WorldWideScience

Sample records for admin restriction faq

  1. Donation FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... Jobs Job application FAQs E-Verify Career events Employee benefits About us Bea, transplant recipient Be The ...

  2. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Patient Education FAQs Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish ...

  3. Modernising the CERN Admin e-guide

    CERN Multimedia

    DG-RPC-PA (section des processus administratifs)

    2014-01-01

    In just a few years, the CERN Admin e-guide has become the essential guide for CERN's administrative procedures, intended not just for administrative services but for all members of the personnel of CERN. The guide is edited by the Administrative Process Section (DG-RPC-PA) and allows users to look up administrative procedures and forms relating to the application of the Staff Rules and Regulations easily in both French and English. Site visit statistics show that 5000 people on average consult the Admin e-guide each month. The most consulted procedures are those relating to green licence plates, taxes, Swiss and French cards and leave. The site has just been moved over to Drupal, which will make it easier to update the information provided and will improve content management. This system change meant migrating 220 procedures and more than 500 frequently asked questions. The structure has been revised for clarity, but the principles that made the guide so successful have not changed, namely the e...

  4. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  5. ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GD, VX) | Agentes neurotóxicos (GA, GB, GD, VX) Nickel | Níquel Nitrate and Nitrite Nitrobenzene | Nitrobenceno Nitrogen Oxides | ... to the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) about exposure to hazardous substances found around hazardous waste sites ...

  6. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Onchocerciasis General Information Onchocerciasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter ...

  7. Circovirus in Dogs FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports Tools for K-12 Educators Circovirus in Dogs FAQ November 22, 2013 Update November 22, 2013: ... information. Canine circovirus infections have been documented in dogs with vomiting and diarrhea. The distribution of the ...

  8. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ121 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) • What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? • What causes PCOS? • What is insulin ...

  9. Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Parasites Home Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions What is Acanthamoeba keratitis? Acanthamoeba keratitis is a rare but serious ...

  10. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  11. Launch of the new CERN Admin e-guide

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Admin e-guide is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, which has been drawn up for the benefit of members of the personnel and the various administrative services alike and replaces the old "Administrative Procedures Manual". All the different procedures currently available on separate department sites will henceforth be accessible at a single website.   Home page of the new CERN Admin e-guide. The goal of creating a compendium of CERN's administrative procedures, available at a single website and accessible with a simple click of the mouse, has now been realised.  "It had become difficult to know where to find the relevant up-to-date information on administrative procedures", says Yaël Grange-Lavigne of the HR-SPS-OP Section (Organisation and Procedures), coordinator of the working group that compiled the e-guide. The team, which comprised members of the HR Department, observers from other department...

  12. Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such ... Are there specific disorders or conditions associated with Fragile X syndrome? Among the other conditions associated with Fragile ...

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Copyrighted and Non-Copyrighted Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/faq/copyrightfaq.html Question: Is the material on MedlinePlus copyrighted? To use the sharing features ... Answer: MedlinePlus contains both copyrighted and non-copyrighted material. Please see our copyright information page . Restrictions may ...

  14. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... M. encyclopedia. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  15. Improving Windows desktop security - the 'Non-Admin' Project

    CERN Multimedia

    NICE Team

    2005-01-01

    From 16 January 2006, Windows XP NICE installations (both new computers installed and old computers re-installed) will no longer grant administrative privileges by default to the main user or to the person responsible for the computer. Administrative privileges allow the user to perform administrative actions on the computer, such as installing new applications or changing system settings. Until now, these privileges have been enforced each time machines are rebooted, but this creates a risk of compromising the computer every time a code from an unknown source (e.g. e-mail attachments or web browsing) is executed. So that users can continue to install software and change system settings on their computers, a shortcut called 'NiceAdmin' in the Start | Programmes menu will offer a means of performing certain tasks requiring administrative privileges, but only on demand. Users with valid reasons to be a permanent administrator for their machine will still have this option. However, users wishing to benefit fr...

  16. FAQ's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Users from Low-Income Countries (only) are entitled to order 3 free articles per month and there after pay according to lower-middle income country rates. ... Upper Middle-income country, AJOL-subsidized, $ 15 .... Depending on your internet connection the system may not be able to accurately determine your IP range.

  17. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's What's in ...

  18. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk What's in this ...

  19. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits What's in this article? What should I eat? ...

  20. ODM2 Admin Pilot Project- a Data Management Application for Observations of the Critical Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M.; McDowell, W. H.; Mayorga, E.; Setiawan, L.; Hooper, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    ODM2 Admin is a tool to manage data stored in a relational database using the Observation Data Model 2 (ODM2) information model. Originally developed by the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) to manage a wide range of Earth observations, it has now been deployed at 6 projects: the Catalina Jemez CZO, the Dry Creek Experimental Forest, Au Sable and Manistee River sites managed by Michigan State, Tropical Response to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) and the Critical Zone Integrative Microbial Ecology Activity (CZIMEA) EarthCube project; most of these deployments are hosted on a Microsoft Azure cloud server managed by CUAHSI. ODM2 Admin is a web application built on the Python open-source Django framework and available for download from GitHub and DockerHub. It provides tools for data ingestion, editing, QA/QC, data visualization, browsing, mapping and documentation of equipment deployment, methods, and citations. Additional features include the ability to generate derived data values, automatically or manually create data annotations and create datasets from arbitrary groupings of results. Over 22 million time series values for more than 600 time series are being managed with ODM2 Admin across the 6 projects as well as more than 12,000 soil profiles and other measurements. ODM2 Admin links with external identifier systems through DOIs, ORCiDs and IGSNs, so cited works, details about researchers and earth sample meta-data can be accessed directly from ODM2 Admin. This application is part of a growing open source ODM2 application ecosystem under active development. ODM2 Admin can be deployed alongside other tools from the ODM2 ecosystem, including ODM2API and WOFpy, which provide access to the underlying ODM2 data through a Python API and Water One Flow web services.

  1. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... What is the difference between Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C? Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , and ...

  2. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Out-of- ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive ...

  3. Mastering phpMyAdmin 34 for Effective MySQL Management

    CERN Document Server

    Delisle, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This is a step-by-step instructional guide to get you started easily with phpMyAdmin and teach you to manage and perform database functions on your database. You will first be introduced to the interface and then build basic tables and perform both simple and advanced functions on the created database. The book progresses gradually and you will follow it best by reading it sequentially. If you are a developer, system administrator, or web designer who wants to manage MySQL databases and tables efficiently, then this book is for you. This book assumes that you are already wellacquainted with My

  4. FAQs about practising the amateur arts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek

    2010-01-01

    Original title: FAQs over kunstbeoefening in de vrije tijd Singing, playing an instrument, painting, sculpting, amateur dramatics, making films, writing a blog or a song…: almost half the Dutch population are engaged in artistic activity occasionally or even frequently. They give expression to

  5. Módulo de Administración SIRIO Mobile Admin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Pérez Rajadel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} El presente artículo presenta el uso de teléfonos celulares para monitorear y administrar diferentes procesos en entornos empresariales. Recoge los resultados del desarrollo de SIRIO Mobile Admin, módulo de administración dirigido a teléfonos móviles e incorporado a la plataforma SIRIO, encargada de la gestión de juegos multiusuario para celulares.  Este módulo facilita el control del servidor y proporciona las herramientas necesarias para su constante monitoreo, asegurando interoperabilidad con la incorporación de Servicios Web como intermediarios entre las aplicaciones clientes y el servidor de la plataforma. Incorpora además elementos de seguridad con el establecimiento de un canal seguro para la comunicación.

  6. Stakeholder Engagement/Capacity Building Pilot Opportunity FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the pilot opportunity for stakeholder engagement/capacity building. EPA is offering an opportunity for community stakeholders and ports to participate in a pilot project to test and refine capacity building tools.

  7. Technical FAQ – Trees and People: Resilience in a changing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Technical FAQ – Trees and People: Resilience in a changing climate – John G. Bene Fellowship 2018. Note: IDRC's online application system is managed by an external supplier, FluidWare. The product used for the online application is FluidReview.

  8. Admin on the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2009-01-01

    Students at Tompkins Cortland Community College (commonly known as TC3) in upstate New York can use mobile phones to check their grades and course schedules, sign up for text alerts about class cancellations, and view a campus weather cam. They can even view their debit card account balances--all courtesy of the TC3 Mobile portal. The students at…

  9. Xgrid admin guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Charlie E M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Xgrid, with a capital-X is the name for Apple's grid computing system. With a lower case x, xgrid is the name of the command line utility that clients can use, among other ways, to submit jobs to a controller. An Xgrid divides into three logical components: Agent, Controller and Client. Client computers submit jobs (a set of tasks) they want run to a Controller computer. The Controller queues the Client jobs and distributes tasks to Agent computers. Agent computers run the tasks and report their output and status back to the controller where it is stored until deleted by the Client. The Clients can asynchronously query the controller about the status of a job and the results. Any OSX computer can be any of these. A single mac can be more than one: it's possible to be Agent, Controller and Client at the same time. There is one Controller per Grid. Clients can submit jobs to Controllers of different grids. Agents can work for more than one grid. Xgrid's setup has a pleasantly small palette of choices. The first two decisions to make are the kind of authentication & authorization to use and if a shared file system is needed. A shared file system that all the agents can access can be very beneficial for many computing problems, but it is not appropriate for every network.

  10. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mobile.html Question: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device? To use the sharing features on this page, ... Some video content might not play on your mobile device. See our FAQ on playing videos on phones ...

  11. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/faq/audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of ...

  12. Infertility FAQ's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Health Care Providers For Health Care Providers: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Pregnancy CDC Activities Resources ... of high levels of prolactin. *Note: Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only ...

  13. Sunscreens FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Department of Health & Human Services and the World Health Organization’s International Agency of Research on Cancer have declared ... 120:1116–1122. 7 Global Solar UV Index. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/uv/publications/en/UVIGuide. ...

  14. Caregiver FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... else has a problem. Patience is a great asset for repeating directions, plans, and whatever comes up. ... as a caregiver is some doctors’ lack of knowledge about DLB and that DLB is different from ...

  15. RAR FAQs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    The review of research proposals follows set procedures that do not involve feedback at this stage of your application. Candidates can check out the research currently being supported by. IDRC's programs and become familiar with the objectives of each award. Program staff may be contacted if there is a doubt concerning ...

  16. Depression FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression affects about 15 million American adults every year. Women are more likely to get depression than men. In general, about one out of every four women will get depression at some point in her life.

  17. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... countries. The cases of leishmaniasis evaluated in the United States reflect travel and immigration patterns. For example, many of the cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in U.S. civilian travelers have been acquired in common tourist ... found in the United States? Not usually. Almost all of the cases of ...

  18. MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I play videos on my phone or tablet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/faq/mobilevideo.html Question: Can I play videos on my phone or tablet? To use the ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus has video content in different formats. MedlinePlus also links to ...

  19. Validizační studie české verze dotazníku FAQ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezdíček, O.; Lukavský, Jiří; Preiss, M.

    74/107, č. 1 (2011), s. 36-42 ISSN 1210-7859 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : questionnaire * validity * activities of daily living Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.279, year: 2011 http://www.csnn.eu/ceska-slovenska-neurologie-clanek/validizacni-studie-ceske-verze-dotazniku-faq-34140

  20. FAQs Regarding PFASs Associated with AFFF Use at U.S. Military Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-04

    Fluorinated compounds in U.S. fast food packaging. Environ Sci Technol Lett 2017, DOI: 10.1021/acs.estlett.6b00435. FAQs Regarding PFASs Associated...are available/effective for PFASs? ........ 11 7. What are the human and ecological exposure pathways and health effects? ........ 13 8. What is the...characterization and remedial tools that are currently available is provided, in addition to information on the pathways of human and ecological health

  1. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be mistaken for a condition called constrictive pericarditis. This condition causes the sac-like membrane around ... inflamed and thickened. Surgery can usually correct constrictive pericarditis. On the other hand, restrictive cardiomyopathy cannot be ...

  2. Cross-cultural Adaptation of the "Functional Activities Questionnaire - FAQ" for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica dos Santos Sanchez

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this paper was to present the results of the first stage of cross-cultural adaptation of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ. Methods: The tool was subjected to translation and re-translation, and the test-retest reliability of a proposed version for use in Brazil was analyzed. Results: Of the 548 questionnaire respondents, a convenience sample of 68 informants was selected for retesting. Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha (0.95 while test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation (0.97. The findings have shown that FAQ is brief - averaging seven minutes to apply, easily understood and has good intra-rater test-retest reliability. Conclusion: Our results suggest this adapted version of the FAQ is a reliable and stable tool which may be useful for assessing function in Brazilian elderly. Notwithstanding, the version should be subjected to further analysis with the aim of reaching functional equivalence.

  3. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  4. Quasi-chemical theory of F-(aq): The "no split occupancies rule" revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Rempe, Susan B.; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    2017-10-01

    We use ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations and quasi-chemical theory (QCT) to study the inner-shell structure of F-(aq) and to evaluate that single-ion free energy under standard conditions. Following the "no split occupancies" rule, QCT calculations yield a free energy value of -101 kcal/mol under these conditions, in encouraging agreement with tabulated values (-111 kcal/mol). The AIMD calculations served only to guide the definition of an effective inner-shell constraint. QCT naturally includes quantum mechanical effects that can be concerning in more primitive calculations, including electronic polarizability and induction, electron density transfer, electron correlation, molecular/atomic cooperative interactions generally, molecular flexibility, and zero-point motion. No direct assessment of the contribution of dispersion contributions to the internal energies has been attempted here, however. We anticipate that other aqueous halide ions might be treated successfully with QCT, provided that the structure of the underlying statistical mechanical theory is absorbed, i.e., that the "no split occupancies" rule is recognized.

  5. Adaptation And Norm Determination Study Of The Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ On Turkish Adults (Ages 50 And Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaynak Selekler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Daily living activities are generally impaired in dementia and have to be assessed by standardized instruments. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research recommends the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ as a particularly useful method for initial assessment of functional impairment. The FAQ is a brief, informant-based questionnaire that evaluates performance based on ten complex activities of daily living. The aim of the present study is to determine the normative values for a FAQ on Turkish adult sample between ages 50 and over. Material and Method: The present study consists of two phases: Translation/ adaptation and standardization. In the first phase, the questionnaire was translated into Turkish and the FAQ items were adapted to Turkish culture. In the second phase, the trained clinicians administered the new form to the subjects (usually a family member who have substantial personal knowledge of the adult’s prior and current behavior. Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS scores were used as inclusion criteria for healthy elderly adults. The research sample consists of 213 healthy subjects and their family members. The research sample consists of 213 subjects (109 female, 104 male. A 3x3x2 (age: 50-59 / 60-69 / 70 and over x education (5- 8 years / 9-11 years / 12 years and over x sex (female / male factorial design was used in the analysis. Results: The 3x3x2 factorial ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of age and education for the total FAQ score. Main effect of sex was not significant. No interaction effect (age x sex, age x education, sex x education and age x sex x education on FAQ scores was statistically significant. Discussion: This study provides normative data for a psychometric tool that reliably measures the activities of daily living in normal healthy subjects. It further demonstrates the necessity of considering age and education when assessing the activities of daily

  6. Preferential role restrictions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We extend the Description Logic ALC with preferential role restrictions as class constructs, and argue that preferential universal restriction represents a defeasible version of standard universal restriction. The resulting DL is more expressive...

  7. A Classification Method of Inquiry E-mails for Describing FAQ with Automatic Setting Mechanism of Judgment Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Samejima, Masaki; Oka, Hironori

    In this paper the authors propose a classification method of inquiry e-mails for describing FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) and automatic setting mechanism of judgment thresholds. In this method, a dictionary used for classification of inquiries is generated and updated automatically by statistical information of characteristic words in clusters, and inquiries are classified correctly to each proper cluster by using the dictionary. Threshold values are automatically set by using statistical information.

  8. Salesforce CRM the definitive admin handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goodey, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide which will help to discover how to setup and configure the Salesforce CRM application. It offers solutions and practical examples on how to further improve and maintain its functionality with clear systematic instructions. Being highly organized and compact, this book contains detailed instructions with screenshots, diagrams, and tips that clearly describe how you can administer and configure complex Salesforce CRM functionality with absolute ease.This book is for administrators who want to develop and strengthen their Salesforce CRM skills in the areas of configuration and s

  9. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettering, Brett Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grider, Gary Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Shortlisted candidates for Accounts / Admin Assistant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Indian Academy of Sciences. Bengaluru. The following shortlisted candidates have been sent call letters for written test to be held on Friday, 29th January 2016 at Academy Office, Sadashivanagar, Bengaluru. ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT. (29 January 2016, 9:30 – 11:00 a.m.). ACCOUNTS ASSISTANT. (29 January 2016 ...

  12. A Cloud Associated Smart Grid Admin Dashboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent smart grid system undertakes electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, economical and environmentally friendly manner. As smart grid involves, it has the liability of meeting the changing consumer needs on the day-to-day basis. Modern energy consumers like to vivaciously regulate their consumption patterns more competently and intelligently than current provided ways. To fulfill the consumers’ needs, smart meters and sensors make the grid infrastructure more efficient and resilient in energy data collection and management even with the ever-changing renewable power generation. Though cloud acts as an outlet for the energy consumers to retrieve energy data from the grid, the information systems available are technically constrained and not user-friendly. Hence, a simple technology enabled utility-consumer interactive information system in the form of a dashboard is presented to cater the electric consumer needs.

  13. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  14. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  15. Climate projections FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Daniels; J.F. Morrison; L.A. Joyce; N.L. Crookston; S.C. Chen; S.G. McNulty

    2012-01-01

    Climate scenarios offer one way to identify and examine the land management challenges posed by climate change. Selecting projections, however, requires careful consideration of the natural resources under study, and where and how they are sensitive to climate. Selection also depends on the robustness of different projections for the resources and geographic area of...

  16. Prosthetic Care FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are healthcare professionals that have demonstrated knowledge and competence in the field of prosthetics. Their qualifications include a ... issues. Prosthetists are allied health professionals and experts in designing and ... information, resources and advice to patients and their healthcare ...

  17. Photoshop Lightroom 4 FAQs

    CERN Document Server

    Sholik, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Get the answers to 365 of the most commonly asked questions about Lightroom Photographers who are getting acquainted with Photoshop Lightroom and all its advantages for managing large quantities of images will find this handy book an indispensable resource. Veteran photographer Stan Sholik answers 365 of the most frequently asked questions about the new Lightroom 4 in an informative, practical format, making it easy to find what you're looking for and put the information to use. Sample photos illustrate questions and answers, and a quick-reference guide provides easy access to must-have inform

  18. 'Which Multiverse?': Some FAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Dugic, M.; Jeknic-Dugic, J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we pointed out the possible inconsistency in the very foundations of the Everett MWI (or a Multiverse) theory. Here, we place some emphasis on the very basic notions underlying our conclusion yet motivated by certain, recently raised clever observations in this regard.

  19. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, or endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus ) Personal history of breast cancer Mutations in BRCA1 ... If a woman is thought to have ovarian cancer, surgery usually is recommended to remove the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes . Lymph nodes and tissues ...

  20. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ectopic pregnancy • Certain types of cancer, such as cancer of the uterus Your obstetrician–gynecologist (ob-gyn) or other health ... failed. Hysterectomy also is used to treat endometrial cancer. After the uterus is removed, a woman can no longer get ...

  1. CultiAF FAQs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mercy Rurii

    fund but can partner with institutions in eligible countries as third party organisations. 12. What is the selection process? Concept notes will be reviewed by an external peer-review body and technical staff from. ACIAR/AIFSC and IDRC. In January 2014, a subset of concept note teams will be invited to submit full proposals.

  2. Progeria 101/FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Progeria gene, and in April 2003, PRF led the announcement reported in the top scientific journal ... and tap into your connections. Do you know anyone who can help? Tell your friends, family and ...

  3. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SMA: Frequently Asked Questions What is Spinal Muscular Atrophy? Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a genetic neuromuscular ... future trials in SMA. What is Spinal Muscular Atrophy with Respiratory Distress (SMARD)? SMARD and SMA are ...

  4. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    A collaborating organization is an institution that is not part of the core team managing the research project but contributes to activities of the project. Collaborating organization will not receive nor manage the project funds. 6. What is your definition of “third-party organizations” in this Call for proposals? A third party ...

  5. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  6. Other Pelvic Pain FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Program Officer Forms Clinical Research Newsroom News Digital Media Join NICHD Listservs About NICHD Organization History Accomplishments Leadership & Other Staff Profiles Budget & Appropriations Advisory Groups Jobs ...

  7. IDRA Technical FAQs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Liliane Castets-Poupart

    Questionnaire. If you are eligible, the system will give you access to the full application. Refer to the Checklist for a list of documents you must submit with your application. 2) When preparing my IDRA application, do I have to complete the entire application at once or can I complete some sections, upload some documents,.

  8. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... larva migrans. What are the clinical manifestations of animal (zoonotic) hookworm in people? Cutaneous larval migrans (CLM) in a person's foot. ... and larvae may be found in dirt where animals have been. People may become infected while walking barefoot or when ...

  9. FAQs for Research Awards

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    Visit the Grants page for details on the positions offered by IDRC's programs. 9) How do you select Research Awardees? You can find out more about the Research Awards evaluation process in the Call for Application and Checklist documents under the Grants Web page. 10) Can someone at IDRC review my research ...

  10. AGU election FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Many of you are aware that this is an election year, and I don't mean electing the next president of the United States! This is AGU's election year, and the polls are opening soon. Your vote matters. Eligible voters should vote, and now is the time to learn about the candidates. There are no TV ads, and the candidates won't be covered in the news. However, electing AGU leaders for the next term affects the future direction of the Union. Please take a few minutes to visit the election Web site (http://sites.agu.org/elections/) and review the candidate bios.

  11. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide and affects persons of all ages and socioeconomic levels. It is the most common worm infection ... spread? Pinworm infection is spread by the fecal-oral route, that is by the ... medications. A health care provider should be consulted before treating a ...

  12. Call 1 FAQ (FR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    l'essai rapides, la conception synthétique et la mise à l'essai d'antigènes de novo (p. ex. la construction d'échafaudages protéiniques ou d'acides nucléaires) et les autres approches de pointe alliant la biochimie et la biophysique. Cette approche « innovante » doit se différencier clairement des méthodes traditionnelles ou ...

  13. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some cases, surgical procedures. Your doctor may also run some diagnostic tests to determine how much your heart was damaged and what degree ... some cases, surgical procedures. Your doctor may also run some diagnostic tests to determine how much your heart was damaged and what degree ...

  14. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... annoyance because their presence may cause itching and loss of sleep. Sometimes the itching can lead to excessive scratching that can sometimes increase the chance of a secondary skin infection. What health risks ...

  15. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... celiac disease. 5 Is Turner syndrome considered a disability? Turner syndrome is not considered a disability, although ... girls with Turner syndrome have difficulty with arithmetic, visual memory, and visio-spatial skills (such as determining ...

  16. IDRA Technical FAQs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Liliane Castets-Poupart

    After you complete the sign-up process, you will need to complete the Eligibility. Questionnaire. If you are eligible, the system will give you access to the full application. Refer to the Checklist for a list of documents you must submit with your application. 2) When preparing my Bentley application, do I have to complete the ...

  17. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    What is your definition of “improvement” in this Call for proposals? “Improvement” as used in this call implies all innovations that may be applied by research teams to develop a vaccine that is superior to a current one. Examples of improvement are better adjuvant, vaccine delivery systems or formulations that present ...

  18. Call 1 FAQ (FR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    Nous recommandons les navigateurs suivants: Safari, Chrome, Firefox 35.0 ou plus ou. Internet explorer 11. 14. Comment accède-t-on à la version française de la plateforme de demande de financement en ligne (FluidReview)?. La plateforme de demande de financement s'ouvre dans la langue de votre navigateur.

  19. Call 1 FAQ (FR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    Il faut porter une attention particulière aux allégations sur l'étiquette des vaccins commerciaux et aux données probantes réelles publiées sur l'efficacité et les attributs des vaccins commerciaux afin d'établir les données de référence appropriées aux fins de la quantification de l'importance de l'amélioration. Les équipes de ...

  20. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Preeclampsia and Eclampsia About NICHD Research Information Find a ... of the Director Director's Corner Office of Administrative Management (OAM) Office of Communications (OC) Office of Global ...

