual was prepared to teach individuals how to administer the…

  10. Pharmacokinetics of human recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, administered intra-abdominally, in a rat peritonitis model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Harry; Bom, VJJ; van der Meer, J; Sluiter, WJ; Geerards, S; de Graaf, JS; Bleichrodt, RP; van der Schaaf, W


    Human recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA), administered intraperitoneally, may promote intraabdominal fibrinolysis in peritonitis, thereby preventing adhesion and abscess formation. The pharmacokinetics of a single intraperitoneal dose of 0.5 or 2.0 mg/ml human rtPA were assessed in


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of neostigmine, 40 mug kg-1, and methyl-atropine, 7 mug kg-1, administered at different degrees of rocuronium-induced (600 mug kg-1) neuromuscular block were evaluated. In one group of patients spontaneous recovery was awaited (Group A; n = 20). Neostigmi

  12. Investigating Administered Essay and Multiple-Choice Tests in the English Department of Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch (United States)

    Karimi, Lotfollah; Mehrdad, Ali Gholami


    This study has attempted to investigate the administered written tests in the language department of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan, Iran from validity, practicality and reliability points of view. To this end two steps were taken. First, examining 112 tests, we knew that the face validity of 50 tests had been threatened, 9 tests lacked…

  13. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. (United States)


    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  14. 40 CFR 147.51 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. (United States)


    ... PROGRAMS Alabama § 147.51 State-administered program—Class I, III, IV, and V wells. The UIC program for Class I, III, IV and V wells in the State of Alabama, except those on Indian lands, is the program... for Class I, III, IV, and V UIC Program,” September 21, 1982; (3) Letter from Alabama Chief...

  15. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells. (United States)


    ..., and 281. (ii) Vernon's Texas Codes Annotated, Water Code, Chapters 5, 7, 26, and 32, Health and Safety... the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission a predecessor to the Texas Commission on... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - List of Federal Financial Assistance Administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Which... (United States)


    ... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Which Title IX Applies Note: All recipients of Federal financial... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of Federal Financial Assistance Administered by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Which Title IX Applies A Appendix A to Part 5 Energy NUCLEAR...


    Reproductive effects of BCA were determined in a dose range finding study (DRFS) and definitive two-generational study. Adult male and female CD� (SD) rats were administered BCA in drinking water for two weeks in the DRFS (10/sex/group) and ten weeks in the definitive study (25/s...

  18. Equivalency of Computer-Assisted and Paper-and-Pencil Administered Versions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. (United States)

    Pinsoneault, Terry B.


    Computer-assisted and paper-and-pencil-administered formats for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories were investigated. Subjects were 32 master's and doctoral-level counseling students. Findings indicated that the two formats were comparable and that students preferred the computer-assisted format. (AEF)

  19. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China (United States)

    Ozturgut, Osman


    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  20. 7 CFR 1.29 - Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas relating to investigations under statutes administered by the Secretary of Agriculture. 1.29 Section 1.29 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Departmental Proceedings § 1.29 Subpoenas relating to...

  1. Maintenance of increased coronary blood flow in excess of demand by nisoldipine administered as an intravenous infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Soward; P.J. de Feyter (Pim); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)


    textabstractSystemic and hemodynamic effects of nisoldipine, administered as a 4.5-micrograms/kg intravenous bolus over 3 minutes followed immediately by an infusion of 0.2 microgram/kg/min over 30 minutes, were studied in 13 patients undergoing diagnostic catheterization for suspected coronary arte

  2. Satisfaction with Therapist-Delivered vs. Self-Administered Online Cognitive Behavioural Treatments for Depression Symptoms in College Students (United States)

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav


    Participants with symptoms of depression received either eight sessions of therapist-delivered email cognitive behaviour therapy (eCBT; n = 37), or eight sessions of computerised CBT self-administered treatment (cCBT; n = 43). At post-treatment participants completed a questionnaire to determine what they found satisfying about their online…

  3. Walk a Mile in My Shoes: Stakeholder Accounts of Testing Experience with a Computer-Administered Test (United States)

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying


    In keeping with the trend to elicit multiple stakeholder responses to operational tests as part of test validation, this exploratory mixed methods study examines test-taker accounts of an Internet-based (i.e., computer-administered) test in the high-stakes context of proficiency testing for university admission. In 2013, as language testing…

  4. 40 CFR 147.251 - EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA-administered program-Class I, III, IV and V wells and Indian lands. 147.251 Section 147.251 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Indian lands. (a) Contents. The UIC program in the State of California for Class I, III, IV and V...

  5. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios. (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert


    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (pleaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  6. The osmotically and histamine-induced enhancement of the plasma vasopressin level is diminished by intracerebroventricularly administered orexin in rats. (United States)

    Kis, Gyöngyi K; Molnár, Andor H; Daruka, Leila; Gardi, János; Rákosi, Kinga; László, Ferenc; László, Ferenc A; Varga, Csaba


    The effects of the centrally administered neuropeptides orexin-A on water intake and vasopressin (VP) secretion were studied in male Wistar rats (180-250 g). Different doses (10, 30, and 90 μg/10 μl) of the orexins and the specific orexin receptor-1 (OX(1)) antagonist SB 408124 (30 μg/10 μl) were administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) under anaesthesia, and the water consumption was measured during 6 h. A plasma VP level elevation was induced by histamine (10 mg/kg) or 2.5% NaCl (10 ml/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). The plasma VP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Increased water consumption was observed after the administration of 30 μg/10 μl orexin-A. There were no changes in basal VP secretion after the administration of different doses of the orexins. A significant increase in plasma VP concentration was detected following histamine administration. After 2.5% NaCl administration, there was a moderate VP level enhancement. Intracerebroventricularly administered orexin-A (30 μg/10 μl) blocked the VP level increase induced by either histamine or 2.5% NaCl administration. The inhibitory effects were prevented by the specific OX(1) receptor antagonist. In conclusion, the orexins increased water consumption. After 30 μg/10 μl orexin-A administration, the polydipsia was more pronounced. The OX(1) receptor antagonist significantly decreased the polydipsia. Histamine or hyperosmotic VP release enhancement was blocked by previously administered orexin. This inhibition was not observed following OX(1) receptor antagonist administration. Our results suggest that the effects of the orexins on water consumption or blockade of the histamine and osmosis-induced VP level increase are mediated by the OX(1) receptor.

  7. The Solar System primordial lead (United States)

    Blichert-Toft, Janne; Zanda, Brigitte; Ebel, Denton S.; Albarède, Francis


    Knowledge of the primordial isotope composition of Pb in the Solar System is critical to the understanding of the early evolution of Earth and other planetary bodies. Here we present new Pb isotopic data on troilite (FeS) nodules from a number of different iron meteorites: Canyon Diablo, Mundrabilla, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Toluca (IAB-IIICD), Cape York (IIIA), Mt Edith (IIIB), and Seymchan (pallasite). Lead abundances and isotopic compositions typically vary from one troilite inclusion to another, even within the same meteorite. The most primitive Pb was found in three leach fractions of two exceptionally Pb-rich Nantan troilite nodules. Its 204Pb/ 206Pb is identical to that of Canyon Diablo troilite as measured by Tatsumoto et al. [M. Tatsumoto, R.J. Knight, C.J. Allègre, Time differences in the formation of meteorites as determined from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, Science 180(1973) 1279-1283]. However, our measurements of 207Pb/ 206Pb and 208Pb/ 206Pb are significantly higher than theirs, as well as other older literature data obtained by TIMS, while consistent with the recent data of Connelly et al. [J.N. Connelly, M. Bizzarro, K. Thrane, J.A. Baker, The Pb-Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72(2008) 4813-4824], a result we ascribe to instrumental mass fractionation having biased the older data. Our current best estimate of the Solar System primordial Pb is that of Nantan troilite, which has the following isotopic composition: 204Pb/ 206Pb = 0.107459(16), 207Pb/ 206Pb = 1.10759(10), and 208Pb/ 206Pb = 3.17347(28). This is slightly less radiogenic than the intercept of the bundle of isotopic arrays formed in 207Pb/ 206Pb- 204Pb/ 206Pb space by our measurements of Canyon Diablo, Nantan, Seeläsgen, Cape York, and Mundrabilla, as well as literature data, which, in spite of rather large uncertainties, suggests a common primordial Pb component for all of these meteorites. The radiogenic Pb present in most of these irons is dominantly

  8. [Targeting the brain through the nose. Effects of intranasally administered insulin]. (United States)

    Brünner, Y F; Benedict, C; Freiherr, J


    The assumption that the human brain is an insulin-independent organ was disproved with the discovery of insulin receptors in the central nervous system in the year 1978. Evidence has been provided for a high density of insulin receptors in brain regions responsible for cognitive memory processes (hippocampus) and for the regulation of appetite (hypothalamus). Accordingly, in animal studies an increased insulin level in the central nervous system leads to an improvement of hippocampal memory function and a decrease of food intake. Similar results were obtained in humans using the method of intranasal administration of insulin. Intranasal insulin reaches the brain and the cerebrospinal fluid via the olfactory epithelium and olfactory nerve fiber bundles leading through the lamina cribrosa to the olfactory bulb. Thus, this method renders the investigation of specific insulin effects in humans possible. The therapeutic potential of an intranasal insulin administration for the treatment of diseases for which an imbalance of the central nervous insulin metabolism is discussed (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity) can only be estimated with the help of further clinical studies.

  9. Effect of lead chloride on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AntdnioGraca; JoaoRamalho-Santos; MariadeLourdesPereira


    Aim: To evaluate the effect of acute lead chloride exposure on testis and sperm parameters in mice.Methods: PbC12, 74 mg/kg, was daily administered to sexually mature male mice for 3 days and the effects on the testicular histology and ultrastructure as well as the motility and density of spermatozoa in cauda epididymis were observed. An additional group of mice were treated for 1-3 days and were allowed to recover for 32 days to determine the reversibility of lead-induced changes. Results: The testicular weight, seminiferous tubular diameter and sperm counts were significantly decreased following 3 days of PbCl2 treatment, but were unaffected by shorterterm exposures. The changes caused by lead are mostly reversible. Conclusion: Acute lead chloride exposure injures the fertility parameters of male mice and the effects are partially reversible. (Asian JAndrol 2004 Sep; 6: 237-241)

  10. Comparison between lead levels in blood and bone tissue of rock doves (Columba livia) treated with lead acetate or exposed to the environment of Alcala de Henares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.C.; Gonzalez, M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)


    The increase in the amount of lead released into the environment in developed countries during the last two to three decades has resulted in a significant increase in lead levels in organisms from completely different environments. Several surveys have been made in urban areas with high traffic densities in an attempt to identify plant and animal species that might reflect environmental metal concentrations so that those species could be used as sensitive biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. Studies of lead accumulation in U.K. rock doves imply that use of this species as a pollution indicator would facilitate periodic monitoring of chronic lead exposure conditions in the urban environment. Laboratory investigations cannot readily reflect environmental conditions since the validity of extrapolating laboratory results, where high doses are administered over short-time periods, to the natural environment has been seriously questioned. The present study was made on four rock dove (Columbia livia) populations: two groups (males and females) were dosed with lead acetate in the laboratory and two groups of males were housed in different parts of the city of Alcala de Henares. Data on lead bioaccumulation were collected in two situations: the first was in a laboratory with controlled amounts of lead, while in the second situation the amounts reflected the actual environmental levels in Alcala de Henares. Lead levels were determined in two tissues: blood, which is the target of first impact in possible acute situations; and bone, which is the main tissue where lead accumulates and, therefore, very important during chronic exposure. The study focused on the following three items: (1) lead tissue distribution; (2) variation with habitat; and (3) an evaluation of the levels of lead contamination in the city of Alcala de Henares. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources. (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis


    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children.