  1. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water kills hepatitis A virus that enters the water supply. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) routinely monitors natural bodies of water used for recreation for fecal contamination so there is no need for monitoring for ...

  2. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    combinations of next-generation sequencing, bioinformatics, systems biology and proteomics to develop rapid antigen identification and testing platforms, de novo synthetic antigen design and testing, e.g. construction protein or nucleic acid scaffolds and other state of the art approaches that combine synthetic biochemistry ...

  3. Cushing Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Amenorrhea About NICHD Research Information Find a Study More ... treatments? Related A-Z Topics Adrenal Gland Disorders Amenorrhea Pituitary Tumors NICHD News Spotlights Spotlight: Selected NICHD ...

  4. Low Vision FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... y condiciones de los ojos relacionadas con la edad Consejos simples para tener ojos sanos Para Profesionales ... Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social ...

  5. Betaine improved restriction digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Keiki; Makihara, Tohru; Saito, Aya; Ohishi, Nobuya; Nagase, Takahide; Takai, Daiya

    2005-12-02

    Here we report that supplementation of a common compound betaine (1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium inner salt) enhances restriction digestion of DNA molecules being resistant to digestion despite the existence of recognition sites. A previous study reported total isostabilization of DNA was achieved in the presence of 5.2M of betaine, however, we have observed the enhancement of restriction kinetics at 0.3M of betaine, therefore, it likely provided some catalytic proficiency to restriction enzymes rather than the induction of DNA conformational changes. Betaine also enhances catalytic efficiency of PCR, and our result of restriction digestion, taken together, suggests potential application of betaine in other enzymatic reactions in an aqueous solution.

  6. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  7. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... metabolite and hormone concentrations in restricted ewes suggest that maternal tissues were being mobilised. Despite the ewes' adaptations their lambs weighed significantly less at birth. Furthermore, colostrum and milk yields were markedly reduced up until the latest measurement at 3 weeks post partum...... despite adlibitum access to feed. Reduced milk yields coincided with reduced plasma IGF-1 concentration pre partum in nutrient restricted ewes indicating, that mammary gland development may have been compromised. The present data suggest that leptin is not involved in the regulation of early lactation...

  8. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...

  10. Restricted and quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Bing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the definition of restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras, the concept of restrictability is by far more tractable than that of a restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra. Moreover, we obtain some properties of p-mappings and restrictable Lie-Rinehart algebras. Finally, we give some sufficient conditions for the commutativity of quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebras and study how a quasi-toral restricted Lie-Rinehart algebra with zero center and of minimal dimension should be.

  11. Restrictions of anthelmintic usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup

    2009-01-01

    in 1966. The province of Quebec in Canada, and an increasing number of European countries, have implemented prescription-only restrictions on anthelmintic drugs. Denmark introduced this legislation ten years ago, and some evidence has been generated describing potential consequences. It is without dispute...... that Danish veterinarians are now deeply involved with parasite management in equine establishments. However, little is known about the impact on levels of anthelmintic resistance and the risk of parasitic disease under these circumstances. In addition, the legislation makes huge demands on diagnosis...

  12. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  13. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  14. Restriction glycosylases: involvement of endonuclease activities in the restriction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingbiao; Matsuzaka, Tomoyuki; Yano, Hirokazu; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Ken; Fukuyo, Masaki; Takahashi, Noriko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Ide, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2017-02-17

    All restriction enzymes examined are phosphodiesterases generating 3΄-OH and 5΄-P ends, but one restriction enzyme (restriction glycosylase) excises unmethylated bases from its recognition sequence. Whether its restriction activity involves endonucleolytic cleavage remains unclear. One report on this enzyme, R.PabI from a hyperthermophile, ascribed the breakage to high temperature while another showed its weak AP lyase activity generates atypical ends. Here, we addressed this issue in mesophiles. We purified R.PabI homologs from Campylobacter coli (R.CcoLI) and Helicobacter pylori (R.HpyAXII) and demonstrated their DNA cleavage, DNA glycosylase and AP lyase activities in vitro at 37°C. The AP lyase activity is more coupled with glycosylase activity in R.CcoLI than in R.PabI. R.CcoLI/R.PabI expression caused restriction of incoming bacteriophage/plasmid DNA and endogenous chromosomal DNA within Escherichia coli at 37°C. The R.PabI-mediated restriction was promoted by AP endonuclease action in vivo or in vitro. These results reveal the role of endonucleolytic DNA cleavage in restriction and yet point to diversity among the endonucleases. The cleaved ends are difficult to repair in vivo, which may indicate their biological significance. These results support generalization of the concept of restriction–modification system to the concept of self-recognizing epigenetic system, which combines any epigenetic labeling and any DNA damaging.

  15. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  16. Creating Simple Admin Tools Using Info*Engine and Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory; Felkins, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create a simple Info*Engine Tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administration of tedious work.

  17. Report Writer and Security Requirements Finder: User and Admin Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    any report. You might choose to do so when it is a duplicate of another report, is incorrect, or uses offensive language . To reject a report, open...Unpublish”. You may want to take a report offline for some reason. For example, you may learn that it contains errors or offensive language or is a

  18. teacher admin.jsp.html | teacher | myrmeet | meetings | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution

  19. Fukushima. Five years on - FAQs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    On 11 March 2011, at 2:46 p.m. local time (6.46 a.m. CET), an earthquake measuring 9 on the Richter scale hit the east coast of Japan. The quake caused a tsunami, with waves as high as 38 metres, which led to large-scale flooding and destruction of roads, the power supply and other infrastructure along Japan's eastern seaboard. The earthquake and tsunami also struck several nuclear power plants. Fukushima Daiichi sustained the worst damage, triggering a chain of events which led to core meltdown, major hydrogen explosions and massive releases of radiation. Below, the Oeko-Institut answers the key questions about the disaster's timeline, latest assessments of the events, and the current situation in Fukushima.

  20. Klinefelter Syndrome (KS): Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a ... running speed, agility, and overall strength in childhood Physical therapy, occupational therapy, activities that build strength What is ...

  1. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby is about 3 weeks old before offering artificial nipples of any kind (including pacifiers). If I ... alternative, you can give an iron-rich puréed meat.) Feed your baby with a small baby spoon, ...

  2. Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or trying to bite. Does my breastfed baby need extra vitamins? Breast milk contains many vitamins as well as ... meats) around 6 months of age. All babies need vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D is added to formula ...

  3. Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer's Itch) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the affected areas Bathe in Epsom salts or baking soda Soak in colloidal oatmeal baths Apply baking soda paste to the rash (made by stirring water into baking soda until it reaches a paste-like consistency) Use ...

  4. Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is washed off. Clean clothes should be worn after treatment. In addition to the infested person, treatment also ... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot ... with scabies. After several treatments, he/she still has symptoms while I am ...

  5. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  6. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured partitions p k s ( n ) , which is the number of partitions of an integer into the summand of th powers of integers such that each power of a given integer may occur utmost times. While the method is not rigorous, it reproduces the ...

  7. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and

  8. Pacifier restriction and exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kair, Laura R; Kenron, Daniel; Etheredge, Konnette; Jaffe, Arthur C; Phillipi, Carrie A

    2013-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that removing pacifiers from routine distribution in our mother-baby unit (MBU) would be associated with greater breastfeeding initiation or exclusivity during the birth hospitalization. We retrospectively compared exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding plus supplemental formula feeding, and exclusive formula feeding rates for 2249 infants admitted to the MBU at our university teaching hospital during the 5 months before and 8 months after restriction of routine pacifier distribution. Formula supplementation, if not medically indicated, was discouraged per standard practice, but access to formula was not restricted. Of the 2249 infants, 79% were exclusively breastfed from July through November 2010, when pacifiers were routinely distributed. During the 8-month period after pacifier restriction, this proportion decreased significantly to 68% (P pacifier distribution during the newborn hospitalization without also restricting access to formula was associated with decreased exclusive breastfeeding, increased supplemental formula feeding, and increased exclusive formula feeding. Because high-quality, prospective medical literature addressing pacifier use and breastfeeding does not conclusively show an adverse relationship in women who are motivated to breastfeed, more studies are needed to help determine what effect, if any, pacifiers have on breastfeeding initiation and exclusivity in the immediate newborn period.

  9. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  10. Caloric restriction and its mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Hae Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most reliable intervention to preventage-related disorders and extend lifespan. The reduction ofcalories by 10-30% compared to an ad libitum diet is known toextend the longevity of various species from yeast to rodents.The underlying mechanisms by which the benefits of caloricrestriction occur have not yet been clearly defined. However,many studies are being conducted in an attempt to elucidatethese mechanisms, and there are indications that the benefits ofcaloric restriction are related to alteration of the metabolic rateand the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Duringmolecular signaling, insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling,target of rapamycin pathway, adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase signaling, and Sirtuin are focused asunderlying pathways that mediate the benefits of caloricrestriction. Here, we will review the current status of caloricrestriction. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 181-187

  11. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  12. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  13. 9 CFR 78.5 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.5 General restrictions. Cattle may not be moved...

  14. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or...

  15. Problem-Solving Test: Restriction Endonuclease Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    The term "restriction endonuclease mapping" covers a number of related techniques used to identify specific restriction enzyme recognition sites on small DNA molecules. A method for restriction endonuclease mapping of a 1,000-basepair (bp)-long DNA molecule is described in the fictitious experiment of this test. The most important fact needed to…

  16. Restrictive Imputation of Incomplete Survey Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, G.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on finding plausible imputations when there is some restriction posed on the imputation model. In these restrictive situations, current imputation methodology does not lead to satisfactory imputations. The restrictions, and the resulting missing data problems are real-life

  17. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-01

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  18. Restriction Enzyme Mapping: A Simple Student Practical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An experiment that uses the recombinant plasmid pX1108 to illustrate restriction mapping is described. The experiment involves three restriction enzymes and employs single and double restriction enzyme digestions. A list of needed materials, procedures, safety precautions, results, and discussion are included. (KR)

  19. 44 CFR 402.2 - Restricted commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted commodities. 402.2... SHIPMENTS ON AMERICAN FLAG SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT (T-1, INT. 1) § 402.2 Restricted commodities. The restrictions of Transportation Order T-1 apply to the transportation or discharge of (a) commodities on the...

  20. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  1. The Benefits of Calorie Restriction and Calorie Restriction Mimetics as Related to the Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Anekonda, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of calorie restriction without malnutrition seem to possess many beneficial effects in numerous disease states. Recently, studies related to calorie restriction mimetics that biochemically mimic the effects of calorie restriction are also becoming increasingly popular. Both calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics trigger an adaptive response reminiscent of mild-stress or low-dose toxic response, which is frequently referred to as hormesis in the toxicology literature....

  2. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions.

  4. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  5. Measuring Regulatory Restrictions in Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Claire HOLLWEG; Marn-Heong WONG

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the extent of restrictions on trade in logistics services in the ASEAN+6 economies by constructing a logistics regulatory restrictiveness index for each economy that quantifies the extent of government regulations faced by logistics service providers. This is the first study of its kind to construct a regulatory index of the entire logistics sector, which includes the main modes of international transport and customs restrictions. The indices show that large differences ex...

  6. Antenatal risk factor for intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study pregnancy and delivery characteristics in mothers who have given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction. Pregnancy and delivery outcomes were studied in 315 mothers who had given birth to infants with intrauterine growth restriction (a study group. The studies have shown that toxemia, anemia, and preeclampsia prevent physiological pregnancy that concurrent with placental insufficiency leads to serious metabolic disturbances in the mother-placenta-fetus system and eventually lead to intrauterine growth restriction. A set of pathological factors of pregnancy required surgical delivery in mothers with fetal growth restriction.

  7. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  8. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliate restrictions... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate restrictions. (a) General affiliate provisions. As a condition of obtaining and retaining market-based rate...

  9. 46 CFR 184.202 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions. 184.202 Section 184.202 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of... in § 184.240 of this part. The use of these fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting on ferry vessels...

  10. 50 CFR 24.11 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General restrictions. 24.11 Section 24.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... § 24.11 General restrictions. No person shall import, export, or reexport plants at any place other...

  11. 50 CFR 14.11 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General restrictions. 14.11 Section 14.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING....11 General restrictions. Except as otherwise provided in this part, no person may import or export...

  12. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brain of the caloric restricted rats, there was little or no change in the tGSH and GSH, although the GSSG and GSSG/GSH% ratio were increased significantly. These results suggest that aging of rats had been decelerated by caloric restriction due to the decrease in the peroxidative damage in the lungs and brain.

  13. 50 CFR 648.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., lines, or chafing gear, on the top of the regulated portion of a trawl net; except that, one splitting... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.104 Section 648.104... Flounder Fisheries § 648.104 Gear restrictions. (a) General. (1) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a...

  14. 50 CFR 648.123 - Gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limited to, nets, net strengtheners, ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the top of the regulated portion of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.123 Section 648.123... § 648.123 Gear restrictions. (a) Trawl vessel gear restrictions—(1) Minimum mesh size. No owner or...

  15. Isothermal detection of RNA with restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Nakayama, Shizuka; Yitbarek, Saron; Greenfield, Isabel; Sintim, Herman O

    2011-01-07

    Herein, we demonstrate how to detect nucleic acids that do not contain restriction endonuclease recognition sites with restriction endonucleases. We show that the topology of DNA probes used in this detection strategy remarkably affects the efficiency of RNA/DNA detection.

  16. Massively parallel characterization of restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps-Hughes, Nick; Quimby, Aine; Zhu, Zhenyu; Johnson, Eric A

    2013-06-01

    Restriction endonucleases are highly specific in recognizing the particular DNA sequence they act on. However, their activity is affected by sequence context, enzyme concentration and buffer composition. Changes in these factors may lead to either ineffective cleavage at the cognate restriction site or relaxed specificity allowing cleavage of degenerate 'star' sites. Additionally, uncharacterized restriction endonucleases and engineered variants present novel activities. Traditionally, restriction endonuclease activity is assayed on simple substrates such as plasmids and synthesized oligonucleotides. We present and use high-throughput Illumina sequencing-based strategies to assay the sequence specificity and flanking sequence preference of restriction endonucleases. The techniques use fragmented DNA from sequenced genomes to quantify restriction endonuclease cleavage on a complex genomic DNA substrate in a single reaction. By mapping millions of restriction site-flanking reads back to the Escherichia coli and Drosophila melanogaster genomes we were able to quantitatively characterize the cognate and star site activity of EcoRI and MfeI and demonstrate genome-wide decreases in star activity with engineered high-fidelity variants EcoRI-HF and MfeI-HF, as well as quantify the influence on MfeI cleavage conferred by flanking nucleotides. The methods presented are readily applicable to all type II restriction endonucleases that cleave both strands of double-stranded DNA.

  17. Restricted gravity: Abelian projection of Einstein's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    Treating Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group, we decompose the gravitational connection Γμ into the restricted connection made of the potential of the maximal Abelian subgroup H of Lorentz group G and the valence connection made of G/H part of the potential which transforms covariantly under Lorentz gauge transformation. With this we show that Einstein's theory can be decomposed into the restricted gravity made of the restricted connection which has the full Lorentz gauge invariance which has the valence connection as gravitational source. The decomposition shows the existence of a restricted theory of gravitation which has the full general invariance but is much simpler than Einstein's theory. Moreover, it tells that the restricted gravity can be written as an Abelian gauge theory,

  18. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  19. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  20. Exact multi-restricted Schur polynomial correlators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Rajsekhar; Koch, Robert de Mello; Stephanou, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We derive a product rule satisfied by restricted Schur polynomials. We focus mostly on the case that the restricted Schur polynomial is built using two matrices, although our analysis easily extends to more than two matrices. This product rule allows us to compute exact multi-point correlation functions of restricted Schur polynomials, in the free field theory limit. As an example of the use of our formulas, we compute two point functions of certain single trace operators built using two matrices and three point functions of certain restricted Schur polynomials, exactly, in the free field theory limit. Our results suggest that gravitons become strongly coupled at sufficiently high energy, while the restricted Schur polynomials for totally antisymmetric representations remain weakly interacting at these energies. This is in perfect accord with the half-BPS (single matrix) results of hep-th/0512312. Finally, by studying the interaction of two restricted Schur polynomials we suggest a physical interpretation for the labels of the restricted Schur polynomial: the composite operator χ R,(r n ,r m ) (Z,X) is constructed from the half BPS 'partons' χ r n (Z) and χ r m (X).

  1. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  2. 32 CFR 806.24 - Fee restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.24 Fee restrictions. For FOIA purposes, Air Force activities will consider the cost of collecting a fee to be $15 and will not assess requesters' fees for any amount less than $15. ...

  3. Restricted Coherent Risk Measures and Actuarial Solvency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kountzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a general dual representation form for restricted coherent risk measures, and we apply it to a minimization problem of the required solvency capital for an insurance company.

  4. 50 CFR 665.99 - Area restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.99 Area restrictions. Fishing is prohibited in all no-take MPAs. The following U.S. EEZ waters around American Samoa...

  5. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Sqd to produce spatially-restricted Egfr activation...

  6. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Squid to produce spatially-restricted EGFR activation...

  7. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During cogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster local Egfr activation by the spatially-restricted TGFalpha-like ligand Gurken (Grk...

  8. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  9. 7 CFR 982.50 - Restricted obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Control of Distribution § 982.50 Restricted obligation. (a) No handler... procedures as are necessary to facilitate the administration of this option among handlers. (d) Whenever the...

  10. The welfare effects of mobility restrictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2003), s. 685-696 ISSN 1094-2025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : mobility restriction * partnership * search Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2003

  11. Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Daiber, Andreas; Korac, Bato; Li, Huige; Essop, M Faadiel; Laher, Ismail

    2017-10-23

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance. Intermittent fasting is not only more acceptable to patients, but it also prevents some of the adverse effects of chronic calorie restriction, especially malnutrition. There are many somatic and potentially psychologic benefits of fasting or intermittent calorie restriction. However, some behavioral modifications related to abstinence of binge eating following a fasting period are crucial in maintaining the desired favorable outcomes.

  12. Behavioral and Physiological Consequences of Sleep Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F.

    2007-01-01

    Adequate sleep is essential for general healthy functioning. This paper reviews recent research on the effects of chronic sleep restriction on neurobehavioral and physiological functioning and discusses implications for health and lifestyle. Restricting sleep below an individual's optimal time in bed (TIB) can cause a range of neurobehavioral deficits, including lapses of attention, slowed working memory, reduced cognitive throughput, depressed mood, and perseveration of thought. Neurobehavio...

  13. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS)

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Robert; Casillas, Jose; Scales, Gregory; Green, Robert; Niehoff, Mellissa; Fitzgerald, David; Ouellette, David

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy requires a capability for effective and efficient entry control for restricted areas that house critical assets. This thesis describes an Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS) to meet this requirement. System requirements were obtained from existing governing documentation as well as stakeholder inputs. A functional architecture was developed and then modeled using the Imagine That Inc. ExtendSim tool. Factors...

  14. Date restricted queries in web search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    Search engines usually offer a date restricted search on their advanced search pages. But determining the actual update of a web page is not without problems. We conduct a study testing date restricted queries on the search engines Google, Teoma and Yahoo!. We find that these searches fail to work properly in the examined engines. We discuss implications of this for further research and search engine development.

  15. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  16. The design of artificial retroviral restriction factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Melvyn W.; Mortuza, Gulnahar B.; Taylor, Ian A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the ability to bind the retroviral capsid protein, the retroviral restriction factors Fv1, Trim5α and Trim5-CypA share the common property of containing sequences that promote self-association. Otherwise Fv1 and Trim5α appear unrelated. Mutational analyses showed that restriction was invariably lost when changes designed to disrupt the sequences responsible for multimerization were introduced. A novel restriction protein could be obtained by substituting sequences from the self-associating domain of Fv1 for the Trim5 sequences in Trim5-CypA. Similarly, a fusion protein containing cyclophilin A joined to arfaptin2, a protein known to form extended dimers, was also shown to restrict HIV-1. Hence, multimerization of a capsid-binding domain could be the common minimum design feature for capsid-dependent retroviral restriction factors. However, not all domains that promote multimerization can substitute for the N-terminal domains of Fv1 and Trim5α. Moreover, only CypA can provide a capsid-binding site with different N-terminal domains. It is suggested that the spatial relationship between the multiple target binding sites may be important for restriction

  17. Sleep restriction progress to cardiac autonomic imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that night shift work is thought to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and inadequate sleep is a common feature of night shift work. Since it’s more difficult to maintain adequate sleep duration among night watchmen during their working schedule, hence the purpose of our present study was to investigate whether mental stress or fatigue over restricted sleep period in night shift, affects HRV, in order to elucidate on cardiac autonomic modulation among nigh watchmen. With the purpose of this, autonomic activity determined from the levels of the heart rate variability (HRV, and also measured, body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage from skin fold thickness (biceps, triceps, and sub-scapular, supra-iliac among normal sleep watchmen (n = 28 and restricted sleep watchmen (n = 28 at first (1st day, fourth (4th day and seventh (7th day of restricted sleep period. We observed that among restricted sleep individuals, sleepiness was significant increase at 4th day and 7th day when compare to normal sleep individuals, and, there was significant increase in, mean NN, VLF, LF, LF(nu, LF/HF AND significant decrease in SDNN, RMSSD, TSP, HF, and HF(nu at 4th and 7th day of restricted sleep period. In addition to, this variable was more significant increase on 7th day, when compare with 4th day. As well as there was significant negative correlation between LF(nu and HF(nu at subsequent 4th day [r (48 = −0.84; P = 0.01] and 7th day[r (48 = −0.95; P = 0.01] of restricted sleep period. However we didn’t observe any significant variation in BMI, and body fat percentage among restricted sleep individuals when compare to normal sleep individuals with in this restricted sleep periods. Hence we concluded that partial sleep loss may cause autonomic imbalance represented by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity; as revealed by altered HRV indices observed in this study. Keywords: Sleep

  18. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  19. Biomolecular computers with multiple restriction enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sakowski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of conventional, silicon-based computers has several limitations, including some related to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the von Neumann “bottleneck”. Biomolecular computers based on DNA and proteins are largely free of these disadvantages and, along with quantum computers, are reasonable alternatives to their conventional counterparts in some applications. The idea of a DNA computer proposed by Ehud Shapiro’s group at the Weizmann Institute of Science was developed using one restriction enzyme as hardware and DNA fragments (the transition molecules as software and input/output signals. This computer represented a two-state two-symbol finite automaton that was subsequently extended by using two restriction enzymes. In this paper, we propose the idea of a multistate biomolecular computer with multiple commercially available restriction enzymes as hardware. Additionally, an algorithmic method for the construction of transition molecules in the DNA computer based on the use of multiple restriction enzymes is presented. We use this method to construct multistate, biomolecular, nondeterministic finite automata with four commercially available restriction enzymes as hardware. We also describe an experimental applicaton of this theoretical model to a biomolecular finite automaton made of four endonucleases.

  20. Biomolecular computers with multiple restriction enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Sebastian; Krasinski, Tadeusz; Waldmajer, Jacek; Sarnik, Joanna; Blasiak, Janusz; Poplawski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The development of conventional, silicon-based computers has several limitations, including some related to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the von Neumann “bottleneck”. Biomolecular computers based on DNA and proteins are largely free of these disadvantages and, along with quantum computers, are reasonable alternatives to their conventional counterparts in some applications. The idea of a DNA computer proposed by Ehud Shapiro’s group at the Weizmann Institute of Science was developed using one restriction enzyme as hardware and DNA fragments (the transition molecules) as software and input/output signals. This computer represented a two-state two-symbol finite automaton that was subsequently extended by using two restriction enzymes. In this paper, we propose the idea of a multistate biomolecular computer with multiple commercially available restriction enzymes as hardware. Additionally, an algorithmic method for the construction of transition molecules in the DNA computer based on the use of multiple restriction enzymes is presented. We use this method to construct multistate, biomolecular, nondeterministic finite automata with four commercially available restriction enzymes as hardware. We also describe an experimental applicaton of this theoretical model to a biomolecular finite automaton made of four endonucleases. PMID:29064510

  1. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Münk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors. Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors.