  12. Toxicity of colloidal silica nanoparticles administered orally for 90 days in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR


    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1,* Seung-Young Lee,3,* Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,4 Nak-won Seong,3 Heung-Sik Seo,3 Sung-Sup Shin,3 Seon-Ju Kim,3 Eun-Ho Meang,3 Myeong-Kyu Park,3 Min-Seok Kim,3 Cheol-Su Kim,5 Soo-Ki Kim,5 Sang Wook Son,2 Young Rok Seo,6 Boo Hyon Kang,7 Beom Seok Han,8 Seong Soo A An,9 Beom-Jun Lee,10 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, 3General Toxicology Team, Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 5Department of Microbiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Gangwon, 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, 7Nonclinical Research Institute, Chemon Inc, Gyeonggi, 8Toxicological Research Center, Hoseo University, Chungnam, 9Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi, 10College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the potential toxicity and establish the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL and target organ(s of negatively charged colloidal silica particles of different sizes, ie, SiO2EN,20(- (20 nm or SiO2EN,100(- (100 nm, administered by gavage in Sprague-Dawley rats. After verification of the physicochemical properties of the SiO2 particles to be tested, a preliminary dose range-finding study and 90-day repeated dose study were conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline. Based on the results of the 14-day dose range-finding study, a high dose was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg, and middle and low doses were set at 1,000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the 90-day toxicity study, there were no animal deaths in relation to administration of SiO2 particles of

  13. Measured dose rate constant from oncology patients administered 18F for positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Brian; Holahan, Brian; Aime, Jean; Humm, John; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States)


    Purpose: Patient exposure rate measurements verify published patient dose rate data and characterize dose rates near 2-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) patients. A specific dose rate constant based on patient exposure rate measurements is a convenient quantity that can be applied to the desired distance, injection activity, and time postinjection to obtain an accurate calculation of cumulative external radiation dose. This study reports exposure rates measured at various locations near positron emission tomography (PET) {sup 18}F-FDG patients prior to PET scanning. These measurements are normalized for the amount of administered activity, measurement distance, and time postinjection and are compared with other published data. Methods: Exposure rates were measured using a calibrated ionization chamber at various body locations from 152 adult oncology patients postvoid after a mean uptake time of 76 min following injection with a mean activity of 490 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. Data were obtained at nine measurement locations for each patient: three near the head, four near the chest, and two near the feet. Results: On contact with, 30 cm superior to and 30 cm lateral to the head, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.482 (0.511), 0.135 (0.155), and 0.193 (0.223) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. On contact with, 30 cm anterior to, 30 cm lateral to and 1 m anterior to the chest, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.623 (0.709), 0.254 (0.283), 0.190 (0.218), and 0.067 (0.081) {mu}Sv/MBq h respectively. 30 cm inferior and 30 cm lateral to the feet, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.024 (0.022) and 0.039 (0.044) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. Conclusions: The measurements for this study support the use of 0.092 {mu}Sv m{sup 2}/MBq h as a reasonable representation of the dose rate anterior from the chest of

  14. Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A


    The report presents the results of testing MICE spectrometer magnet current leads on a test apparatus that combines both the copper leads and the high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads with a single Cryomech PT415 cooler and liquid helium tank. The current is carried through the copper leads from 300 K to the top of the HTS leads. The current is then carried through the HTS leads to a feed-through from the vacuum space to the inside of a liquid helium tank. The experiment allows one to measure the performance of both cooler stages along with the performance of the leads. While the leads were powered we measured the voltage drops through the copper leads, through the HTS leads, through spliced to the feed-through, through the feed-through and through the low-temperature superconducting loop that connects one lead to the other. Measurements were made using the leads that were used in spectrometer magnet 1A and spectrometer magnet 2A. These are the same leads that were used for Superbend and Venus magnets at LBNL. The IL/A for these leads was 5.2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup -1}. The leads turned out to be too long. The same measurements were made using the leads that were installed in magnet 2B. The magnet 2B leads had an IL/A of 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A m{sup -1}. This report discusses the cooler performance and the measured electrical performance of the lead circuit that contains the copper leads and the superconducting leads. All of the HTS leads that were installed in magnet 2B were current tested using this apparatus.

  15. Acute renal failure when exenatide is co-administered with diuretics and angiotensin II blockers. (United States)

    López-Ruiz, Alfonso; del Peso-Gilsanz, Cristina; Meoro-Avilés, Amparo; Soriano-Palao, José; Andreu, Alberto; Cabezuelo, Juan; Arias, José L


    Case (description) the patient is a 20 years old male smoker, who was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2006. Due to the inadequate response to the previously established treatment, the pharmacotherapy was modified by introducing exenatide (up to 10 μg, twice daily) instead of insulin glargine, but maintaining the treatment with the diuretic and angiotensin II receptor antagonist drugs. Two months later, the patient exhibited a very important intolerance to exenatide (continuous nausea, vomiting, and dehydration), finally leading to ischemic acute renal failure. When the angiotensin II receptor antagonist and exenatide were suspended, a very rapid recovery of renal function was observed. Conclusion ischemic acute renal failure is supposed to be the consequence of the extracellular volume contraction caused by exenatide (the result of continuous nausea and vomiting). This adverse effect could be caused by the co-administration of diuretics and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

  16. Effect of administered radioactive dose level on image quality of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HMPAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Brain perfusion imaging by means of 99mTc-labeled hexamethyl propylene amine oxime (HMPAO is a well-established Nuclear Medicine diagnostic procedure. The administered dose range recommended by the supplying company and reported in bibliography is rather wide (approximately 9.5-27 mCi. This fact necessitates further quantitative analysis of the technique, so as to minimise patient absorbed dose without compromising the examination diagnostic value. In this study, a quantitative evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical performance for different values of administered dose (10, 15, 20 mCi was carried out. Subsequently, a generic image quality index was correlated with the administered dose, to produce an overall performance indicator. Through this cost-to-benefit type analysis, the necessity of administration of higher radioactive dose levels in order to perform the specific diagnostic procedure was examined.Materials & methods: The study was based on a sample of 78 patients (56 administered with 10 mCi, 10 with 15 mCi and 12 with 20 mCi. Some patients were classified as normal, while others presented various forms of pathology. Evaluation of image quality was based on contrast, noise and contrast-to-noise ratio indicators, denoted CI, NI and CNR respectively. Calculation of all indicators was based on wavelet transform. An overall performance indicator (denoted PI, produced by the ratio of CNR by administered dose, was also calculated.Results: Calculation of skewness parameter revealed the normality of CI, NI and non-normality of CNR, PI populations. Application of appropriate statistical tests (analysis of variance for normal and Kruskal-Wallis test for non-normal populations showed that there is a statistically significant difference in CI (p0.05 values. Application of Tukey test for normal populations CI, NI led to the conclusion that CI(10 mCi = CI(20 mCiNI(20 mCi, while NI(15 mCi can not be characterised. Finally, application of non

  17. The Current Status of Nurse-Administered Propofol Sedation in Endoscopy: An Evidence-Based Practice Nurse Fellowship Project. (United States)

    Rivera, Beth


    The Society for Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates (SGNA) launched a nurse fellowship program in 2011 to promote evidence-based practice. Each accepted applicant was challenged to select a relevant topic, explore the current research, and translate this information to daily practice. The author, an SGNA Fellow, selected the topic, nurse-administered propofol sedation, that has been a prevailing subject in endoscopy for many years. A significant amount of literature has been written on the drug's safety and efficacy. This article explores a brief history of the practice and the future of this controversial drug for procedural sedation. A review of current literature is explored with an emphasis on the past 5 years as well as a discussion on regulatory limitations that have been placed on the practice of non-anesthesiologist-administered propofol sedation.

  18. Changes in group treatment procedures of Danish finishers and its influence on the amount of administered antimicrobials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Boklund, Anette; Dupont, Nana Hee


    antimicrobials between the years was significantly different in Cohort Change when compared to both Cohort Water and Cohort Feed. Results from this study demonstrate that farms changing their procedure of group treatment from feed administration to water administration may increase their overall use......When treating groups of pigs orally, antimicrobials can be administered through either feed or water. During the last decade, the group treatment procedure for finishers has shifted from feed to water administration. We hypothesized that farms implementing this change in treatment procedure would...... increase their total amount of administered antimicrobials. Based on Danish national register data, we performed a retrospective cohort study with three groups. The cohort of primary interest (Cohort Change) consisted of 50 finisher farms which changed their group treatment procedure from feed...

  19. Industrial flow of lead in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian-su; YANG Zhi-feng; LU Zhong-wu


    The rules on industrial flow of lead were studied for theoretical foundation of nonrenewable resource conservation and environmental improvement. A model of lead flow in lead product life cycle was developed through lead flow analysis and was used to analyze the relationship between lead product system and its environment, thus the rules on industrial flow of lead were obtained. The results show that increasing eco-efficiency will favor both resource conservation and environmental improvement. Several indices were proposed to evaluate the lead flow. As for application, the lead-flow for China in 1999 was analyzed and the reasons for low eco-efficiency were identified. In the end, some countermeasures were proposed to improve eco-efficiency, and the future lead ore consumption and environment quality were forecasted.

  20. Lead poisoning in captive wild animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, B.C.; Sauer, R.M.; Garner, F.M.


    Lead poisoning was diagnosed post-mortem in 34 simian primates, 11 parrots, and 3 Australian fruit bats at the National Zoological Park. Diagnoses were made by the finding of acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelia or hepatocytes and, in most cases, by finding excess lead in samples of liver. The estimated prevalence of lead intoxication among autopsied primates and parrots was 44% and 50% respectively. Leaded paint was found in many animal enclosures at this zoo and it was available to all the lead-poisoned animals in this study. The finding of renal intranuclear inclusion bodies in animals at several zoos, scattered reports of lead intoxication of animals dwelling in various zoos, the occurrence of leaded paint in many zoos and the high incidence of lead poisoning at this zoo, indicated that lead poisoning of zoo animals is much more common than was previously thought.

  1. Evolocumab lowers LDL-C safely and effectively when self-administered in the at-home setting


    Dent,Ricardo; Joshi, Raju; Stephen Djedjos, C.; Legg, Jason; Elliott, Mary; Geller, Michelle; Meyer, Dawn; Somaratne, Ransi; Recknor, Chris; Weiss, Robert


    Evolocumab has been shown to consistently reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) across populations. The phase 3 studies included administration in the home-use and in-clinic settings but did not specifically evaluate the feasibility of home-use administration. Two clinical studies enrolled patients with hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia on statin therapy and with/without ezetimibe received evolocumab in the home-use setting. Patients were randomized to self-administer ev...

  2. Influence of low-dose proton pump inhibitors administered concomitantly or separately on the anti-platelet function of clopidogrel. (United States)

    Furuta, Takahisa; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Kodaira, Chise; Nishino, Masafumi; Yamade, Mihoko; Uotani, Takahiro; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Kagami, Takuma; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Hamaya, Yasushi; Osawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken; Umemura, Kazuo


    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) at low doses can effectively prevent gastrointestinal bleeding due to aspirin and are widely used in Japan for gastroprotection in patients taking anti-platelet agents. We examined the influence of different PPIs at low doses administered concomitantly or separately on anti-platelet functions of clopidogrel. In 41 healthy Japanese volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes who took clopidogrel 75 mg in the morning alone, or with omeprazole 10 mg, esomeprazole 10 mg, lansoprazole 15 mg, or rabeprazole 10 mg, either concomitantly in the morning or separately in the evening, we measured the inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA, %) using VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at 4 h after the last clopidogrel dose on Day 7 of each regimen. IPA by clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime, approximately 4 h after clopidogrel, was also measured. Mean IPAs in those concomitantly receiving omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole or rabeprazole (47.2 ± 21.1%, 43.2 ± 20.2%, 46.4 ± 18.8%, and 47.3 ± 19.2%, respectively) were significantly decreased compared with those receiving clopidogrel alone (56.0%) (all ps clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime was 51.6%, which was markedly similar to that of clopidogrel alone (p = 0.114). All tested PPIs reduce the efficacy of clopidogrel when administered concomitantly. Our preliminary data suggest that administration of rabeprazole 4 h following clopidogrel may minimize potential drug-drug interactions.

  3. Dietary fats and pharmaceutical lipid excipients increase systemic exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. (United States)

    Zgair, Atheer; Wong, Jonathan Cm; Lee, Jong Bong; Mistry, Jatin; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Kishor M; Hennig, Ivo M; Barrett, David A; Constantinescu, Cris S; Fischer, Peter M; Gershkovich, Pavel


    There has been an escalating interest in the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in recent years. Cannabis is often administered orally with fat-containing foods, or in lipid-based pharmaceutical preparations. However, the impact of lipids on the exposure of patients to cannabis components has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral co-administration of lipids on the exposure to two main active cannabinoids, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In this study, oral co-administration of lipids enhanced the systemic exposure of rats to THC and CBD by 2.5-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to lipid-free formulations. In vitro lipolysis was conducted to explore the effect of lipids on the intestinal solubilisation of cannabinoids. More than 30% of THC and CBD were distributed into micellar fraction following lipolysis, suggesting that at least one-third of the administered dose will be available for absorption following co-administration with lipids. Both cannabinoids showed very high affinity for artificial CM-like particles, as well as for rat and human CM, suggesting high potential for intestinal lymphatic transport. Moreover, comparable affinity of cannabinoids for rat and human CM suggests that similar increased exposure effects may be expected in humans. In conclusion, co-administration of dietary lipids or pharmaceutical lipid excipients has the potential to substantially increase the exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. The increase in patient exposure to cannabinoids is of high clinical importance as it could affect the therapeutic effect, but also toxicity, of orally administered cannabis or cannabis-based medicines.

  4. Pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem, administered at 500 milligrams every 8 hours, in plasma and cantharidin-induced skin blister fluid. (United States)

    Maglio, Dana; Teng, Renli; Thyrum, Per T; Nightingale, Charles H; Nicolau, David P


    The pharmacokinetic disposition of meropenem, administered at 500 mg every 8 h, in plasma and cantharidin-induced blister fluid is described. Peak meropenem concentrations in blister fluid lagged behind peak meropenem concentrations in plasma, while a lower elimination rate from blister fluid was also noted. The mean penetration of meropenem into blister fluid was 67%. The pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in blister fluid supports the utility of this dose in the management of skin and soft tissue infections.

  5. Effects of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium on pain, swelling and trismus following third molar surgery


    Arotiba Godwin; Ladeinde Akinola; Adeyemo Wasiu; Akinwande Jelili; Bamgbose Babatunde; Ogunlewe Mobolanle


    Abstract Background The apparent interactions between the mechanisms of action of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and steroids suggest that co-therapy may provide beneficial inflammatory and pain relief in the absence of side effects. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of co-administered dexamethasone and diclofenac potassium (diclofenac K) with diclofenac K alone on the postoperative pain, swelling and trismus after surgical removal of third molars. Patients and Me...

  6. Psychological profile and self-administered relaxation in patients with craniofacial pain: a prospective in-office study


    Kirschneck, C. (Christian); Römer, P.; Proff, P.; Lippold, C. (Carsten)


    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychological profile of craniofacial pain sufferers and the impact of patient subtype classification on the short-time effectiveness of a self-administered relaxation training. Methods: One hundred unselected in-office patients (67% females) suffering from chronic facial pain and/or headache with the presumptive diagnose of temporo-mandibular disorder (TMD) completed a questionnaire battery comprising craniofacial pain perception,...

  7. Lead-Binding Proteins: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey C. Gonick


    Full Text Available Lead-binding proteins are a series of low molecular weight proteins, analogous to metallothionein, which segregate lead in a nontoxic form in several organs (kidney, brain, lung, liver, erythrocyte. Whether the lead-binding proteins in every organ are identical or different remains to be determined. In the erythrocyte, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD isoforms have commanded the greatest attention as proteins and enzymes that are both inhibitable and inducible by lead. ALAD-2, although it binds lead to a greater degree than ALAD-1, appears to bind lead in a less toxic form. What may be of greater significance is that a low molecular weight lead-binding protein, approximately 10 kDa, appears in the erythrocyte once blood lead exceeds 39 μg/dL and eventually surpasses the lead-binding capacity of ALAD. In brain and kidney of environmentally exposed humans and animals, a cytoplasmic lead-binding protein has been identified as thymosin β4, a 5 kDa protein. In kidney, but not brain, another lead-binding protein has been identified as acyl-CoA binding protein, a 9 kDa protein. Each of these proteins, when coincubated with liver ALAD and titrated with lead, diminishes the inhibition of ALAD by lead, verifying their ability to segregate lead in a nontoxic form.

  8. Kinetics of oil saponification by lead salts in ancient preparations of pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums. (United States)

    Cotte, M; Checroun, E; Susini, J; Dumas, P; Tchoreloff, P; Besnard, M; Walter, Ph


    Lead soaps can be found in archaeological cosmetics as well as in oil paintings, as product of interactions of lead salts with oil. In this context, a better understanding of the formation of lead soaps allows a follow-up of the historical evolution of preparation recipes and provides new insights into conservation conditions. First, ancient recipes of both pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums, mixtures of oil and lead salts, were reconstructed. The ester saponification by lead salts is determined by the preparation parameters which were quantified by FT-IR spectrometry. In particular, ATR/FT-IR spectrometer was calibrated by the standard addition method to quantitatively follow the kinetics of this reaction. The influence of different parameters such as temperature, presence of water and choice of lead salts was assessed: the saponification is clearly accelerated by water and heating. This analysis provides chemical explanations to the historical evolution of cosmetic and painting preparation recipes.

  9. More harm than good: the lack of evidence for administering misoprostol prior to IUD insertion. (United States)

    Waddington, Ashley; Reid, Robert


    The administration of misoprostol prior to insertion of an intrauterine device has become a widespread practice. Because of its utility for cervical ripening before procedures such as dilatation and curettage, misoprostol has been assumed to be a safe and useful adjunct both to facilitate the ease of insertion of an IUD and to reduce the pain experienced by women during this procedure. As this practice has become more widely used, a body of literature has evolved to assess whether or not it truly improves the IUD insertion experience for providers and patients. A literature search showed that six controlled trials have been carried out to assess this practice (one is reported in abstract form only). The dosing and route of administration vary between the trials; however, there are quite consistent findings that not only does misoprostol administration not improve the ease of insertion of IUDs but it also leads to increased unpleasant side effects. The routine use of misoprostol for IUD insertion should be abandoned.

  10. Dopamine decreases NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of cocaine self-administering rats. (United States)

    Krawczyk, Michal; deBacker, Julian; Mason, Xenos; Jones, Andrea A; Dumont, Eric C


    Dopamine (DA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) contribute in the neural processes underlying drug-driven behaviors. DA is a potent modulator of NMDAR, but few studies have investigated the functional interaction between DA and NMDAR in the context of substance abuse. We combined the rat model of cocaine self-administration with brain slice electrophysiology to study DA modulation of NMDA currents in the oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (ovBNST), a dense DA terminal field involved in maintenance of cocaine self-administration amongst other drug related behaviors. Long-Evans rats self-administered intravenous cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/injection) on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement for 15 days and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done on the 16th day. DA reduced NMDA currents in brain-slices from cocaine self-administering rats, but not in those of drug-naïve and sucrose self-administering, or when cocaine exposure was passive (yoked), revealing a mechanism unique to voluntary cocaine intake. DA reduced NMDA currents by activating G-protein-coupled D1- and D2-like receptors that converged on phospholipase C and protein phosphatases. Accordingly, our study reveals a mechanism that may contribute to dysfunctional synaptic plasticity associated with drug-driven behaviors during acute withdrawal.

  11. Evolocumab lowers LDL-C safely and effectively when self-administered in the at-home setting. (United States)

    Dent, Ricardo; Joshi, Raju; Stephen Djedjos, C; Legg, Jason; Elliott, Mary; Geller, Michelle; Meyer, Dawn; Somaratne, Ransi; Recknor, Chris; Weiss, Robert


    Evolocumab has been shown to consistently reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) across populations. The phase 3 studies included administration in the home-use and in-clinic settings but did not specifically evaluate the feasibility of home-use administration. Two clinical studies enrolled patients with hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia on statin therapy and with/without ezetimibe received evolocumab in the home-use setting. Patients were randomized to self-administer evolocumab using one of two injection devices biweekly over 6 weeks (autoinjector or prefilled syringe; n = 149;, NCT01849497) or monthly over 12 weeks (autoinjector or automated minidoser; n = 164; NCT01879319). The first self-administration occurred in the in-clinic setting, and two more were performed in the at-home setting. Patients were successful in self-administering evolocumab in the home-use setting in approximately 95 % of attempts and experienced LDL-C reductions from baseline to week 6 or the mean of weeks 10 and 12 of approximately 65 %. Rates of successful self-administration and LDL-C reduction were similar across dosing schedules and study devices. Adverse events were similar between randomized groups and generally mild in severity. In two clinical studies, therefore, patients were able to successfully self-administer evolocumab in both the in-clinic and at-home settings regardless of which dosing schedule or device they used.

  12. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report. (United States)

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N


    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability.