  2. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  3. Bronchial responsiveness in patients with restrictive spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddissi, Jean I; Elya, Marwan K; Farooq, Saif U; Youness, Houssein A; Jones, Kellie R; Awab, Ahmed; Kinasewitz, Gary T

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in PFT after bronchodilators is characteristic of obstructive airway diseases such as COPD. However, improvement in patients with restrictive pattern is occasionally seen. We aim to determine the clinical significance of a bronchodilator responsive restrictive defect. Patients with restrictive spirometry and a bronchodilator study were identified at the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma City VAMC between September 2003 and December 2009. Restriction was defined as a decreased FVC and FEV1, with normal FEV1/FVC. Responsiveness to bronchodilators was defined as an improvement in FEV1 and/or FVC of at least 12% and 200 mL. Patients with lung volume measurements had their clinical and radiographic records reviewed. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. Most were current or ex-smokers, with most being on bronchodilators. The average FVC and FEV1 were 65 ± 11% and 62 ± 10% of the predicted, respectively. Most patients (66%) had a normal TLC, averaging 90 ± 16% of the predicted. RV, RV/TLC, and the TLC-VA values strongly suggested an obstructive defect. Reversible restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be a variant of obstructive lung disease in which early airway closure results in air trapping and low FVC. In symptomatic patients, a therapeutic trial of bronchodilators may be beneficial.

  4. Biomolecular computers with multiple restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Sebastian; Krasinski, Tadeusz; Waldmajer, Jacek; Sarnik, Joanna; Blasiak, Janusz; Poplawski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The development of conventional, silicon-based computers has several limitations, including some related to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the von Neumann "bottleneck". Biomolecular computers based on DNA and proteins are largely free of these disadvantages and, along with quantum computers, are reasonable alternatives to their conventional counterparts in some applications. The idea of a DNA computer proposed by Ehud Shapiro's group at the Weizmann Institute of Science was developed using one restriction enzyme as hardware and DNA fragments (the transition molecules) as software and input/output signals. This computer represented a two-state two-symbol finite automaton that was subsequently extended by using two restriction enzymes. In this paper, we propose the idea of a multistate biomolecular computer with multiple commercially available restriction enzymes as hardware. Additionally, an algorithmic method for the construction of transition molecules in the DNA computer based on the use of multiple restriction enzymes is presented. We use this method to construct multistate, biomolecular, nondeterministic finite automata with four commercially available restriction enzymes as hardware. We also describe an experimental applicaton of this theoretical model to a biomolecular finite automaton made of four endonucleases.

  5. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Methionine Restriction: Novel Treatment for Hormone Independent Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epner, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    .... We used Southern blot analysis with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, western blot analysis, and RT-PCR to determine whether methionine restriction restored expression of growth inhibitory...

  7. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  9. Dietary restriction increases variability in longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, D.; Simpson, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional environments, particularly those experienced during early life, are hypothesized to affect longevity. A recent cross-taxa meta-analysis found that, depending upon circumstance, average longevity may be increased or decreased by early-life dietary restriction. Unstudied are the effects of diet during development on among-individual variance in longevity. Here, we address this issue using emerging methods for meta-analysis of variance. We found that, in general, standard deviation (s.d.) in longevity is around 8% higher under early-life dietary restriction than a standard diet. The effects became especially profound when dietary insults were experienced prenatally (s.d. increased by 29%) and/or extended into adulthood (s.d. increased by 36.6%). Early-life dietary restriction may generate variance in longevity as a result of increased variance in resource acquisition or allocation, but the mechanisms underlying these largely overlooked patterns clearly warrant elucidation. PMID:28298596

  10. Liberal or restrictive transfusion after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gavin J; Pike, Katie; Rogers, Chris A; Wordsworth, Sarah; Stokes, Elizabeth A; Angelini, Gianni D; Reeves, Barnaby C

    2015-03-12

    Whether a restrictive threshold for hemoglobin level in red-cell transfusions, as compared with a liberal threshold, reduces postoperative morbidity and health care costs after cardiac surgery is uncertain. We conducted a multicenter, parallel-group trial in which patients older than 16 years of age who were undergoing nonemergency cardiac surgery were recruited from 17 centers in the United Kingdom. Patients with a postoperative hemoglobin level of less than 9 g per deciliter were randomly assigned to a restrictive transfusion threshold (hemoglobin level liberal transfusion threshold (hemoglobin level liberal-threshold group. Transfusion rates after randomization were 53.4% and 92.2% in the two groups, respectively. The primary outcome occurred in 35.1% of the patients in the restrictive-threshold group and 33.0% of the patients in the liberal-threshold group (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.34; P=0.30); there was no indication of heterogeneity according to subgroup. There were more deaths in the restrictive-threshold group than in the liberal-threshold group (4.2% vs. 2.6%; hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.67; P=0.045). Serious postoperative complications, excluding primary-outcome events, occurred in 35.7% of participants in the restrictive-threshold group and 34.2% of participants in the liberal-threshold group. Total costs did not differ significantly between the groups. A restrictive transfusion threshold after cardiac surgery was not superior to a liberal threshold with respect to morbidity or health care costs. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment program; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN70923932.).

  11. Effects of restricted and free suckling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of restricted and free suckling in comparison with non-suckling on production and behaviour of cow and calf in dairy production systems. In the first and second study cows of Zebu × Holstein (n=24) and Holstein breed (n=27) and their calves were allocated to two treatments, restricted suckling (RS) and artificial rearing (AR) and studied during eight weeks. In the first study calves were present during milking and RS calves suckled after milking...

  12. Sleep restriction progress to cardiac autonomic imbalance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since it's more difficult to maintain adequate sleep duration among night watchmen during their working schedule, hence the purpose of our present study was to investigate whether mental stress or fatigue over restricted sleep period in night shift, affects HRV, in order to elucidate on cardiac autonomic modulation among ...

  13. 12 CFR 1805.808 - Lobbying restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lobbying restrictions. 1805.808 Section 1805.808 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1805.808 Lobbying...

  14. Real moments of the restrictive factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 119; Issue 4. Real Moments of the Restrictive Factor. Andrew Ledoan Alexandru Zaharescu. Volume 119 Issue 4 September 2009 pp 559-566 ...

  15. 50 CFR 16.3 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Introduction § 16.3 General restrictions. Any importation or transportation of live... and welfare of human beings, to the interest of forestry, agriculture, and horticulture, and to the... into or the transportation of live wildlife or eggs thereof between the continental United States, the...

  16. On restricted context-free grammars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dassow, J.; Masopust, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2012), s. 293-304 ISSN 0022-0000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : context-free grammars * derivation restriction * normal forms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000011000572

  17. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...

  18. Perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Many stroke survivors do not participate in everyday life activities. Objective: To assess the perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and autonomy among adult stroke survivors in Ghana. Method: The “Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire” (IPAQ) instrument was administered in a ...

  19. Rat Neutrophil Phagocytosis Following Feed Restriction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Berger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2002), s. 172-177 ISSN 0938-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : circulating neutrophil * diet restriction * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2001

  20. Employees, Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, Anselm; Heath, C.

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the protection of trade secrets and the law on post-contractual non-compete clauses (restrictive covenants) in an employment context. The topic is approached on an international and comparative level (chapters 1–3 and 10), and by way of country reports covering several European and

  1. 47 CFR 64.1200 - Delivery restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Advertising § 64.1200 Delivery restrictions. (a) No person or entity may: (1) Initiate any telephone call... telephone service, specialized mobile radio service, or other radio common carrier service, or any service... expect them to be included given the identification of the caller and the product being advertised. (6...

  2. An Adjustment Restriction on Fish Quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Diana; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Haijema, Rene; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Management objectives of the European Union for North Sea fish stocks are shifting towards considering both biological sustainability and economic benefits. As part of multiannual management plans, an adjustment restriction on fish quota has been introduced. Its objective is to obtain an

  3. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions..., administrative, or legislative proceedings conducted by any Federal, State, or local authority. Any disclosure... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be acknowledged...

  4. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 660.511 Catch restrictions. (a) All CPS harvested shoreward of the outer boundary of the EEZ (0-200... salmon (Salmonidae) and Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) are prohibited species and must be... guideline for Pacific sardine is allocated coastwide within the fishery management area. (g) On July 1, 40...

  5. 50 CFR 665.599 - Area restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MPAs. The following U.S. EEZ waters in the Western Pacific Region are low-use MPAs: All waters between..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.599 Area restrictions. (a) Fishing is prohibited in all no-take MPAs. The following U.S. EEZ...

  6. 50 CFR 654.22 - Gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 654.22 Section 654.22..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures § 654.22 Gear... be located on the top horizontal section of the trap. If the throat is longer in one dimension, the...

  7. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyatt, G.A.K.; Kiers, E.T.; Gardner, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the

  8. Determination of genotype differences through restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tyrosinase gene or C locus has long been implicated in the coat colour determination. This gene a copper-containing enzyme located on chromosome 11q14.3 is expressed in melanocytes and controls the major steps in pigment production. In camel, C locus a restriction site provoked by the T variant of the mutation was ...

  9. Restrictiveness relative to notions of interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incurvati, L.; Löwe, B.

    Maddy gave a semi-formal account of restrictiveness by defining a formal notion based on a class of interpretations and explaining how to handle false positives and false negatives. Recently, Hamkins pointed out some structural issues with Maddy’s definition. We look at Maddy’s formal definitions

  10. 46 CFR 108.193 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solid, close-fitted doors or hatches. (b) No access, vent, or sounding tube from a fuel or oil tank may... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions. 108.193 Section 108.193 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT...

  11. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  12. Canonical Partitions in the Restricted Linear Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Genugten, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the linear model y = X + " under the restriction C = 0 a canonical partition C = [C0;C1] of the rows of C admits a simple representation of linear subspaces of values = X . Its use is shown for the identification, estimating and testing of linear combinations DB. Results are derived without

  13. Full Inclusion: The Least Restrictive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullings, Shirley E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the phenomenological study was to examine elementary educators' perceptions of full inclusion as the least restrictive environment for students with disabilities. Thirty-six teachers and administrators participated in interviews and responded to multiple-choice survey items. The recorded data from the interviews were…

  14. 38 CFR 1.462 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.462 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which §§ 1..., infection with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia may be acknowledged only if the patient's written consent is... with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia. (2) Any answer to a request for a disclosure of patient records...

  15. Restricted liberty, parental choice and homeschooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; Karsten, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors carefully study the problem of liberty as it applies to school choice, and whether there ought to be restricted liberty in the case of homeschooling. They examine three prominent concerns that might be brought against homeschooling, viz., that it aggravates social

  16. Restricted Liberty, Parental Choice and Homeschooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors carefully study the problem of liberty as it applies to school choice, and whether there ought to be restricted liberty in the case of homeschooling. They examine three prominent concerns that might be brought against homeschooling, viz., that it aggravates social inequality, worsens societal conflict and works against…

  17. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted articles. 322.28... EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.28 General requirements; restricted articles. (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2...

  18. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted articles. 1 319.75-2 Section 319.75-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-2 Restricted articles. 1 1 The importation of restricted articles may be subject to prohibitions or restrictions under...

  19. Pattern of Motion Restriction in Nigerian Patients with Knee Osteoar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    SUMMARY. In the Western population, knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been shown to present a characteristic passive motion restriction pattern, called the capsular pattern (extension restriction to flexion restriction ratio ranging from. 0.03 to 0.50). The pattern of motion restriction of Nigerian patients with OA has not been ...

  20. FAQs about Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is paralysis? What is paraplegia? What is tetraplegia? What is a “complete” spinal cord injury? What ... What is paralysis? What is paraplegia? What is tetraplegia? What is a “complete” spinal cord injury? What ...

  1. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Compartir If a co-worker is diagnosed with scabies, what precautions must be taken? Should the office ... guidelines in case an employee is diagnosed with scabies. Can CDC provide the rules and regulations for ...

  2. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spread lice? Can swimming spread lice? What are head lice? The head louse, or Pediculus humanus capitis , ... spread disease. Who is at risk for getting head lice? Head lice are found worldwide. In the ...

  3. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine is best? Is mayonnaise effective for treating head lice? CDC does not have clear scientific evidence ... effective form of treatment. If the treatment for head lice doesn't seem to be working, does ...

  4. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typhus still exists in places where climate, chronic poverty, and social customs or war and social upheaval ... Page last updated: September 24, 2013 Content source: Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Global Activities Sub-Saharan Africa President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) Kenya Malawi Tanzania Malaria in Pregnancy in Latin ... planning and implementation of the President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI), a $3 billion initiative to rapidly increase malaria ...

  6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should wear tightly fitting disposable surgical masks. If surgical masks are not available, even makeshift face coverings made of layers of cloth may be helpful in an emergency. People who have been exposed to a contagious ...

  7. FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions regarding documents requested ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    5) Can I submit the letter of affiliation in Spanish? 6) I have two research supervisors. Do both supervisors have to provide individual letters of approval or can they write a joint letter? 7) Can my research supervisor send the letter of approval directly to IDRC? 8) Do you accept scanned copies of transcripts sent by email, ...

  8. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on ... after concussion, such as a history of migraines, depression, mood disorders, or anxiety, as well as learning ...

  9. Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treponema pallidum : a comparison of functional genomics, environmental adaptations, and pathogenic mechanisms. J Clin Invest 107: 651- ... This does not mean that the test is bad, only that it needs to be used correctly. ...

  10. Adaptation funding and development assistance: some FAQs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul

    2008-11-15

    It's becoming ever clearer that development and climate change are intertwined issues. Unsustainable development drives climate change; sustainable development can reduce vulnerability to it. Development issues can constrain capacity to adapt to climate change; climate impacts can be a barrier to development. So adaptation to climate impacts is increasingly seen as part of good development practice – and development to improve the lives and resource access of people facing climate challenges is viewed as a prerequisite for successful adaptation. But when it comes to adaptation funding, confusion and contention remain over the role development institutions play.

  11. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing Violence Pressure Washer Safety Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare ... the skin. What should I do if I work in a hot environment? Pace yourself. If you ...

  12. Toxocariasis (also known as Roundworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of eggs that contaminate the environment through the animal's feces. Over a 2 to 4 week time period, infective larvae develop in the eggs. Toxocariasis is not spread by person-to-person contact like a cold or the flu. What should I do if I think I have toxocariasis? See your health care provider ...

  13. Breastfeeding FAQs: How Much and How Often

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You also could give your little one a pacifier if your child doesn't seem to be hungry. Because pacifiers are associated with a lower risk of sudden ... recommend letting babies go to sleep with a pacifier. But only do this after breastfeeding is well ...

  14. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: February 4, 2014 Page ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and ...

  15. IDRC careers FAQ | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1. What is important to mention in my application? You should provide concrete examples of how your background meets the position's education, experience and language requirements. 2. How do I know if my application has been received? When you apply on-line for a position, you will receive an automatic confirmation.

  16. FAQs of Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016). Trying to conceive soon after a pregnancy loss may increase chances of live birth. Retrieved July 24, 2017, from ... Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss Media Advisory: Air pollution exposure in early pregnancy ...

  17. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... South Dakota State University team in Brookings, South Dakota. Kevin was fatally injured in a skateboarding accident shortly before the beginning of his junior year. Although Kevin’s accident was tragic, he answered the prayers of many people who were, at the same time, waiting for ...

  18. FAQ about Recreational Therapy/Therapeutic Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MS. The association provides a vast array of membership services focusing on professional practice, professional development, external affairs, advocacy, treatment networking, and educational services. Specifically, ATRA leads the ...

  19. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can I start giving my baby water? Print en español Preguntas frecuentes sobre la alimentación con fórmula: Cómo comenzar la alimentación con sólidos y leche Whether you've decided to formula feed your ...

  20. Tracks FAQs: What is Modeled Air Data?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss modeled air data. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 4/25/2011.

  1. FAQS. III: Groupwork in Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Richard M.; Brent, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Offers ideas for getting students at remote sites to collaborate when attending lectures in a synchronous course, working through lessons in an asynchronous course, and doing homework in either distance mode. (ASK)

  2. Pregnancy Precautions: FAQs on Pregnancy Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test your water, the dust in your home, the soil outside, and/or the paint around your home ... condition in which the placenta (the blood-rich structure that nourishes the baby) is situated down so low that it ...

  3. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS): Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Preterm Labor and Birth Condition Information NICHD Research Information ... secondary problems due to extreme obesity Diabetes Sleep apnea Obsessive-compulsive disorder Infertility Autism-spectrum disorders Does ...

  4. FAQ for Cities and climate change call

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nicole Lulham

    Le CRDI conclura un accord de subvention avec l'organisation principale pour les travaux de recherche proposés. L'organisation principale doit être une organisation axée sur la recherche du secteur universitaire, gouvernemental ou privé, ou encore de la société civile, et doit être établie dans l'un des pays admissibles ...

  5. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Care of Patients with Lymphedema, Elephantiasis or Hydrocele Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates To receive ... prevented with appropriate skin hygiene. Men can develop hydrocele or swelling of the scrotum due to infection ...

  6. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  7. 6 FAQs About Helping Someone Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people want to help their friends and loved ones quit smoking. But, they often don't know how. Here are 6 frequently asked questions about how to help someone quit smoking to help you get the information you need.

  8. Trichinellosis (also known as Trichinosis) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eggs develop into immature worms, travel through the arteries, and are transported to muscles. Within the muscles, ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  9. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Demeyer, Serge; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  10. Influence of Sleep Restriction on Weight Loss Outcomes Associated with Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Sparks, Joshua R; Bowyer, Kimberly P; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2018-02-09

    To examine the effects of moderate sleep restriction on body weight, body composition, and metabolic variables in individuals undergoing caloric restriction. Overweight or obese adults were randomized to an 8-week caloric restriction (CR) regimen alone (n=15) or combined with sleep restriction (CR+SR) (n=21). All participants were instructed to restrict daily calorie intake to 95% of their measured resting metabolic rate. Participants in the CR+SR group were also instructed to reduce time in bed on 5 nights and to sleep ad libitum on the other 2 nights each week. The CR+SR group reduced sleep by 57±36 minutes per day during sleep restriction days, and increased sleep by 59±38 minutes per day during ad libitum sleep days, resulting in a sleep reduction of 169±75 minutes per week. The CR and CR+SR groups lost similar amounts of weight, lean mass, and fat mass. However, the proportion of total mass lost as fat was significantly greater (p=0.016) in the CR group. This proportion was greater than body fat percentage at baseline for the CR (p = 0.0035) but not the CR+SR group. Resting respiratory quotient was reduced (p=0.033) only in CR, and fasting leptin concentration was reduced only in CR+SR (p=0.029). Approximately one hour of sleep restriction on 5 nights a week led to less proportion of fat mass loss in individuals undergoing hypocaloric weight loss, despite similar weight loss. Sleep restriction may adversely affect changes in body composition and "catch-up" sleep may not completely reverse it. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02413866). © Sleep Research Society 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  12. 'Liberal' vs. 'restrictive' perioperative fluid therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Secher, N H; Kehlet, H

    2009-01-01

    clinical trials and cited studies, comparing two different fixed fluid volumes on post-operative clinical outcome in major surgery. Studies were assessed for the type of surgery, primary and secondary outcome endpoints, the type and volume of administered fluid and the definition of the perioperative...... period. Also, information regarding perioperative care and type of anaesthesia was assessed. RESULTS: In the seven randomized studies identified, the range of the liberal intraoperative fluid regimen was from 2750 to 5388 ml compared with 998 to 2740 ml for the restrictive fluid regimen. The period...... for fluid therapy and outcome endpoints were inconsistently defined and only two studies reported perioperative care principles and discharge criteria. Three studies found an improved outcome (morbidity/hospital stay) with a restrictive fluid regimen whereas two studies found no difference and two studies...

  13. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR. The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health.

  14. Competition and evolution in restricted space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgerini, F L; Crokidakis, N

    2014-01-01

    We study the competition and the evolution of nodes embedded in Euclidean restricted spaces. The population evolves by a branching process in which new nodes are generated when up to two new nodes are attached to the previous ones at each time unit. The competition in the population is introduced by considering the effect of overcrowding of nodes in the embedding space. The branching process is suppressed if the newborn node is closer than a distance ξ to the previous nodes. This rule may be relevant to describe a competition for resources, limiting the density of individuals and therefore the total population. This results in an exponential growth in the initial period, and, after some crossover time, approaching some limiting value. Our results show that the competition among the nodes associated with geometric restrictions can even, for certain conditions, lead the entire population to extinction. (paper)

  15. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting......) were measured before and after WL. Results: Changes in body weight (≈12.5% WL) and composition were similar in both groups. Fasting RQ and ExEff at 10 W increased in both groups. Losing weight, either by IER or CER dieting, did not induce significant changes in subjective appetite ratings. RMR...

  16. An unusual ECG pattern in restrictive cardimyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Selvaganesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common type of primary cardiomyopathies. Electrocardiographic recording is abnormal in 99% of patients with RCM. Biatrial enlargement, obliquely elevated ST segment with notched or biphasic late peaking T waves are considered characteristic ECG finding. Significant ST depression with T inversion mimicking subendocardial ischemia has also been reported in patients with RCM and is even suggested as a predictor of sudden cardiac death. We noted a similar ECG pattern in a 16 yr girl with Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy. Coronaries were normal, stress perfusion imaging did not show any perfusion defect. This diffuse resting ST depression with T inversion in precordial & inferior leads along with ST elevation in aVR was persistent for more than six months.

  17. Restriction endonucleases: classification, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Raymond J

    2003-03-01

    Restriction endonucleases have become a fundamental tool of molecular biology with many commercial vendors and extensive product lines. While a significant amount has been learned about restriction enzyme diversity, genomic organization, and mechanism, these continue to be active areas of research and assist in classification efforts. More recently, one focus has been their exquisite specificity for the proper recognition sequence and the lack of homology among enzymes recognizing the same DNA sequence. Some questions also remain regarding in vivo function. Site-directed mutagenesis and fusion proteins based on known endonucleases show promise for custom-designed cleavage. An understanding of the enzymes and their properties can improve their productive application by maintaining critical digest parameters and enhancing or avoiding alternative activities.

  18. Counting Calories in Drosophila Diet Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  19. Programmable DNA-Guided Artificial Restriction Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enghiad, Behnam; Zhao, Huimin

    2017-05-19

    Restriction enzymes are essential tools for recombinant DNA technology that have revolutionized modern biological research. However, they have limited sequence specificity and availability. Here we report a Pyrococcus furiosus Argonaute (PfAgo) based platform for generating artificial restriction enzymes (AREs) capable of recognizing and cleaving DNA sequences at virtually any arbitrary site and generating defined sticky ends of varying length. Short DNA guides are used to direct PfAgo to target sites for cleavage at high temperatures (>87 °C) followed by reannealing of the cleaved single stranded DNAs. We used this platform to generate over 18 AREs for DNA fingerprinting and molecular cloning of PCR-amplified or genomic DNAs. These AREs work as efficiently as their naturally occurring counterparts, and some of them even do not have any naturally occurring counterparts, demonstrating easy programmability, generality, versatility, and high efficiency for this new technology.

  20. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  1. Investment Restrictions and Contagion in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ilyina

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) to analyze an optimal portfolio rebalancing by a fund manager in response to a "volatility shock" in one of the asset markets, under sufficiently realistic assumptions about the fund manager's performance criteria and investment restrictions; and (2) to analyze the sensitivity of the equilibrium price of an asset to shocks originating in other fundamentally unrelated asset markets for a given mix of common investors. The analysis confirms that certain com...

  2. Will calorie restriction work in humans?

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, Edda; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Calorie Restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging and increases average and maximal lifespan in simple model organisms and rodents. In rhesus monkeys long-term CR reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, and protects against age-associated sarcopenia and neurodegeneration. However, so far CR significantly increased average lifespan only in the Wisconsin, but not in the NIA monkey study. Differences in diet composition and study design between the 2 ...

  3. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  4. Mechanistic insight into Type I restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youell, James; Firman, Keith

    2012-06-01

    Restriction and modification are two opposing activities that are used to protect bacteria from cellular invasion by DNA (e.g. bacteriophage infection). Restriction activity involves cleavage of the DNA; while modification activity is the mechanism used to "mark" host DNA and involves DNA methylation. The study of Type I restriction enzymes has often been seen as an esoteric exercise and this reflects some of their more unusual properties - non-stoichiometric (non-catalytic) cleavage of the DNA substrate, random cleavage of DNA, a massive ATPase activity, and the ability to both cleave DNA and methylate DNA. Yet these enzymes have been found in many bacteria and are very efficient as a means of protecting bacteria against bacteriophage infection, indicating they are successful enzymes. In this review, we summarise recent work on the mechanisms of action, describe switching of function and review their mechanism of action. We also discuss structural rearrangements and cellular localisation, which provide powerful mechanisms for controlling the enzyme activity. Finally, we speculate as to their involvement in recombination and discuss their relationship to helicase enzymes.

  5. Team Formation and Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Turner, Kagan

    2003-01-01

    A collective of agents often needs to maximize a "world utility" function which rates the performance of an entire system, while subject to communication restrictions among the agents. Such communication restrictions make it difficult for agents which try to pursue their own "private" utilities to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. Team formation presents a solution to this problem, where by joining other agents, an agent can significantly increase its knowledge about the environment and improve its chances of both optimizing its own utility and that its doing so will contribute to the world utility. In this article we show how utilities that have been previously shown to be effective in collectives can be modified to be more effective in domains with moderate communication restrictions resulting in performance improvements of up to 75%. Additionally we show that even severe communication constraints can be overcome by forming teams where each agent of a team shares the same utility, increasing performance an additional 25%. We show that utilities and team sizes can be manipulated to form the best compromise between how "aligned" an agent s utility is with the world utility and how easily an agent can learn that utility.

  6. Solitary restriction endonucleases in prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershova, Anna S; Karyagina, Anna S; Vasiliev, Mikhail O; Lyashchuk, Alexander M; Lunin, Vladimir G; Spirin, Sergey A; Alexeevski, Andrei V

    2012-11-01

    Prokaryotic restriction-modification (R-M) systems defend the host cell from the invasion of a foreign DNA. They comprise two enzymatic activities: specific DNA cleavage activity and DNA methylation activity preventing cleavage. Typically, these activities are provided by two separate enzymes: a DNA methyltransferase (MTase) and a restriction endonuclease (RE). In the absence of a corresponding MTase, an RE of Type II R-M system is highly toxic for the cell. Genes of the R-M system are linked in the genome in the vast majority of annotated cases. There are only a few reported cases in which the genes of MTase and RE from one R-M system are not linked. Nevertheless, a few hundreds solitary RE genes are present in the Restriction Enzyme Database (http://rebase.neb.com) annotations. Using the comparative genomic approach, we analysed 272 solitary RE genes. For 57 solitary RE genes we predicted corresponding MTase genes located distantly in a genome. Of the 272 solitary RE genes, 99 are likely to be fragments of RE genes. Various explanations for the existence of the remaining 116 solitary RE genes are also discussed.

  7. Type I restriction enzymes and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenen, Wil A M; Dryden, David T F; Raleigh, Elisabeth A; Wilson, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Type I restriction enzymes (REases) are large pentameric proteins with separate restriction (R), methylation (M) and DNA sequence-recognition (S) subunits. They were the first REases to be discovered and purified, but unlike the enormously useful Type II REases, they have yet to find a place in the enzymatic toolbox of molecular biologists. Type I enzymes have been difficult to characterize, but this is changing as genome analysis reveals their genes, and methylome analysis reveals their recognition sequences. Several Type I REases have been studied in detail and what has been learned about them invites greater attention. In this article, we discuss aspects of the biochemistry, biology and regulation of Type I REases, and of the mechanisms that bacteriophages and plasmids have evolved to evade them. Type I REases have a remarkable ability to change sequence specificity by domain shuffling and rearrangements. We summarize the classic experiments and observations that led to this discovery, and we discuss how this ability depends on the modular organizations of the enzymes and of their S subunits. Finally, we describe examples of Type II restriction-modification systems that have features in common with Type I enzymes, with emphasis on the varied Type IIG enzymes.

  8. Restriction enzyme-mediated DNA family shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendorff, James B Y H; Johnston, Wayne A; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2014-01-01

    DNA shuffling is an established recombinatorial method that was originally developed to increase the speed of directed evolution experiments beyond what could be accomplished using error-prone PCR alone. To achieve this, mutated copies of a protein-coding sequence are fragmented with DNase I and the fragments are then reassembled in a PCR without primers. The fragments anneal where there is sufficient sequence identity, resulting in full-length variants of the original gene that have inherited mutations from multiple templates. Subsequent studies demonstrated that directed evolution could be further accelerated by shuffling similar native protein-coding sequences from the same gene family, rather than mutated variants of a single gene. Generally at least 65-75 % global identity between parental sequences is required in DNA family shuffling, with recombination mostly occurring at sites with at least five consecutive nucleotides of local identity. Since DNA shuffling was originally developed, many variations on the method have been published. In particular, the use of restriction enzymes in the fragmentation step allows for greater customization of fragment lengths than DNase I digestion and avoids the risk that parental sequences may be over-digested into unusable very small fragments. Restriction enzyme-mediated fragmentation also reduces the occurrence of undigested parental sequences that would otherwise reduce the number of unique variants in the resulting library. In the current chapter, we provide a brief overview of the alternative methods currently available for DNA shuffling as well as a protocol presented here that improves on several previous implementations of restriction enzyme-mediated DNA family shuffling, in particular with regard to purification of DNA fragments for reassembly.

  9. Identifying product order with restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Jia; Li, Zhenyu; Zhu, Qiong; Luo, Mingxing; Wan, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Unsupervised machine learning via a restricted Boltzmann machine is a useful tool in distinguishing an ordered phase from a disordered phase. Here we study its application on the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller model, which features a partially ordered product phase. We train the neural network with spin configuration data generated by Monte Carlo simulations and show that distinct features of the product phase can be learned from nonergodic samples resulting from symmetry breaking. Careful analysis of the weight matrices inspires us to define a nontrivial machine-learning motivated quantity of the product form, which resembles the conventional product order parameter.

  10. Third sound in a restricted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, P.W.; Draisma, W.A.; Pinkse, P.W.H.; Beelen, H. van; Jochemsen, R.; Frossati, G.

    1992-01-01

    Bergman's general treatment of third sound waves has been extended to a (restricted) parallel plate geometry. In a parallel plate geometry two independent third sound modes can propagate: a symmetric and an antisymmetric one. Calculations show that at temperatures below 1 K the antisymmetric mode carries the most important part of the temperature amplitude. Because of the relatively strong substrate influence the temperature amplitude of the symmetric mode is suppressed. The ΔT/Δh versus T measurements by Laheurte et al. and of the ΔT/Δh versus ω measurements by Ellis et al. are explained. 7 refs., 2 figs

  11. Non-integrability of restricted double pendula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowiak, Tomasz, E-mail: stachowiak@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics PAS, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Szumiński, Wojciech, E-mail: uz88szuminski@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, PL-65-407 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2015-12-18

    We consider two special types of double pendula, with the motion of masses restricted to various surfaces. In order to get quick insight into the dynamics of the considered systems the Poincaré cross sections as well as bifurcation diagrams have been used. The numerical computations show that both models are chaotic which suggests that they are not integrable. We give an analytic proof of this fact checking the properties of the differential Galois group of the system's variational equations along a particular non-equilibrium solution.

  12. A User-Friendly Method for Teaching Restriction Enzyme Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrman, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a teaching progression that enhances learning through low-cost, manipulative transparencies. Discussed is instruction about restriction enzymes, plasmids, cutting plasmids, plasmid maps, recording data, and mapping restriction sites. Mapping wheels for student use is included. (CW)

  13. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    .... This report surveys changes to the travel restrictions dating back to the 1960s, summarizes major arguments for and against lifting such restrictions, and tracks legislative initiatives to ease...

  14. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    ... to academic course work. This report surveys changes to the travel restrictions dating back to the 1960s, summarizes major arguments for and against lifting such restrictions, and tracks legislative initiatives...

  15. Restricted Interval Guelph permeameter: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    A constant head permeameter system has been developed for use in small diameter boreholes with any orientation. It is based upon the original Guelph permeameter concept of using a Mariotte siphon reservoir to control the applied head. The new tool, called a Restricted Interval Guelph (RIG) permeameter uses either a single pneumatic packer or straddle packer to restrict the area through which water is allowed to flow so that the borehole wetted area is independent of the applied head. The RIG permeameter has been used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in the nonwelded rhyolitic Paintbrush Tuff. Analysis of the acquired data is based upon saturated-unsaturated flow theory that relies upon the quasi-linear approximation to estimate field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) and the a parameter (sorptive number) of the exponential relative hydraulic conductivity pressure head relationship. These results are compared with a numerical model based upon the solution of the Richards equation using a van Genuchten capillary pressure-saturation formulation. The numerical model incorporates laboratory capillary pressure versus saturation functions measured from cores taken from nearby boreholes. Comparison between the analytical and numerical approaches shows that the simple analytic model is valid for analyzing the data collected. Sensitivity analysis performed with the numerical model shows that the RIG permeameter is an effective tool for estimating permeability and sorptive number for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff

  16. Can we restrict the health care menu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R

    1994-02-01

    The case of Britain's National Health Service is used to illuminate the cross-national debate about whether the availability of health care should be restricted and, if so, how this should be done. Traditionally, the NHS relied on implicit rationing by clinicians within budgetary constraints set by government. However, the logic of the 1989 reforms appeared to require explicit decisions about the packages of health care to be provided to local populations. In practice, purchasers have refused to define such packages. Explicit rationing remains very much the exception. Exploring the reasons for this suggests that defining a restricted menu of health care, by adopting a cost-utility approach and excluding specific procedures or forms of treatment on the Oregon model, is only one of many policy options. There is a large repertory of policy tools for balancing demands and resources, ranging from diluting the intensity of treatment to its earlier termination. Given that health care is characterised by uncertainty, lack of information about outcomes and patient heterogeneity, it may therefore be more 'rational' to diffuse decision-making among clinicians and managers than to try to move towards a centrally determined menu of entitlements.

  17. Communication restriction in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda; Van Dulm, Ondene; Robb, Michael P; Ormond, Tika

    2015-07-01

    This study explored communication restriction in adults with stuttering (AWS) by means of typical language measures obtained using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts - New Zealand (SALT-NZ) software, as well as systemic functional linguistics (SFL) analyses. The areas of language productivity and complexity, modality (i.e. linguistic politeness) and the language of appraisal were compared between AWS and typically fluent speakers (adults with no stuttering (AWNS)). Ten-minute conversational samples were obtained from 20 AWS and 20 age- and sex-matched AWNS. Transcripts were analysed for quantity and complexity of verbal output, and frequency of use of modality and appraisal resource subtypes. Means comparison and correlation analyses were conducted using grouped data. AWS produced less language and less complex language than AWNS, measured by SALT-NZ and SFL indices. AWS also differed from AWNS in their use of modality resources to express politeness - they produced fewer modal operators and more comment adjuncts than AWNS. A smaller proportion of their language expressed the explicit appreciation of things. The linguistic patterns identified in the conversational language of AWS suggested a reduced openness to interpersonal engagement within communication exchanges, which may restrict opportunities for and the experience of such exchanges. The value of SFL to this area of research is discussed.

  18. Selection of restriction endonucleases using artificial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Roberts, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    We describe in this article an in vitro system for the selection of restriction endonucleases using artificial cells. The artificial cells are generated in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion by in vitro compartmentalization. Each aqueous compartment contains a reconstituted transcription/translation mix along with the dispersed DNA templates. In the compartments containing endonuclease genes, an endonuclease expressed in vitro cleaves its own DNA template adjacent to the gene, leaving a sticky end. The pooled DNA templates are then ligated to an adaptor with a compatible end. The endonuclease genes are then enriched by adaptor-specific PCR on the ligation mix. We demonstrate that the system can achieve at least 100-fold enrichment in a single round of selection. It is sensitive enough to enrich an active endonuclease gene from a 1:10(5) model library in 2-3 rounds of selection. Finally, we describe experiments where we selected endonuclease genes directly from a bacterial genomic DNA source in three rounds of selections: the known PstI gene from Providencia stuartii and the new TspMI gene from Thermus sp. manalii. This method provides a unique tool for cloning restriction endonuclease genes and has many other potential applications.

  19. 76 FR 75950 - Hazardous Materials: Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    .... PHMSA-2011-0303; Notice No. 11-14] Hazardous Materials: Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order AGENCY.../Prohibition Order. SUMMARY: This notice publishes Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order 2011-001 (DOT Docket... Emergency Restriction/ Prohibition Order 2011-001 is as follows: This notice constitutes an Emergency...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.125 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1710.125 Section 1710.125... and Basic Policies § 1710.125 Restrictions on lobbying. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to restrictions on lobbying activities. See 7 CFR part 3018. ...

  1. 7 CFR 1724.8 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1724.8 Section 1724.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Restrictions on lobbying. Borrowers shall comply with the restrictions and requirements in connection with...

  2. 14 CFR 1274.929 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1274.929 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.929 Restrictions on lobbying. Restrictions on Lobbying July 2002 This award is subject to the provisions of 14 CFR part 1271 “New...

  3. 14 CFR 1310.9 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1310.9 Section... CONDITION OF GUARANTEED LOAN § 1310.9 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) While the Board is not part of the... Restrictions on Lobbying”) of title 31 (“Money and Finance: Treasury”) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR...

  4. 5 CFR 1304.4605 - Post-employment restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post-employment restrictions. 1304.4605 Section 1304.4605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST § 1304.4605 Post-employment restrictions. (a) General Restrictions Applicable...

  5. Intermittent′ restrictive ventricular septal defect in Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir S Shetkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is usually large and non-restrictive with equalization of right and left ventricular pressures. Restrictive VSD in TOF is rare. We present an unusual case of TOF with restriction to VSD caused by accessory tricuspid valve tissue that varied with respiration.

  6. 46 CFR 154.1315 - Restricted gauge excess flow valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gauge excess flow valve. 154.1315 Section 154... Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1315 Restricted gauge excess flow valve. Each restricted gauge that penetrates a cargo tank must have an excess flow valve unless the gauge meets § 154.536. ...

  7. 5 CFR 734.104 - Restriction of political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restriction of political activity. 734... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES General Provisions § 734.104 Restriction of political activity. No further proscriptions or restrictions may be imposed upon employees covered under...

  8. 36 CFR 1275.58 - Deletion of restricted portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of restricted... HISTORICAL MATERIALS OF THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Access by the Public § 1275.58 Deletion of restricted... materials after the deletion of the portions which are restricted under this § 1275.50 or § 1275.52. ...

  9. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall maintain...

  10. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or similar...

  11. Pattern of Motion Restriction in Nigerian Patients with Knee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Motion Restriction in Nigerian Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis. ... African Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences ... In the Western population, knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been shown to present a characteristic passive motion restriction pattern, called the capsular pattern (extension restriction to ...

  12. Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake was also reduced in proportion to the degree of lysine restriction and to age when first fed. Sexual maturity was delayed by lysine restriction but this did not cause an increase in average egg mass. The ducks on the low lysine diets laid fewer extra large and more smaller eggs than those ducks not restricted by ...

  13. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  14. Oncogenic pathways impinging on the G2-restriction point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foijer, F; Simonis, M; van Vliet, M; Wessels, L; Kerkhoven, R; Sorger, P K; Te Riele, H

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of mitogenic stimuli, cells normally arrest in G(1/0), because they fail to pass the G1-restriction point. However, abrogation of the G1-restriction point (by loss of the retinoblastoma gene family) reveals a second-restriction point that arrests cells in G2. Serum-starvation-induced

  15. Rancang Bangun User Manager Pada Mikrotik Berbasis Android Untuk Mempermudah Admin Di Politeknik Harapan Bersama Tegal

    OpenAIRE

    Suprijono, Suprijono

    2016-01-01

    Userman merupakan tools pada mikrotik yang berfungsi sebagai pengelola pengguna jaringan. ToolsUserman ini hanya dapat diakses oleh administrator dan hanya dapat diakses melalui perangkat komputer.Pemanfaatan perangkat Handphone sebagai pendamping dalam melaksanakan kegiatan sehari-hari sudah sangatlumrah bagi sebagian orang. Hal ini dikarenakan beberapa Handphone sudah memiliki fungsi dan kemampuanlebih dari sekedar fungsi dasarnya. Android sebagai sistem operasi yang dapat ditanamkan pada p...

  16. Is Depression in Alzheimer's Caregivers Really Due to Activity Restriction? A Preliminary Mediational Test of the Activity Restriction Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2008-01-01

    This study is a preliminary examination of the Activity Restriction Model of depressive symptoms. A total of 16 elderly Alzheimer's caregivers and 9 non-caregivers completed measures of activity restriction and depressive symptoms. Mediation was tested using the Sobel test with bootstrapping procedures. Results indicated that caregivers experienced significant elevations in depressive symptoms and activity restriction relative to non-caregivers (p < .05). Activity restriction significantly me...

  17. RestrictionDigest: A powerful Perl module for simulating genomic restriction digests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Wang

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: RestrictionDigest is an easy-to-use Perl module with flexible parameter settings. With the help of the information produced by the module, researchers can easily determine the most appropriate enzymes to construct the reduced-representation libraries to meet their experimental requirements.

  18. 10 CFR 1045.16 - Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by significantly assisting potential adversaries to develop or improve a nuclear weapon capability, produce nuclear weapons materials, or make other military use of nuclear energy; (4) Whether publication... restricted data information. 1045.16 Section 1045.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR...

  19. Restricted Repetitive Sampling in Designing of Control Charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar Mughal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a criteria have been defined to classify the existing repetitive sampling into soft, moderate and strict conditions. Behind this division a ratio has been suggested i.e. c2 (constant used in repetitive limits to c1(constant used in control limit in slabs. A restricted criterion has been devised on the existing repetitive sampling. By embedding the proposed schematic in the control chart it becomes highly efficient in detecting the shifts quite earlier as well as it detects even smaller shifts at smaller ARLs. To facilitate the user for best choice the restricted criterion has further categorized to softly restricted, moderately restricted and strictly restricted. The restricted conditions are dependent on value of restriction parameter ’m’ varies 2 to 6. The application of proposed scheme on selected cases is given in tables which are self explanatory.

  20. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets.

  1. Mining for Restriction Endonucleases in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyén S. Espinoza-Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Molecular Biology Center at the University of Central America in Nicaragua (CBM-UCA was founded in 1999 to strengthen biotechnology research capacity and education in Nicaragua and the Central American region. One of the first projects launched by the CBM-UCA was bio-prospecting for key industrial enzymes. This ongoing study seeks to discover and characterize restriction enzymes (RE in bacteria, and to create a database of microorganisms isolated and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing methodology. In this paper we highlight the importance of studying the extreme environmental conditions for building knowledge of Nicaraguan biodiversity through modern molecular biology techniques such as metagenomics. The isolation of prototype enzymes such as EcoRV and ClaI is presented as an update and extension of previously undertaken work.

  2. Restriction Enzymes in Microbiology, Biotechnology and Biochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey G. Wilson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in the nineteen-seventies, a collection of simple enzymes termed Type II restriction endonucleases, made by microbes to ward off viral infections, have transformed molecular biology, spawned the multi-billion dollar Biotechnology industry, and yielded fundamental insights into the biochemistry of life, health and disease. In this article we describe how these enzymes were discovered, and we review their properties, organizations and genetics. We summarize current ideas about the mechanism underlying their remarkable ability to recognize and bind to specific base pair sequences in DNA, and we discuss why these ideas might not be correct. We conclude by proposing an alternative explanation for sequence-recognition that resolves certain inconsistencies and provides, in our view, a more satisfactory account of the mechanism.

  3. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  4. Restrictions on the transnational movement of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.; Kraemer, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the United States policy on uranium imports. Recently, the US has moved closer to placing legislative restrictions on enrichment by DOE of foreign-origin uranium and has imposed a ban on the import of South African uranium ore and uranium oxide. American uranium producers have also sought relief in the courts against competition from abroad. The impetus for these events comes from a glut of uranium on world markets coupled with the existence of uranium mines outside the US with significant cost advantages over US producers. The remedies sought by the latter, if adopted, hold the potential for broad disruption of significant commercial interests in international trade in nuclear materials and could adversely affect US nonproliferation objectives (NEA) [fr

  5. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  6. Genetic use restriction technologies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca

    2014-10-01

    Genetic use restriction technologies (GURTs), developed to secure return on investments through protection of plant varieties, are among the most controversial and opposed genetic engineering biotechnologies as they are perceived as a tool to force farmers to depend on multinational corporations' seed monopolies. In this work, the currently proposed strategies are described and compared with some of the principal techniques implemented for preventing transgene flow and/or seed saving, with a simultaneous analysis of the future perspectives of GURTs taking into account potential benefits, possible impacts on farmers and local plant genetic resources (PGR), hypothetical negative environmental issues and ethical concerns related to intellectual property that have led to the ban of this technology. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  8. Interactive Web Graphs with Fewer Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, James

    2012-01-01

    There is growing popularity for interactive, statistical web graphs and programs to generate them. However, it seems that these programs tend to be somewhat restricted in which web browsers and statistical software are supported. For example, the software might use SVG (e.g., Protovis, gridSVG) or HTML canvas, both of which exclude most versions of Internet Explorer, or the software might be made specifically for R (gridSVG, CRanvas), thus excluding users of other stats software. There are more general tools (d3, Rapha lJS) which are compatible with most browsers, but using one of these to make statistical graphs requires more coding than is probably desired, and requires learning a new tool. This talk will present a method for making interactive web graphs, which, by design, attempts to support as many browsers and as many statistical programs as possible, while also aiming to be relatively easy to use and relatively easy to extend.

  9. A Metabolomic Signature of Acute Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Tinh-Hai; Sonoyama, Takuhiro; Henning, Elana; Keogh, Julia M; Ingram, Brian; Kelway, Sarah; Guo, Lining; Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2017-12-01

    The experimental paradigm of acute caloric restriction (CR) followed by refeeding (RF) can be used to study the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis, which are relevant to understanding the adaptive response to weight loss. Metabolomics, the measurement of hundreds of small molecule metabolites, their precursors, derivatives, and degradation products, has emerged as a useful tool for the study of physiology and disease and was used here to study the metabolic response to acute CR. We used four ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods to characterize changes in carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and steroids in eight normal weight men at baseline, after 48 hours of CR (10% of energy requirements) and after 48 hours of ad libitum RF in a tightly controlled environment. We identified a distinct metabolomic signature associated with acute CR characterized by the expected switch from carbohydrate to fat utilization with increased lipolysis and β-fatty acid oxidation. We found an increase in ω-fatty acid oxidation and levels of endocannabinoids, which are known to promote food intake. These changes were reversed with RF. Several plasmalogen phosphatidylethanolamines (endogenous antioxidants) significantly decreased with CR (all P ≤ 0.0007). Additionally, acute CR was associated with an increase in the branched chain amino acids (all P ≤ 1.4 × 10-7) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.0006). We identified a distinct metabolomic signature associated with acute CR. Further studies are needed to characterize the mechanisms that mediate these changes and their potential contribution to the adaptive response to dietary restriction. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Detection of possible restriction sites for type II restriction enzymes in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagniuc, P; Cimponeriu, D; Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, C; Mihai, Andrada; Stavarachi, Monica; Mihai, T; Gavrilă, L

    2011-01-01

    In order to make a step forward in the knowledge of the mechanism operating in complex polygenic disorders such as diabetes and obesity, this paper proposes a new algorithm (PRSD -possible restriction site detection) and its implementation in Applied Genetics software. This software can be used for in silico detection of potential (hidden) recognition sites for endonucleases and for nucleotide repeats identification. The recognition sites for endonucleases may result from hidden sequences through deletion or insertion of a specific number of nucleotides. Tests were conducted on DNA sequences downloaded from NCBI servers using specific recognition sites for common type II restriction enzymes introduced in the software database (n = 126). Each possible recognition site indicated by the PRSD algorithm implemented in Applied Genetics was checked and confirmed by NEBcutter V2.0 and Webcutter 2.0 software. In the sequence NG_008724.1 (which includes 63632 nucleotides) we found a high number of potential restriction sites for ECO R1 that may be produced by deletion (n = 43 sites) or insertion (n = 591 sites) of one nucleotide. The second module of Applied Genetics has been designed to find simple repeats sizes with a real future in understanding the role of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) in the pathogenesis of the complex metabolic disorders. We have tested the presence of simple repetitive sequences in five DNA sequence. The software indicated exact position of each repeats detected in the tested sequences. Future development of Applied Genetics can provide an alternative for powerful tools used to search for restriction sites or repetitive sequences or to improve genotyping methods.