  13. Self-administered C1 esterase inhibitor concentrates for the management of hereditary angioedema: usability and patient acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HH


    Full Text Available Huamin Henry Li Institute for Asthma and Allergy, Chevy Chase, MD, USA Abstract: Hereditary angioedema (HAE is a rare genetic disease characterized by episodic subcutaneous or submucosal swelling. The primary cause for the most common form of HAE is a deficiency in functional C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH. The swelling caused by HAE can be painful, disfiguring, and life-threatening. It reduces daily function and compromises the quality of life of affected individuals and their caregivers. Among different treatment strategies, replacement with C1-INH concentrates is employed for on-demand treatment of acute attacks and long-term prophylaxis. Three human plasma-derived C1-INH preparations are approved for HAE treatment in the US, the European Union, or both regions: Cinryze®, Berinert®, and Cetor®; however, only Cinryze is approved for long-term prophylaxis. Postmarketing studies have shown that home therapy (self-administered or administered by a caregiver is a convenient and safe option preferred by many HAE patients. In this review, we summarize the role of self-administered plasma-derived C1-INH concentrate therapy with Cinryze at home in the prophylaxis of HAE. Keywords: C1-INH concentrate, hereditary angioedema, disease management, first line, prophylaxis, self-administration 

  14. Pharmacokinetics and steady-state bioequivalence of treprostinil sodium (Remodulin) administered by the intravenous and subcutaneous route to normal volunteers. (United States)

    Laliberte, Kevin; Arneson, Carl; Jeffs, Roger; Hunt, Thomas; Wade, Michael


    Treprostinil sodium is a chemically stable analogue of prostacyclin administered as a chronic, continuous subcutaneous infusion for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). There has been significant clinical interest in determining the feasibility of delivering treprostinil by intravenous infusion. Therefore, a bioequivalence and comparative pharmacokinetics study of the two routes of administration was conducted in normal volunteers. A randomized, two-period, crossover study design was employed. Each subject was dosed at 10 ng/kg/min for 72 hours by each route, with the infusions separated by a 4-day wash-out period. In the 51 subjects who received at least 24 hours of treprostinil administered subcutaneously and intravenously, the steady-state ratios of the geometric means (i.v./s.c.) and 90% confidence intervals for AUCss and Cmaxss were 92.9% (89.8-96.1%) and 106% (99.4-113%), respectively. Secondary pharmacokinetic assessments confirmed the comparability of the two routes of administration at steady state, and also demonstrated that the elimination half-life of treprostinil was 4.4 and 4.6 hours following intravenous and subcutaneous administration, respectively. Based on these findings it was concluded that intravenously and subcutaneously administered treprostinil are bioequivalent at steady state.

  15. Barriers to administering non-oral formulations in a paediatric population: A semi-structured interview study. (United States)

    Venables, Rebecca; Batchelor, Hannah; Stirling, Heather; Marriott, John


    There is a paucity of research exploring barriers to non-oral medicines administration in paediatric patients; however, these undoubtedly influence medicines adherence. Studies conducted with healthcare professionals have identified various issues with the administration and acceptance of non-oral medicines and devices (Venables et al., 2012; Walsh et al., 2015). EMA (2014) guidelines specify that formulation teams should demonstrate 'acceptability' of paediatric formulations when developing pharmaceutical formulations. Semi-structured interviews exploring barriers to administering non-oral medicines were conducted with young persons and the parents/legal guardians of children (0-17 years) with chronic conditions at the University Hospital of Coventry and Warwickshire, UK. 90 children prescribed a total of 148 non-oral medicines were recruited to the study; 88 barriers to administering non-oral medicines were reported. The most commonly reported barriers were: poor acceptance of face mask/difficulties with spacer for inhaled formulations (38% of reports); disliking parenteral/preferring alternative formulations (38% of reports); greasy texture of topical preparations; difficulty with administering an ocular ointment and the large dose volume of a nasal preparation. Formulation teams should consider the use of child-friendly, age-appropriate designs to improve usability and acceptance, thus medicines adherence. These findings should be used to inform future development of non-oral formulations and devices, suitable in terms of safety, efficacy and acceptability to paediatric patients.

  16. Effects of a sweetpotato protein digest on lipid metabolism in mice administered a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ishiguro


    Full Text Available Sweetpotato peptide (SPP was prepared by enzyme digestion of sweetpotato protein from starch wastewater. Animal experiments assessed the effect of SPP on body weight, abdominal adipose tissue mass, serum lipids and adipocytokines. Body and liver weight and epididymal and mesenteric fat of mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.5% or 5% SPP for 28 days were significantly lower than control mice. Triglyceride and cholesterol in VLDL and LDL and leptin levels were significantly lower in the serum of SPP-administered mice compared to control mice. Biomarker arrays showed that adiponectin, melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-alpha and neuromedin U were more than 1.5 times higher, while TNF-alpha was about 1.5 times lower in the livers of SPP-administered mice compared to control mice. These results suggest SPP mitigated leptin resistance in mice administered a high-fat diet, and maintained anorexigenic peptide levels. SPP administration may suppress lipogenesis by increasing adiponectin levels and decreasing TNF-alpha levels in adipocytes.

  17. Vaginally administered PEGylated LIF antagonist blocked embryo implantation and eliminated non-target effects on bone in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Menkhorst

    Full Text Available Female-controlled contraception/HIV prevention is critical to address health issues associated with gender inequality. Therefore, a contraceptive which can be administered in tandem with a microbicide to inhibit sexually transmitted infections, is desirable. Uterine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is obligatory for blastocyst implantation in mice and associated with infertility in women. We aimed to determine whether a PEGylated LIF inhibitor (PEGLA was an effective contraceptive following vaginal delivery and to identify non-uterine targets of PEGLA in mice.Vaginally-applied (125I-PEGLA accumulated in blood more slowly (30 min vs 10 min and showed reduced tissue and blood retention (24 h vs 96 h compared to intraperitoneal injection in mice. Vaginally-applied PEGLA blocked implantation. PEGLA administered by intraperitoneal injection inhibited bone remodelling whereas vaginally-applied PEGLA had no effect on bone. Further, PEGLA had no effect in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental auto-immune encephalomyelitis, suggesting PEGLA cannot target the central nervous system.Vaginally-administered PEGLA is a promising non-hormonal contraceptive, one which could be delivered alone, or in tandem with a microbicide. Vaginal application reduced the total dose of PEGLA required to block implantation and eliminated the systemic effect on bone, showing the vagina is a promising site of administration for larger drugs which target organs within the reproductive tract.

  18. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats. (United States)

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A


    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina.

  19. Environmental lead poisoning among children in Porto Alegre state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maleronka Ferron


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lead poisoning in children and to identify associated factors, as well as possible local sources of contamination. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence study conducted in 2006 with a random sample of 97 children age zero to five years from a neighborhood in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire administered to collect information on sociodemographics, recycling and dwelling. A preliminary environmental evaluation was carried out with direct analysis of soil and indirect analysis of air pollution with bioindicators to identify possible sources of contamination. To analyze lead concentrations from the different collection sites, for each type of material studied, ANOVA was performed with a Brown-Forsythe adjustment for heteroscedasticity and with Dunnett's T3 procedure for multiple comparisons of unequal variances. RESULTS: Blood lead levels > 10.0 µg/dL was found in 16.5% of children. Recycling of waste at home, low father's education level, and increased age of children were associated with increase blood lead levels. High lead levels were found in soil, and there was little indication of lead air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of lead poisoning was identified, and the potential sources of contamination in this community appear related to waste recylcing activities. Studies should be conducted with other populations of Brazilian children and evaluate potential sources of local and general contamination, to accurately characterize this issue in Brazil.

  20. Overexpression of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell increases cocaine reinforcement in self-administering rats. (United States)

    Larson, Erin B; Graham, Danielle L; Arzaga, Rose R; Buzin, Nicole; Webb, Joseph; Green, Thomas A; Bass, Caroline E; Neve, Rachael L; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Nestler, Eric J; Self, David W


    Chronic exposure to addictive drugs enhances cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated gene expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc), and these effects are thought to reduce the positive hedonic effects of passive cocaine administration. Here, we used viral-mediated gene transfer to produce short- and long-term regulation of CREB activity in NAc shell of rats engaging in volitional cocaine self-administration. Increasing CREB expression in NAc shell markedly enhanced cocaine reinforcement of self-administration behavior, as indicated by leftward (long-term) and upward (short-term) shifts in fixed ratio dose-response curves. CREB also increased the effort exerted by rats to obtain cocaine on more demanding progressive ratio schedules, an effect highly correlated with viral-induced modulation of BDNF protein in the NAc shell. CREB enhanced cocaine reinforcement when expressed either throughout acquisition of self-administration or when expression was limited to postacquisition tests, indicating a direct effect of CREB independent of reinforcement-related learning. Downregulating endogenous CREB in NAc shell by expressing a short hairpin RNA reduced cocaine reinforcement in similar tests, while overexpression of a dominant-negative CREB(S133A) mutant had no significant effect on cocaine self-administration. Finally, increasing CREB expression after withdrawal from self-administration enhanced cocaine-primed relapse, while reducing CREB levels facilitated extinction of cocaine seeking, but neither altered relapse induced by cocaine cues or footshock stress. Together, these findings indicate that CREB activity in NAc shell increases the motivation for cocaine during active self-administration or after withdrawal from cocaine. Our results also highlight that volitional and passive drug administration can lead to substantially different behavioral outcomes.

  1. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan. (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen


    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  2. Mineral resource of the month: lead (United States)

    Smith, Gerald R.


    The United States is a major producer and consumer of refined lead, representing almost one quarter of total world production and consumption. Two mines in Alaska and six in Missouri accounted for 97 percent of domestic lead production in 2002. The United States also imports enough refined lead to satisfy almost 20 percent of domestic consumption. Other major producers or consumers of refined lead in the world are Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom.

  3. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  4. Discovery of sarolaner: A novel, orally administered, broad-spectrum, isoxazoline ectoparasiticide for dogs. (United States)

    McTier, Tom L; Chubb, Nathan; Curtis, Michael P; Hedges, Laura; Inskeep, Gregory A; Knauer, Christopher S; Menon, Sanjay; Mills, Brian; Pullins, Aleah; Zinser, Erich; Woods, Debra J; Meeus, Patrick


    The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide, sarolaner, was identified during a lead optimization program for an orally-active compound with efficacy against fleas and ticks on dogs. The aim of the discovery program was to identify a novel isoxazoline specifically for use in companion animals, beginning with de novo synthesis in the Zoetis research laboratories. The sarolaner molecule has unique structural features important for its potency and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, including spiroazetidine and sulfone moieties. The flea and tick activity resides in the chirally pure S-enantiomer, which was purified to alleviate potential off-target effects from the inactive enantiomer. The mechanism of action was established in electrophysiology assays using CHO-K1 cell lines stably expressing cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) RDL (resistance-to-dieldrin) genes for assessment of GABA-gated chloride channel (GABACls) pharmacology. As expected, sarolaner inhibited GABA-elicited currents at both susceptible (CfRDL-A285) and resistant (CfRDL-S285) flea GABACls with similar potency. Initial whole organism screening was conducted in vitro using a blood feeding assay against C. felis. Compounds which demonstrated robust activity in the flea feed assay were subsequently tested in an in vitro ingestion assay against the soft tick, Ornithodoros turicata. Efficacious compounds which were confirmed safe in rodents at doses up to 30mg/kg were progressed to safety, PK and efficacy studies in dogs. In vitro sarolaner demonstrated an LC80 of 0.3μg/mL against C. felis and an LC100 of 0.003μg/mL against O. turicata. In a head-to-head comparative in vitro assay with both afoxolaner and fluralaner, sarolaner demonstrated superior flea and tick potency. In exploratory safety studies in dogs, sarolaner demonstrated safety in dogs≥8 weeks of age upon repeated monthly dosing at up to 20mg/kg. Sarolaner was rapidly and well absorbed following oral dosing. Time to maximum plasma concentration

  5. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert


    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eid...