  11. Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Despite the international controversies surrounding religious restrictions and freedoms, the topic has only recently received substantial research attention. Drawing on this new body of research, and multiple research projects in progress, this address explores both the origins and consequences of religious restrictions in the global arena. To understand the motives for restrictions, I propose hypotheses in three areas: the relationship or lack of relationship between institutional religion and the state, the willingness and capacity of the state to ensure freedoms, and the larger social and cultural pressures restricting freedoms, including social and political movements targeting minority religions. Turning to the consequences of religious restrictions, I explore how and why restrictions alter the religious economy (i.e., formation, supply and operation of religions) and are associated with higher levels of religious persecution, religious violence and intrastate conflict in general. Finally, I review additional areas where research is needed.

  12. Resveratrol vs. calorie restriction: data from rodents to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Y; Peterson, Courtney M; Ravussin, Eric

    2013-10-01

    Calorie restriction extends lifespan and confers metabolic benefits similar to the effect of lifestyle interventions. Poor compliance to long-term dietary restriction, however, hinders the success of this approach. Evidence is now persuasive for a role of resveratrol supplementation (a polyphenol in red grapes) as potential alternative to calorie restriction. This review summarizes the latest literature on the effects and the molecular mechanisms by which calorie restriction and resveratrol confer health benefits. Resveratrol activates SIRT1 and the associated improvement in energy utilization and insulin sensitivity closely resembles the benefits of calorie restriction. Current data largely support resveratrol as a potential calorie restriction mimetic to improve metabolic and probably functional health. Future studies which characterize the bioavailability and efficacy of resveratrol supplementation are critical to provide evidence for its long-term health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An ontology for major histocompatibility restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Randi; Overton, James A; Seymour, Emily; Sidney, John; Kaufman, Jim; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Ellis, Shirley; Hammond, John; Butcher, Geoff W; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    MHC molecules are a highly diverse family of proteins that play a key role in cellular immune recognition. Over time, different techniques and terminologies have been developed to identify the specific type(s) of MHC molecule involved in a specific immune recognition context. No consistent nomenclature exists across different vertebrate species. To correctly represent MHC related data in The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), we built upon a previously established MHC ontology and created an ontology to represent MHC molecules as they relate to immunological experiments. This ontology models MHC protein chains from 16 species, deals with different approaches used to identify MHC, such as direct sequencing verses serotyping, relates engineered MHC molecules to naturally occurring ones, connects genetic loci, alleles, protein chains and multi-chain proteins, and establishes evidence codes for MHC restriction. Where available, this work is based on existing ontologies from the OBO foundry. Overall, representing MHC molecules provides a challenging and practically important test case for ontology building, and could serve as an example of how to integrate other ontology building efforts into web resources.

  14. Life extension by calorie restriction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Arthur V; Le Couteur, David G

    2007-10-01

    Long-term reduction in energy intake in the diet (calorie restriction [CR]) extends the life of the laboratory rat by about 25%. However, in humans there are no life-long studies of CR, but only short-term trials which indicate that 20% CR acting over periods of 2-6 years is associated with reduced body weight, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, and blood glucose--risk factors for the major killer diseases of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In addition, recent research has shown that CR for 6 months is able to improve biomarkers for longevity (deep body temperature and plasma insulin) and thus should increase life expectancy. The magnitude of the life-extension effect of CR in humans can only be estimated. The Okinawans, the longest-lived people on earth, consume 40% fewer calories than the Americans and live only 4 years longer. Similarly, women in United States consume 25% fewer calories than men and live 5 years longer. From the survival studies of overweight and obese people, it is estimated that long-term CR to prevent excessive weight gain could add only 3-13 years to life expectancy. Thus the effects of CR on human life extension are probably much smaller than those achieved by medical and public health interventions, which have extended life by about 30 years in developed countries in the 20th century, by greatly reducing deaths from infections, accidents, and cardiovascular disease.

  15. Calorie Restriction, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging may be defined as the time-dependent deterioration in function of an organism associated with or responsible for the increase in susceptibility to disease and probability of death with advancing age (Harman, 1981; Cefalu, 2011. Generally, the aging organisms are characterized by both biochemical and functional declines. Declining of basal metabolism rates, protein turnover, glucose tolerance, reproductive capacity, telomere shortening, and oxidative phosphorylation are related to the biochemical. Whilst, lung expansion volume, renal glomerular and tubular capacities, cardiovascular performance, musculoskeletal system, nerve conduction velocity, endocrine and exocrine systems, immunological defenses, and sensory systems are associated with the physiological declining (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. Some evidences indicated that, although members of a species develop into adults in the same way, even genetically similar or identical individuals, raised in identical conditions and eating identical food, but they may age differently (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. These aging differences are attributable to the life style particularly calorie and dietary restriction intakes, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and thus its implication on severity of damage, repair capacity, and error accumulation in cellular genetic material (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015; Mihaylova et al., 2014; Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Therefore, in molecular terms, aging can be defined as a decline of the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure the function of cells, tissues, and organs systems (Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Accordingly, if the homeostatic mechanism can be repaired, the result is rejuvenation.

  16. Diet restriction by pregnant women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I; Babafemi, J

    1982-04-01

    The reasons for food aversions given by selected low income, illiterate women during pregnancy fell into four categories: health, tradition, economy and religion. More than two thirds of these mothers strongly avoided milk, cowpea seeds and bournvita for fear of having big babies which they thought would lead to difficult labor and cesarean section. Only one of the respondents associated infantile rickets with nutrition. Nutritional counseling, coupled with a fear-mechanism technique for a minimum of four months, served to correct these erroneous assumptions. The effects of the counseling sessions were evaluated by monitoring patterns of maternal weight gain and the baby's weight. The experimental group had a significant pattern of monthly weight gain (P less than 0.02) and heavier babies (P less than 0.01) than the control group. The authors conclude that diet restrictions of this nature can be modified positively through regular nutritional counseling and, in extreme cases, by the use of a fear-mechanism technique.

  17. RNA aptamer inhibitors of a restriction endonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón, Estefanía; Maher, L James

    2015-09-03

    Restriction endonucleases (REases) recognize and cleave short palindromic DNA sequences, protecting bacterial cells against bacteriophage infection by attacking foreign DNA. We are interested in the potential of folded RNA to mimic DNA, a concept that might be applied to inhibition of DNA-binding proteins. As a model system, we sought RNA aptamers against the REases BamHI, PacI and KpnI using systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). After 20 rounds of selection under different stringent conditions, we identified the 10 most enriched RNA aptamers for each REase. Aptamers were screened for binding and specificity, and assayed for REase inhibition. We obtained eight high-affinity (Kd ∼12-30 nM) selective competitive inhibitors (IC50 ∼20-150 nM) for KpnI. Predicted RNA secondary structures were confirmed by in-line attack assay and a 38-nt derivative of the best anti-KpnI aptamer was sufficient for inhibition. These competitive inhibitors presumably act as KpnI binding site analogs, but lack the primary consensus KpnI cleavage sequence and are not cleaved by KpnI, making their potential mode of DNA mimicry fascinating. Anti-REase RNA aptamers could have value in studies of REase mechanism and may give clues to a code for designing RNAs that competitively inhibit DNA binding proteins including transcription factors. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Maternal dietary restriction alters offspring's sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Shimizu

    Full Text Available Nutritional state in the gestation period influences fetal growth and development. We hypothesized that undernutrition during gestation would affect offspring sleep architecture and/or homeostasis. Pregnant female mice were assigned to either control (fed ad libitum; AD or 50% dietary restriction (DR groups from gestation day 12 to parturition. After parturition, dams were fed AD chow. After weaning, the pups were also fed AD into adulthood. At adulthood (aged 8-9 weeks, we carried out sleep recordings. Although offspring mice displayed a significantly reduced body weight at birth, their weights recovered three days after birth. Enhancement of electroencephalogram (EEG slow wave activity (SWA during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep was observed in the DR mice over a 24-hour period without changing the diurnal pattern or amounts of wake, NREM, or rapid eye movement (REM sleep. In addition, DR mice also displayed an enhancement of EEG-SWA rebound after a 6-hour sleep deprivation and a higher threshold for waking in the face of external stimuli. DR adult offspring mice exhibited small but significant increases in the expression of hypothalamic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Pparα and brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (Cpt1c mRNA, two genes involved in lipid metabolism. Undernutrition during pregnancy may influence sleep homeostasis, with offspring exhibiting greater sleep pressure.

  19. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  20. Aspirin Recapitulates Features of Caloric Restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pietrocola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The age-associated deterioration in cellular and organismal functions associates with dysregulation of nutrient-sensing pathways and disabled autophagy. The reactivation of autophagic flux may prevent or ameliorate age-related metabolic dysfunctions. Non-toxic compounds endowed with the capacity to reduce the overall levels of protein acetylation and to induce autophagy have been categorized as caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs. Here, we show that aspirin or its active metabolite salicylate induce autophagy by virtue of their capacity to inhibit the acetyltransferase activity of EP300. While salicylate readily stimulates autophagic flux in control cells, it fails to further increase autophagy levels in EP300-deficient cells, as well as in cells in which endogenous EP300 has been replaced by salicylate-resistant EP300 mutants. Accordingly, the pro-autophagic activity of aspirin and salicylate on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is lost when the expression of the EP300 ortholog cpb-1 is reduced. Altogether, these findings identify aspirin as an evolutionary conserved CRM.

  1. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  2. Will calorie restriction work in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Calorie Restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging and increases average and maximal lifespan in simple model organisms and rodents. In rhesus monkeys long-term CR reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, and protects against age-associated sarcopenia and neurodegeneration. However, so far CR significantly increased average lifespan only in the Wisconsin, but not in the NIA monkey study. Differences in diet composition and study design between the 2 on-going trials may explain the discrepancies in survival and disease. Nevertheless, many of the metabolic and hormonal adaptations that are typical of the long-lived CR rodents did not occur in either the NIA or WNPRC CR monkeys. Whether or not CR will extend lifespan in humans is not yet known, but accumulating data indicate that moderate CR with adequate nutrition has a powerful protective effect against obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and reduces metabolic risk factors associated with cancer. Moreover, CR in human beings improves markers of cardiovascular aging, and rejuvenates the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile. More studies are needed to understand the interactions between CR, diet composition, exercise, and other environmental and psychological factors on metabolic and molecular pathways that regulate health and longevity.

  3. Mechanistic insights into type III restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Nidhanapati K; Bheemanaik, Shivakumara; Rao, Desirazu N

    2012-01-01

    Type III restriction-modification (R-M) enzymes need to interact with two separate unmethylated DNA sequences in indirectly repeated, head-to-head orientations for efficient cleavage to occur at a defined location next to only one of the two sites. However, cleavage of sites that are not in head-to-head orientation have been observed to occur under certain reaction conditions in vitro. ATP hydrolysis is required for the long-distance communication between the sites prior to cleavage. Type III R-M enzymes comprise two subunits, Res and Mod that form a homodimeric Mod2 and a heterotetrameric Res2Mod2 complex. The Mod subunit in M2 or R2M2 complex recognizes and methylates DNA while the Res subunit in R2M2 complex is responsible for ATP hydrolysis, DNA translocation and cleavage. A vast majority of biochemical studies on Type III R-M enzymes have been undertaken using two closely related enzymes, EcoP1I and EcoP15I. Divergent opinions about how the long-distance interaction between the recognition sites exist and at least three mechanistic models based on 1D- diffusion and/or 3D- DNA looping have been proposed.

  4. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  5. Blood flow restricted exercise and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Okita, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR) leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  6. Blood Flow Restricted Exercise and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.

  7. RESTRICTIONS BY THE USE OF WEAPONS OF RUSSIAN CITIZENS

    OpenAIRE

    Lyatsa A. Kodzokova

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article considers the restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons. The author analyzes the restrictions on the circulation of weapons, the procedure for their implementation in practice. Federal Law "On weapons" only in paragraph 6 p. 1, art. 6 "Restrictions imposed on the circulation of civilian and service weapons" refers to the prohibition of 'turnover as a civilian and service weapons and other items affecting the action is based on the use of rad...

  8. Random Number Conversion and LOCC Conversion via Restricted Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Wataru; Hayashi, Masahito

    2014-01-01

    We consider random number conversion (RNC) through random number storage with restricted size. We clarify the relation between the performance of RNC and the size of storage in the framework of first- and second- order asymptotics, and derive their rate regions. Then, we show that the results for RNC with restricted storage recover those for conventional RNC without storage in the limit of storage size. To treat RNC via restricted storage, we introduce a new kind of probability distributions ...

  9. What you should know about restrictive covenants in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Michael G; Grosack, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, many states have shown a greater inclination to enforce restrictive covenant provisions in contracts involving healthcare organizations and their employees, physicians, or other contacting parties. In general, an enforceable restrictive covenant is one that is deemed to have been reasonably drafted to do no more than to protect the company's legitimate business interest. Key areas of concern in health care that often fall under the protection of restrictive covenants include patient referral sources and relationships with patients.

  10. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: more than a restrictive bariatric surgery procedure?

    OpenAIRE

    Benaiges Foix, David; Más-Lorenzo, Antonio; Goday Arno, Alberto; Ramón Moros, José Manuel; Chillarón Jordan, Juan José; Pedro-Botet, Juan Carlos; Flores-Le-Roux, Juana Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a restrictive bariatric surgery technique that was first used as part of restrictive horizontal gastrectomy in the original Scopinaro type biliopancreatic diversion. Its good results as a single technique have led to a rise in its use, and it is currently the second most performed technique worldwide. SG achieves clearly better results than other restrictive techniques and is comparable in some aspects to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the current gold standard in ba...

  11. Perceived Benefits of Fisheries Management Restrictions in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R. McClanahan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptions of the benefits of fisheries management restrictions were evaluated in coastal Madagascar to identify restrictions that are likely to be self- and community enforced. The survey focused on 24 Malagasy fishing villages adjacent to coral reefs. Resource users' perceptions of the benefits of restrictions were generally high and widespread, but some less positive perceptions were found in three villages located near marine protected areas. Perceptions of the benefits of gear restrictions had widespread support; closed areas, seasons, and minimum sizes of fish were less common; and restrictions on species were supported infrequently. We therefore advocate a management implementation approach that uses these scales of perceived benefits and prioritizes support for the most widely accepted restrictions most broadly, with the less accepted restrictions matched to specific supportive locations. At the village level, socioeconomic and wealth variables were not clearly associated with perceived benefits, which we suggest results from a stronger influence of village history than socioeconomic conditions. At the individual fisher level, however, there was evidence that experienced people involved in decision-making, having livelihood alternatives, and having permanent housing had more opinions and frequently were more supportive of management restrictions. Incorporating this information into forums and management plans is expected to increase the rate of adoption and compliance with needed fisheries restrictions.

  12. How restriction enzymes became the workhorses of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J

    2005-04-26

    Restriction enzymes have proved to be invaluable for the physical mapping of DNA. They offer unparalleled opportunities for diagnosing DNA sequence content and are used in fields as disparate as criminal forensics and basic research. In fact, without restriction enzymes, the biotechnology industry would certainly not have flourished as it has. The first experiments demonstrating the utility of restriction enzymes were carried out by Danna and Nathans and reported in 1971. This pioneering study set the stage for the modern practice of molecular biology in which restriction enzymes are ubiquitous tools, although they are often taken for granted.

  13. Can early protein restriction induce the development of binge eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechine, Madge Farias; Borba, Tássia Karin; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Lopes-de-Souza, Sandra; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that perinatal undernourishment is a factor for binge eating. At 52 days rats born from dams fed on 17% protein (Control) or 8% protein (Undernourished) were distributed into four groups, two of which continued to be fed ad libitum chow and two were submitted to three consecutive Restricted/Refeeding (R/R) cycles. According to the following schedule: Control Naïve (from mothers fed 17% protein/no restriction phase); Control Restricted (from mothers fed 17% protein/restriction phase); Undernourished Naïve (from mothers fed 8% protein/no restriction phase); and Undernourished Restricted (from mothers fed 8% protein/restriction phase). Each cycle consisted of a restriction phase (in the first four days 40% of the mean daily individual chow intake was offered for consumption), followed by a refeeding phase (4 days of chow ad libitum). After the three cycles, all animals were subjected to a feeding test (chow diet and palatable food ad libitum for 24h). During the feeding test, the Undernourished Restricted demonstrated rebound hyperphagia during 2, 4 and 6h. These results suggest the perinatal undernourishment cannot contribute to a binge eating phenotype. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  15. Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.

    1977-02-01

    When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)

  16. Type I restriction endonucleases are true catalytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Piero R; Xu, Cuiling; Chi, Min

    2009-06-01

    Type I restriction endonucleases are intriguing, multifunctional complexes that restrict DNA randomly, at sites distant from the target sequence. Restriction at distant sites is facilitated by ATP hydrolysis-dependent, translocation of double-stranded DNA towards the stationary enzyme bound at the recognition sequence. Following restriction, the enzymes are thought to remain associated with the DNA at the target site, hydrolyzing copious amounts of ATP. As a result, for the past 35 years type I restriction endonucleases could only be loosely classified as enzymes since they functioned stoichiometrically relative to DNA. To further understand enzyme mechanism, a detailed analysis of DNA cleavage by the EcoR124I holoenzyme was done. We demonstrate for the first time that type I restriction endonucleases are not stoichiometric but are instead catalytic with respect to DNA. Further, the mechanism involves formation of a dimer of holoenzymes, with each monomer bound to a target sequence and, following cleavage, each dissociates in an intact form to bind and restrict subsequent DNA molecules. Therefore, type I restriction endonucleases, like their type II counterparts, are true enzymes. The conclusion that type I restriction enzymes are catalytic relative to DNA has important implications for the in vivo function of these previously enigmatic enzymes.

  17. Acute sleep restriction reduces insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction....

  18. Restriction endonucleases: natural and directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Capalash, Neena; Sharma, Prince

    2012-05-01

    Type II restriction endonucleases (REs) are highly sequence-specific compared with other classes of nucleases. PD-(D/E)XK nucleases, initially represented by only type II REs, now comprise a large and extremely diverse superfamily of proteins and, although sharing a structurally conserved core, typically display little or no detectable sequence similarity except for the active site motifs. Sequence similarity can only be observed in methylases and few isoschizomers. As a consequence, REs are classified according to combinations of functional properties rather than on the basis of genetic relatedness. New alignment matrices and classification systems based on structural core connectivity and cleavage mechanisms have been developed to characterize new REs and related proteins. REs recognizing more than 300 distinct specificities have been identified in RE database (REBASE: http://rebase.neb.com/cgi-bin/statlist ) but still the need for newer specificities is increasing due to the advancement in molecular biology and applications. The enzymes have undergone constant evolution through structural changes in protein scaffolds which include random mutations, homologous recombinations, insertions, and deletions of coding DNA sequences but rational mutagenesis or directed evolution delivers protein variants with new functions in accordance with defined biochemical or environmental pressures. Redesigning through random mutation, addition or deletion of amino acids, methylation-based selection, synthetic molecules, combining recognition and cleavage domains from different enzymes, or combination with domains of additional functions change the cleavage specificity or substrate preference and stability. There is a growing number of patents awarded for the creation of engineered REs with new and enhanced properties.

  19. Bacterial Autoimmunity Due to a Restriction-Modification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleška, Maroš; Qian, Long; Okura, Reiko; Bergmiller, Tobias; Wakamoto, Yuichi; Kussell, Edo; Guet, Călin C

    2016-02-08

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems represent a minimal and ubiquitous biological system of self/non-self discrimination in prokaryotes [1], which protects hosts from exogenous DNA [2]. The mechanism is based on the balance between methyltransferase (M) and cognate restriction endonuclease (R). M tags endogenous DNA as self by methylating short specific DNA sequences called restriction sites, whereas R recognizes unmethylated restriction sites as non-self and introduces a double-stranded DNA break [3]. Restriction sites are significantly underrepresented in prokaryotic genomes [4-7], suggesting that the discrimination mechanism is imperfect and occasionally leads to autoimmunity due to self-DNA cleavage (self-restriction) [8]. Furthermore, RM systems can promote DNA recombination [9] and contribute to genetic variation in microbial populations, thus facilitating adaptive evolution [10]. However, cleavage of self-DNA by RM systems as elements shaping prokaryotic genomes has not been directly detected, and its cause, frequency, and outcome are unknown. We quantify self-restriction caused by two RM systems of Escherichia coli and find that, in agreement with levels of restriction site avoidance, EcoRI, but not EcoRV, cleaves self-DNA at a measurable rate. Self-restriction is a stochastic process, which temporarily induces the SOS response, and is followed by DNA repair, maintaining cell viability. We find that RM systems with higher restriction efficiency against bacteriophage infections exhibit a higher rate of self-restriction, and that this rate can be further increased by stochastic imbalance between R and M. Our results identify molecular noise in RM systems as a factor shaping prokaryotic genomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Liberal or restricted fluid administration: are we ready for a proposal of a restricted intraoperative approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Giorgio; Vetrugno, Luigi; Tripi, Gabriella; Deana, Cristian; Barbariol, Federico; Pompei, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Fluid management in the perioperative period has been extensively studied but, despite that, "the right amount" still remains uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of intraoperative fluid approach today. In the current medical literature there are only heterogeneous viewpoints that gives the idea of how confusing the situation is. The approach to the intraoperative fluid management is complex and it should be based on human physiology and the current evidence. An intraoperative restrictive fluid approach in major surgery may be beneficial while Goal-directed Therapy should be superior to the liberal fluid strategy. Finally, we propose a rational approach currently used at our institution.

  1. Stochastic Restricted Biased Estimators in misspecified regression model with incomplete prior information

    OpenAIRE

    Kayanan, Manickavasagar; Wijekoon, Pushpakanthie

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the analysis of misspecification was extended to the recently introduced stochastic restricted biased estimators when multicollinearity exists among the explanatory variables. The Stochastic Restricted Ridge Estimator (SRRE), Stochastic Restricted Almost Unbiased Ridge Estimator (SRAURE), Stochastic Restricted Liu Estimator (SRLE), Stochastic Restricted Almost Unbiased Liu Estimator (SRAULE), Stochastic Restricted Principal Component Regression Estimator (SRPCR), Stochastic R...

  2. 7 CFR 982.41 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 982.41 Free and restricted percentages. The free and restricted percentages computed by the Board or established by the Secretary pursuant to § 982.40 shall apply...

  3. Development and Initial Validation of the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire (ERQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor; Ratzon, Nava Z.; Jarus, Tal; Bart, Orit

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire (ERQ) a parent-reported questionnaire for measuring perceived environmental restrictions for young children participation. Reliability and homogeneity were tested by Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlations.…

  4. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  5. 75 FR 20796 - Market-Based Rate Affiliate Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...] Market-Based Rate Affiliate Restrictions April 15, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... procurement, or resource planning may not be shared under the market-based rate affiliate restrictions... the Compliance Working Group's \\2\\ concerns regarding compliance with the market-based rate affiliate...

  6. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the...

  7. 13 CFR 500.108 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 500.108 Section 500.108 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 500.108 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No funds...

  8. 7 CFR 761.5 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 761.5 Section 761.5... lobbying. A person who applies for or receives a loan made or guaranteed by the Agency must comply with the restrictions on lobbying in 7 CFR part 3018. ...

  9. 7 CFR 2200.10 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 2200.10 Section 2200.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD... Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No funds received through a Loan guaranteed under this Program in this chapter...

  10. 13 CFR 400.108 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 400.108 Section 400.108 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Board Procedures § 400.108 Restrictions on lobbying. (a) No funds received through a...

  11. 7 CFR 1944.657 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Restrictions on lobbying. 1944.657 Section 1944.657...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.657 Restrictions on lobbying... funds for lobbying the Federal Government in connection with a specific grant. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1726.17 - Restrictions on lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on lobbying. 1726.17 Section 1726.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1726.17 Restrictions on lobbying...

  13. 29 CFR 530.2 - Restriction of homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction of homework. 530.2 Section 530.2 Labor... OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES General § 530.2 Restriction of homework. Except as provided in... special homework certificate issued and in effect pursuant to this part has been obtained for each...

  14. Distribution, abundance and properties of restriction enzymes On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, abundance and properties of restriction enzymes On genomic dna of granule-bound starch synthase i and ii in Cassava ( Manihot Esculenta ... Ife Journal of Science ... Thirty-one sites of 16 restriction enzymes were evenly distributed on 721 base-pair granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSS I) genomic DNA.

  15. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  16. 49 CFR 236.813a - State, most restrictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State, most restrictive. 236.813a Section 236.813a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... State, most restrictive. The mode of an electric or electronic device that is equivalent to a track...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  18. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood transfusion policy. ... Objective. To determine whether adopting a restrictive BTF policy results in fewer transfusions. Methods. Data were retrospectively collected on all infants who received BTFs in the GSH nursery over a 6-month period following adoption of a ...

  19. 42 CFR 447.57 - Restrictions on payments to providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES Payments: General Provisions Deductible, Coinsurance, Co-Payment Or Similar Cost-Sharing Charge § 447.57 Restrictions on payments to... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on payments to providers. 447.57...

  20. Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted

  1. Growth throughout childhood of children born growth restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, Fenny; Rotteveel, Joost; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies that examine growth in growth-restricted children at birth do not discriminate between fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small for gestational age (SGA). These terms however are not synonymous. In SGA, stunting and increased weight gain have been reported. We do not know if this holds

  2. 50 CFR 635.40 - Restrictions to enhance conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions to enhance conservation. 635.40 Section 635.40 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... § 635.40 Restrictions to enhance conservation. (a) Determinations. Upon a determination by NMFS that...

  3. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...

  4. 48 CFR 225.7014 - Restrictions on military construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 236.273(a). (b) For restriction on acquisition of steel for use in military construction projects... construction. 225.7014 Section 225.7014 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... construction. (a) For restriction on award of military construction contracts to be performed in the United...

  5. Restrictions in Availability of Drugs Used for Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Availability of drugs with high lethality has been hypothesized to increase the risk of self-poisoning suicides. A literature search concerning deliberate self-poisoning and the effect of restricting access to drugs was conducted, and the effect of restrictions in availability of barbiturates, tr...

  6. 25 CFR 248.9 - Camping and use restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.9 Camping and use restrictions. All camping, picnicking, use of alcoholic... commercial purchase of fish) shall be subject to such prohibitions, restrictions, or other regulations as the... applicable; provided that no fee may be charged to any Indian or member of his family for any such use. ...

  7. 32 CFR 228.15 - Restriction regarding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction regarding animals. 228.15 Section 228.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.15 Restriction regarding animals. No animals except...

  8. 32 CFR 234.12 - Restriction on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 234.12 Section 234.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.12 Restriction on animals. Animals, except guide dogs...

  9. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central Intelligence...

  10. 36 CFR 1270.40 - Identification of restricted records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....S.C. 2204, the Archivist or his designee shall identify the Presidential records affected, or any...). (b) The Archivist shall restrict public access to the information contained in those records... thereof, was restricted; or (3) The Archivist has determined that the former President or an agent of the...

  11. New restriction endonucleases from Acetobacter aceti and Bacillus aneurinolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, H; Maekawa, Y; Kanazawa, S; Takanami, M

    1982-10-11

    Two restriction endonucleases with new sequence specificities have been isolated from Acetobacter aceti IFO 3281 and Bacillus aneurinolyticus IAM 1077 and named AatII and BanII, respectively. Based on analysis of the sequences around the restriction sites, the recognition sequences and cleavage sites of these endonucleases were deduced as below: (formula; see text)

  12. New restriction endonucleases from Acetobacter aceti and Bacillus aneurinolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugisaki, H; Maekawa, Y; Kanazawa, S; Takanami, M

    1982-01-01

    Two restriction endonucleases with new sequence specificities have been isolated from Acetobacter aceti IFO 3281 and Bacillus aneurinolyticus IAM 1077 and named AatII and BanII, respectively. Based on analysis of the sequences around the restriction sites, the recognition sequences and cleavage sites of these endonucleases were deduced as below: (formula; see text)

  13. 50 CFR 300.130 - Vessel and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel and gear restrictions. 300.130... gear restrictions. (a) Factory vessels. Factory vessels are prohibited from operating in treaty waters... top of the trap that, when removed, will leave an opening no smaller than the throat or entrance of...

  14. 50 CFR 648.51 - Gear and crew restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... strengtheners, ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the top of a trawl net, except that one splitting strap and one... top) possessed or used by vessels fishing with scallop dredge gear shall not be smaller than 10-inch... restrictions. No chafing gear or cookies shall be used on the top of a scallop dredge. (ii) Link restrictions...

  15. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    research and clinical care. KEYWORDS Autism Spectrum Disorder, structural connectivity , functional connectivity , resting-state, restrictive... Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...pipeline. This will enable us to better understand the nature of disrupted connectivity in autism and its relation to core symptoms. The state-of-the

  16. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. A reduced feed cost (N)/Kg weight gain, highest revenueand least cost-benefit rato were obtained from reduced from birds on D3. Keywords: Broiler chicks, feed restriction, Growth performance, Economy of production. Animal Research International ...

  17. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    activity restriction more often than obstetricians in five of the nine scenarios, in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labour, cervical ripening, total placenta praevia, and intrauterine growth restriction, whereas no differences were found in the remaining scenarios. Compared...

  18. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each group was further divided into three replicates of eight birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Birds were fed mash and pellets and restricted at 0, 10, 20 and 30% levels of feed restriction. Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were ...

  19. In silico analysis of evolutionary patterns in restriction endonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tiratha Raj; Pardasani, Kamal Raj

    2009-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases represent one of the best studied examples of DNA binding proteins. Type II restriction endonucleases recognize short sequences of foreign DNA and cleave the target on both strands with remarkable sequence specificity. Type II restriction endonucleases are part of restriction modification systems. Restriction modification systems occur ubiquitously among bacteria and archaea. Restriction endonucleases are indispensable tools in molecular biology and biotechnology. They are important model system for specific protein-nucleic acid interactions and also serve as good example for investigating structural, functional and evolutionary relationships among various biomolecules. The interaction between restriction endonucleases and their recognition sequences plays a crucial role in biochemical activities like catalytic site/metal binding, DNA repair and recombination etc. We study various patterns in restriction endonucleases type II and analyzed their structural, functional and evolutionary role. Our studies support X-ray crystallographic studies, arguing for divergence and molecular evolution. Conservation patterns of the nuclease superfamily have also been analyzed by estimating site-specific evolutionary rates for the analyzed structures related to respective chains in this study.

  20. 38 CFR 36.4362 - Rights and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights and restrictions... Rights and restrictions. (a) Declarant's rights and restrictions—(1) Disclosure and reasonableness of reserved rights. Any right reserved by the declarant must be reasonable and set forth in the declaration...

  1. Effect of feed restriction on performance of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment assessed the effect of feed restriction in rabbits on performance and economic viability of the activity. Sixty New Zealand White rabbits, weaned at 33 days and slaughtered at 81 days of age, were used. The design was of randomized blocks with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were, as follows: 1 - free feeding, 2 - feed restriction from 35 to 40 days of age (50 g/d/rabbit, 3 - feed restriction from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit and 4 - feed restriction from 33 to 40 days (50 g/d/rabbit and from 54 to 61 days of age (90 g/d/rabbit. There was no difference in the performance and carcass parameters, indicating that there was compensatory growth in the rabbits that suffered feed restriction. The best gross margin was obtained with feed restriction from 54 to 61 days age. Feed restriction in growing rabbits can be adopted at different ages because it does not interfere negatively in the performance and carcass parameters. In two periods and from 51 to 61 days, feed restriction was more economically viable for the sale of live and slaughtered rabbits, respectively.

  2. A modification of the restricted maximum likelihood method in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method of obtaining variance component estimates in generalized linear models with random effects is a complicated procedure requiring the value of the parameter it is intended to estimate. This paper addresses this problem by providing a modification to the existing Restricted ...

  3. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advertised unless the advertisement contains a statement of its restricted use classification. (b) The... advertisement. The requirement may be satisfied with respect to broadcast or telephone advertising by inclusion... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertising of restricted use products...

  4. 48 CFR 1403.570 - Restrictions on contractor advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on contractor advertising. 1403.570 Section 1403.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... 1403.570 Restrictions on contractor advertising. ...

  5. Reduced Automatic Motivational Orientation Towards Food in Restricting Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    A striking and characteristic feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that they are extremely successful in regulating their food intake in a destructive manner. A possible explanation for the persistent character of their restricted food intake could be a loss of the

  6. Atherosclerotic changes of vessels caused by restriction of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.; Mchedlishvili, M. G.; Dekanosidze, T. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of restriction of movement on the development of atheroscelerosis was studied in rabbits. Drastic restriction of movement for 20 and 30 days causes atherosclerotic alterations of the aorta and shifts in ECG which are characteristic of coronary atherosclerosis. At the same time, shortening of the duration of blood coagulation and an increase in the content of catecholamines and beta-lipoproteids occur.

  7. Cardiovascular adaptation to extrauterine life after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Guerineau, Luciana; Perez-Cruz, Miriam; Gomez Roig, María D; Cambra, Francisco J; Carretero, Juan; Prada, Fredy; Gómez, Olga; Crispi, Fátima; Bartrons, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth. A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates. Compared with controls, neonates with intrauterine growth restriction had more globular ventricles, lower longitudinal tricuspid annular motion, and higher left stroke volume without differences in the heart rate. Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction also showed subclinical signs of diastolic dysfunction in the tissue Doppler imaging with lower values of early (e') diastolic annular peak velocities in the septal annulus. Finally, the Tei index in the tricuspid annulus was higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group. Neonates with history of intrauterine growth restriction showed cardiac remodelling and signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Overall, there was a significant tendency to worse cardiac function results in the right heart. The adaptation to extrauterine life occurred with more globular hearts, higher stroke volumes but a similar heart rate compared to adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.

  8. 36 CFR 13.1160 - Restrictions on vessel entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions on vessel entry. 13.1160 Section 13.1160 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Vessel Permits § 13.1160 Restrictions on vessel entry. The superintendent will allow vessel entry in...

  9. 38 CFR 21.4202 - Overcharges; restrictions on enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Administration of Educational Assistance Programs Schools § 21.4202 Overcharges; restrictions on enrollments. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) Restrictions; proprietary schools. Enrollment will not be approved for any veteran or eligible person under the...

  10. Drawing: Its Communicative Significance for Expressively Restricted Aphasic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Jon G.; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Drawing as therapy for the expressively restricted aphasic adult is discussed with sections on: drawing and acquired brain damage, communication through drawing in aphasia, and training expressively restricted aphasic patients to draw communicatively by use of the Lyon/Sims Program. (DB)

  11. Access to Minerals: WTO Export Restrictions and Climate Change Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Switzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the Chinese government opted to restrict the export of selected minerals on environmental and health grounds, subsequently leading to an uproar in countries and regions that rely heavily on imports from China to develop their renewable industry sector. This paper places the focus on the law and policy of the Chinese export restrictions of critical minerals, and its implications for the global renewables energy industry. The paper critically assesses how such export restrictions have been dealt with under the dispute settlement system of the World Trade Organisation (WTO. Drawing on this WTO jurisprudence, we posit that litigation on export restrictions of the kind imposed by China poses a threat to the legitimacy of the WTO. We therefore conclude by exploring whether there are any alternatives to litigation as a means to deal with countries choosing to impose mineral export restrictions.

  12. Operationalizing Cyberspace for Today’s Combat Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    top-cyber-security-risks/#trends ( accesed 12 March 2010). 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid. 27 Dr. Daniel T. Kuehl, (Professor, National Defense...trends ( accesed 12 March 2010). SysAdmin, Audit, Network, Security Institute. “Intrusion Detection FAQ: What was the Melissa virus and what can we

  13. Editorial Team

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial Team. Journal Home > About the Journal > Editorial Team. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editors. admin · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  14. Factors Predicting an Escalation of Restrictive Eating During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Watts, Allison W; Loth, Katie A; Pearson, Carolyn M; Neumark-Stzainer, Dianne

    2016-10-01

    To examine longitudinal risk factors and short-term risk correlates for the development of extreme forms of restrictive eating among adolescent dieters. Data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults, a population-based study of 2,516 students aged 12-18 years, were collected in 1998-1999 (Time 1) and 5 years later (Time 2). Within this sample, 243 adolescents who reported dieting but not engaging in disordered forms of restrictive eating (e.g., fasting, skipping meals) at Time 1 were followed to determine the self-reported psychological, familial, and social variables predicting initiation of disordered restrictive eating at Time 2. To investigate short-term risk correlates of initiating disordered restrictive eating, the same risk factors were also compared cross-sectionally at Time 2 between the dieters who had and had not initiated disordered restrictive eating. Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were fit for each predictor adjusted for covariates. Depressive symptoms and low self-esteem were significantly associated with the initiation of disordered restrictive eating in both longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses. Poor family communication/caring and maternal dieting significantly predicted long-term risk for escalating restrictive eating severity; whereas, individual body image issues (i.e., weight concerns, body dissatisfaction) and social concerns (i.e., weight-related teasing, peer dieting) were significant short-term correlates of initiating disordered restrictive eating. Depressive symptoms and low self-esteem may be especially important targets for risk identification and prevention for disordered restrictive eating. Intervening on family influences may decrease long-term risk, whereas intervening on body image and responses to social influences may decrease short-term risk for disordered restrictive eating. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Situational restriction: using your physical exam to differentiate pulley abnormalities from other vertical deviations secondary to restrictive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Steven E; Shippman, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The description of the orbital pulley system has changed the way we understand eye movements and ocular motility disorders. The presence of abnormalities in the orbital pulley system can complicate the assessment of vertical restrictive conditions. The standard tests for restriction are reviewed. These include version and duction testing, assessing saccades, differential intraocular pressure measurements, forced duction testing, and forced generation testing. We introduce the concept of situational restriction and how to look for it during your physical exam. Situational restriction is a limitation of ocular rotation that is dependent on the path that is taken to try to arrive at a tertiary position of ocular rotation. Specifically, it shows noncommutative movement that breaks Listing's Law. The presence of situational restriction denotes that a pulley abnormality is present.

  16. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  17. Kinetic impairment of restrictive streptomycin-resistant ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, K; Ruusala, T; Jelenc, P C; Kurland, C G

    1984-01-01

    Comparisons in vivo and in vitro of wild-type and otherwise isogenic bacteria with five different mutant alleles of the gene (rpsL) specifying ribosomal protein S12, all resistant to high levels of streptomycin, show that the streptomycin-resistant (Smr) phenotype can be subdivided into major groups: restrictive and non-restrictive. The restrictive bacteria have a characteristically lower frequency of nonsense suppression in vivo, and are also slower than the wild type in their rate of protein synthesis. Non-restrictive Smr bacteria on the other hand do not differ significantly from the wild type either in nonsense suppression frequencies or in the rate of translation. A complementary pattern is seen in vitro, where ribosomes from the restrictive Smr bacteria translate poly(U) with a significantly lower missense error frequency than wild-type ribosomes, and also show an increased Michaelis constant (KM) with respect to their substrate, i.e. ternary complexes. Both effects are correlated with the more aggressive proofreading function that is characteristic of these restrictive ribosomes. In contrast, ribosomes isolated from the non-restrictive Smr bacteria do not show any major difference in either proofreading or missense error in vitro when compared to the wild type.

  18. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  19. Can restricting calories help you to live longer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James E

    2014-03-01

    Excess calorie consumption is associated with metabolic disorders and increased incidence of morbidity. Restricting calorie content, either by daily calorie restriction or intermittent fasting periods, has multiple benefits including weight loss and improved body composition. Previous research has shown that restricting calories in this way can increase longevity and slow the ageing process in laboratory animals, although only sparse data exist in human populations. This review critically evaluates the benefits of these dietary interventions on age-related decline and longevity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Effective Potential for Magnetic Resonance Measurements of Restricted Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Özarslan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The signature of diffusive motion on the NMR signal has been exploited to characterize the mesoscopic structure of specimens in numerous applications. For compartmentalized specimens comprising isolated subdomains, a representation of individual pores is necessary for describing restricted diffusion within them. When gradient waveforms with long pulse durations are employed, a quadratic potential profile is identified as an effective energy landscape for restricted diffusion. The dependence of the stochastic effective force on the center-of-mass position is indeed found to be approximately linear (Hookean for restricted diffusion even when the walls are sticky. We outline the theoretical basis and practical advantages of our picture involving effective potentials.

  1. REBASE--enzymes and genes for DNA restriction and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J; Vincze, Tamas; Posfai, Janos; Macelis, Dana

    2007-01-01

    REBASE is a comprehensive database of information about restriction enzymes, DNA methyltransferases and related proteins involved in the biological process of restriction-modification. It contains fully referenced information about recognition and cleavage sites, isoschizomers, neoschizomers, commercial availability, methylation sensitivity, crystal and sequence data. Experimentally characterized homing endonucleases are also included. All newly sequenced genomes are analyzed for the presence of putative restriction systems and these data are included within the REBASE. The contents or REBASE may be browsed from the web (http://rebase.neb.com/rebase/rebase.ftp.html) and selected compilations can be downloaded by ftp (ftp.neb.com). Additionally, monthly updates can be requested via email.

  2. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  3. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. Methods: In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15–49, presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. Results: HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23% in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Conclusion: Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions

  4. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  5. 20 CFR 609.10 - Restrictions on entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMPENSATION FOR FEDERAL CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES Administration of UCFE Program § 609.10 Restrictions on entitlement... would apply but for the fact that the individual has no right to such compensation, the individual shall...

  6. 49 CFR 236.532 - Strap iron inductor; use restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strap iron inductor; use restricted. 236.532 Section 236.532 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... [49 FR 3386, Jan. 26, 1984] ...

  7. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  8. 19 CFR 146.44 - Zone-restricted status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... destruction of distilled spirits, wines, and fermented malt liquors), or storage will be given zone-restricted... show the merchandise has been deposited in a zone in lieu of actual exportation, and a copy of the...

  9. Phenylketonuria : tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, FJ; van Rijn, M; Bekhof, J; Koch, R; Smit, PGA

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) consists of restriction of natural protein and provision of a protein substitute that lacks phenylalanine but is enriched in tyrosine. Large and unexplained differences exist, however, in the tyrosine enrichment of the protein substitutes. Furthermore, some

  10. HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) - Restricted Access File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) contain the universe of emergency department visits in participating States. Restricted access data files are...

  11. Internal restriction sites: quality assurance aids in genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Brendon A; Dennis, Julie A; Healy, Peter J

    2006-03-01

    Improvements to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based genotyping assays currently used for detection of mutations responsible for bovine ferrochelatase and myophosphorylase deficiencies, and equine hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) are described. Reports of sporadic inhibition of restriction enzyme activity suggest a critical factor in RFLP-based genotyping assays should be assurance that restriction enzymes perform to specification with every sample. The RFLP genotyping assays that use either a mismatched recognition sequence in one or both of the oligonucleotides, or incorporate a second native site within the PCR amplicon, provide the mechanism by which efficiency of restriction enzymes can be assessed with every sample. The outcome is confirmation of the activity of the discriminating enzyme regardless of genotype.

  12. 77 FR 46339 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... coming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner, National Program Manager, Emergency and... manage CWR as a quality pest of chrysanthemum without Federal restrictions requiring eradication of this...

  13. 15 CFR 400.44 - Zone-restricted merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the goods cannot be exported; (3) The public benefit involved in allowing their return; and (4) The... which has been given export status by Customs officials (“zone-restricted merchandise”—19 CFR 146.44...

  14. 77 FR 68831 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Grant of Individual... of the Employee Benefits Security Administration, Room N-1513, U.S. Department of Labor, 200...

  15. 78 FR 66955 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Grant of individual... 4975(e)(1)(B) through (F) of the Code (an [[Page 66958

  16. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    García-Robles, Reggie; Deparatamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias. Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Ayala-Ramírez, Paola Andrea; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Espinosa, Alejandra; Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Olaya, Mercedes; Departamento de Patología, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.; Rojas, Juan Diego; Unidad de Medicina Materno Fetal, Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología. Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Bermúdez, Martha; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Instituto de Genética Humana, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Bogotá, D.C.,

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears to be caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction. Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with id...

  17. Open superstring field theory on the restricted Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    It appears that the formulation of an action for the Ramond sector of open superstring field theory requires to either restrict the Hilbert space for the Ramond sector or to introduce auxiliary fields with picture −3/2. The purpose of this note is to clarify the relation of the restricted Hilbert space with other approaches and to formulate open superstring field theory entirely in the small Hilbert space.

  18. IS-linked movement of a restriction-modification system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Takahashi

    Full Text Available Potential mobility of restriction-modification systems has been suggested by evolutionary/bioinformatic analysis of prokaryotic genomes. Here we demonstrate in vivo movement of a restriction-modification system within a genome under a laboratory condition. After blocking replication of a temperature-sensitive plasmid carrying a PaeR7I restriction-modification system in Escherichia coli cells, the plasmid was found integrated into the chromosome of the surviving cells. Sequence analysis revealed that, in the majority of products, the restriction-modification system was linked to chromosomal insertion sequences (ISs. Three types of products were: (I apparent co-integration of the plasmid and the chromosome at a chromosomal IS1 or IS5 copy (24/28 analyzed; (II de novo insertion of IS1 with the entire plasmid except for a 1-3 bp terminal deletion (2/28; and (III reciprocal crossing-over between the plasmid and the chromosome involving 1-3 bp of sequence identity (2/28. An R-negative mutation apparently decreased the efficiency of successful integration by two orders of magnitude. Reconstruction experiments demonstrated that the restriction-dependence was mainly due to selection against cells without proper integration: their growth was inhibited by the restriction enzyme action. These results demonstrate collaboration of a mobile element and a restriction-modification system for successful joint migration. This collaboration may have promoted the spread and, therefore, the long-term persistence of these complexes and restriction-modification systems in a wide range of prokaryotes.

  19. Identification of leptospiral isolates by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis (Brenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesha M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA samples from 19 reference serovars belonging to 19 different serogroups of Leptospira interrogans and two serovars belonging to Leptospira biflexa were examined by bacterial restriction endonuclease analysis using EcoR I and Hae III enzymes. All the serovars gave unique restriction patterns that differed from each other. DNA from 10 local isolates digested with these enzymes produced patterns which on comparison with the standard patterns produced by reference strains could be identified to serovar level.

  20. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    OpenAIRE

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaught...

  1. A Classical Realizability Model for a Semantical Value Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Lepigre, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    We present a new type system with support for proofs of programs in a call-by-value language with control operators. The proof mechanism relies on observational equivalence of (untyped) programs. It appears in two type constructors, which are used for specifying program properties and for encoding dependent products. The main challenge arises from the lack of expressiveness of dependent products due to the value restriction. To circumvent this limitation we relax the syntactic restriction and...

  2. Pulmonary valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia-restrictive ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, Liza Jose; Gadhinglajkar, Shrinivas; Mathew, Thomas; Venkateshwaran, Subramanian; Sreedhar, Rupa; Dharan, Baiju

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary atresia with restrictive ventricular septal defect is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly. A Blalock-Taussig shunt and surgical perforation of the atretic pulmonary valve is often performed as the initial palliation. We present our experience of utilizing both transesophageal and epicardial echocardiography during surgical pulmonary valvuloplasty in a 22-day-old neonate with pulmonary atresia with restrictive ventricular septal defect. The atretic pulmonary valve was perforated using a sheath introduced through the pulmonary artery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Supporting several levels of restriction in the UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide; Thomsen, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Bas....... This approach potentially increases the usability of the UML, and thus ultimately leads to greater quality and adoption of UML models....

  4. Access to Minerals: WTO Export Restrictions and Climate Change Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Stephanie; Gerber, Leonardus; Sindico, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, the Chinese government opted to restrict the export of selected minerals on environmental and health grounds, subsequently leading to an uproar in countries and regions that rely heavily on imports from China to develop their renewable industry sector. This paper places the focus on the law and policy of the Chinese export restrictions of critical minerals, and its implications for the global renewables energy industry. The paper critically assesses how such export rest...