  6. Status of Lead Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>In the global context, China boasts rich reserve of lead resources, up till 2009 China’s reserve of lead resources ranks second in the world,accounting for 15.19% of global total reserve.By the end of 2009, there were 1634 lead mines nationwide, up by 127 over the figure in 2008.

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1025 - Lead. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead. 1910.1025 Section 1910.1025 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1910.1025 Lead. (a) Scope and application. (1) This section applies to all occupational exposure to lead, except as provided...

  8. Electrical polarization of lead bromide crystals. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, A.; Macke, A.J.H.


    An attempt was made to measure electronic conductivity in lead bromide in equilibrium with lead, since experimental data on the cell −Pb/PbBr2/C+ in the literature are not consistent with existing theories. Combination of our results with published data for bromine-induced hole conduction in lead br

  9. Is Your Child Safe from Lead Poisoning?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Mary Jean Brown, chief of CDC's Lead Poisoning and Prevention Program, discusses the importance of testing children for lead poisoning, who should be tested, and what parents can do to prevent lead poisoning.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  10. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)


    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  11. The relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children: a study in environmental epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.


    This study deals with the relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children.Chapter 1 provides a summary of the environmental health aspects of lead. The occurrence of lead in the environment and in man is described; children are discussed as a population at risk for undue lead abso

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 4 to Part 748 - Authorities Administering Import Certificate/Delivery Verification (IC/DV) and End-User Statement... (United States)


    ... Certificate/Delivery Verification (IC/DV) and End-User Statement Systems in Foreign Countries. No. Supplement... Part 748—Authorities Administering Import Certificate/Delivery Verification (IC/DV) and End-User Statement Systems in Foreign Countries. Country IC/DV Authorities System administered Argentina...


    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  14. Effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during pregnancy, on neonatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzing-Aarts, FV; van der Klis, FRM; van der Dijs, FPL; van Beusekom, CM; Landman, H; Capello, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ


    Adequate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCP) status during pregnancy is important. We studied the effect of three low-dose fish oil supplements, administered during uncomplicated pregnancy, on neonatal LCP status at term delivery. Supplements were administered from the second trimester to de

  15. Lead resistance in micro-organisms. (United States)

    Jarosławiecka, Anna; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia


    Lead (Pb) is an element present in the environment that negatively affects all living organisms. To diminish its high toxicity, micro-organisms have developed several mechanisms that allow them to survive exposure to Pb(II). The main mechanisms of lead resistance involve adsorption by extracellular polysaccharides, cell exclusion, sequestration as insoluble phosphates, and ion efflux to the cell exterior. This review describes the various lead resistance mechanisms, and the regulation of their expression by lead binding regulatory proteins. Special attention is given to the Pbr system from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34, which involves a unique mechanism combining efflux and lead precipitation.

  16. Lead toxicity update. A brief review. (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Nikolas C; Hatzidaki, Eleftheria G; Belivanis, Stamatis; Tzanakakis, George N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M


    Lead is a metal which has been associated with human activities for the last 6000 years. In ancient civilizations, uses of lead included the manufacture of kitchen utensils, trays, and other decorative articles. However, lead is also toxic to humans, with the most deleterious effects on the hemopoietic, nervous, reproductive systems and the urinary tract. The main sources of lead exposure are paints, water, food, dust, soil, kitchen utensils, and leaded gasoline. The majority of cases of lead poisoning are due to oral ingestion and absorption through the gut. Lead poisoning in adults occurs more frequently during exposure in the workplace and primarily involves the central nervous system. Symptoms of hemopoietic system involvement include microcytic, hypochromic anemia with basophilic stippling of the erythrocytes. Hyperactivity, anorexia, decreased play activity, low intelligence quotient, and poor school performance have been observed in children with high lead levels. Lead crosses the placenta during pregnancy and has been associated with intrauterine death, prematurity, and low birth weight. In 1991, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA redefined elevated blood lead levels as those > or = 10 microg/dl and recommended a new set of guidelines for the treatment of lead levels > or =15 microg/dl.

  17. High-temperature superconducting current leads (United States)

    Hull, J. R.


    The use of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) for current leads to deliver power to devices at liquid helium temperature is near commercial realization. The use of HTSs in this application has the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements and helium boiloff to values significantly lower than the theoretical best achievable with conventional leads. Considerable advantage is achieved by operating these leads with an intermediate temperature heat sink. The HTS part of the lead can be made from pressed and sintered powder. Powder-in-tube fabrication is also possible, however, the normal metal part of the lead acts as a thermal short and cannot provide much stabilization without increasing the refrigeration required. Lead stability favors designs with low current density. Such leads can be manufactured with today's technology, and lower refrigeration results from the same allowable burnout time. Higher current densities result in lower boiloff for the same lead length, but bumout times can be very short. In comparing experiment to theory, the density of helium vapor needs to be accounted for in calculating the expected boiloff. For very low-loss leads, two-dimensional heat transfer and the state of the dewar near the leads may play a dominant role in lead performance.

  18. Validation of defibrillator lead performance registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Elgaard; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis


    intervention. The validity of the less detailed overall reasons for lead interventions commonly used to report lead performance is also excellent. These findings indicate high registry data quality appropriate for scientific analysis and industry-independent post-marketing surveillance.......AIMS: The validity of registry data on defibrillator lead performance is described only sparsely, despite its clinical importance. This study investigated the validity of defibrillator lead performance registry data in a nationwide and population-based registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified.......9% (95% CI: 85.2-90.2%) with a κ value of 0.82 (95% CI:0.78-0.86) representing an almost perfect match. CONCLUSION: The validity of data on defibrillator lead performance recorded in the DPIR is excellent for the specific types of lead intervention and good for the specific reasons for defibrillator lead...

  19. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects. (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W


    In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: "Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century". We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson's statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  20. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard W. Mielke


    Full Text Available In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  1. Experimental oral lead toxicity in young dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, H.D.; Goyer, R.A.; Krigman, M.M.; Wilson, M.; Cates, M.


    Litter-mate male pups were fed a calcium-and-phosphorus-low purified diet with and without 100 ppm of lead as lead acetate from age 6 to 18 weeks. Lead-toxic dogs exhibited cyclic but terminally severe anorexia and cachexia, significant anemia, normoblastocytosis and leukopenia within six weeks, hypoproteinemia, decreased serum albumin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-globulin, ..beta../sub 2/-globulin, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase 1, elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases, delayed closure of the thoracic vertebral epiphyses, lead lines in the distal radii and thoracic spinous processes, enlargement of liver, kidney, and brain, hepatic fatty metamorphosis, focal proximal renal tubular necrosis, hydropic degeneration of spermatognia, and lead inclusion body formation. Approximately 97% of the tissue lead was estimated to be skeletal; the greatest concentration of lead in the brain was found in the occipital gray matter.

  2. Lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods: Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII of 5 animals each. Groups I, II and III were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight, coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight on the 7th day. Groups VI and VII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  3. Vagally mediated inhibition of acoustic stress-induced cortisol release by orally administered kappa-opioid substances in dogs. (United States)

    Bueno, L; Gue, M; Fargeas, M J; Alvinerie, M; Junien, J L; Fioramonti, J


    The effects of oral vs. iv administration of kappa- and mu-opioid agonists on plasma cortisol release induced by acoustic stress (AS) were evaluated in fasted dogs with an implanted jugular catheter. AS was induced by 1 h of music (less than or equal to 86 decibels) played through earphones and was accompanied by a 382% maximal rise in plasma cortisol after 15-30 min. Administered orally 30 min before the AS session, both U-50488 (0.1 mg/kg) and PD 117-302 (0.05 mg/kg) significantly (P less than or equal to 0.01) decreased (by 71.2% and 80.9%, respectively) the maximal increase in plasma cortisol induced by AS, while bremazocine, morphine, as well as iv administration of U-50488 at similar doses were ineffective. The effects of U-50488 and PD 117-302 orally administered (0.1 mg/kg) on the hypercortisolemia induced by AS were abolished by pretreatment with iv naloxone (0.1 mg/kg) or MR 2266 (0.1 mg/kg). Naloxone given alone significantly (P less than 0.01) increased basal plasma cortisol, without affecting cortisol increase induced by AS. Vagotomy abolished the effects of orally administered U-50488 on the AS-induced increase in plasma cortisol. Neither U-50488 nor PD 117302 (0.1 mg/kg, orally) reduced the increase in plasma cortisol induced by intracerebroventricular administration of ovine CRF (100 ng/kg). It is concluded that kappa- but not mu-opioid agonists are able to inhibit the stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis induced by AS by acting selectively on peripheral kappa-receptors located in the wall of the proximal gut. This action is neurally mediated through afferent vagal fibers affecting central nervous system release of CRF induced by a centrally acting stressor.

  4. Epitope-Specific Suppression of IgG Responses by Passively Administered Specific IgG: Evidence of Epitope Masking (United States)

    Bergström, Joakim J. E.; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta


    Specific IgG, passively administered together with particulate antigen, can completely prevent induction of antibody responses to this antigen. The ability of IgG to suppress antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) is intact in mice lacking FcγRs, complement factor 1q, C3, or complement receptors 1 and 2, suggesting that Fc-dependent effector functions are not involved. Two of the most widely discussed explanations for the suppressive effect are increased clearance of IgG–antigen complexes and/or that IgG “hides” the antigen from recognition by specific B cells, so-called epitope masking. The majority of data on how IgG induces suppression was obtained through studies of the effects on IgM-secreting single spleen cells during the first week after immunization. Here, we show that IgG also suppresses antigen-specific extrafollicular antibody-secreting cells, germinal center B-cells, long-lived plasma cells, long-term IgG responses, and induction of memory antibody responses. IgG anti-SRBC reduced the amount of SRBC in the spleens of wild-type, but not of FcγR-deficient mice. However, no correlation between suppression and the amount of SRBC in the spleen was observed, suggesting that increased clearance does not explain IgG-mediated suppression. Instead, we found compelling evidence for epitope masking because IgG anti-NP administered with NP-SRBC suppressed the IgG anti-NP, but not the IgG anti-SRBC response. Vice versa, IgG anti-SRBC administered with NP-SRBC, suppressed only the IgG anti-SRBC response. In conclusion, passively transferred IgG suppressed all measured parameters of an antigen-specific antibody/B cell response and an important mechanism of action is likely to be epitope masking.