  5. A survey of restaurant smoking restrictions in a Japanese city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kazuhiko; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kurozawa, Youichi; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2005-09-01

    Japan has been behind the times in terms of promoting smoking control. The health-promotion law, which included the aim of preventing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in public places, was newly introduced in Japan in 2003. The community-based survey on the present state of restaurant smoking restrictions and restaurant owners' concern of smoking is important as it is a reflection of the community's desire to prevent ETS. Data on the smoking restrictions in 163 restaurants in Yonago, one Japanese community, and the owners' smoking-related awareness were collected just one month after the law was enacted. This study revealed that only 6 (3.6%) restaurants were under sufficient conditions: 3 with totally smoke-free and 3 with complete non-smoking sections. The styles (e.g., Western-, Japanese- and Chinese-styles) and kinds of restaurants (e.g., family restaurants and tearooms) were not related to the state of smoking restrictions. Rates of smokers were relatively high among owners, and smoking owners significantly provided insufficient smoking restrictions. 26.4% of owners knew about the new law. However, there were no restaurants that started their smoking restrictions due to the law. Owners' knowledge of the law did not correlate with smoking restrictions. The owners especially feared the negative effects on business due to smoking restrictions. These survey findings suggested little protection from ETS in a sample of restaurants and a large gap in restaurant smoking restrictions compared to other countries. More widespread adoption of the health-promotion law in restaurants is an issue.

  6. Unintended Pregnancies, Restrictive Abortion Laws, and Abortion Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff, Marshall H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect restrictive state abortion laws have on the pregnancy resolution decisions of women with unintended pregnancies. The empirical results find that the abortion ratio and the abortion rate of unintended pregnancies are more sensitive to increases in the abortion price than previous estimates that analyzed total pregnancies (unintended and intended). A Medicaid funding restriction has very little effect on a state's abortion rate of unintended pregnancies, but cause...

  7. Food restriction reduces neurogenesis in the avian hippocampal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara-Anne Robertson

    Full Text Available The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance. Beyond knowing that these chickens are healthier than fully-fed birds and that they have a high motivation to eat, little is known about how food restriction impacts the animals' physiology. Chickens were kept on a commercial food-restricted diet during the first 12 weeks of life, or released from this restriction by feeding them ad libitum from weeks 7-12 of life. To test the hypothesis that chronic food restriction decreases the production of new neurons (neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine was injected one week prior to tissue collection. Corticosterone levels in blood plasma were elevated during food restriction, even though molecular markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation did not differ between the treatments. The density of new hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the food-restricted condition, as compared to chickens fed ad libitum, similar to findings in rats at a similar developmental stage. Food restriction did not affect hippocampal volume or the total number of neurons. These findings indicate that in birds, like in mammals, reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with chronically elevated corticosterone levels, and therefore potentially with chronic stress in general. This finding is consistent with the

  8. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily...

  9. Assisted reproductive technologies: professional and legal restrictions in Australian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kerry; Baker, H W G; Pitts, Marian; Thorpe, Rachel

    2005-02-01

    The professional and legal regulation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in Australia is a vast maze of intersecting laws and guidelines which place restrictions on the provision of services such as infertility treatment, surrogacy, sex selection for social reasons, donor insemination, pre-implantation diagnosis and human embryo research. This study investigated the application of these restrictions on clinical practice in New South Wales, a relatively unregulated State, and Victoria, a relatively highly regulated State. The results of the survey indicate that the range of ART services in Victorian clinics was far more limited than in New South Wales clinics. The Victorian clinics uniformly restricted access of single and lesbian women and did not offer social sex selection procedures. The New South Wales clinics adopted different polices regarding these services. It was found that restrictive laws governing "social" issues have a significant impact on the availability of ART services and some respondents seemed unclear about the nature of restrictions and laws relevant to their work. It was also found that "reproductive tourism" is prevalent and restrictions were circumnavigated by patients with assistance from clinics. It was concluded that more evidence is required to evaluate regulation in this field of medicine.

  10. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  11. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  12. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Faraut

    Full Text Available To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping.A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed.Laboratory-based study.11 healthy male volunteers.Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon.Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area.Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  13. The other face of restriction: modification-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenen, Wil A M; Raleigh, Elisabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The 1952 observation of host-induced non-hereditary variation in bacteriophages by Salvador Luria and Mary Human led to the discovery in the 1960s of modifying enzymes that glucosylate hydroxymethylcytosine in T-even phages and of genes encoding corresponding host activities that restrict non-glucosylated phage DNA: rglA and rglB (restricts glucoseless phage). In the 1980's, appreciation of the biological scope of these activities was dramatically expanded with the demonstration that plant and animal DNA was also sensitive to restriction in cloning experiments. The rgl genes were renamed mcrA and mcrBC (modified cytosine restriction). The new class of modification-dependent restriction enzymes was named Type IV, as distinct from the familiar modification-blocked Types I-III. A third Escherichia coli enzyme, mrr (modified DNA rejection and restriction) recognizes both methylcytosine and methyladenine. In recent years, the universe of modification-dependent enzymes has expanded greatly. Technical advances allow use of Type IV enzymes to study epigenetic mechanisms in mammals and plants. Type IV enzymes recognize modified DNA with low sequence selectivity and have emerged many times independently during evolution. Here, we review biochemical and structural data on these proteins, the resurgent interest in Type IV enzymes as tools for epigenetic research and the evolutionary pressures on these systems.

  14. The Restriction Fragment Map of Rat-Liver Mitochondrial DNA : A Reconsideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepe, G.; Bakker, H.; Holtrop, M.; Bollen, J.E.; Bruggen, E.F.J. van; Cantatore, P.; Terpstra, P.; Saccone, C.

    1977-01-01

    1. Rat-liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains at least 8 cleavage sites for the restriction endonuclease Eco RI, 6 for the restriction endonuclease Hind III, 2 for the restriction endonuclease Bam HI and 11 for the restriction endonuclease Hap II. 2. The physical map of the restriction fragments

  15. Perceived need for restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brna, Paula M; Gordon, Kevin E; Woolridge, Elaine; Dooley, Joseph M; Wood, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Children and youth with epilepsy have long been subjected to excessive restrictions on extracurricular activities due to concerns over risk of injury. Over time physicians and medical regulatory associations have liberalized the advice given for people with epilepsy to promote independence, self-esteem and general health benefits of physical activity. Current evidence suggests that few restrictions are needed for children with epilepsy beyond water-related precautions and avoidance of very high-risk activities. However, more stringent restrictions on daily activities may be imposed by caregivers. This study was aimed at exploring current perceptions of parents regarding restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy and the child's perspective on restrictions related to the diagnosis. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a sample of parent-child dyads of children/youth with epilepsy attending summer camp for children with epilepsy age 8-18years. A 10-item validated HARCES Parent Scale of Childhood Epilepsy was completed by the parent/guardian and a modified-HARCES completed by the child. The primary objective was to assess the degree of restrictions placed on children with epilepsy from the perspective of child and parent assessed independently. Agreement of perceived restrictions between parent-child dyads was also determined. 21 parent/guardian-child pairs were recruited with mean age of children/youth 12.7years (range 9-16years). Total HARCES scores for parents and guardians ranged from 11-26 (x=16.5; SD 4.9) while total scores for children with epilepsy similarly ranged from 10-25 (x=15.2; SD 4.9). There were no differences in total parent scores when analyzed by child's age (13years), gender, age of seizure onset, seizure frequency or seizure type. Total HARCES scores showed no agreement between parent and child pairs with correlation of 0.2798 (95% CI -0.173-0.635). Children and youth with epilepsy often face activity restrictions based on

  16. Temporal dynamics of methyltransferase and restriction endonuclease accumulation in individual cells after introducing a restriction-modification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Natalia; Sabantsev, Anton; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Yana; Maikova, Anna; Vedyaykin, Alexey; Rodic, Andjela; Djordjevic, Marko; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems encode a restriction endonuclease that cleaves DNA at specific sites, and a methyltransferase that modifies same sites protecting them from restriction endonuclease cleavage. Type II R-M systems benefit bacteria by protecting them from bacteriophages. Many type II R-M systems are plasmid-based and thus capable of horizontal transfer. Upon the entry of such plasmids into a naïve host with unmodified genomic recognition sites, methyltransferase should be synthesized first and given sufficient time to methylate recognition sites in the bacterial genome before the toxic restriction endonuclease activity appears. Here, we directly demonstrate a delay in restriction endonuclease synthesis after transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a plasmid carrying the Esp1396I type II R-M system, using single-cell microscopy. We further demonstrate that before the appearance of the Esp1396I restriction endonuclease the intracellular concentration of Esp1396I methyltransferase undergoes a sharp peak, which should allow rapid methylation of host genome recognition sites. A mathematical model that satisfactorily describes the observed dynamics of both Esp1396I enzymes is presented. The results reported here were obtained using a functional Esp1396I type II R-M system encoding both enzymes fused to fluorescent proteins. Similar approaches should be applicable to the studies of other R-M systems at single-cell level. PMID:26687717

  17. Temporal dynamics of methyltransferase and restriction endonuclease accumulation in individual cells after introducing a restriction-modification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Natalia; Sabantsev, Anton; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Fedorova, Yana; Maikova, Anna; Vedyaykin, Alexey; Rodic, Andjela; Djordjevic, Marko; Khodorkovskii, Mikhail; Severinov, Konstantin

    2016-01-29

    Type II restriction-modification (R-M) systems encode a restriction endonuclease that cleaves DNA at specific sites, and a methyltransferase that modifies same sites protecting them from restriction endonuclease cleavage. Type II R-M systems benefit bacteria by protecting them from bacteriophages. Many type II R-M systems are plasmid-based and thus capable of horizontal transfer. Upon the entry of such plasmids into a naïve host with unmodified genomic recognition sites, methyltransferase should be synthesized first and given sufficient time to methylate recognition sites in the bacterial genome before the toxic restriction endonuclease activity appears. Here, we directly demonstrate a delay in restriction endonuclease synthesis after transformation of Escherichia coli cells with a plasmid carrying the Esp1396I type II R-M system, using single-cell microscopy. We further demonstrate that before the appearance of the Esp1396I restriction endonuclease the intracellular concentration of Esp1396I methyltransferase undergoes a sharp peak, which should allow rapid methylation of host genome recognition sites. A mathematical model that satisfactorily describes the observed dynamics of both Esp1396I enzymes is presented. The results reported here were obtained using a functional Esp1396I type II R-M system encoding both enzymes fused to fluorescent proteins. Similar approaches should be applicable to the studies of other R-M systems at single-cell level. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Terminal Differentiation of Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew J; Beaver, Charlotte M; Goodier, Martin R; Bottomley, Christian; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia F M; Boldrin, Luisa; Whitmore, Charlotte; Morgan, Jennifer; Pearce, Daniel J; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Immune senescence is a natural consequence of aging and may contribute to frailty and loss of homeostasis in later life. Calorie restriction increases healthy life-span in C57BL/6J (but not DBA/2J) mice, but whether this is related to preservation of immune function, and how it interacts with aging, is unclear. We compared phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, across the lifespan, of calorie-restricted (CR) and control C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Calorie restriction preserves a naïve T cell phenotype and an immature NK cell phenotype as mice age. The splenic T cell populations of CR mice had higher proportions of CD11a - CD44 lo cells, lower expression of TRAIL, KLRG1, and CXCR3, and higher expression of CD127, compared to control mice. Similarly, splenic NK cells from CR mice had higher proportions of less differentiated CD11b - CD27 + cells and correspondingly lower proportions of highly differentiated CD11b + CD27 - NK cells. Within each of these subsets, cells from CR mice had higher expression of CD127, CD25, TRAIL, NKG2A/C/E, and CXCR3 and lower expression of KLRG1 and Ly49 receptors compared to controls. The effects of calorie restriction on lymphoid cell populations in lung, liver, and lymph nodes were identical to those seen in the spleen, indicating that this is a system-wide effect. The impact of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell maturation is much more profound than the effect of aging and, indeed, calorie restriction attenuates these age-associated changes. Importantly, the effects of calorie restriction on lymphocyte maturation were more marked in C57BL/6 than in DBA/2J mice indicating that delayed lymphocyte maturation correlates with extended lifespan. These findings have implications for understanding the interaction between nutritional status, immunity, and healthy lifespan in aging populations.

  19. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke; van Dijk, J Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P L M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2010-07-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44 +/- 7 years, BMI 23.5 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2), and A1C 7.6 +/- 0.3%. They were studied once after a night of normal sleep duration and once after a night of only 4 h of sleep. Sleep characteristics were assessed by polysomnography. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp studies with an infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. RESULTS Sleep duration was shorter in the night with sleep restriction than in the unrestricted night (469 +/- 8.5 vs. 222 +/- 7.1 min, P = 0.02). Sleep restriction did not affect basal levels of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), or endogenous glucose production. Endogenous glucose production during the hyperinsulinemic clamp was not altered during the night of sleep restriction compared with the night of unrestricted sleep (6.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.9 +/- 0.6 micromol x kg lean body mass(-1) x min(-1), NS). In contrast, sleep restriction decreased the glucose disposal rate during the clamp (25.5 +/- 2.6 vs. 22.0 +/- 2.1 micromol x kg lean body mass(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.04), reflecting decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, sleep restriction decreased the rate of glucose infusion by approximately 21% (P = 0.04). Sleep restriction did not alter plasma NEFA levels during the clamp (143 +/- 29 vs. 133 +/- 29 micromol/l, NS). Partial sleep deprivation during a single night induces peripheral insulin resistance in these seven patients with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, sleep duration is a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes.

  1. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Leandro P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M, which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g: animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP, animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP, animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD, and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD. Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals.

  2. HIV restriction by APOBEC3 in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Krisko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune restriction factors represent important specialized barriers to zoonotic transmission of viruses. Significant consideration has been given to their possible use for therapeutic benefit. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases are potent immune defense molecules capable of efficiently restricting endogenous retroelements as well as a broad range of viruses including Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV, Human Papilloma virus (HPV, and Human T Cell Leukemia virus (HTLV. The best characterized members of this family are APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F and their restriction of HIV. HIV has evolved to counteract these powerful restriction factors by encoding an accessory gene designated viral infectivity factor (vif. Here we demonstrate that APOBEC3 efficiently restricts CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif. However, our results also show that CXCR4-tropic HIV can escape from APOBEC3 restriction and replicate in vivo independent of Vif. Molecular analysis identified thymocytes as cells with reduced A3G and A3F expression. Direct injection of vif-defective HIV into the thymus resulted in viral replication and dissemination detected by plasma viral load analysis; however, vif-defective viruses remained sensitive to APOBEC3 restriction as extensive G to A mutation was observed in proviral DNA recovered from other organs. Remarkably, HIV replication persisted despite the inability of HIV to develop resistance to APOBEC3 in the absence of Vif. Our results provide novel insight into a highly specific subset of cells that potentially circumvent the action of APOBEC3; however our results also demonstrate the massive inactivation of CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif.

  3. Full HPV typing by a single restriction enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Enrique; Camacho, Lucía; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Vázquez, Fernando

    2006-09-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods for genotyping genital human papillomavirus (HPV) are considered labor consuming and constrained by the reduced set of restriction enzymes capable of detecting specific mutations. However, we think that these methods have not taken full advantage of the high diversity of the known restriction enzymes. We have set out to find the best restriction enzyme for HPV typing. An extensive search for enzymes was carried out by combining statistical methods and database information. The search maximized the discrimination between high- and low-risk types by examining the sequence of the L1 gene flanked by primers MY09/11. Different electrophoretic resolutions and two variations of the RFLP method were considered. HpyCH4V is the best enzyme for discriminating between risk types. Moreover, HpyCH4V generates different patterns for virtually all the HPV types. The typical pattern consists of two or three fragments, which facilitates typing in mixed infections. The typing of a set of clinical samples confirmed the expectations. This result illustrates the possibilities of statistical methods to exploit the high diversity of restriction enzymes in order to classify samples in a pre-established hierarchy of types for which DNA sequences are known.

  4. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship: attitudes of the sporting community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2012-03-01

    Sponsorship is recognised as a significant marketing tool and restricting unhealthy food sponsorship of children's sport has been recommended by leading health agencies as a contribution towards preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the junior sporting community's support for policy interventions to restrict unhealthy food sponsorship. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with parents (n=200) and officials (n=20), and with governing sporting associations (n=20). Questionnaires measured respondents' attitudes towards sponsorship and support for sponsorship regulations. Many officials and parents perceived children to be 'very' influenced by elite sport sponsorship (65% of association officials, 53% of parents and 45% of club officials). Children were thought to be less influenced by sponsorship of their own sporting clubs (10%, 11% and 10%, respectively). However, 50% of officials and 70% of parents supported restrictions to children's sport sponsorship. Respondents were most supportive of restricting the use of unhealthy food logos on children's uniforms. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship is supported by the sporting community and policy change is needed to reduce the perceived impact of this marketing. Alternative funding mechanisms have the potential to maintain sport funding whilst reducing promotional opportunities for unhealthy food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Restrictions on Software for Personal and Professional Use

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of computer security incidents detected at CERN are due to additional software installed for personal and professional use. As a consequence, the smooth operation of CERN is put at risk and often many hours are lost solving the problems. To reduce this security risk, installation and/or use of software on CERN's computing and network infrastructure needs to be restricted. Therefore: Do NOT install software for personal use Do NOT install 'free' or other software unless you have the expertise to configure and maintain it securely. Please comply to these rules to keep our computer systems safe. Further explanation of these restrictions is at http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions Restricted software, known to cause security and/or network problems (e.g. KaZaA and other P2P/Peer-to-Peer file sharing applications, Skype P2P telephony software, ICQ, VNC, ...), is listed at: http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions/list

  6. Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Kayla P; Bergeron, Caroline D; Towne, Samuel D; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2018-01-19

    Background : Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods : Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results : Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44-64) and older adults (age 65+) with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions : Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.

  7. Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla P. Meek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64 and older adults (age 65+ with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.

  8. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects. PMID:26412073

  9. SNP-RFLPing: restriction enzyme mining for SNPs in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yu-Huei

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP is a common laboratory method for the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Here, we describe a web-based software, named SNP-RFLPing, which provides the restriction enzyme for RFLP assays on a batch of SNPs and genes from the human, rat, and mouse genomes. Results Three user-friendly inputs are included: 1 NCBI dbSNP "rs" or "ss" IDs; 2 NCBI Entrez gene ID and HUGO gene name; 3 any formats of SNP-in-sequence, are allowed to perform the SNP-RFLPing assay. These inputs are auto-programmed to SNP-containing sequences and their complementary sequences for the selection of restriction enzymes. All SNPs with available RFLP restriction enzymes of each input genes are provided even if many SNPs exist. The SNP-RFLPing analysis provides the SNP contig position, heterozygosity, function, protein residue, and amino acid position for cSNPs, as well as commercial and non-commercial restriction enzymes. Conclusion This web-based software solves the input format problems in similar softwares and greatly simplifies the procedure for providing the RFLP enzyme. Mixed free forms of input data are friendly to users who perform the SNP-RFLPing assay. SNP-RFLPing offers a time-saving application for association studies in personalized medicine and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/snp-rflp/.

  10. SNP-RFLPing: restriction enzyme mining for SNPs in genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Phei-Lang; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2006-02-17

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a common laboratory method for the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we describe a web-based software, named SNP-RFLPing, which provides the restriction enzyme for RFLP assays on a batch of SNPs and genes from the human, rat, and mouse genomes. Three user-friendly inputs are included: 1) NCBI dbSNP "rs" or "ss" IDs; 2) NCBI Entrez gene ID and HUGO gene name; 3) any formats of SNP-in-sequence, are allowed to perform the SNP-RFLPing assay. These inputs are auto-programmed to SNP-containing sequences and their complementary sequences for the selection of restriction enzymes. All SNPs with available RFLP restriction enzymes of each input genes are provided even if many SNPs exist. The SNP-RFLPing analysis provides the SNP contig position, heterozygosity, function, protein residue, and amino acid position for cSNPs, as well as commercial and non-commercial restriction enzymes. This web-based software solves the input format problems in similar softwares and greatly simplifies the procedure for providing the RFLP enzyme. Mixed free forms of input data are friendly to users who perform the SNP-RFLPing assay. SNP-RFLPing offers a time-saving application for association studies in personalized medicine and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/snp-rflp/.

  11. Locomotion Induced by Spatial Restriction in Adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chengfeng; Robertson, R Meldrum

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila adults display an unwillingness to enter confined spaces but the behaviors induced by spatial restriction in Drosophila are largely unknown. We developed a protocol for high-throughput analysis of locomotion and characterized features of locomotion in a restricted space. We observed intense and persistent locomotion of flies in small circular arenas (diameter 1.27 cm), whereas locomotion was greatly reduced in large circular arenas (diameter 3.81 cm). The increased locomotion induced by spatial restriction was seen in male flies but not female flies, indicating sexual dimorphism of the response to spatial restriction. In large arenas, male flies increased locomotion in arenas previously occupied by male but not female individuals. In small arenas, such pre-conditioning had no effect on male flies, which showed intense and persistent locomotion similar to that seen in fresh arenas. During locomotion with spatial restriction, wildtype Canton-S males traveled slower and with less variation in speed than the mutant w1118 carrying a null allele of white gene. In addition, wildtype flies showed a stronger preference for the boundary than the mutant in small arenas. Genetic analysis with a series of crosses revealed that the white gene was not associated with the phenotype of boundary preference in wildtype flies.

  12. Cleavage of mispaired heteroduplex DNA substrates by numerous restriction enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Mark T; Palladino, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    The utility of restriction endonucleases as a tool in molecular biology is in large part due to the high degree of specificity with which they cleave well-characterized DNA recognition sequences. The specificity of restriction endonucleases is not absolute, yet many commonly used assays of biological phenomena and contemporary molecular biology techniques rely on the premise that restriction enzymes will cleave only perfect cognate recognition sites. In vitro, mispaired heteroduplex DNAs are commonly formed, especially subsequent to polymerase chain reaction amplification. We investigated a panel of restriction endonucleases to determine their ability to cleave mispaired heteroduplex DNA substrates. Two straightforward, non-radioactive assays are used to evaluate mispaired heteroduplex DNA cleavage: a PCR amplification method and an oligonucleotide-based assay. These assays demonstrated that most restriction endonucleases are capable of site-specific double-strand cleavage with heteroduplex mispaired DNA substrates, however, certain mispaired substrates do effectively abrogate cleavage to undetectable levels. These data are consistent with mispaired substrate cleavage previously reported for Eco RI and, importantly, extend our knowledge of mispaired heteroduplex substrate cleavage to 13 additional enzymes.

  13. Time-place learning in food-restricted Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delicio, Helton Carlos; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio

    2008-01-01

    Time-place learning based on food association was investigated in eight food-restricted Nile tilapias. Each fish was individually housed for 10 days in an experimental tank for adjustments to laboratory conditions, and fed daily in excess. Feeding was then interrupted for 17 days. Training was then started, based on a food-restricted regime in a tank divided into three interconnected compartments. Daily food was offered in one compartment (left or right side) of the tank in the morning and on the opposite side in the afternoon, for a continuous 30-day period. Frequency of choices on the right side was measured on days 10, 20 and 30 (during these test days, fish were not fed). Following this 30-day conditioning period, the Nile tilapias were able to switch sides at the correct period of the day to get food, suggesting that food restriction facilitates time-place learning discrimination.

  14. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The mean residual life measures the expected remaining life of a subject who has survived up to a particular time. When survival time distribution is highly skewed or heavy tailed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose an additive-multiplicative restricted...... mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline....... For the suggested model, some covariate effects are allowed to be time-varying. To estimate the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the large sample properties of the resulting estimators are established. In addition, to assess the adequacy of the model, we investigate a goodness...

  15. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: More than a restrictive bariatric surgery procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaiges, David; Más-Lorenzo, Antonio; Goday, Albert; Ramon, José M; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Roux, Juana A Flores-Le

    2015-01-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a restrictive bariatric surgery technique that was first used as part of restrictive horizontal gastrectomy in the original Scopinaro type biliopancreatic diversion. Its good results as a single technique have led to a rise in its use, and it is currently the second most performed technique worldwide. SG achieves clearly better results than other restrictive techniques and is comparable in some aspects to the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the current gold standard in bariatric surgery. These benefits have been associated with different pathophysiologic mechanisms unrelated to weight loss such as increased gastric emptying and intestinal transit, and activation of hormonal mechanisms such as increased GLP-1 hormone and decreased ghrelin. The aim of this review was to highlight the salient aspects of SG regarding its historical evolution, pathophysiologic mechanisms, main results, clinical applications and perioperative complications. PMID:26557004

  16. Company Law as a Restriction to Free Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures. There is e......Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures....... There is evidence that non-discriminatory obstacles to free movement found in company law can be restrictions. However, recent cases show that the Court may be willing to apply a more restrictive approach where only non-discriminatory measures that have a qualified deterrent effect may constitute restrictions....