  5. Effectiveness and safety of orally administered immunotherapy for food allergies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Devereux, Graham; Worth, Allison; Healy, Laura; Sheikh, Aziz


    The aim of using oral and sublingual immunotherapy with food allergies is to enable the safe consumption of foods containing these allergens in patients with food allergies. In the present study, a systematic review of intervention studies was undertaken; this involved the searching of eleven international databases for controlled clinical trials. We identified 1152 potentially relevant papers, from which we selected twenty-two reports of twenty-one eligible trials (i.e. eighteen randomised controlled trials and three controlled clinical trials). The meta-analysis revealed a substantially lower risk of reactions to the relevant food allergen in those receiving orally administered immunotherapy (risk ratios (RR) 0·21, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·38). The meta-analysis of immunological data demonstrated that skin prick test responses to the relevant food allergen significantly decreased with immunotherapy (mean difference - 2·96 mm, 95 % CI - 4·48, - 1·45), while allergen-specific IgG4 levels increased by an average of 19·9 (95 % CI 17·1, 22·6) μg/ml. Sensitivity analyses excluding studies at the highest risk of bias and subgroup analyses in relation to specific food allergens and treatment approaches generated comparable summary estimates of effectiveness and immunological changes. Pooling of the safety data revealed an increased risk of local (i.e. minor oropharyngeal/gastrointestinal) adverse reactions with immunotherapy (RR 1·47, 95 % CI 1·11, 1·95); there was a non-significant increased average risk of systemic adverse reactions with immunotherapy (RR 1·08, 95 % CI 0·97, 1·19). There is strong evidence that orally administered immunotherapy can induce immunomodulatory changes and thereby promote desensitisation to a range of foods. However, given the paucity of evidence on longer-term safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, orally administered immunotherapy should not be used outside experimental conditions presently.

  6. Rat nucleus accumbens core astrocytes modulate reward and the motivation to self-administer ethanol after abstinence. (United States)

    Bull, Cecilia; Freitas, Kelen C C; Zou, Shiping; Poland, Ryan S; Syed, Wahab A; Urban, Daniel J; Minter, Sabrina C; Shelton, Keith L; Hauser, Kurt F; Negus, S Stevens; Knapp, Pamela E; Bowers, M Scott


    Our understanding of the active role that astrocytes play in modulating neuronal function and behavior is rapidly expanding, but little is known about the role that astrocytes may play in drug-seeking behavior for commonly abused substances. Given that the nucleus accumbens is critically involved in substance abuse and motivation, we sought to determine whether nucleus accumbens astrocytes influence the motivation to self-administer ethanol following abstinence. We found that the packing density of astrocytes that were expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein increased in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) during abstinence from EtOH self-administration. No change was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell. This increased NAcore astrocyte density positively correlated with the motivation for ethanol. Astrocytes can communicate with one another and influence neuronal activity through gap-junction hemichannels. Because of this, the effect of blocking gap-junction hemichannels on the motivation for ethanol was examined. The motivation to self-administer ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence was increased following microinjection of gap-junction hemichannel blockers into the NAcore at doses that block both neuronal and astrocytic channels. In contrast, no effect was observed following microinjection of doses that are not thought to block astrocytic channels or following microinjection of either dose into the nucleus accumbens shell. Additionally, the motivation for sucrose after 3 weeks abstinence was unaffected by NAcore gap-junction hemichannel blockers. Next, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) were selectively expressed in NAcore astrocytes to test the effect of astrocyte stimulation. DREADD activation increased cytosolic calcium in primary astrocytes, facilitated responding for rewarding brain stimulation, and reduced the motivation for ethanol after 3 weeks abstinence. This is the first work to modulate drug-seeking behavior with

  7. Intrathecal clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine administered as a mixture and sequentially in caesarean section: A randomised controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachee Sachan


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Mixing adjuvants with hyperbaric bupivacaine in a single syringe before injecting the drugs intrathecally is an age old practice. In doing so, the density of the hyperbaric solution and also of the adjuvant drugs may be altered, thus affecting the spread of drugs. Administering local anaesthetic and the adjuvants separately may minimise the effect of the changes in densities. We aimed to compare block characteristics, intraoperative haemodynamics and post-operative pain relief in parturients undergoing caesarean section (CS after administering hyperbaric bupivacaine and clonidine intrathecally as a mixture and sequentially. Methods: In this single-blind prospective randomised controlled study at a tertiary care centre from 2010 to 12, 60 full-term parturients scheduled for elective CSs were divided into two groups on the basis of technique of intrathecal drug administration. Group M received mixture of clonidine (75 mcg and hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg intrathecally, whereas Group B received clonidine (75 mcg followed by hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg through separate syringes. Observational descriptive statistics, analysis of variance test, Wilcoxon test and Chi-square test were used as applicable. Results: Duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group B (474.33 ± 20.79 min in which the drug was given sequentially than in Group M (337 ± 18.22 min. Furthermore, the time to achieve highest sensory block and complete motor block was significantly less in Group B without any major haemodynamic instability and neonatal outcome. Conclusions: When clonidine and hyperbaric bupivacaine were administered in a sequential manner, block characteristics improved significantly compared to the administration of the mixture of the two drugs.

  8. Lipid proifle and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe; Callistus Izunna Iheme; Chinwe Slyvanus Alisi; Linus Ahuwaraeze Nwaogu; Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem; Aloysius Chinedu Ene


    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods:Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1 200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII) of 5 animals each. Groups I, II andIII were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight), coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight) and paracetamol (1 000 mg/kg body weight) respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight) and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight), respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1 000 mg/kg body weight) on the 7th day. GroupsVI andVII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  9. Cerium relieving the inhibition of photosynthesis and growth of spinach caused by lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Min


    Chloroplasts were isolated from spinach cultured in lead chloride-present, Ce3+-administered, cerium chloride-administered lead chloride-present Hoagland's media or that of Hoagland's media. The experimental study demonstrated the effects of cerium (Ce) on distribu-tion of light energy and photochemical activities of spinach chloroplast grown in lead (Pb)-present media. It was observed that Pb2+ signifi-cantly inhibited photosynthesis in spinach, including light absorption, energy transfer from LHCII to photosystem II, excitation energy dis-tribution from photosystem I to photosystem II, and transformation from light energy to electron energy and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts,and decreased spinach growth. However, Ce3+ treatment to pb2+-present chloroplasts could obviously improve light absorption and excitation energy distribution in both photosystems and increase activity of photochemical reaction and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts. The results suggested that Ce3+ under Pb2+ stress could maintain the stability of chloroplast membrane, and improve photosynthesis of spinach chloro-plast, thus promote spinach growth.

  10. Cerium relieving the inhibition of photosynthesis and growth of spinach caused by lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Min; ZE Yuguan; LI Na; DUAN Yanmei; CHEN Ting; LIU Chao; HONG Fashui


    Chloroplasts were isolated from spinach cultured in lead chloride-present, Ce~(3+)-administered, cerium chloride-administered lead chloride-present Hoagland's media or that of Hoagland's media. The experimental study demonstrated the effects of cerium (Ce) on distribu-tion of light energy and photochemical activities of spinach chloroplast grown in lead (Pb)-present media. It was observed that Pb~(2+) signifi-cantly inhibited photosynthesis in spinach, including light absorption, energy transfer from LHCII to photosystem II, excitation energy dis-tribution from photosystem I to photosystem II, and transformation from light energy to electron energy and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts,and decreased spinach growth. However, Ce~(3+) treatment to pb~(2+)-present chloroplasts could obviously improve light absorption and excitation energy distribution in both photosystems and increase activity of photochemical reaction and oxygen evolution of chloroplasts. The results suggested that Ce~(3+) under Pb~(2+) stress could maintain the stability of chloroplast membrane, and improve photosynthesis of spinach chloro-plast, thus promote spinach growth.

  11. The lead and lead-acid battery industries during 2002 and 2007 in China (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; Li, A. J.; Finlow, D. E.

    In the past 15 years, the center of the international lead market has shifted to China. China has become the largest producer of raw and refined lead, plus the largest consumer. This paper reviews the status of the lead and lead-acid battery industries in China, including lead mining, lead refining, secondary lead production, the lead-acid battery industry, new opportunities for lead-acid batteries, and the environmental problems associated with lead and lead-acid batteries. The output of raw and refined lead has increased annually in China, and now accounts for more than 30% of the world total. As a result of a change in the Chinese government's policy regarding the export of lead, plus an increase in the price of lead, the profits of Chinese lead manufacturers were significantly reduced, the trade deficit of the Chinese lead industry increased, the operating rates of lead smelter enterprises greatly reduced, and some small enterprises were forced to shut down. At the present time, an increasing number of enterprises have begun to produce secondary lead, and the scale of production has expanded from tens of tons to tens of thousands of tons. In 2006, the output of secondary lead in China reached 700,000 tons, but outdated technology and equipment limited development of the secondary lead industry. Because of serious pollution problems, raw material shortages, and fierce price competition in the battery market, changes in the development of the lead-acid battery industry have been dramatic; approximately one thousand medium-sized and small lead-acid battery producers have been closed in the past 3 years. The output of large lead-acid battery enterprises has not been reduced, however, as a result of their manufacturing technology and equipment being comparable to those in other advanced industrial countries. In China, the flourishing development of electric bicycles, electric tricycles, and photovoltaic energy systems should provide ongoing opportunities for the

  12. Virginia Solar Pathways Project: Economic Study of Utility-Administered Solar Programs: Soft Costs, Community Solar, and Tax Normalization Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report presents economic considerations for solar development in support of the Virginia Solar Pathways Project (VSPP), an effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative that seeks to develop a collaborative utility-administered solar strategy for the Commonwealth of Virginia. The results presented are intended to be considered alongside the results of other studies conducted under the VSPP that evaluate the impacts of solar energy on the electric distribution, transmission, and generation systems in Virginia.

  13. Lack of action of exogenously administered T3 on the fetal rat brain despite expression of the monocarboxylate transporter 8


    Grijota Martínez, María del Carmen; Díez, Diego; Morreale de Escobar, Gabriella; Bernal, Juan; Morte, Beatriz


    Mutations of the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8, SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked syndrome of severe intellectual deficit and neurological impairment. Mct8 transports thyroid hormones (T4 and T3), and the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome is likely caused by lack of T3 transport to neurons during critical periods of fetal brain development. To evaluate the role of Mct8 in thyroid hormone action in the fetal brain we administered T4 or T3 to thyroidectomized ...

  14. The effect of vitamin A supplementation administered with missing vaccines during national immunization days in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario; Rodrigues, Amabelia


    than VAS with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. We assessed the effect of VAS administered with different vaccines during national immunization days (NIDs). METHODS: In 2003, VAS was distributed during NIDs in Guinea-Bissau. Children 6 months or older were given VAS, and if they were missing...... in Cox models. RESULTS: Twenty of 982 VAS-recipients died during follow-up. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) for VAS with DTP + MV or VAS with DTP was 3.43 (1.36-8.61) compared with VAS only. There were no deaths among those who received VAS with MV alone (P = 0.0005 for homogeneity of VAS effects...

  15. Self-Administered Domiciliary tDCS Treatment for Tinnitus: A Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petteri Hyvärinen

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has shown potential for providing tinnitus relief, although positive effects have usually been observed only during a short time period after treatment. In recent studies the focus has turned from one-session experiments towards multi-session treatment studies investigating long-term outcomes with double-blinded and sham-controlled study designs. Traditionally, tDCS has been administered in a clinical setting by a healthcare professional but in studies involving multiple treatment sessions, often a trade-off has to be made between sample size and the amount of labor needed to run the trial. Also, as the number of required visits to the clinic increases, the dropout rate is likely to rise proportionally.The aim of the current study was to find out if tDCS treatment for tinnitus could be patient-administered in a domiciliary setting and whether the results would be comparable to those from in-hospital treatment studies. Forty-three patients with chronic (> 6 months tinnitus were involved in the study, and data on 35 out of these patients were included in final analysis. Patients received 20 minutes of left temporal area anodal (LTA or bifrontal tDCS stimulation (2 mA or sham stimulation (0.3 mA for ten consecutive days. An overall reduction in the main outcome measure, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI, was found (mean change -5.0 points, p < 0.05, but there was no significant difference between active and sham treatment outcomes. Patients found the tDCS treatment easy to administer and they all tolerated it well. In conclusion, self-administered domiciliary tDCS treatment for tinnitus was found safe and feasible and gave outcome results similar to recent randomized controlled long-term treatment trials. The results suggest better overall treatment response-as measured by THI-with domiciliary treatment than with in-hospital treatment, but this advantage is not related to the tDCS variant. The study

  16. Amphiphilic γ-PGA nanoparticles administered on rat middle ear mucosa produce adjuvant-like immunostimulation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Johan; Broos, Sissela; Akagi, Takami;


    CONCLUSION: Amphiphilic biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) composed of poly(γ-glutamic acid) conjugated with L-phenylalanine ethylester (γ-PGA-Phe NPs) applied on the rat middle ear mucosa produce an inflammatory type 1 response. The observation is of relevance for the use of γ-PGA-Phe NPs...... as a concomitant antigen delivery system and adjuvant measure in the context of vaccinations. OBJECTIVES: To examine effects of topical mucosal administration of γ-PGA-Phe NPs as a potentially combined antigen delivery system and adjuvant. METHODS: γ-PGA-Phe NPs were administered on rat middle ear mucosa in a sham...

  17. Effect of subclinical lead intake on calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinius, D.A.; Brinsfield, T.H.; Williams, E.E.


    Sixteen bull calves were fed a 70% concentrate diet containing no added lead, 10 ppM lead from newsprint, or 10 and 100 ppM lead from lead chromate. The diets were pelleted and fed ad libitum for 100 days. Fecal and urine samples were collected and EKG and respiration rates were monitored at 25-day intervals. At the end of the 100-day feeding trial, the calves were sacrificed and samples of skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, liver and kidney were collected for lead analysis. Supplemental lead did not affect feed consumption nor weight gain; however, newsprint depressed both intake and gain. Neither EKG patterns, heart rate nor respiration rate were affected by dietary treatment. The percentage of ingested lead excreted in feces and urine was not significantly different among treatments. There were no significant tissue accumulations of lead from feeding newsprint or 10 ppM lead chromate; however, feeding 100 ppM lead chromate resulted in accumulations of the element in liver and kidney. Samples of cerebral cortex, liver and kidney cortex were examined by electron microscopy. Changes were not detected in the cellular ultrastructure of these tissues from either control or treated animals.

  18. “Four overall”Lead New Development of Chinesecharacteristics socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “Four overall”is strategic policy of the Party and the State under the new circumstances,including building a moderately prosperous society,comprehensively deepen reforms,promoting the rule of law,comprehensive strictly administering the party.“Four overall”isnot only self -contained,and interconnected,which exists throughout the great practice of Chinese characteristics socialism.“Four overall”reflects China's development of new needs,and responses new law of socialism with Chinese characteristics,it responds to new expectations withpeople.Thus,it must lead the new development socialism of Chinese characteristics.

  19. Neurocognitive effects of chronic lead intoxication in Andean children. (United States)

    Counter, S A; Buchanan, L H; Rosas, H D; Ortega, F


    Lead (Pb) intoxication in children has been associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities which may result in motor and cognitive impairment. We conducted blood lead (PbB) measurements, neurological examinations and cognitive tests on children living in Ecuadorian villages where Pb is used extensively in the glazing of ceramics. Group I consisted of 55 children with a mean PbB level of 48.0 microg/dl (SD: 26.4, range: 9.2-119.1 microg/dl) who received PbB tests and complete neurological examinations. An appreciable number of the children with elevated PbB levels were normal on specific components of the neurological examination. Among the children who showed neurological deficits, higher PbB levels were associated with abnormal tendon reflexes, finger tapping, visual pursuit, size discrimination, draw-a-person, and math calculation skills. Group II consisted of 41 children with a mean PbB level of 47.4 microg/dl (SD: 22.0, range: 6.6-84.7 microg/dl) who were administered Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) non-verbal reasoning test. Performance on RCPM was abnormal in 22 (53.7%) of 41 children. Children with abnormal RCPM scores had higher PbB levels (t-test: P=0.030). There was a significant inverse correlation between RCPM scores and PbB levels for children ages 9 years and older (r=-0.618, P=0.011). Males had higher mean PbB levels as a function of age than females (t-test: P=0.037), and more males showed neurocognitive deficits. The results demonstrate a range of neurological responses in children with chronically elevated PbB levels from apparent exceptional neuro-physiological tolerance of PbB intoxication, to some fine motor and cognitive deficits.

  20. Exploring How Lead Users Develop Radical Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Hienerth, Christoph; Gemuenden, Hans Georg


    In this study, we explore how lead users develop radical innovations outside of manufacturing firms. We analyze the transition from a very early stage of activities to the ultimate commercialization of these innovations. The focus in this context is on the initiatives undertaken by lead users...... lead users as surgeons launch entrepreneurial activities and bridge periods in which established medical equipment manufacturers would not risk investing in radical innovations. By doing so, lead users create the conditions usually provided in manufacturer-initiated lead user projects, including...... the supply of diversified knowledge, the development and coordination of a network for further development of the innovation, and initial tests of technical or market feasibility. Our findings have implications for manufacturing firms that wish to design radical innovation projects with (individual) lead...

  1. Intracerebral hemorrhage due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn and failure to administer vitamin K at birth. (United States)

    Hubbard, Dena; Tobias, Joseph D


    In infants, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is most likely the result of trauma or disturbances of coagulation function. Routine and standard care of the newborn includes the administration of vitamin K to prevent hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. We present two infants, the products of home deliveries, who did not receive vitamin K at birth. Both infants developed ICH at 5 weeks of age and presented with signs and symptoms of increased IC pressure. In both cases, recombinant factor VIIa was administered to correct coagulation function and allow immediate surgical intervention which included craniotomy and hematoma evacuation in one patient and placement of a ventriculostomy in the other to treat increased IC pressure. Despite this therapy, both infants were left with severe neurologic sequelae. These two cases illustrate that hemorrhagic disease of the newborn can occur when prophylactic vitamin K is not administered and that it can have devastating consequences. Given these issues, the routine administration of vitamin K to all infants is mandatory and should not be considered optional.

  2. Isolation and measurement of 15N2 from respiratory gases of animals administered 15N-labeled substances. (United States)

    Springer, D L; Reed, D J; Dost, F N


    A method is described for collection of metabolic 15N2 from in vitro preparations or intact rats administered 15N-containing compounds. The methods enables routine collection and mass spectrometric measurement of as little as 10 mumol 15N2 respired by a rat over a 24-h period. A device is described that includes either an animal chamber or a tissue reaction vessel in a closed recycling atmosphere, with automatic O2 replenishment and removal of CO2 and water. It is capable of sustaining moderate vacuum and is coupled to a high-vacuum manifold designed to process the contained atmosphere and respiratory gases. The starting atmosphere is an 80:20 mix of sulfur hexafluoride and O2. Recovery of 15N2 gas from the system without an animal present was 101.3 +/- 5.75%. When 15N2 gas was very slowly infused iv into an animal, recovery was 89.1 +/- 5.38%. Use of the method in studies of the fate of [15N]hydrazine in rats indicated that about 15% of the administered hydrazine is rapidly converted to 15N2, followed by slower conversion of an additional 7-10% over the next several hours.

  3. Evaluation of Sexual Function and Its Contributing Factors in Men With Spinal Cord Injury Using a Self-Administered Questionnaire. (United States)

    Khak, Mohammad; Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh; Afshari-Mirak, Sohrab; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh; Saadat, Soheil; Taheri, Taher; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa


    Sexual activity is an important aspect of life in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), rated as one of the top priorities for recovery of function. This study was conducted to establish an understanding of the severity of erectile dysfunction (ED), a major component of male sexual activity, and its correlates in patients with SCI in our community. In a cross-sectional study, 37 male veterans with SCI admitted for regular follow-up at our center were recruited. Demographic and SCI-related descriptive information was gathered through a self-administered questionnaire. Sexual Health Inventory for Men was used to assess the presence and severity of ED. Euro Quality of Life questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) were also administered. The mean age of the participants was 45.7 ± 6.5 years with injury duration of 24.7 ± 6.2 years. Mean GHQ-12 score of 3.65 ± 3.38 and mean Sexual Health Inventory for Men score of 11.57 ± 5.28 were measured. All participants had ED, and 27% were suffering from severe ED. Sleep deprivation, worse GHQ-12 score, and hypertension were significantly associated with higher risk of much severe ED (p < .05). In conclusion, ED is a common problem in veterans with SCI and is inversely associated with their general health status.

  4. Effect of Orally Administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on Intestinal Cytokines and Chemokines Production of Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran Rashid Rajput, Cai-hong Hu and Wei-fen Li*


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on intestinal cytokines and chemokines production in piglets. Twenty-four newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (T1, orally administered sterilized (110 ºC for 30 min skim milk 10% (2 ml/piglet/day with addition of viable E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml on 1st, 3rd and 5th day after birth. The control group (T0, were fed the same volume of sterilized skim milk without addition of probiotics. Feeding trial was conducted for 25 days of suckling age. At the end of trail six piglets were randomly selected from each group to collect the samples of jejunum and ileum mucosa to observe the cytokines and chemokines production. The results showed that concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 significantly increased in T1 group. Whereas, production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased in T1 compared to T0. Levels of TNF-α were increased in jejunal mucosa, while decreased in ileal mucosa comparatively in T1 group. Our findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 induced a strong anti-inflammatory response in the small intestine. These immunomodulatory effects of this bacterium might contribute to maintenance of immune homeostasis in the intestine of piglets.

  5. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking. (United States)

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J


    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior.

  6. Self-administered outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy: a report of three years experience in the Irish healthcare setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, J


    Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) was first reported in 1972. OPAT programmes are not well established in Ireland, with no reported outcomes in the literature. An OPAT programme was established at St. James Hospital in 2006. Demographics, diagnoses and outcomes of the first 60 courses are reported. A retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data was performed on patients treated from March 2006 to February 2009. The data was analysed using SPSS v.17. Sixty OPAT courses were administered to 56 patients, 57 percent of which were male. The median age was 50 years, the median inpatient stay was 19 days, the median duration of OPAT was 16 days and 1,289 inpatient bed days were saved. The additional cost per day of OPAT was 167.60 euros. Vancomycin was the most prescribed antimicrobial, administered to 35%. Musculoskeletal infection was the indication for treatment in 50%. Confirmatory microbiological diagnosis was identified in 72%, most frequently due to Staphylococcus aureus (68%). Only minor adverse events were recorded. Clinical cure was achieved in 92.8%. A patient satisfaction survey showed high satisfaction. OPAT is a safe and effective way of providing parenteral antibiotic therapy in the Irish healthcare system. Better integration of funding and the appointment of Infectious Diseases specialists will facilitate its expansion.