  17. Phonological universals in early childhood: Evidence from sonority restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Harder, Katherine; Lennertz, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Across languages, onsets with large sonority distances are preferred to those with smaller distances (e.g., bw>bd>lb; Greenberg, 1978). Optimality theory (Prince & Smolensky, 2004) attributes such facts to grammatical restrictions that are universally active in all grammars. To test this hypothesis, here, we examine whether children extend putatively universal sonority restrictions to onsets unattested in their language. Participants (M=4;04 years) were presented with pairs of auditory words-either identical (e.g., lbif→lbif) or epenthetically related (e.g., lbif→lebif)-and asked to judge their identity. Results showed that, like adults, children's ability to detect epenthetic distortions was monotonically related to sonority distance (bw>bd>lb), and their performance was inexplicable by several statistical and phonetic factors. These findings suggest that sonority restrictions are active in early childhood and their scope is broad.

  18. Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites...... was assayed. The following PNAs were used: T10-LysNH2, T5CT4-LysNH2 and T2CT2CT4-LysNH2 and the corresponding targets cloned into pUC 19 were flanked by BamH1, Sal1 or Pstl sites, respectively. In all cases it was found that complete inhibition of restriction enzyme cleavage was obtained...

  19. Restrictions of process machine retooling at machine-building enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of the national economy depends on the technological level of the machine-building enterprises production equipment. Today in Russia there are objective and subjective restrictions for the optimum policy formation of the manufacturing equipment renewal. The analysis of the manufacturing equipment age structure dynamics in the Russian machine-building complex indicates the negative tendencies intensification: increase in the equipment service life, reduction in the share of up-to-date equipment, and drop in its use efficiency. The article investigates and classifies the main restrictions of the manufacturing equipment renewal process, such as regulatory and legislative, financial, organizational, competency-based. The economic consequences of the revealed restrictions influence on the machine-building enterprises activity are shown.

  20. Semiparametric regression for restricted mean residual life under right censoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    A mean residual life function (MRLF) is the remaining life expectancy of a subject who has survived to a certain time point. In the presence of covariates, regression models are needed to study the association between the MRLFs and covariates. If the survival time tends to be too long or the tail...... is not observed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose the proportional restricted mean residual life model for fitting survival data under right censoring. For inference on the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the asymptotic properties...

  1. SNP-RFLPing: restriction enzyme mining for SNPs in genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Phei-Lang; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a common laboratory method for the genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Here, we describe a web-based software, named SNP-RFLPing, which provides the restriction enzyme for RFLP assays on a batch of SNPs and genes from the human, rat, and mouse genomes. Results Three user-friendly inputs are included: 1) NCBI dbSNP "rs" or "ss" IDs; 2) NCBI Entrez gene ID and HUGO gene name; 3) any formats of SNP-in-se...

  2. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  3. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed.... 70°16.1′ W. to 181 39°59.3′ N. 70°14.0′ W. Offshore Boundary Point to Latitude Longitude 69 40°07.9...°59.7′ N. 70°13.05′ W. 181 39°59.3′ N. 70°14.0′ W. to 119 40°02.75′ N. 70°16.1′ W. (c) Restricted Gear...

  4. Fluid Management in Patients with Trauma: Restrictive Versus Liberal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lee

    2017-03-01

    Massive hemorrhage remains a major cause of traumatic deaths. The ideal fluid resuscitative strategy is much debated. Research has provided inconsistent results regarding which fluid strategy is ideal; the optimum fluid type, timing, and volume remains elusive. Aggressive large-volume resuscitation has been the mainstay based on controlled hemorrhage animal models. For uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, liberal fluid resuscitative strategies exacerbate the lethal triad, invoke resuscitative injury, and increase mortality while more restrictive fluid strategies tend to ameliorate trauma-induced coagulopathy and favor a greater chance of survival. This article discusses the current evidence regarding liberal and restrictive fluid strategies for trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the growth rate of premature infants in the first weeks of life and factors associated with extrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 254 premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit conducted from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Infants who died or had malformations incompatible with life were excluded. Median weight curves according to gestational age were constructed for the first four weeks of life. The Fenton growth chart calculations provided the weight Z-scores. Extrauterine growth restriction was defined as corrected weight-for-age Z-score ≤-2. Perinatal, morbidity, and health care variables were analyzed. The Poisson regression model yielded the prevalenceratios . Associations between extrauterine growth restriction and the perinatal, morbidity, and care variables were investigated. Poisson regression controlled possible confounding factors. Results: The frequency of extrauterine growth restriction was 24.0%. Most (85.0% small-for-gestational-age infants developed extrauterine growth restriction; 55.3% of extrauterine growth restriction cases involved small-for-gestational-age infants. Premature infants with gestational age >32 weeks did not recover the median birth weight until the third week of life and had a higher frequency of small-for-gestational-age. The Z-scores of non-small-for-gestational-age infants decreased more after birth than those of small-for-gestational-age infants. extrauterine growth restriction was associated with small-for-gestational-age (PR=6.14; 95%CI=3.33-11.33;p <0.001 and time without enteral diet (PR=1.08; 95%CI=1.04-1.13; p =0.010. Conclusion: Extrauterine growth restriction occurs in premature infants of all gestational age. The participation of small-for-gestational-age and nutritional practices in its genesis is noteworthy. We suggest prospective studies of all premature infants. The implementation of best care practices

  6. Abortion providers, professional identity, and restrictive laws: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Laura E; Mercier, Rebecca J; Buchbinder, Mara; Bryant, Amy G

    2017-03-01

    Most studies on the impact of restrictive abortion laws have focused on patient-level outcomes. To better understand how such laws affect providers, we conducted a qualitative study of 27 abortion providers working under a restrictive law in North Carolina. Providers derived professional identity from their motivations, values, and experiences of pride related to abortion provision. The law affected their professional identities by perpetuating negative characterizations of their profession, requiring changes to patient care and communication, and creating conflicts between professional values and legal obligations. We conclude that a holistic understanding of the impact of abortion laws should include providers' perspectives.

  7. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...

  8. A theoretical analysis of season length restrictions in fisheries management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xu

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies season length restrictions in fisheries management from an ecological-economic perspective. We first construct a model of a stylized fishery in which season length restrictions are used to manage the fishery. We then show how the dynamic and the stochastic properties of this fishery can be used to construct two managerial criteria that are meaningful from an ecological standpoint. Finally, using these two criteria, we discuss a probabilistic approach to fisheries management in which the principal focus of a manager is on moving the fishery away from the least desirable state of existence.

  9. Partial digestion with restriction enzymes of ultraviolet-irradiated human genomic DNA: a method for identifying restriction site polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, C.; Romeo, G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for partial digestion of total human DNA with restriction enzymes has been developed on the basis of a principle already utilized by P.A. Whittaker and E. Southern for the analysis of phage lambda recombinants. Total human DNA irradiated with uv light of 254 nm is partially digested by restriction enzymes that recognize sequences containing adjacent thymidines because of TT dimer formation. The products resulting from partial digestion of specific genomic regions are detected in Southern blots by genomic-unique DNA probes with high reproducibility. This procedure is rapid and simple to perform because the same conditions of uv irradiation are used for different enzymes and probes. It is shown that restriction site polymorphisms occurring in the genomic regions analyzed are recognized by the allelic partial digest patterns they determine

  10. Sleep Restriction Worsens Mood and Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally induced chronic sleep restriction on…

  11. Kamm on Inviolability and Agent-Relative Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Agent-relative restrictions prohibit minimizing violations: that is, they require us not to minimize the total number of their violations by violating them ourselves. Frances Kamm has explained this prohibition in terms of the moral worth of persons, which, in turn, she explains in term...

  12. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Predicts Restricted Repetitive Behavior Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condy, Emma E.; Scarpa, Angela; Friedman, Bruce H.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to social communication deficits, restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a key diagnostic feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in ASD has been posited as a mechanism of RRBs; however, most studies investigating ANS activity in ASD have focused on its relation to social…

  13. Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of restricted maternal nutrition during the period of embryonic and maximal placental growth (i.e. 0 – 95 days gestation; term ≈147 days) on the developmental and programming of mitochondrial voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and cytochrome c in the lung of the resulting ...

  14. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  15. Growth restriction and gender influence cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Emily; Baerts, Willem; Alderliesten, Thomas; Derks, Jan; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of fetal growth restriction and gender on cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates during the first 3 days of life. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, The Netherlands. PATIENTS: 68 (41 males)

  16. Effects of parenteral phosphorus dose restriction in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, K; Viswanathan, S

    2016-06-22

    In response to a national shortage of parenteral phosphorus solutions (2013), a hospital-wide phosphorus dose restriction strategies was implemented which included judicious use of phosphorus in preterm infants birth weight and no parenteral phosphorus in preterm infants >1250 g birth weight unless they have a critically low phosphorus level. To study the effect of parenteral phosphorus dose restriction in preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Preterm infants (≤35 weeks birth gestation and ≤2500 g birth weight) who received parenteral nutrition, survived >1 week and had no major congenital anomalies were studied. Clinical and laboratory data in the first 4 weeks of life of infants admitted during the parenteral phosphorus shortage (cases) were compared to infants who were admitted 6 months prior to the shortage (controls). Twenty consecutive cases were compared to 40 consecutive controls. Cases had lower serum phosphorus levels, higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels, and need for greater inotropic support compared to controls. These differences were significant only in preterm infants with birth weight >1250 g, the group who received more parenteral phosphorus dose restriction while they were similar in preterm infants with birth weight <1250 g. The modest effects of phosphorus dose restriction may become more clinically important if shortage is prolonged or severe or if it involves extreme preterm infants.

  17. Visual expression of the experiences of restrictive eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Edith

    Background of the research: Visual methods are used in nursing research. These methods include media such as film, video, still images, material artifacts and drawing. The current study is a PhD project, dealing with children's experiences of eating restrictively (diabetes or obesity). Visual...

  18. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  19. Nutrient deficiencies and the restriction of compensatory mechanisms in copepods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burian, A.; Grosse, J.; Winder, M.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2017-01-01

    The flexible regulation of feeding behaviour and nutrient metabolism is a prerequisitefor consumers to grow and survive under variable food conditions. Thus, it isessential to understand the ecological trade-offs that restrict regulatory mechanismsin consumers to evaluate the consequences of

  20. 7 CFR 322.13 - General requirements; restricted organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted organisms. 322.13 Section 322.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING...

  1. Data Input and Content Exploration in Scenarios with Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractAs technology evolves, new devices and interaction techniques are developed. These transformations create several challenges in terms of usability and user experience. Our research faces some challenges for data input or content exploration in scenarios with restrictions. It is not our

  2. Restricted time diagnoses: expertise differences among clinical pathologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Jaarsma, T., Jarodzka, H., Nap, M., Van Merriënboer, J., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, 22 October). Restricted time diagnoses: expertise differences among clinical pathologists. Paper presented at the workshop 'New tools and practices for learning and seeing in medicine', University of Turku, Turku,

  3. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are

  4. Restriction Inhibition Assay: A Qualitative and Quantitative Method to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rich fractions (PRFs) with high affinity for EcoRI and HindIII restriction sequences and correlate their interaction to an anticancer activity. Methods: pBR322 linear plasmid DNA was used as a template to screen the sequence-selective inhibition of ...

  5. 17 CFR 1.22 - Use of customer funds restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of customer funds... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.22 Use of customer funds restricted. No futures commission merchant shall use, or permit the use of, the customer funds of...

  6. 20 CFR 614.10 - Restrictions on entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 614.10 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR EX-SERVICEMEMBERS Administration of UCX Program § 614.10 Restrictions on entitlement. (a... shall apply in regard to separation from any Federal military agency. (b) Effect of “days lost”. The...

  7. The Effectiveness of Mandatory and Voluntary Water-Use Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Halich, Greg; Stephenson, Kurt; Hilmer, Christiana E.

    2005-01-01

    Local water suppliers are increasingly faced with implementing policies to address temporary water shortages. This analysis estimates the reductions in residential water-use from the implementation of voluntary and mandatory water-use restrictions programs in Virginia. The level of information and enforcement was found to have a significant influence on the magnitude of water use reductions.

  8. Blood flow restriction: the metabolite/volume threshold theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, J P; Fahs, C A; Wilson, J M; Bemben, M G

    2011-11-01

    Traditionally it has been thought that muscle hypertrophy occurs primarily from an overload stimulus produced by progressively increasing an external load using at least 70% of one's concentric one repetition maximum (1RM). Blood flow restricted exercise has been demonstrated to result in numerous positive training adaptions, specifically muscle hypertrophy and strength at intensities much lower than this recommendation. The mechanisms behind these adaptions are currently unknown but a commonly cited concept is that acute elevations of systemic hormones, specifically growth hormone (GH), play a large role with resistance training induced muscle hypertrophy, possibly through stimulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS). We hypothesize that the alterations in the intramuscular environment which results in the rapid recruitment of FT fibers, is the large driving force behind the skeletal muscle hypertrophy seen with blood flow restriction, whereas the external load and systemic endogenous hormone elevations may not be as important as once thought. It is further hypothesized that although skeletal muscle hypertrophy can be achieved at low intensities without blood flow restriction when taken to muscular failure, the overall volume of work required is much greater than that needed with blood flow restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Classifying images using restricted Boltzmann machines and convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Xu, Tongde; Dai, Chenyu

    2017-07-01

    To improve the feature recognition ability of deep model transfer learning, we propose a hybrid deep transfer learning method for image classification based on restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). It integrates learning abilities of two models, which conducts subject classification by exacting structural higher-order statistics features of images. While the method transfers the trained convolutional neural networks to the target datasets, fully-connected layers can be replaced by restricted Boltzmann machine layers; then the restricted Boltzmann machine layers and Softmax classifier are retrained, and BP neural network can be used to fine-tuned the hybrid model. The restricted Boltzmann machine layers has not only fully integrated the whole feature maps, but also learns the statistical features of target datasets in the view of the biggest logarithmic likelihood, thus removing the effects caused by the content differences between datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed method has improved the accuracy of image classification, outperforming other methods on Pascal VOC2007 and Caltech101 datasets.

  10. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  11. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall provide interstate transmission or billing and collection services to an entity offering any service within the scope...

  12. Deep Restricted Kernel Machines Using Conjugate Feature Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suykens, Johan A K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this letter is to propose a theory of deep restricted kernel machines offering new foundations for deep learning with kernel machines. From the viewpoint of deep learning, it is partially related to restricted Boltzmann machines, which are characterized by visible and hidden units in a bipartite graph without hidden-to-hidden connections and deep learning extensions as deep belief networks and deep Boltzmann machines. From the viewpoint of kernel machines, it includes least squares support vector machines for classification and regression, kernel principal component analysis (PCA), matrix singular value decomposition, and Parzen-type models. A key element is to first characterize these kernel machines in terms of so-called conjugate feature duality, yielding a representation with visible and hidden units. It is shown how this is related to the energy form in restricted Boltzmann machines, with continuous variables in a nonprobabilistic setting. In this new framework of so-called restricted kernel machine (RKM) representations, the dual variables correspond to hidden features. Deep RKM are obtained by coupling the RKMs. The method is illustrated for deep RKM, consisting of three levels with a least squares support vector machine regression level and two kernel PCA levels. In its primal form also deep feedforward neural networks can be trained within this framework.

  13. 19 CFR 200.735-125 - Exemption from restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONDUCT Provisions for Administrative Enforcement of Postemployment Conflict of Interest Restrictions... knowledge of the former Commission employee. This provision does not, however, allow a former Commission... expert witness except (i) to the extent that the former employee may testify from personal knowledge as...

  14. Technical Support Document for a Proposed IECC Glazing Orientation Restriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Zachary T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a proposed revision to the International Energy Conservation Code that would restrict the amount of west-facing glazing permitted on low-rise residential buildings. The purpose and structure of the proposed change are discussed and its potential impacts on energy consumption and cooling peak load are quantified based on hour-by-hour building energy simulation.

  15. On some special cases of the restricted assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C. (Chao); R.A. Sitters (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider some special cases of the restricted assignment problem. In this scheduling problem on parallel machines, any job j can only be assigned to one of the machines in its given subset Mj of machines. We give an LP-formulation for the problem with two job sizes and show that it

  16. Reimbursement restriction moderately decreases benzodiazepine use in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.; Souverein, P.C.; Mantel, A.K.; Leufkens, B.G.M.; Dijk, L. van

    2011-01-01

    Background: On January 1st 2009, benzodiazepines were excluded from the Dutch positive reimbursement list when used as anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative, to limit misuse and for cost savings. Thus far, the (un)intended effects of this reimbursement restriction are unknown. Objectives: To assess the

  17. Reimbursement restriction moderately decreases Benzodiazepine use in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.; Souverein, P.C.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Leufkens, H.G.M.; Dijk, L. van

    2011-01-01

    Problem Statement: On January 1st 2009, benzodiazepines were excluded from the Dutch positive reimbursement list when used as anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative, to limit misuse and for cost savings. Thus far, the (un)intended effects of this reimbursement restriction are unknown. Objective(s): To

  18. Calorie restriction in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; Slakhorst, S Marijke; Koopmanschap, A Bertha; Ikink, Gerjon J; Debets, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Rolf F

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a regimen of reduced food intake that, although the underlying mechanism is unknown, in many organisms leads to life span extension. Podospora anserina is one of the few known ageing filamentous fungi and the ageing process and concomitant degeneration of mitochondria

  19. Fetal growth restriction is associated with malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briand, Valérie; Saal, Jessica; Ghafari, Caline

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effect of malaria on intrauterine growth restriction on the basis of the fetal growth rate, rather than just the small-for-gestational age z score. Here, we assessed the impact of malaria on IUGR, using data from a longitudinal, ultrasonography-based fol...

  20. 76 FR 70491 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... prohibited transaction restrictions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act...: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Grant of Individual Exemptions. SUMMARY: This... authorized employee or representative of the Department, the Internal Revenue Service, or the Securities and...

  1. 75 FR 61775 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... prohibited transaction restrictions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act...: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Grant of Individual Exemptions. SUMMARY: This... Income Security Act of 1974 (the Act). However, there is jurisdiction under Title II of the Act pursuant...

  2. Use of qualitative feed restriction as a management strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of qualitative feed restriction through the use low-quality diet on finisher broiler performance, and to determine if sufficient compensatory growth can be achieved at that phase of broiler production. Seventytwo (72) 4 weeks old broiler chicks of Anak strain ...

  3. Guiding IEP Teams on Meeting the Least Restrictive Environment Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Teri A.; Hart, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Leslie; Love, Jessica; Baxter, Christine M.; Gartin, Barbara; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Two diametrically opposed beliefs are held concerning the meaning of the least restrictive environment (LRE) when determining the class placements of students with disabilities. One group adheres to the placement philosophy that the LRE is always the general education setting. The other group believes that the LRE is where the students' needs may…

  4. 50 CFR 648.230 - Catch quotas and other restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... estimates of recruitment; virtual population analysis results; levels of noncompliance by fishermen or individual states; impact of size/mesh regulations; sea sampling data; impact of gear other than otter trawls..., but are not limited to: (1) Minimum or maximum fish sizes; (2) Seasons; (3) Mesh size restrictions; (4...

  5. Conceptual restrictions on weakly referential constructions : Evidence from modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulpen, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigated the restrictions on so-called weakly referential constructions such as weak definites, bare predicates and bare singular nouns. Weak definites are definite constructions in which the definite doesn’t refer uniquely, such as in (1): Context: Piet spent his evening

  6. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.88 Multispecies open access permit restrictions. (a) Handgear permit. A vessel issued a valid open access NE multispecies Handgear permit is...

  7. Partial association of restriction polymorphism of the ligand binding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohamed Hessien

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... found to restrict the binding of testosterone or DHT to the receptor and subsequently impair AR mediated transactiva- tion. The literature has reported unlimited number of genetic abnormalities in different domains of the AR gene. Most of these genetic abnormalities were detected in prostate cancer.

  8. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  9. 28 CFR 549.13 - Programming, duty, and housing restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programming, duty, and housing... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.13 Programming, duty, and housing restrictions. (a) The CD will assess any inmate with an infectious disease for appropriateness for programming...

  10. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  11. Suicide and Firearm Means Restriction: Can Training Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Karen; Brewer, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Along with physician education in depression recognition and treatment, restricting lethal methods is an effective suicide prevention strategy. The present study surveyed a random sample (N = 697) of Ohio licensed social workers regarding client firearm assessment and safety counseling. Analyses sought to determine what independent factors would…

  12. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of

  13. 40 CFR 35.6575 - Restrictions on types of contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund... contracts. (b) Removal. Under a removal Cooperative Agreement, the recipient must award a fixed-price... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions on types of contracts. 35...

  14. 25 CFR 141.29 - Political contributions restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Political contributions restricted. 141.29 Section 141.29 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.29 Political contributions...

  15. DOPING AND OTHER RESTRICTED METHODS IN SPORTS SUMMARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Bjelica

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since sport has become an industry, it has lost all its elements of tolerance and chivalry and become an arena which is made for making profi t. Under those conditions everyone wanted to succeed by no means. The stocks such as: power, speed and endurance were of immeasurable value on the market. The level of the biomothoric dimensions could be raised as a matter of course or, unfortunately, by using restricted substances where the science was abused. Many private laboratories have started with the production of the restricted substances whose aim was to raise the level of power, strength and endurance, but only temporary, because the harmful effects lasted much longer and even caused lethal consequences. The natives from the South Africa used to use a kind of alcohol drink which was called “dop”. That word came to Europe by the Dutchmen, where it has become a “doping” in English. These restricted substances can be classifi ed into the groups with a specifi c effect. These substances are called restricted substances and methods in sports. These are the substances such as: stimulants, narcotics, canabiodies, anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, beta-2 agonists, anti-estrogen agenses, covered agenses and glycocorticoids.

  16. Testing exclusion restrictions and additive separability in sample selection models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction of these......Standard sample selection models with non-randomly censored outcomes assume (i) an exclusion restriction (i.e., a variable affecting selection, but not the outcome) and (ii) additive separability of the errors in the selection process. This paper proposes tests for the joint satisfaction...... of these assumptions by applying the approach of Huber and Mellace (Testing instrument validity for LATE identification based on inequality moment constraints, 2011) (for testing instrument validity under treatment endogeneity) to the sample selection framework. We show that the exclusion restriction and additive...... separability imply two testable inequality constraints that come from both point identifying and bounding the outcome distribution of the subpopulation that is always selected/observed. We apply the tests to two variables for which the exclusion restriction is frequently invoked in female wage regressions: non...

  17. Proposal of Realization Restricted Quantum Game with Linear Optic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haijun; Fang Ximing

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum game with the restricted strategic space and its realization with linear optical system, which can be played by two players who are separated remotely. This game can also be realized on any other quantum computers. We find that the constraint brings some interesting properties that are useful for making game models.

  18. 76 FR 49791 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... amount of the payment that would be paid if the restriction did not apply, or (2) the present value... Transactions described in the VFC Program Application. (c) The fair market value of the securities involved in... person, as defined in Code section 4975(e)(2). (f) The Applicant did not take advantage of the relief...

  19. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  20. Consensus Based Definition of Growth Restriction in the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beune, Irene M; Bloomfield, Frank H; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Embleton, Nicholas D; Rozance, Paul J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wynia, Klaske; Gordijn, Sanne J

    2018-02-28

    To develop a consensus definition of growth restriction in the newborn that can be used clinically to identify newborn infants at risk and in research to harmonize reporting and definition in the current absence of a gold standard. An international panel of pediatric leaders in the field of neonatal growth were invited to participate in an electronic Delphi procedure using standardized methods and predefined consensus rules. Responses were fed back at group-level and the list of participants was provided. Nonresponders were excluded from subsequent rounds. In the first round, variables were scored on a 5-point Likert scale; in subsequent rounds, inclusion of variables and cut-offs were determined with a 70% level of agreement. In the final round participants selected the ultimate algorithm. In total, 57 experts participated in the first round; 79% completed the procedure. Consensus was reached on the following definition: birth weight less than the third percentile, or 3 out of the following: birth weight definition for growth restriction in the newborn. This definition recognizes that infants with birth weights 10th percentile can be growth restricted. This definition can be adopted in clinical practice and in clinical trials to better focus on newborns at risk, and is complementary to the previously determined definition of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.