  7. Variability of [18F]FDG administered activities among patients undergoing PET examinations: an international multicenter survey. (United States)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni


    Given the large number of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET examinations performed annually throughout the world, reduction of the administered activity without compromise of the clinical information being sought is encouraged. Guidelines issued by the SNMMI and European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) differ greatly on the choice of the activity that should be administered to patients: the EANM suggests a personalised activity based on the patient's body weight, whereas the SNMMI recommends the administration of fixed activities. The authors analysed a database of 24 716 [(18)F]FDG administrations performed worldwide in 15 PET centres to assess the degree of heterogeneity, in relation to available technology, operational protocols and reference guidelines. Median activities based on the patients' body weight were 43 % lower than fixed-activity administrations (p < 0.001). When TOF scanners are available, the median activity is lowered, but when comparing centres with the same technology or those that use the same operational protocols, weight-based activities are still significantly lower than fixed activities.

  8. Training Self-Administered Acupressure Exercise among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritic Knee Pain: A Feasibility Study and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang


    Full Text Available Background. Osteoarthritis (OA is more prevalent in women, particularly after menopausal age. Women are more likely to seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches. We examined the feasibility of training self-administered acupressure exercise and assessed its impact on OA symptoms among women with knee OA. Methods. Thirty-six eligible postmenopausal women were randomly assigned in the acupressure exercise group (n=15 or the control group (n=21 for 12 weeks. Feasibility outcomes (e.g., compliance and adverse effects and clinical outcomes (e.g., pain, stiffness, and physical function were assessed. Data were collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Both per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis were employed. Results. The training materials were well received. The feedback from participants suggests that self-administered acupressure exercise is easy to learn and safe to perform at home, although no statistically significant results of the clinical outcome were observed. Our findings didn’t reveal superiority or inferiority of acupressure compared with usual care. Conclusion. Acupressure exercise is feasible to be trained among postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. Due to the limitations of this study such as small sample size and high attrition rate, acupressure’s efficacy needs to be further explored in larger scale studies with more rigorous design.

  9. Effect of carbamazepine or phenytoin therapy on blood level of intravenously administered midazolam: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomoko; Higuchi, Hitoshi; Tomoyasu, Yumiko; Ishii-Maruhama, Minako; Maeda, Shigeru; Miyawaki, Takuya


    Dental treatment of intellectually disabled patients is frequently performed under general anesthesia or sedation. Many of these patients have epilepsy and are medicated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) are known to promote the metabolism of midazolam, and the blood levels of midazolam in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT may be different from those in healthy individuals. In this study, we clarified the influences of CBZ and PHT on the blood level of intravenously administered midazolam in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT. The subjects were divided into the following groups: not medicated with AEDs (control group), medicated with only CBZ or PHT (mono CBZ/PHT group), and medicated with CBZ or PHT or both and other AEDs (poly CBZ/PHT group). General anesthesia was achieved using midazolam, propofol, and remifentanil, and then the blood midazolam level was measured at 10, 30, and 60 min after intravenous midazolam administration. According to the results, the blood midazolam level was significantly lower in the mono and poly CBZ/PHT groups than in the control group. This finding suggests that intravenously administered midazolam may have a weaker effect in patients medicated with CBZ or PHT.

  10. Attenuation of obesity-induced inflammation in mice orally administered with salmon cartilage proteoglycan, a prophylactic agent. (United States)

    Hirose, Shouhei; Asano, Krisana; Nakane, Akio


    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of adipose tissue and causes development of type 2 diabetes. M1 macrophage population was increased in adipose tissue of obese mouse. M1 macrophages induce insulin resistance through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Our previous studies demonstrated that salmon cartilage proteoglycan (PG) suppresses excess inflammation in various mouse inflammatory diseases. In this study, we examined the effect of PG on type 2 diabetes using high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. Oral PG administration enhanced the population of small adipocytes (area less than 1000 μm(2)) without body and tissue weight gain. In addition, PG administration suppressed mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL2 in adipose tissue. The proportion of M1 macrophages was decreased by PG administration. In addition, PG administration suppressed hyperglycemia after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Fasted serum insulin level was decreased in PG-administered mice. Moreover, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt was enhanced in the liver and gastrocnemius skeletal muscle of PG-administered mice. These data suggested that PG administration improves hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in obese mice by modulation of M1 macrophages which secrete proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and activation of Akt in liver and skeletal muscle.

  11. Safety profile and pharmacokinetic analyses of the anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab administered as a one hour infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas Antoni


    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTLA4 blocking monoclonal antibodies provide a low frequency but durable tumor responses in patients with metastatic melanoma, which led to the regulatory approval of ipilimumab based on two randomized clinical trials with overall survival advantage. The similarly fully human anti-CTLA4 antibody tremelimumab had been developed in the clinic at a fixed rate infusion, resulting in very prolonged infusion times. A new formulation of tremelimumab allowed testing a shorter infusion time. Methods A phase 1 multi-center study to establish the safety and tolerability of administering tremelimumab as a 1-hour infusion to patients with metastatic melanoma. Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of tremelimumab. Results No grade 3 or greater infusion-related adverse events or other adverse events preventing the administration of the full tremelimumab dose were noted in 44 treated patients. The overall side effect profile was consistent with prior experiences with anti-CTLA4 antibodies. Objective tumor responses were noted in 11% of evaluable patients with metastatic melanoma, which is also consistent with the prior experience with CTLA4 antagonistic antibodies. Conclusions This study did not identify any safety concerns when tremelimumab was administered as a 1-hour infusion. These data support further clinical testing of the 1-hour infusion of tremelimumab. (Clinical trial registration number NCT00585000.

  12. Effect of packing on changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde concentration in donkeys administered with ascorbic acid

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    Folashade Olaifa


    Full Text Available Experiments were performed with the aim of investigating the effect of packing on erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in donkeys, and the effect of ascorbic acid (AA. Twelve apparently healthy donkeys raised under the traditional extensive system served as experimental subjects. Six donkeys administered orally with AA (200 mg/kg and subjected to packing were used as experimental animals, whilst six others not administered with AA served as controls. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-packing from all the donkeys for the determination of MDA and EOF. At 0.3% Sodium Chloride (NaCl concentration, the percentage haemolysis was 93.69% ± 2.21% in the control donkeys and the value was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than the value of 71.31% ± 8.33%, recorded in the experimental donkeys. The post-packing MDA concentration obtained in the control donkeys was 39.62 µmol ± 4.16 µmol, and was not significantly different (P > 0.05 from the value of 35.97 µmol ± 2.88 µmol recorded in the experimental donkeys. In conclusion, the increase in haemolysis obtained in the donkeys suggested that packing induced oxidative stress, which was ameliorated by AA administration.

  13. Distribution of iodine into blood components of the Sprague-Dawley rat differs with the chemical form administered (United States)

    Thrall, K. D.; Bull, R. J.; Sauer, R. L.


    It has been reported previously that radioactivity derived from iodine distributes differently in the Sprague-Dawley rat depending on the chemical form administered (Thrall and Bull, 1990). In the present communication we report the differential distribution of radioactivity derived from iodine (I2) and iodide (I-) into blood components. Twice as much radioiodine is in the form of I- in the plasma of animals treated with 125I- compared to 125I2-treated rats. No I2 could be detected in the plasma. With an increase in dose, increasing amounts of radioactivity derived from 125I2-treated animals distribute to whole blood compared to equivalent doses of 125I-, reaching a maxima at a dose of 15.8 mumol I/kg body weight. Most of the radioactivity derived from I2 associates with serum proteins and lipids, in particular with albumin and cholesteryl iodide. These data indicate a differential distribution of radioactivity depending on whether it is administered as iodide or iodine. This is inconsistent with the commonly held view that iodine (I2) is reduced to iodide (I-) before it is absorbed systemically from the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. Clarithromycin is an effective immunomodulator when administered late in experimental pyelonephritis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Panagou Charalambos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To apply clarithromycin as an immunomodulatory treatment in experimental urosepsis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Acute pyelonephritis was induced in 40 rabbits after inoculation of the test isolate in the renal pelvis. Therapy was administered upon signs of sepsis in four groups: A, controls; B, intravenous clarithromycin; C, amikacin; and D, both agents. Survival and vital signs were recorded; blood was sampled for culture and estimation of pro-inflammatory mediators; monocytes were isolated for determination of apoptotic rate and ex vivo TNFα secretion. Quantitative cultures and biopsies of organs were performed after death. Results Increased rectal temperature and oxygen saturation were found in groups B and D compared to A and C. Mean survival of groups A, B, C and D was 2.65, 7.15, 4.25 and 8.70 days respectively. No differences were noted between groups concerning bacterial load in blood and tissues and serum endotoxins. Serum MDA and total caspase-3 activity of monocytes of group D decreased following treatment compared to other groups. Negative correlation was detected between cytoplasmic caspase-3 and ex vivo secretion of TNFα of blood monocytes of group A; similar correlation was not found for any other group. Pathology scores of liver and lung of group B were lower than group A. Conclusion Clarithromycin administered late in experimental urosepsis by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa prolonged survival and ameliorated clinical findings. Its effect is probably attributed to immunomodulatory intervention on blood monocytes.

  15. Individual variability in human tibia lead concentration.


    Todd, A. C.; Parsons, P J; Tang, S.; Moshier, E L


    Our aims in this study were to determine proximal-distal variability in adult human tibia lead concentration via electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and to determine whether there were any differences between core and surface tibia lead concentrations. We analyzed duplicate core and surface tibia samples for lead at multiple proximal-distal sections on 10 adult human cadaver legs. Dried bone samples were digested in nitric acid using microwave-assisted heating, a...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We present the results of our investigation of bulk lead, along with various types of lead films, as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the photon energy of the incident light, from 3.9 eV to 6.5 eV. Quantum efficiencies of 0.5% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead-plated cathode is underway.

  17. Progress on lead photocathodes for superconducting injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John; Rao, Triveni; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Kneisel, Peter; Langner, J; Strzyzewski, P; Lefferts, Richard; Lipski, Andrzej


    We present the results of our investigation of bulk lead, along with various types of lead films, as suitable photocathode materials for superconducting RF injectors. The quantum efficiency of each sample is presented as a function of the photon energy of the incident light, from 3.9 eV to 6.5 eV. Quantum efficiencies of 0.5% have been obtained. Production of a niobium cavity with a lead plated cathode is underway.

  18. Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading Edge Protuberances (United States)


    APPLICATIONS OF HYDROFOILS WITH LEADING EDGE PROTUBERANCES Final Technical Report for Office of Naval Research contract...To) 03/30/2012 Final Technical Report 01-08-2008 to 31-12-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Applications of Hydrofoils with Leading...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The leading edge modified hydrofoils

  19. Measurement of Lead In Drinking Water (United States)


    easily monitor remediation efforts on-site in a cost effective and timely manner. 1.2 Official DoD Requirement Statement The measurement of lead in...Other Technologies Costs are best compared with current practice for determining lead levels in drinking water. Typically samples are collected and... Measurement of Lead In Drinking Water Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center Research, Development, Test and

  20. Lead Poisoning in the World and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi


    Full Text Available Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran.