WorldWideScience

Sample records for admin restriction faq

  1. Internet FAQ Archives - Online Education - faqs.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    faqs.org Internet FAQ Archives - Online Education faqs.org faqs.org - Internet FAQ Archives Internet FAQ Archives Online Education Internet RFC Index Usenet FAQ Index Other FAQs Documents Tools IFC Rated FAQs Internet RFC/STD/FYI/BCP Archives The Internet RFC series of documents is also available from

  2. Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other FAQs Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Turner Syndrome: Other FAQs Basic information for topics, such as " ... been diagnosed with Turner syndrome. Now what? Is Turner syndrome inherited? Turner syndrome is usually not inherited, but ...

  3. BilBooking CarAdmin

    OpenAIRE

    Ensrud, Marius; Gjerde, Ketil; Solberg, Yngve

    2005-01-01

    ETC CarAdmin er en biladministreringsløsning utviklet for å effektivisere og lette kostnadene ved den interne biladministrasjonen i kommuner og bedrifter. Det var her to hovedoppdrag vi fikk av oppdragsgiver. Det ene var å bruke Microsoft Outlook sin kalender mot Microsoft Exchange, som har mulighet for ressursreservering, til å gi brukere av CarAdmin-løsningen mulighet til å reservere biler. Oppdrag to, var å bygge opp en webside som kunne gi en kalender visning til bruker og også gi m...

  4. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer FAQs Top 10 Things You Should Know About ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  5. Modernising the CERN Admin e-guide

    CERN Multimedia

    DG-RPC-PA (section des processus administratifs)

    2014-01-01

    In just a few years, the CERN Admin e-guide has become the essential guide for CERN's administrative procedures, intended not just for administrative services but for all members of the personnel of CERN. The guide is edited by the Administrative Process Section (DG-RPC-PA) and allows users to look up administrative procedures and forms relating to the application of the Staff Rules and Regulations easily in both French and English. Site visit statistics show that 5000 people on average consult the Admin e-guide each month. The most consulted procedures are those relating to green licence plates, taxes, Swiss and French cards and leave. The site has just been moved over to Drupal, which will make it easier to update the information provided and will improve content management. This system change meant migrating 220 procedures and more than 500 frequently asked questions. The structure has been revised for clarity, but the principles that made the guide so successful have not changed, namely the e...

  6. Low Vision FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs What is low vision? Low vision is a visual impairment, not correctable ... person’s ability to perform everyday activities. What causes low vision? Low vision can result from a variety of ...

  7. Fermilab Education Office - FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Education Office FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions Click on the question to see the answer and the difference between the Education Office and the Lederman Science Center? The Education Office is store selling logo items and science toys. The Education Office staff works on both the 15th floor of

  8. NLM Emergency Access Initiative: FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facebook Visit us on Twitter Visit us on Youtube Emergency Access Initiative Home | Journals | Books | Online Databases | FAQs Take Short Survey FAQ What is the Emergency Access Initiative? The Emergency Access Initiative (EAI) is a collaborative partnership between NLM and participating publishers to

  9. Nuovo realismo FAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ferraris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Il vero punto, nel confronto tra realisti e postmodernisti, non è ovviamente l’affermazione o negazione dell’esistenza del mondo esterno, ma il costruzionismo: quanto incidono gli schemi concettuali nella costruzione della realtà naturale e sociale? Infatti nessun realista negherebbe che l’IVA dipenda da schemi concettuali (il che non significa ancora sostenere che siano puramente soggettivi: l’IVA vale – in linea di principio – per chiunque faccia acquisti in Italia. Quello che il realista si chiede è, appunto, fin dove si spinge l’azione degli schemi concettuali, ed è qui che si manifesta il dissidio tra realisti e postmodernisti. Questi ultimi sono molto più generosi nella lista delle parti di realtà che sono socialmente costruite, al punto da affermare, in taluni casi, che noi non abbiamo mai accesso a un mondo "là fuori”, ma solo con ciò che viene costruito dai nostri schemi concettuali. New Realism FAQ The actual issue at stake, in the confrontation between realists and postmodernists, is not whether you should accept or deny the existence of the external world, but the scope of constructionism: how far conceptual schemes bear on the construction of natural and social reality? Indeed, no realist would deny that the VAT depends on our conceptual schemes, which does not mean that it is purely subjective: you don’t decide whether (or to which country you have to pay the VAT, it depends on where the purchase takes places. The realist just asks where the sphere of influence of conceptual schemes stops, and here the disagreement with the postmodernists begins. The latter are much more generous in listing the parts of reality that they consider socially constructed, up to maintaining (the most extreme ones that we do not have any access to the world “out there”, but only to what our conceptual schemes construct.

  10. MedlinePlus FAQ: Framing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/faq/framing.html I'd like to link to MedlinePlus, ... M. encyclopedia. Our license agreements do not permit framing of their content from our site. For more ...

  11. Launch of the new CERN Admin e-guide

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Admin e-guide is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, which has been drawn up for the benefit of members of the personnel and the various administrative services alike and replaces the old "Administrative Procedures Manual". All the different procedures currently available on separate department sites will henceforth be accessible at a single website.   Home page of the new CERN Admin e-guide. The goal of creating a compendium of CERN's administrative procedures, available at a single website and accessible with a simple click of the mouse, has now been realised.  "It had become difficult to know where to find the relevant up-to-date information on administrative procedures", says Yaël Grange-Lavigne of the HR-SPS-OP Section (Organisation and Procedures), coordinator of the working group that compiled the e-guide. The team, which comprised members of the HR Department, observers from other department...

  12. Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast Milk KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding FAQs: Safely Storing Breast ... may have. How do I store my breast milk? You can freeze and/or refrigerate your pumped ( ...

  13. FAQ's

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How does AJOL's graded payment scheme for article downloads work? Can one pay for an AJOL article via means other than a credit card? Why are certain articles unavailable for download? My article did not download after my completed order – what do I do? I tried to login but have lost my password. What do I do?

  14. Improving Windows desktop security - the 'Non-Admin' Project

    CERN Multimedia

    NICE Team

    2005-01-01

    From 16 January 2006, Windows XP NICE installations (both new computers installed and old computers re-installed) will no longer grant administrative privileges by default to the main user or to the person responsible for the computer. Administrative privileges allow the user to perform administrative actions on the computer, such as installing new applications or changing system settings. Until now, these privileges have been enforced each time machines are rebooted, but this creates a risk of compromising the computer every time a code from an unknown source (e.g. e-mail attachments or web browsing) is executed. So that users can continue to install software and change system settings on their computers, a shortcut called 'NiceAdmin' in the Start | Programmes menu will offer a means of performing certain tasks requiring administrative privileges, but only on demand. Users with valid reasons to be a permanent administrator for their machine will still have this option. However, users wishing to benefit fr...

  15. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  17. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  18. ODM2 Admin Pilot Project- a Data Management Application for Observations of the Critical Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M.; McDowell, W. H.; Mayorga, E.; Setiawan, L.; Hooper, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    ODM2 Admin is a tool to manage data stored in a relational database using the Observation Data Model 2 (ODM2) information model. Originally developed by the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) to manage a wide range of Earth observations, it has now been deployed at 6 projects: the Catalina Jemez CZO, the Dry Creek Experimental Forest, Au Sable and Manistee River sites managed by Michigan State, Tropical Response to Altered Climate Experiment (TRACE) and the Critical Zone Integrative Microbial Ecology Activity (CZIMEA) EarthCube project; most of these deployments are hosted on a Microsoft Azure cloud server managed by CUAHSI. ODM2 Admin is a web application built on the Python open-source Django framework and available for download from GitHub and DockerHub. It provides tools for data ingestion, editing, QA/QC, data visualization, browsing, mapping and documentation of equipment deployment, methods, and citations. Additional features include the ability to generate derived data values, automatically or manually create data annotations and create datasets from arbitrary groupings of results. Over 22 million time series values for more than 600 time series are being managed with ODM2 Admin across the 6 projects as well as more than 12,000 soil profiles and other measurements. ODM2 Admin links with external identifier systems through DOIs, ORCiDs and IGSNs, so cited works, details about researchers and earth sample meta-data can be accessed directly from ODM2 Admin. This application is part of a growing open source ODM2 application ecosystem under active development. ODM2 Admin can be deployed alongside other tools from the ODM2 ecosystem, including ODM2API and WOFpy, which provide access to the underlying ODM2 data through a Python API and Water One Flow web services.

  19. Introducción a phpMyAdmin (3/4)

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Cueto, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Curso "Introducción al desarrollo web": inserción de datos, creación de una relación muchos a muchos (N:N), claves ajenas, integridad referencial, diseñador de phpMyAdmin. Más información: http://idesweb.es

  20. Introducción a phpMyAdmin (2/4)

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Cueto, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Curso "Introducción al desarrollo web": phpMyAdmin, creación de tablas, tipos de datos, creación de índices, motores de MySQL (INNODB, MyISAM, MEMORY), inserción de datos, seguimiento de una tabla (historial), exportar una tabla (backup). Más información: http://idesweb.es

  1. Mastering phpMyAdmin 34 for Effective MySQL Management

    CERN Document Server

    Delisle, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This is a step-by-step instructional guide to get you started easily with phpMyAdmin and teach you to manage and perform database functions on your database. You will first be introduced to the interface and then build basic tables and perform both simple and advanced functions on the created database. The book progresses gradually and you will follow it best by reading it sequentially. If you are a developer, system administrator, or web designer who wants to manage MySQL databases and tables efficiently, then this book is for you. This book assumes that you are already wellacquainted with My

  2. Stakeholder Engagement/Capacity Building Pilot Opportunity FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the pilot opportunity for stakeholder engagement/capacity building. EPA is offering an opportunity for community stakeholders and ports to participate in a pilot project to test and refine capacity building tools.

  3. Módulo de Administración SIRIO Mobile Admin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Pérez Rajadel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} El presente artículo presenta el uso de teléfonos celulares para monitorear y administrar diferentes procesos en entornos empresariales. Recoge los resultados del desarrollo de SIRIO Mobile Admin, módulo de administración dirigido a teléfonos móviles e incorporado a la plataforma SIRIO, encargada de la gestión de juegos multiusuario para celulares.  Este módulo facilita el control del servidor y proporciona las herramientas necesarias para su constante monitoreo, asegurando interoperabilidad con la incorporación de Servicios Web como intermediarios entre las aplicaciones clientes y el servidor de la plataforma. Incorpora además elementos de seguridad con el establecimiento de un canal seguro para la comunicación.

  4. Strategi Komunikasi Persuasif Admin Facebook Pjbo (Pekanbaru Jual Beli Online) Dalam Menarik Minat Member Tersurvey Di Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Rendy; ", Nurjanah

    2017-01-01

    Pekanbaru Jual Beli Online or PJBO is an online group that used grou feature in social media Facebook. PJBO group page used as a place where Pekanbaru people commit online transaction in selling or buying various things and services. And over timethis group start to applying commercial function in a program named ‘member tersurvey'. ‘Member tersurvey' program is a transaction securities guarantee from admin for the members if they pay administration cost as much as Rp 10.000,00 (ten thousand ...

  5. FAQ om læringsmål

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Niels Jakob

    Læringsmål er blevet et centralt begreb i den danske forskning og debat om pædagogik og uddannelse. Man taler om læringsmål i forbindelse med børnenes udvikling i børnehaver og vuggestuer, i relation til folkeskolens fag og i forbindelse med de seneste års reformer af lærer- og pædagoguddannelser...... mål? Hvor fører læringsmålene os hen, og er der et alternativ til læringsmålene? FAQ om læringsmål er bog nr. 3 i FAQ-serien om ofte stillede spørgsmål inden for det pædagogiske og psykologiske område. Alle bøger i serien er peer reviewet....

  6. STAT FAQs Part 2: Lifetime of PV Panels | State, Local, and Tribal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governments | NREL STAT FAQs Part 2: Lifetime of PV Panels STAT FAQs Part 2: Lifetime of PV Panels April 23, 2018 by Benjamin Mow The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) receives many is the productive lifetime and degradation rate of solar PV panels. Question: What is the productive

  7. Xgrid admin guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Charlie E M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Xgrid, with a capital-X is the name for Apple's grid computing system. With a lower case x, xgrid is the name of the command line utility that clients can use, among other ways, to submit jobs to a controller. An Xgrid divides into three logical components: Agent, Controller and Client. Client computers submit jobs (a set of tasks) they want run to a Controller computer. The Controller queues the Client jobs and distributes tasks to Agent computers. Agent computers run the tasks and report their output and status back to the controller where it is stored until deleted by the Client. The Clients can asynchronously query the controller about the status of a job and the results. Any OSX computer can be any of these. A single mac can be more than one: it's possible to be Agent, Controller and Client at the same time. There is one Controller per Grid. Clients can submit jobs to Controllers of different grids. Agents can work for more than one grid. Xgrid's setup has a pleasantly small palette of choices. The first two decisions to make are the kind of authentication & authorization to use and if a shared file system is needed. A shared file system that all the agents can access can be very beneficial for many computing problems, but it is not appropriate for every network.

  8. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mobile.html Question: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device? To use the sharing features on this page, ... Some video content might not play on your mobile device. See our FAQ on playing videos on phones ...

  9. Validizační studie české verze dotazníku FAQ

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezdíček, O.; Lukavský, Jiří; Preiss, M.

    74/107, č. 1 (2011), s. 36-42 ISSN 1210-7859 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : questionnaire * validity * activities of daily living Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.279, year: 2011 http://www.csnn.eu/ceska-slovenska-neurologie-clanek/validizacni-studie-ceske-verze-dotazniku-faq-34140

  10. Advice and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Citizen-Science Environmental Health Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Huang, Hongtai; Williams, Ronald; Kaufman, Amanda; Essoka, Jonathan

    2018-05-11

    Citizen science provides quantitative results to support environmental health assessments (EHAs), but standardized approaches do not currently exist to translate findings into actionable solutions. The emergence of low-cost portable sensor technologies and proliferation of publicly available datasets provides unparalleled access to supporting evidence; yet data collection, analysis, interpretation, visualization, and communication are subjective approaches that must be tailored to a decision-making audience capable of improving environmental health. A decade of collaborative efforts and two citizen science projects contributed to three lessons learned and a set of frequently asked questions (FAQs) that address the complexities of environmental health and interpersonal relations often encountered in citizen science EHAs. Each project followed a structured step-by-step process in order to compare and contrast methods and approaches. These lessons and FAQs provide advice to translate citizen science research into actionable solutions in the context of a diverse range of environmental health issues and local stakeholders.

  11. Sunscreens FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  12. Vulvodynia FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a nerve block help relieve pain? • What is cognitive behavioral therapy? • When is surgery recommended for vulvodynia? • Glossary What is vulvodynia? The external female genital area is called the vulva . Pain that affects this ...

  13. Donation FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Be The Match Blog Stories Anna, transplant recipient ... or by the patient's medical insurance, as are travel expenses and other non-medical costs. The only ...

  14. Caregiver FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduce anxiety. Apathy (or lack of interest and motivation) is a common symptom of LBD, as is ... Galvin, member of LBDA's Scientific Advisory Council All Rights Reserved Lewy Body Dementia Association, Inc. 912 Killian ...

  15. Depression FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression affects about 15 million American adults every year. Women are more likely to get depression than men. In general, about one out of every four women will get depression at some point in her life.

  16. Infertility FAQ's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and is committed to advancing urologic research and education to improve patient’s lives. CDC’s National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System – CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health collects ...

  17. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... evaluated in the United States reflect travel and immigration patterns. For example, many of the cases of ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  18. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with restrictive cardiomyopathy may be heart transplant candidates. The outlook depends on the cause of the ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  19. Lawyers Admin Law Study Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the study guide, it is the responsibility of the student to supplement the text with independent research. The study guide is designed to be a starting point for research, not a substitute for it.

  20. Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up in the circulatory system. In time, the heart fails. What causes it? Restrictive cardiomyopathy is often caused by diseases in other parts of the body. One known cause is cardiac ... build up in the heart tissue, making the tissue stiff and thickened. Cardiac ...

  1. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  2. Restrictions and Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

  3. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  4. Salesforce CRM the definitive admin handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goodey, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide which will help to discover how to setup and configure the Salesforce CRM application. It offers solutions and practical examples on how to further improve and maintain its functionality with clear systematic instructions. Being highly organized and compact, this book contains detailed instructions with screenshots, diagrams, and tips that clearly describe how you can administer and configure complex Salesforce CRM functionality with absolute ease.This book is for administrators who want to develop and strengthen their Salesforce CRM skills in the areas of configuration and s

  5. Lawyers Admin Law. Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the study guide, it is the responsibility of the student to supplement the text with independent research. The study guide is designed to be a starting point for research, not a substitute for it.

  6. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettering, Brett Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grider, Gary Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  7. A Cloud Associated Smart Grid Admin Dashboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Naveen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent smart grid system undertakes electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, economical and environmentally friendly manner. As smart grid involves, it has the liability of meeting the changing consumer needs on the day-to-day basis. Modern energy consumers like to vivaciously regulate their consumption patterns more competently and intelligently than current provided ways. To fulfill the consumers’ needs, smart meters and sensors make the grid infrastructure more efficient and resilient in energy data collection and management even with the ever-changing renewable power generation. Though cloud acts as an outlet for the energy consumers to retrieve energy data from the grid, the information systems available are technically constrained and not user-friendly. Hence, a simple technology enabled utility-consumer interactive information system in the form of a dashboard is presented to cater the electric consumer needs.

  8. Restricting wolves risks escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Ballard, Warren; Bangs, Ed; Ream, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Implementing the proposal set forth by Licht and colleagues (BioScience 60: 147–153) requires restricting wolves to tiny "islands," areas that are magnitudes smaller than the ranges of most wolf populations. Wolves naturally have large ranges; restricting their spatial needs increases the risk of wolves escaping, exacerbating public relations and political and legal problems.

  9. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    and testing, e.g. construction protein or nucleic acid scaffolds and other state of the art approaches that ... methods and a significant gain in time to proof of concept. ... demonstrates an accelerated vaccine R&D pathway to proof of concept.

  10. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not ... Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  11. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommendations to make a full recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions ... Support Network Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  12. Drinking Water FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 90 different contaminants in public drinking water, including E.coli , Salmonella , and Cryptosporidium species. More information regarding the ... page. Water Quality Indicators: Total Coliforms Fecal Coliforms / Escherichia coli (E. coli) pH Contaminants: Nitrate Volatile Organic Compounds ( ...

  13. FAQ | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  14. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relationships, you may have premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD is a severe type of PMS that affects a small percentage of women. Drugs ... selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can help treat PMDD in some women. ... depression. Can PMS be treated? If your symptoms are mild to ...

  15. Spinal Muscular Atrophy FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Approximately 1 in 50 Americans, or about 6 ... Pediatric Neuromuscular Clinical Research Network ( PNCR ) and the Muscular ... is the SMN2 gene? Muscle weakness and atrophy in SMA results from the ...

  16. New Reaxys FAQ

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Представлено руководство часто задаваемые вопросы для работы по новому интерфейсу базы данных структурного поиска REAXYS издательства Elsevier на английском языке.

  17. FAQs for Research Awards

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    I am a student enrolled in a master's program. ... I am required to complete an internship in an organization selected by my university. Can ... Yes, you are responsible for obtaining a valid work permit and proper visa prior to starting your award.

  18. Elder Abuse FAQS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Home About The Attorney General Budget & Performance History Privacy Program Agencies Organizational Chart Alphabetical Listing Resources Grants Business Forms Publications Information for Victims in Large Cases ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Current theories suggest that some types of ovarian cancer may ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy ...

  20. Cushing Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Legislation and Public Policy (OLPP) Office of Science Policy, Reporting, and Program Analysis (OSPRA) Division of Extramural Research (DER) Extramural Scientific Branches Grants Management Branch (GMB) Office of Committee Management ( ...

  1. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can occur easily so strict observance of good hand hygiene is essential (e.g. proper handwashing, maintaining clean ... be discussed at the time of treatment. Good hand hygiene is the most effective means of prevention. If ...

  2. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    are the potential health risks from transportation of depleted uranium metal or oxide? Other Skip Navigation Depleted UF6 Logo (Go to Home Page) Uranium Quick Fact Energy from Uranium One ton of natural uranium can produce more than 40 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. This is equivalent

  3. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pump is best? You can buy or rent a breast pump from lactation consultants, hospitals, retail ... place to do it. Many companies offer their employees pumping and nursing areas. If yours doesn't, ...

  4. Call 1 FAQ (FR)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    Le terme « amélioration » utilisé dans cet appel à propositions fait référence à toutes les innovations utilisées par les ... Le candidat principal est chargé de la conception intellectuelle et de la mise en oeuvre de l'idée, .... de vaccins, notamment les nouvelles techniques mises au point en biologie synthétique, ou ce type de ...

  5. Climate projections FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Daniels; J.F. Morrison; L.A. Joyce; N.L. Crookston; S.C. Chen; S.G. McNulty

    2012-01-01

    Climate scenarios offer one way to identify and examine the land management challenges posed by climate change. Selecting projections, however, requires careful consideration of the natural resources under study, and where and how they are sensitive to climate. Selection also depends on the robustness of different projections for the resources and geographic area of...

  6. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... larva migrans. What are the clinical manifestations of animal (zoonotic) hookworm in people? Cutaneous larval migrans (CLM) in a person's foot. ... and larvae may be found in dirt where animals have been. People may become infected while walking barefoot or when ...

  7. Photoshop Lightroom 4 FAQs

    CERN Document Server

    Sholik, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Get the answers to 365 of the most commonly asked questions about Lightroom Photographers who are getting acquainted with Photoshop Lightroom and all its advantages for managing large quantities of images will find this handy book an indispensable resource. Veteran photographer Stan Sholik answers 365 of the most frequently asked questions about the new Lightroom 4 in an informative, practical format, making it easy to find what you're looking for and put the information to use. Sample photos illustrate questions and answers, and a quick-reference guide provides easy access to must-have inform

  8. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common and in areas where there are poor sanitary conditions or poor personal hygiene. In the United ... of appetite Nausea Vomiting Abdominal pain Dark urine Clay-colored stools Joint pain Jaundice (yellowing of the ...

  9. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) • What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? • What causes PCOS? • What is insulin resistance? • ... with PCOS? •Glossary What are common signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Common PCOS signs and symptoms include the ...

  10. IDRA Technical FAQs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Liliane Castets-Poupart

    Questionnaire. If you are eligible, the system will give you access to the full application. Refer to the Checklist for a list of documents you must submit with your application. 2) When preparing my IDRA application, do I have to complete the entire application at once or can I complete some sections, upload some documents,.

  11. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    activities (including monitoring, reporting, communication, etc.). ... dependencies on the work being funded from other sources that could result in the LVIF work failing if there ... How long does it take to complete the online application form?

  12. Call 1 FAQ (ENG)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Francine Sinzinkayo

    teams to develop a vaccine that is superior to a current one. Examples of ... activities (including monitoring, reporting, communication, etc.). Third party ... dependencies on the work being funded from other sources that could result in the LVIF work failing if ... How long does it take to complete the online application form?

  13. Progeria 101/FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Progeria, but also may shed light on the phenomenon of aging and cardiovascular disease.” v “Recurrent de ... Statistics Is Progeria passed down from parent to child? HGPS is not usually passed down in families. ...

  14. ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hidrógeno y flúor Formaldehyde | Formaldehido Fuel Oils / Kerosene | Aceites combustibles G Gasoline, Automotive | Gasolina de automóvil Glutaraldehyde * ... Uranium * Other Languages... Used Mineral-based Crankcase Oil | Aceite Usado de Cárter V Vanadium * Other Languages... ...

  15. EMC: Mesoscale Branch FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEAL WITH THE SNOW COVER IN THE NGM/ETA/AVN? (updated 6 Nov 98) WHAT'S ON THE OSO SERVER? HOW ARE MODEL . the fact that the Eta uses GOES precipitable water and the NGM & AVN do not, that the AVN uses south, leaving the city high and dry. In that case, ALL our models (Eta, NGM and AVN) did the switch in

  16. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus , spread by the bite of an infected Simulium ... indicate that you are still infected with O. volvulus . What is the treatment for onchocerciasis? There are ...

  17. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  18. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid —This medication treats heavy menstrual bleeding. • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs—These drugs, which include ibuprofen, may help control heavy bleeding and relieve menstrual cramps. • Antibiotics—If you have an infection, you may be ...

  19. Protein restriction and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Huang, Xingguo; Li, Tiejun; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-26

    Protein restriction without malnutrition is currently an effective nutritional intervention known to prevent diseases and promote health span from yeast to human. Recently, low protein diets are reported to be associated with lowered cancer incidence and mortality risk of cancers in human. In murine models, protein restriction inhibits tumor growth via mTOR signaling pathway. IGF-1, amino acid metabolic programing, FGF21, and autophagy may also serve as potential mechanisms of protein restriction mediated cancer prevention. Together, dietary intervention aimed at reducing protein intake can be beneficial and has the potential to be widely adopted and effective in preventing and treating cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Investigation of the behavioural phenotype of parents of autistic children through the new FAQ self-report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, H; Fortin, C; Noulhiane, M; Golse, B; Robel, L

    2007-01-01

    Autism is characterized by impairments in communication and socialization and by the presence of circumscribed and stereotyped interest. Previous studies have shown that genetic mechanisms may enhance the vulnerability to autism. These mechanisms are complex and may involve the combination of several genes, in interaction with the environment. The genetic mechanism involved in the vulnerability to autism may also concern other disorders and some features, with enhanced prevalence in relatives of autistic patients. It has been shown, for example, that the frequency of language disorders or serial difficulties is increased in the siblings of autistic patients. Characterization and taking into account the presence of such phenotypic traits in the relations may help in understanding the results of genetic studies, in particular association studies in sibling pairs or trios. In this study, we used a new self-report in order to identify endophenotype traits in socialization, communication, rigidity and imagination in parents of autistic children. This self-report is the French adaptation of the previous self-report created by Baron-Cohen et al., aimed at the identification of Asperger profiles in a population of students studying science. Ten autistic children and their parents from a clinical setting were asked to participate in the study. Autistic children were characterized using the ADI-R and various psychometric tests, according to the possibilities of the child (PEP-R, WPPSI-R, WISC3). Twenty parents of normal children were recruited from three different professional settings. There were no differences between the two groups of parents in terms of age or social status. Parents of both groups were asked to fill in the FAQ self-report. We performed a post-hoc analysis comparing the scores of the parents in the two groups. We found a main group, but no sex effect [F (1,37)=5.46; p<0.05]. Scores of autistic parents were higher in all domains compared to the control

  1. Intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that the true prevalence of intrauterine growth restriction is 3-10% of all pregnancies, making this fetal condition one of the most frequent obstetric problems, together with premature labor and premature rupture of membranes. The article stresses the importance of early diagnosis because of the associated risks.

  2. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...

  3. Restricted Variance Interaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Keeler, Kathleen R.

    2018-01-01

    Although interaction hypotheses are increasingly common in our field, many recent articles point out that authors often have difficulty justifying them. The purpose of this article is to describe a particular type of interaction: the restricted variance (RV) interaction. The essence of the RV int...

  4. Training Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Asja

    relies on sampling based approximations of the log-likelihood gradient. I will present an empirical and theoretical analysis of the bias of these approximations and show that the approximation error can lead to a distortion of the learning process. The bias decreases with increasing mixing rate......Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) are probabilistic graphical models that can also be interpreted as stochastic neural networks. Training RBMs is known to be challenging. Computing the likelihood of the model parameters or its gradient is in general computationally intensive. Thus, training...... of the applied sampling procedure and I will introduce a transition operator that leads to faster mixing. Finally, a different parametrisation of RBMs will be discussed that leads to better learning results and more robustness against changes in the data representation....

  5. Property Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    more to a social, ethical commitment or attitude to environmental sustainability and good husbandry. This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. Finally......Land Administration Systems are the basis for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities related to people, policies and places. Property rights are normally concerned with ownership and tenure whereas restrictions usually control use and activities on land. Responsibilities relate...

  6. About 'restriction', 'justified' and 'necessary'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The article is an academic fairy tale about why and how all national corporate tax protection legislation should undergo a 3-part test to ensure its consistency with EU law. Each Member State introduce a compulsory 3-step test for each new (corporate) tax provision. The test is simple: (1) Does...... the tax provision constitute a restriction in the sense of EU law? (2) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction justified? (3) If the answer is yes: Is the restriction necessary?"...

  7. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  8. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  9. How Harmful are Adaptation Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, de, K.C.; Dellink, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...

  10. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  11. Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the Treatments? Related A-Z Topics Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs) NICHD News and Features Getting to Know the New NICHD Director Resources to Help Families and Physicians Spot Early Signs of Autism NIH ...

  12. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a smaller size. Is it normal to feel pain during or after nursing? If your baby is latched on properly, you ... or a lactation consultant about ways to make nursing easier and reduce any pain. Can I still breastfeed if I have a ...

  13. Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer's Itch) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Cercarial Dermatitis (also known as Swimmer's Itch) Note: Javascript is ... is swimmer’s itch? Swimmer’s itch, also called cercarial dermatitis, appears as a skin rash caused by an ...

  14. Klinefelter Syndrome (KS): Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breaking tasks into small steps Creating opportunities for social interaction and understanding Reminding them to stay focused Michael, ... 2003). PGD in 47,XXY Klinefelter's syndrome patients. Human Reproduction Update , 9 (4), 319-330. Simpson, J. ...

  15. Climate Prediction Center - ENSO FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    data buoys used to monitor ocean temperatures? What is climate variability? A prominent aspect of our Niño or La Niña? During an El Niño or La Niña, the changes in Pacific Ocean temperatures affect Pacific. Changes in the ocean surface temperatures affect tropical rainfall patterns and atmospheric winds

  16. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1. Once your baby gets the hang of eating cereal, introduce a variety of puréed fruits, vegetables, and meats. Wait a few days between introducing a new food to make sure your baby doesn't have an allergic reaction . Note: There is no benefit to offering fruit juice , even to older babies. ...

  17. Fukushima. Five years on - FAQs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    On 11 March 2011, at 2:46 p.m. local time (6.46 a.m. CET), an earthquake measuring 9 on the Richter scale hit the east coast of Japan. The quake caused a tsunami, with waves as high as 38 metres, which led to large-scale flooding and destruction of roads, the power supply and other infrastructure along Japan's eastern seaboard. The earthquake and tsunami also struck several nuclear power plants. Fukushima Daiichi sustained the worst damage, triggering a chain of events which led to core meltdown, major hydrogen explosions and massive releases of radiation. Below, the Oeko-Institut answers the key questions about the disaster's timeline, latest assessments of the events, and the current situation in Fukushima.

  18. Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or trying to bite. Does my breastfed baby need extra vitamins? Breast milk contains many vitamins as well as ... meats) around 6 months of age. All babies need vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D is added to formula ...

  19. FAQ about Recreational Therapy (RT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation &Community Activities WHAT ARE A RECREATIONAL THERAPIST'S EDUCATION, QUALIFICATIONS, & CREDENTIALS? A qualified recreational therapist is someone who is nationally certified as a Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialist (CTRS), usually referred to as Recreational ...

  20. Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is washed off. Clean clothes should be worn after treatment. In addition to the infested person, treatment also ... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot ... with scabies. After several treatments, he/she still has symptoms while I am ...

  1. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  2. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  3. Creating Simple Admin Tools Using Info*Engine and Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory; Felkins, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create a simple Info*Engine Tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administration of tedious work.

  4. Building Columbia from the SysAdmin View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David

    2005-01-01

    Project Columbia was built at NASA Ames Research Center in partnership with SGI and Intel. Columbia consists of 20 512 processor Altix machines with 440TB of storage and achieved 51.87 TeraPlops to be ranked the second fastest on the top 500 at SuperComputing 2004. Columbia was delivered, installed and put into production in 3 months. On average, a new Columbia node was brought into production in less than a week. Columbia's configuration, installation, and future plans will be discussed.

  5. teacher admin.jsp.html | teacher | myrmeet | meetings | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution more. ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  6. Creating Simple Windchill Admin Tools Using Info*Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Kapatos, Dennis; Skradski, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Being a Windchill administrator often requires performing simple yet repetitive tasks on large sets of objects. These can include renaming, deleting, checking in, undoing checkout, and much more. This is especially true during a migration. Fortunately, PTC has provided a simple way to dynamically interact with Windchill using Info*Engine. This presentation will describe how to create simple Info*Engine tasks capable of saving Windchill 10.0 administrators hours of tedious work. It will also show how these tasks can be combined and displayed on a simple JSP page that acts as a "Windchill Administrator Dashboard/Toolbox". The attendee will learn some valuable tasks Info*Engine capable of performing. The attendee will gain a basic understanding of how to perform and implement Info*Engine tasks. The attendee will learn what's involved in creating a JSP page that displays Info*Engine tasks

  7. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  8. Parenting and restrictions in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Meijer, A.M.; Scherphof, C.; Carpay, J.A.; Augustijn, P.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Deković, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: From the overprotection literature, the predictive and interactional (moderation) effects of controlling and indulgent parenting on restrictions in children with epilepsy were examined. Methods: Parents of 73 children with epilepsy completed questionnaires on parenting, restrictions, and

  9. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the skills test and the restriction, air brakes shall include any braking system operating fully or...; REQUIREMENTS AND PENALTIES Vehicle Groups and Endorsements § 383.95 Restrictions. (a) Air brake restrictions... skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the State must indicate on the CDL, if issued...

  10. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  11. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or...

  12. Restricted Predicates for Hypothetical Datalog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sáenz-Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypothetical Datalog is based on an intuitionistic semantics rather than on a classical logic semantics, and embedded implications are allowed in rule bodies. While the usual implication (i.e., the neck of a Horn clause stands for inferring facts, an embedded implication plays the role of assuming its premise for deriving its consequence. A former work introduced both a formal framework and a goal-oriented tabled implementation, allowing negation in rule bodies. While in that work positive assumptions for both facts and rules can occur in the premise, negative assumptions are not allowed. In this work, we cover this subject by introducing a new concept: a restricted predicate, which allows negative assumptions by pruning the usual semantics of a predicate. This new setting has been implemented in the deductive system DES.

  13. A Traffic Restriction Scheme for Enhancing Carpooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of alleviating traffic congestion, this paper proposes a scheme to encourage travelers to carpool by traffic restriction. By a variational inequity we describe travelers’ mode (solo driving and carpooling and route choice under user equilibrium principle in the context of fixed demand and detect the performance of a simple network with various restriction links, restriction proportions, and carpooling costs. Then the optimal traffic restriction scheme aiming at minimal total travel cost is designed through a bilevel program and applied to a Sioux Fall network example with genetic algorithm. According to various requirements, optimal restriction regions and proportions for restricted automobiles are captured. From the results it is found that traffic restriction scheme is possible to enhance carpooling and alleviate congestion. However, higher carpooling demand is not always helpful to the whole network. The topology of network, OD demand, and carpooling cost are included in the factors influencing the performance of the traffic system.

  14. Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short. Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.

  15. Intrauterine growth restriction - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-12-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have been classically defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age, whereas intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined as a rate of foetal growth that is less than normal for the population and for the growth potential of a specific infant. SGA infants have more frequent problems such as perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, polycythaemia and many more when compared with their appropriate for gestational age counterpart. They too have growth retardation and various major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, with higher rates of perinatal and neonatal mortality. With the advent of newer technologies, even though the perinatal diagnosis of these SGA/IUGR foetuses has increased, but still perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher than normal foetuses and infants. In this part, we have covered neonatal IUGR classification, postnatal diagnosis, short-term and long-term complications faced by these IUGR infants.

  16. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  17. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  18. Assessing restrictiveness of national alcohol marketing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    To develop an approach for monitoring national alcohol marketing policies globally, an area of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Alcohol Strategy. Data on restrictiveness of alcohol marketing policies came from the 2002 and 2008 WHO Global Surveys on Alcohol and Health. We included four scales in a sensitivity analysis to determine optimal weights to score countries on their marketing policies and applied the selected scale to assess national marketing policy restrictiveness. Nearly, 36% of countries had no marketing restrictions. The overall restrictiveness levels were not significantly different between 2002 and 2008. The number of countries with strict marketing regulations did not differ across years. This method of monitoring alcohol marketing restrictiveness helps track progress towards implementing WHO'S Global Alcohol Strategy. Findings indicate a consistent lack of restrictive policies over time, making this a priority area for national and global action. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  19. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  20. Universal Cycles of Restricted Classes of Words

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner, Arielle; Godbole, Anant

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that Universal Cycles of $k$-letter words on an $n$-letter alphabet exist for all $k$ and $n$. In this paper, we prove that Universal Cycles exist for restricted classes of words, including: non-bijections, equitable words (under suitable restrictions), ranked permutations, and "passwords".

  1. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  2. Protein restriction in chronic renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ECHTEN, JEKT; NAUTA, J; HOP, WCJ; de Jong, MCJ; REITSMABIERENS, WCC; VANAMSTEL, SLBP; VANACKER, KJ; NOORDZIJ, CM; WOLFF, ED

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a protein restricted diet on renal function and growth of children with chronic renal failure. In a multicentre prospective study 56 children (aged 2-18 years) with chronic renal failure were randomly assigned to the protein restricted (0.8-1.1

  3. Relationship Between Calorie Restriction, Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the brain of the caloric restricted rats, there was little or no change in the tGSH and GSH, although the GSSG and GSSG/GSH% ratio were increased significantly. These results suggest that aging of rats had been decelerated by caloric restriction due to the decrease in the peroxidative damage in the lungs and brain.

  4. Eclampsia despite strict dietary sodium restriction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delemarre, F.M.C.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Berendes, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The classic indication for prescribing dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy has been the prevention of eclampsia. We describe a case of intrapartum eclampsia in a 24-year-old nulliparous woman. A strongly sodium restricted diet was prescribed because of pre-eclampsia. Compliance to the diet was

  5. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205... Funding restrictions. (a) Prohibition against construction. Funds made available under this subpart shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility or the acquisition, expansion...

  6. 28 CFR 804.3 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions. 804.3 Section 804.3 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS § 804.3 Restrictions. (a) The Agency is not authorized to accept gifts of money, stock...

  7. Restricted gravity: Abelian projection of Einstein's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.

    2013-01-01

    Treating Einstein's theory as a gauge theory of Lorentz group, we decompose the gravitational connection Γμ into the restricted connection made of the potential of the maximal Abelian subgroup H of Lorentz group G and the valence connection made of G/H part of the potential which transforms covariantly under Lorentz gauge transformation. With this we show that Einstein's theory can be decomposed into the restricted gravity made of the restricted connection which has the full Lorentz gauge invariance which has the valence connection as gravitational source. The decomposition shows the existence of a restricted theory of gravitation which has the full general invariance but is much simpler than Einstein's theory. Moreover, it tells that the restricted gravity can be written as an Abelian gauge theory,

  8. R Factor-Controlled Restriction and Modification of Deoxyribonucleic Acid: Restriction Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Robert; Roulland-Dussoix, Daisy; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1972-01-01

    Restriction mutants of two different R factor-controlled host specificities (RI and RII) were isolated. All of the restriction mutants examined had a normal modification phenotype. No complementation was observed between the RI and RII host specificities. It is concluded that for each host specificity no protein subunit is shared by the restriction endonuclease and modification methylase. PMID:4565538

  9. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  10. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  11. Decoding restricted participation in sequential electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Paschmann, Martin

    2017-06-15

    Restricted participation in sequential markets may cause high price volatility and welfare losses. In this paper we therefore analyze the drivers of restricted participation in the German intraday auction which is a short-term electricity market with quarter-hourly products. Applying a fundamental electricity market model with 15-minute temporal resolution, we identify the lack of sub-hourly market coupling being the most relevant driver of restricted participation. We derive a proxy for price volatility and find that full market coupling may trigger quarter-hourly price volatility to decrease by a factor close to four.

  12. Investigation of restricted baby Skyrme models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.

    2010-01-01

    A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby Skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Further, we find a coincidence between the compact or noncompact nature of solitons in the restricted model, on the one hand, and the existence or nonexistence of multi-Skyrmions in the full baby Skyrme model, on the other hand.

  13. distribution, abundance and properties of restriction enzymes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA of granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) I and II with a view to ... properties for manipulation of the genes for production of modified starch. .... procurement, storage and handling of the ..... been made on restriction enzymes of potato,.

  14. Health Benefits of Fasting and Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Daiber, Andreas; Korac, Bato; Li, Huige; Essop, M Faadiel; Laher, Ismail

    2017-10-23

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases, largely resulting from urbanization and behavioral changes, are now of global importance. Energy restriction, though, is associated with health improvements and increased longevity. We review some important mechanisms related to calorie limitation aimed at controlling of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes. Calorie restriction triggers a complex series of intricate events, including activation of cellular stress response elements, improved autophagy, modification of apoptosis, and alteration in hormonal balance. Intermittent fasting is not only more acceptable to patients, but it also prevents some of the adverse effects of chronic calorie restriction, especially malnutrition. There are many somatic and potentially psychologic benefits of fasting or intermittent calorie restriction. However, some behavioral modifications related to abstinence of binge eating following a fasting period are crucial in maintaining the desired favorable outcomes.

  15. Compensatory mechanisms activated with intermittent energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; Halset, Eline Holli; Gåsbakk, Sigrid

    2018-01-01

    Background & aims: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy...... restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL. Methods: 35 adults (age......: 39 ± 9 y) with obesity (BMI: 36 ± 4 kg/m2) were randomized to lose a similar weight with an IER (N = 18) or a CER (N = 17) diet over a 12 week period. Macronutrient composition and overall energy restriction (33% reduction) were similar between groups. Body weight/composition, RMR, fasting...

  16. Restricted Coherent Risk Measures and Actuarial Solvency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kountzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove a general dual representation form for restricted coherent risk measures, and we apply it to a minimization problem of the required solvency capital for an insurance company.

  17. Evolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyndiah, Nitisha; Telenti, Amalio; Rausell, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies--offense or defence--as well as the level of specificity of the antiviral properties. Sequence analysis of primate orthologs of restriction factors serves to localize functional domains and sites responsible for antiviral action. We use recent discoveries to illustrate how evolutionary genomic analyses help identify new antiviral genes and their mechanisms of action.

  18. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  19. The welfare effects of mobility restrictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2003), s. 685-696 ISSN 1094-2025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : mobility restriction * partnership * search Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2003

  20. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Sqd to produce spatially-restricted Egfr activation...

  1. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) functions in the localization and translational regulation of grk mRNA. The purpose of this project is to identify factors that function with Squid to produce spatially-restricted EGFR activation...

  2. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and models derived from them have been successfully used as basic building blocks in deep artificial neural networks for automatic features extraction, unsupervised weights initialization, but also as density estimators. Thus, their generative and discriminative

  3. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clouse, Katherine N; Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2006-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During cogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster local Egfr activation by the spatially-restricted TGFalpha-like ligand Gurken (Grk...

  4. EGFR Activation by Spatially Restricted Ligands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodrich, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    ...) activity has been associated with an increased prognosis of breast cancer. During oogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, local EGFR activation by the spatially restricted TGF alpha-like ligand, Gurken (Grk...

  5. Public Investment, Revenue Shocks, and Borrowing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Thiess; Wildasin, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper lays out a theory of taxation and public investment in an intertemporal setting under conditions of revenue shocks. Without borrowing restrictions, the optimal policy is characterized by smooth time paths of taxes and public investment. While the introduction of formal borrowing restrictions leads to some precautionary savings, it gives rise to fluctuations in public investment in response to adverse but also favorable revenue shocks. This theoretical result is tested empirically u...

  6. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  7. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Münk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors. Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors.

  9. Cellular Restriction Factors of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Jörg; Münk, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Lentiviruses are known for their narrow cell- and species-tropisms, which are determined by cellular proteins whose absence or presence either support viral replication (dependency factors, cofactors) or inhibit viral replication (restriction factors). Similar to Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cat lentivirus Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is sensitive to recently discovered cellular restriction factors from non-host species that are able to stop viruses from replicating. Of particular importance are the cellular proteins APOBEC3, TRIM5α and tetherin/BST-2. In general, lentiviruses counteract or escape their species’ own variant of the restriction factor, but are targeted by the orthologous proteins of distantly related species. Most of the knowledge regarding lentiviral restriction factors has been obtained in the HIV-1 system; however, much less is known about their effects on other lentiviruses. We describe here the molecular mechanisms that explain how FIV maintains its replication in feline cells, but is largely prevented from cross-species infections by cellular restriction factors. PMID:22069525

  10. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  11. Metabolic Regulation of Methionine Restriction in Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Ren, Wenkai; Chen, Shuai; Li, Yuying; Han, Hui; Gao, Jing; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Tiejun; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2018-03-30

    Although the effects of dietary methionine restriction have been investigated in the physiology of aging and diseases related to oxidative stress, the relationship between methionine restriction and the development of metabolic disorders has not been explored extensively. This review summarizes studies of the possible involvement of dietary methionine restriction in improving insulin resistance, glucose homeostasis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, the pentose phosphate pathway, and inflammation, with an emphasis on the fibroblast growth factor 21 and protein phosphatase 2A signals and autophagy in diabetes. Diets deficient in methionine may be a useful nutritional strategy in patients with diabetes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimizing Restriction Site Placement for Synthetic Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Pablo; Memelli, Heraldo; Ward, Charles; Kim, Joondong; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.; Skiena, Steven

    Restriction enzymes are the workhorses of molecular biology. We introduce a new problem that arises in the course of our project to design virus variants to serve as potential vaccines: we wish to modify virus-length genomes to introduce large numbers of unique restriction enzyme recognition sites while preserving wild-type function by substitution of synonymous codons. We show that the resulting problem is NP-Complete, give an exponential-time algorithm, and propose effective heuristics, which we show give excellent results for five sample viral genomes. Our resulting modified genomes have several times more unique restriction sites and reduce the maximum gap between adjacent sites by three to nine-fold.

  13. Sight Restrictions in Maghrib Muslim Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Sight in Islamic culture is subject to legal restrictions that aim at preserving moral consciousness in Muslim societies. These restrictions have a direct impact on architecture in traditional Muslim cities. Details such as placement of doors and windows, the use of balconies and rooftops, and building heights were shaped by legal reasoning based on sight restrictions. The present study aims at highlighting this legal reasoning system by analyzing legal opinions that were continuously advocated by jurists in response to daily practices, and the legal principles on which these opinions were based. This is expected to contribute in developing a new intellectual discourse on Muslim architecture that could go beyond the present design theories.

  14. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Anca, A F; Horhoianu, V V; Horhoianu, I A

    2014-06-15

    Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies.

  15. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...... effectiveness canexceed the welfare loss from introducing new distortions. Moreover, it is found that the investment subsidy is gradually phased out of the welfare maximizing policy, which may be a policy combining the two subsidies, when the level of government spending is increased.Keywords: welfare ranking......, indirect and direct policy instruments, restricted government spending JEL: E61, O21, O41...

  16. Effects of restricted and free suckling

    OpenAIRE

    Fröberg, Sofie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of restricted and free suckling in comparison with non-suckling on production and behaviour of cow and calf in dairy production systems. In the first and second study cows of Zebu × Holstein (n=24) and Holstein breed (n=27) and their calves were allocated to two treatments, restricted suckling (RS) and artificial rearing (AR) and studied during eight weeks. In the first study calves were present during milking and RS calves suckled after milking...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1200 - Delivery restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Advertising § 64.1200 Delivery restrictions. (a) No person or entity may: (1) Initiate any telephone call... telephone service, specialized mobile radio service, or other radio common carrier service, or any service... expect them to be included given the identification of the caller and the product being advertised. (6...

  18. Review: Neuroinflammation in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixey, Julie A; Chand, Kirat K; Colditz, Paul B; Bjorkman, S Tracey

    2017-06-01

    Disruption to the maternal environment during pregnancy from events such as hypoxia, stress, toxins, inflammation, and reduced placental blood flow can affect fetal development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is commonly caused by chronic placental insufficiency, interrupting supply of oxygen and nutrients to the fetus resulting in abnormal fetal growth. IUGR is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, occurring in approximately 5-10% of pregnancies. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable in IUGR and there is an increased risk of long-term neurological disorders including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, learning difficulties, behavioural difficulties and psychiatric diagnoses. Few studies have focused on how growth restriction interferes with normal brain development in the IUGR neonate but recent studies in growth restricted animal models demonstrate increased neuroinflammation. This review describes the role of neuroinflammation in the progression of brain injury in growth restricted neonates. Identifying the mediators responsible for alterations in brain development in the IUGR infant is key to prevention and treatment of brain injury in these infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 7 CFR 3430.905 - Funding restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.905 Section 3430.905 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL...

  20. On restricted context-free grammars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dassow, J.; Masopust, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2012), s. 293-304 ISSN 0022-0000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : context-free grammars * derivation restriction * normal forms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000011000572

  1. Determination of genotype differences through restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tyrosinase gene or C locus has long been implicated in the coat colour determination. This gene a copper-containing enzyme located on chromosome 11q14.3 is expressed in melanocytes and controls the major steps in pigment production. In camel, C locus a restriction site provoked by the T variant of the mutation was ...

  2. 9 CFR 166.2 - General restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of any of the following: Processed products; rendered products; bakery waste; candy waste; eggs... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions. 166.2 Section 166.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  4. A new restriction endonuclease from Citrobacter freundii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulaitis, A.A.; Stakenas, P.S.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    CfrI, a new restriction endonuclease of unique substrate specificity, has been isolated from a Citrobacter freundii strain. The enzyme recognizes a degenerated sequence PyGGCCPu in double-strand DNA and cleaves it between Py and G residues to yield 5′ -protruding tetranucleotide ends GGCC. Images PMID:6294607

  5. A new restriction endonuclease from Citrobacter freundii

    OpenAIRE

    Janulaitis, A.A.; Stakenas, P.S.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    CfrI, a new restriction endonuclease of unique substrate specificity, has been isolated from a Citrobacter freundii strain. The enzyme recognizes a degenerated sequence PyGGCCPu in double-strand DNA and cleaves it between Py and G residues to yield 5′ -protruding tetranucleotide ends GGCC.

  6. Strategies in intrauterine growth restriction at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Kim Esther

    2012-01-01

    To establish consensus and to collect evidence on the best management policy in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at term, the DIGITAT-trial (Disproportionate Intrauterine Growth Intervention Trial At Term) was designed. The aim of the DIGITAT study was to compare the effect of induction of

  7. Sleep restriction progress to cardiac autonomic imbalance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since it's more difficult to maintain adequate sleep duration among night watchmen during their working schedule, hence the purpose of our present study was to investigate whether mental stress or fatigue over restricted sleep period in night shift, affects HRV, in order to elucidate on cardiac autonomic modulation among ...

  8. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affiliate restrictions. 35.39 Section 35.39 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate...

  9. An Adjustment Restriction on Fish Quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Diana; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Haijema, Rene; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    Management objectives of the European Union for North Sea fish stocks are shifting towards considering both biological sustainability and economic benefits. As part of multiannual management plans, an adjustment restriction on fish quota has been introduced. Its objective is to obtain an

  10. Periodic Solutions for Circular Restricted -Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For circular restricted -body problems, we study the motion of a sufficiently small mass point (called the zero mass point in the plane of equal masses located at the vertices of a regular polygon. By using variational minimizing methods, for some , we prove the existence of the noncollision periodic solution for the zero mass point with some fixed wingding number.

  11. Sleep restriction progress to cardiac autonomic imbalance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2017-05-31

    May 31, 2017 ... and inadequate sleep is a common feature of night shift work. ... night watchmen during their working schedule, hence the purpose of our ... whether mental stress or fatigue over restricted sleep period in night ... 10 Hence, the variability in heart rate, (with reduced ..... Long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  12. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Marti, Amelia; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rat Neutrophil Phagocytosis Following Feed Restriction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slapničková, Martina; Berger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2002), s. 172-177 ISSN 0938-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : circulating neutrophil * diet restriction * phagocytosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2001

  14. Employees, Trade Secrets and Restrictive Covenants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman Sanders, Anselm; Heath, C.

    2017-01-01

    The book covers the protection of trade secrets and the law on post-contractual non-compete clauses (restrictive covenants) in an employment context. The topic is approached on an international and comparative level (chapters 1–3 and 10), and by way of country reports covering several European and

  15. Restricted Choice in the Management of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, R. F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Instances from case studies of comprehensive schools in the United Kingdom show that cultural influences restrict possibilities of "rational" action by educational leaders. This article warns against business theory and concludes that we need to know more about how people in schools make choices. (Author/TE)

  16. 32 CFR 701.44 - Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Fees § 701.44 Restrictions. (a) No fees may be charged by any DON activity if the costs of routine collection and processing of the fee are likely to equal or exceed the...

  17. 50 CFR 648.164 - Possession restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.164 Possession restrictions. (a) No person shall possess more than 15 bluefish in, or harvested from, the EEZ unless that person is the owner or operator of a fishing vessel issued a bluefish commercial permit or is issued a bluefish dealer permit. Persons aboard a vessel that...

  18. 38 CFR 1.462 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.462 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which §§ 1..., infection with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia may be acknowledged only if the patient's written consent is... with the HIV, or sickle cell anemia. (2) Any answer to a request for a disclosure of patient records...

  19. Intrauterine growth restriction: screening, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; Kingdom, John

    2013-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is an obstetrical complication, which by definition would screen in 10% of fetuses in the general population. The challenge is to identify the subset of pregnancies affected with pathological growth restriction in order to allow intervention that would decrease morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this guideline is to provide summary statements and recommendations and to establish a framework for screening, diagnosis, and management of pregnancies affected with IUGR. Affected pregnancies are compared with pregnancies in which the fetus is at an appropriate weight for its gestational age. History, physical examination, and laboratory investigations including biochemical markers and ultrasound characteristics of IUGR are reviewed, and a management strategy is suggested. Published literature in English was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in January 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary via MeSH terms (fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age) and key words (fetal growth, restriction, growth retardation, IUGR, low birth weight, small for gestational age). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Implementation of the recommendations in this guideline should increase clinician recognition of IUGR and guide intervention where appropriate. Optimal long-term follow-up of neonates diagnosed as IUGR may improve their long-term health.

  20. 7 CFR 322.28 - General requirements; restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements; restricted articles. 322.28... EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.28 General requirements; restricted articles. (a) The following articles from any region are restricted articles: (1) Dead bees of any genus; (2...

  1. 7 CFR 319.75-2 - Restricted articles. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted articles. 1 319.75-2 Section 319.75-2... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Khapra Beetle § 319.75-2 Restricted articles. 1 1 The importation of restricted articles may be subject to prohibitions or restrictions under...

  2. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jacqueline; Fisher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is an entirely new diagnosis in the DSM-5. ARFID replaces "feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood," which was a diagnosis in the DSM-IV restricted to children 6 years of age or younger; ARFID has no such age limitations and it is distinct from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in that there is no body image disturbance. ARFID involves a complex and heterogenous etiology, which is reviewed herein. What is known to date regarding the characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities of this patient population are described and compared to other eating disorders. Evaluation and management strategies are also discussed. No data yet exist regarding ARFID׳s prognosis and prevention; however, recommendations to guide parents in establishing appropriate infant and child feeding practices are provided. Copyright © 2017 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sizing of high-pressure restriction orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Flores, E.

    1995-01-01

    Constant up-grading of power plants sometimes requires the modification of components which form part of suppliers' packages. In order to protect technology they have developed, however, the suppliers do not supply their calculation criteria. In order to reduce the costs of such improvements, and so as to be able to undertake the modification without having to rely on the original supplier, this paper describes the basic criteria applicable to the study of high-pressure restriction orifices, which can be considered to be representative of the components in question. The restriction orifices discussed are: - Insert - Multiplates in series with one perforation in each plate - Multiplates in series with several perforations in each plate For each type, an explanation of their sizing is given, together with the equations relating the corresponding flow and pressure drop. (Author)

  4. Octreotide therapy and restricted fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilswijk, Marianne; Andersen, Lise Lotte Torvin; Frost, Morten

    2017-01-01

    that octreotide treatment in pregnancy, as well as hypoglycemia in itself, may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction. During pregnancy, management of blood glucose levels in familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia thus forms a medical dilemma. We report on pregnancy outcomes in a woman with symptomatic familial...... hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, type 3. During the patient's first pregnancy with a viable fetus octreotide treatment was instituted in gestational age 23 weeks to prevent severe hypoglycemic incidences. Fetal growth velocity declined, and at 37 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth retardation was evident...... growth velocity was normal. We conclude that octreotide treatment during pregnancy may pose a risk of fetal growth restriction and warrants careful consideration. In some cases of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, blood glucose levels can be successfully managed through diet only, also during...

  5. Investment Restrictions and Contagion in Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ilyina

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) to analyze an optimal portfolio rebalancing by a fund manager in response to a "volatility shock" in one of the asset markets, under sufficiently realistic assumptions about the fund manager's performance criteria and investment restrictions; and (2) to analyze the sensitivity of the equilibrium price of an asset to shocks originating in other fundamentally unrelated asset markets for a given mix of common investors. The analysis confirms that certain com...

  6. Optimal Detection under the Restricted Bayesian Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to find a suitable decision rule for a binary composite hypothesis-testing problem with a partial or coarse prior distribution. To alleviate the negative impact of the information uncertainty, a constraint is considered that the maximum conditional risk cannot be greater than a predefined value. Therefore, the objective of this paper becomes to find the optimal decision rule to minimize the Bayes risk under the constraint. By applying the Lagrange duality, the constrained optimization problem is transformed to an unconstrained optimization problem. In doing so, the restricted Bayesian decision rule is obtained as a classical Bayesian decision rule corresponding to a modified prior distribution. Based on this transformation, the optimal restricted Bayesian decision rule is analyzed and the corresponding algorithm is developed. Furthermore, the relation between the Bayes risk and the predefined value of the constraint is also discussed. The Bayes risk obtained via the restricted Bayesian decision rule is a strictly decreasing and convex function of the constraint on the maximum conditional risk. Finally, the numerical results including a detection example are presented and agree with the theoretical results.

  7. Meeting licensing restrictions from a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, V.R.; Ragan, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low level waste has experienced many changes necessitated by technical advancements which led to stricter controls and restrictions for shallow land disposal. Low level waste has evolved from simple contaminated items with minimal radioactivity, to complex waste streams requiring elaborate processing and containment of high quantities of radionuclides. Waste streams also require extensive analysis and qualification to meet many of the restrictions imposed at the burial facility and comply with national standards and regulations for classification. This paper presents a chronological history of many of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and the waste generators' abilities and inabilities to comply. In addition, case histories of some examples are discussed

  8. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  9. 6 FAQs About Helping Someone Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people want to help their friends and loved ones quit smoking. But, they often don't know how. Here are 6 frequently asked questions about how to help someone quit smoking to help you get the information you need.

  10. Trichinellosis (also known as Trichinosis) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... following for meat preparation. For Whole Cuts of Meat (excluding poultry and wild game) Cook to at least 145° F (63° C) ... three minutes before carving or consuming. For Ground Meat (excluding poultry and wild game) Cook to at least 160° F (71° C); ...

  11. IDRC careers FAQ | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1. What is important to mention in my application? You should provide concrete examples of how your background meets the position's education, experience and language requirements. 2. How do I know if my application has been received? When you apply on-line for a position, you will receive an automatic confirmation.

  12. UML Semantics FAQ: Dynamic Behaviour and Concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Demeyer, Serge; Astesiano, Egidio; Reggio, Gianna; Le Guennec, Alain; Hussman, Heinrich; van den Berg, Klaas; van den Broek, P.M.

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held at ECOOP'99. The workshop was set up to find answers to questions fundamental to the definition of a semantics for the Unified Modelling Language. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML; approaches to defining the

  13. FAQs about Baseline Testing among Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a similar exam conducted by a health care professional during the season if an athlete has a suspected concussion. Baseline testing generally takes place during the pre-season—ideally prior to the first practice. It is important to note that some baseline ...

  14. Tracks FAQs: What is Modeled Air Data?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss modeled air data. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 4/25/2011.

  15. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person and simple vacuuming of the infested person’s furniture, rugs, and carpeting should prevent any spread. If ... Page last updated: July 19, 2013 Content source: Global Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  16. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your bed. This lets you keep that desired closeness, which can be especially important if you' ... often fall asleep at the breast, especially after feeling satisfied from a good feeding. (You'll know ...

  17. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1. Once your baby gets the hang of eating cereal, introduce a variety of puréed fruits, vegetables, and meats. Wait a few days between introducing a new food to make sure your baby doesn't have an allergic reaction . Note: There is no benefit to offering fruit juice , even to older babies. ...

  18. Donation FAQs (Bone and Tissue Allografts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics is affiliated with organ, eye and tissue procurement agencies throughout the U.S. They typically ... Visit DonateLife.net and learn how your gift of tissue can give bring new life to ...

  19. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  20. Pregnancy Precautions: FAQs on Pregnancy Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your doctor before getting any vaccination during pregnancy. Also tell your doctor if you became pregnant within 4 weeks of having a vaccine. And if your workplace requires certain vaccines, be sure to let them ...

  1. FAQ for Cities and climate change call

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nicole Lulham

    Le CRDI conclura un accord de subvention avec l'organisation principale pour les travaux de recherche proposés. L'organisation principale doit être une organisation axée sur la recherche du secteur universitaire, gouvernemental ou privé, ou encore de la société civile, et doit être établie dans l'un des pays admissibles ...

  2. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation and Treatment Care of Patients with Lymphedema, Elephantiasis or Hydrocele Publications Additional Resources Get Email Updates ... and thickening of the skin, which is called elephantiasis. Many of these bacterial infections can be prevented ...

  3. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  4. FAQ's | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  5. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed? How are body lice treated? What are body lice? Body lice are parasitic insects that live ... to freshly laundered clothing and bedding. What do body lice look like? Body lice have three forms: ...

  6. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Disease What is Malaria? Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease ... cycle of disease and poverty. How People Get Malaria (Transmission) How is malaria transmitted? Usually, people get ...

  7. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been established for about a month), you can "pump and dump" — pump your milk and then throw it away. ... re nursing is not recommended. Even if you "pump and dump," there are other risks to your baby. Drinking ...

  8. Adaptation funding and development assistance: some FAQs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Jessica; Huq, Saleemul

    2008-11-15

    It's becoming ever clearer that development and climate change are intertwined issues. Unsustainable development drives climate change; sustainable development can reduce vulnerability to it. Development issues can constrain capacity to adapt to climate change; climate impacts can be a barrier to development. So adaptation to climate impacts is increasingly seen as part of good development practice – and development to improve the lives and resource access of people facing climate challenges is viewed as a prerequisite for successful adaptation. But when it comes to adaptation funding, confusion and contention remain over the role development institutions play.

  9. FAQ HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    ? A6) What is a sub-tropical cyclone? A7) What is an extratropical cyclone ? A8) What is storm surge easterly wave and what causes them? A5) What is a tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm and how is it different from storm tide ? A9) What is a "CDO" ? A10) What is a TUTT ? A11

  10. Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS): Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OGH) Office of Health Equity (OHE) Office of Legislation and Public Policy (OLPP) Office of Science Policy, ... K., Adam, M. P. (Eds.). Gene reviews . Seattle, WA: University of Washington. Available from http://www.ncbi. ...

  11. FAQS. III: Groupwork in Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Richard M.; Brent, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Offers ideas for getting students at remote sites to collaborate when attending lectures in a synchronous course, working through lessons in an asynchronous course, and doing homework in either distance mode. (ASK)

  12. Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Northeast and upper Midwest, with 14 states accounting for over 96% of cases reported to CDC. ... of Notifiable Diseases . What is a surveillance case definition? Reporting of all nationally notifiable diseases, including Lyme ...

  13. Restrictive annuloplasty to treat functional mitral regurgitation: optimize the restriction to improve the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Pasquale; Adragna, Nicola; Argano, Vincenzo

    2008-03-01

    Today, the 'gold standard' treatment of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) is the subject of much discussion. Although restrictive annuloplasty is currently considered the most reproducible technique, the means by which the degree of annular restriction is optimized remains problematic. The study was designed in order to identify whether the degree of restriction of the mitral annulus could influence early and midterm results following the treatment of functional MR using restrictive annuloplasty. A total of 32 consecutive patients with functional MR grade > or = 3+ was enrolled, among whom the mean anterior-posterior (AP) mitral annulus diameter was 39 +/- 3 mm. Restrictive mitral annuloplasty (combined with coronary artery bypass grafting) was performed in all patients using a Carpentier-Edwards Classic or Physio ring (size 26 or 28). The degree of AP annular restriction was calculated for each patient, and correlated with early and mid-term residual MR and left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling (in terms of LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) reduction). All surviving patients were examined at a one-year follow up. The mean AP mitral annulus restriction achieved was 48 +/- 4%. Intraoperatively, transesophageal echocardiography showed no residual MR in any patient. Before discharge from hospital, transthoracic echocardiography confirmed an absence of residual MR and showed significant LV reverse remodeling (LVEDV from 121 +/- 25 ml to 97 +/- 26 ml; LVEDD from 55 +/- 6 mm to 47 +/- 8 mm). A significant correlation (r = 0.57, p 40% of preoperative) appears to have a favorable influence on early postoperative LV reverse remodeling, and also allows for complete resolution of functional MR. In addition, 'no tolerance' of early residual MR seems to have a favorable influence on mid-term results, leading to a reduction in the one-year recurrence of significant MR.

  14. [Restricted motion after total knee arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T; Urban, K; Karpas, K; Sponer, P

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain what proportion of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) complain of restricted knee joint motion, and to investigate options for improvement of this situation. Our evaluation included a group of 796 patients treated with TKA at our department in the period from January 1, 1990, to December 31, 2004. In all cases, a condylar implant with preservation of the posterior cruciate ligaments was used. In addition to medical history, the range of motion, knee joint malalignment and radiological findings were assessed before surgery. After THA, the type of implant and complications, if any, were recorded, and improvement in joint motion was followed up. Based on the results of Kim et al., flexion contracture equal to or higher than 15 degrees and/or flexion less than 75 degrees were made the criteria of stiffness after THA. Patients with restricted THA motion who had aseptic or septic implant loosening were not included. Of the 796 evaluated patients, 32 (4.14 %) showed restricted motion after total knee arthroplasty, as assessed by the established criteria. In 16 patients, stiffness defined by these criteria had existed before surgery, and three patients showed an excessive production of adhesions and heterotopic ossifications. In three patients, the implantation procedure resulted in an elevated level of the original joint line and subsequent development of patella infera and increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament. Four patients declined physical therapy and, in six, the main cause of stiffness could not be found. Seventeen patients did not require surgical therapy for restricted motion; TKA provided significant pain relief and they considered the range of motion achieved to be sufficient. One patient underwent redress 3 months after surgery, but with no success. Repeated releases of adhesions, replacement of a polyethylene liner and revision surgery of the extensor knee structures were performed in 15

  15. Third sound in a restricted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, P.W.; Draisma, W.A.; Pinkse, P.W.H.; Beelen, H. van; Jochemsen, R.; Frossati, G.

    1992-01-01

    Bergman's general treatment of third sound waves has been extended to a (restricted) parallel plate geometry. In a parallel plate geometry two independent third sound modes can propagate: a symmetric and an antisymmetric one. Calculations show that at temperatures below 1 K the antisymmetric mode carries the most important part of the temperature amplitude. Because of the relatively strong substrate influence the temperature amplitude of the symmetric mode is suppressed. The ΔT/Δh versus T measurements by Laheurte et al. and of the ΔT/Δh versus ω measurements by Ellis et al. are explained. 7 refs., 2 figs

  16. Identifying product order with restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wen-Jia; Li, Zhenyu; Zhu, Qiong; Luo, Mingxing; Wan, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Unsupervised machine learning via a restricted Boltzmann machine is a useful tool in distinguishing an ordered phase from a disordered phase. Here we study its application on the two-dimensional Ashkin-Teller model, which features a partially ordered product phase. We train the neural network with spin configuration data generated by Monte Carlo simulations and show that distinct features of the product phase can be learned from nonergodic samples resulting from symmetry breaking. Careful analysis of the weight matrices inspires us to define a nontrivial machine-learning motivated quantity of the product form, which resembles the conventional product order parameter.

  17. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM. The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model.

  18. The Monetary Policy – Restrictive or Expansive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy plays an important role in macroeconomic policy of government. There is a question concerning type of this policy expansive or restrictive (easy or tidy monetary policy. Unfortunately, we have a lot of criteria. Each of them gives us other answer. So due to equitation of Irving Fisher we have dominantly expansive monetary policy. This same situation exists when we use nominal value of rediscount interest rate of central bank. Opposite result appears when we use real value of this interest rate or level of obligatory reserve. Taking under consideration liquidity on money market we know, that level of interest rate is too high.

  19. A statistical mechanical approach to restricted integer partition functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is twofold: (1) suggesting a statistical mechanical approach to the calculation of the generating function of restricted integer partition functions which count the number of partitions—a way of writing an integer as a sum of other integers under certain restrictions. In this approach, the generating function of restricted integer partition functions is constructed from the canonical partition functions of various quantum gases. (2) Introducing a new type of restricted integer partition functions corresponding to general statistics which is a generalization of Gentile statistics in statistical mechanics; many kinds of restricted integer partition functions are special cases of this restricted integer partition function. Moreover, with statistical mechanics as a bridge, we reveal a mathematical fact: the generating function of restricted integer partition function is just the symmetric function which is a class of functions being invariant under the action of permutation groups. Using this approach, we provide some expressions of restricted integer partition functions as examples.

  20. Sales Restriction, Quality Selection and the Mode of Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Boccard, Nicolas; Wauthy, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    A regulator imposing "sales restrictions" on firms competing in oligopolistic markets may enhance quality provision by the firms. Moreover, for most restrictions levels, the impact on quality selection is invariant to the mode of competition.

  1. Restrictive Dermopathy: Molecular diagnosis of restrictive dermopathy in a stillborn fetus from a consanguineous Iranian family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaminejad, A.; Goodarzi, P.; Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Wehnert, Manfred S.

    2009-01-01

    Restrictive dermopathy (RD) is an autosomal recessive lethal human genetic disorder. It is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, tight and rigid skin with erosions, multiple joint contractures, lung hypoplasia, prominent superficial vasculature and epidermal hyperkeratosis. In the present report, we describe the first case of restrictive dermopathy in a stillborn fetus of Iranian origin, confirmed by molecular genetic diagnosis. In the index case (G-30159), a homozygous one base insertion in ZMPSTE24exon 9 (c.1085-1086insT) was identified. We believe that by increasing awareness of this disease in clinicians, gynecologists and pathologists, we may be able to help families who have had suspected cases of restrictive dermopathy be diagnosed and offer molecular testing in carriers and prenatal diagnosis to prevent the occurrence of further affected cases. (author)

  2. Can we restrict the health care menu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R

    1994-02-01

    The case of Britain's National Health Service is used to illuminate the cross-national debate about whether the availability of health care should be restricted and, if so, how this should be done. Traditionally, the NHS relied on implicit rationing by clinicians within budgetary constraints set by government. However, the logic of the 1989 reforms appeared to require explicit decisions about the packages of health care to be provided to local populations. In practice, purchasers have refused to define such packages. Explicit rationing remains very much the exception. Exploring the reasons for this suggests that defining a restricted menu of health care, by adopting a cost-utility approach and excluding specific procedures or forms of treatment on the Oregon model, is only one of many policy options. There is a large repertory of policy tools for balancing demands and resources, ranging from diluting the intensity of treatment to its earlier termination. Given that health care is characterised by uncertainty, lack of information about outcomes and patient heterogeneity, it may therefore be more 'rational' to diffuse decision-making among clinicians and managers than to try to move towards a centrally determined menu of entitlements.

  3. Cardiorespiratory effects of inelastic chest wall restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D; Beck, Kenneth C; Joyner, Michael J; Brice, A Glenn; Johnson, Bruce D

    2002-06-01

    We examined the effects of chest wall restriction (CWR) on cardiorespiratory function at rest and during exercise in healthy subjects in an attempt to approximate the cardiorespiratory interactions observed in clinical conditions that result in restrictive lung and/or chest wall changes and a reduced intrathoracic space. Canvas straps were applied around the thorax and abdomen so that vital capacity was reduced by >35%. Data were acquired at rest and during cycle ergometry at 25 and 45% of peak workloads. CWR elicited significant increases in the flow-resistive work performed on the lung (160%) and the gastric pressure-time integral (>400%) at the higher workload, but it resulted in a decrease in the elastic work performed on the lung (56%) compared with control conditions. With CWR, heart rate increased and stroke volume (SV) fell, resulting in >10% fall in cardiac output at rest and during exercise at matched workloads (P < 0.05). Blood pressure and catecholamines were significantly elevated during CWR exercise conditions (P < 0.05). We conclude that CWR significantly impairs SV during exercise and that a compensatory increase in heart rate does not prevent a significant reduction in cardiac output. O(2) consumption appears to be maintained via increased extraction and a redistribution of blood flow via sympathetic activation.

  4. Restricted Interval Guelph permeameter: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    A constant head permeameter system has been developed for use in small diameter boreholes with any orientation. It is based upon the original Guelph permeameter concept of using a Mariotte siphon reservoir to control the applied head. The new tool, called a Restricted Interval Guelph (RIG) permeameter uses either a single pneumatic packer or straddle packer to restrict the area through which water is allowed to flow so that the borehole wetted area is independent of the applied head. The RIG permeameter has been used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in the nonwelded rhyolitic Paintbrush Tuff. Analysis of the acquired data is based upon saturated-unsaturated flow theory that relies upon the quasi-linear approximation to estimate field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) and the a parameter (sorptive number) of the exponential relative hydraulic conductivity pressure head relationship. These results are compared with a numerical model based upon the solution of the Richards equation using a van Genuchten capillary pressure-saturation formulation. The numerical model incorporates laboratory capillary pressure versus saturation functions measured from cores taken from nearby boreholes. Comparison between the analytical and numerical approaches shows that the simple analytic model is valid for analyzing the data collected. Sensitivity analysis performed with the numerical model shows that the RIG permeameter is an effective tool for estimating permeability and sorptive number for the nonwelded Paintbrush Tuff

  5. 36 CFR 1275.58 - Deletion of restricted portions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of restricted... HISTORICAL MATERIALS OF THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION Access by the Public § 1275.58 Deletion of restricted... materials after the deletion of the portions which are restricted under this § 1275.50 or § 1275.52. ...

  6. Intermittent′ restrictive ventricular septal defect in Tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir S Shetkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF is usually large and non-restrictive with equalization of right and left ventricular pressures. Restrictive VSD in TOF is rare. We present an unusual case of TOF with restriction to VSD caused by accessory tricuspid valve tissue that varied with respiration.

  7. 10 CFR 1016.34 - Accountability for Secret Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. 1016.34 Section... Information § 1016.34 Accountability for Secret Restricted Data. Each permittee possessing documents containing Secret Restricted Data shall establish a document accountability procedure and shall maintain...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1174 - Whale water restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whale water restrictions. 13... Vessel Operating Restrictions § 13.1174 Whale water restrictions. (a) May 15 through September 30, the following waters are designated as whale waters. (1) Waters north of a line drawn from Point Carolus to...

  9. 48 CFR 552.203-71 - Restriction on Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Advertising... Restriction on Advertising. As prescribed in 503.570-2, insert the following clause: Restriction on Advertising (SEP 1999) The Contractor shall not refer to this contract in commercial advertising or similar...

  10. 50 CFR 697.23 - Restricted gear areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted gear areas. 697.23 Section 697... Measures § 697.23 Restricted gear areas. (a) Resolution of lobster gear conflicts with fisheries managed...) Restricted Gear Area I—(1) Duration—(i) Mobile Gear. From October 1 through June 15 of each fishing year, no...

  11. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  12. 5 CFR 1304.4605 - Post-employment restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Post-employment restrictions. 1304.4605 Section 1304.4605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST § 1304.4605 Post-employment restrictions. (a) General Restrictions Applicable...

  13. Superimposition of postnatal calorie restriction protects the aging male intrauterine growth- restricted offspring from metabolic maladaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Garg, Meena; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in dysregulated glucose homeostasis and adiposity in the adult. We hypothesized that with aging, these perturbations will wane, and superimposition of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) on IUGR [intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction (IPGR)] will reverse the residual IUGR phenotype. We therefore undertook hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, energy balance, and physical activity studies during fed, fasted, and refed states, in light and dark cycles, on postweaned chow diet-fed more than 17-month aging male IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. control (CON) rat offspring. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed similar whole-body insulin sensitivity and physical activity in the nonobese IUGR vs. CON, despite reduced heat production and energy expenditure. Compared with CON and IUGR, IPGR mimicking PNGR was lean and growth restricted with increased physical activity, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), energy intake, and expenditure. Although insulin sensitivity was no different in IPGR and PNGR, skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake was enhanced. This presentation proved protective against the chronologically earlier (5.5 months) development of obesity and dysregulated energy homeostasis after 19 wk on a postweaned high-fat diet. This protective role of PNGR on the metabolic IUGR phenotype needs future fine tuning aimed at minimizing unintended consequences.

  14. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  15. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  16. Restrictions on the transnational movement of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.; Kraemer, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the United States policy on uranium imports. Recently, the US has moved closer to placing legislative restrictions on enrichment by DOE of foreign-origin uranium and has imposed a ban on the import of South African uranium ore and uranium oxide. American uranium producers have also sought relief in the courts against competition from abroad. The impetus for these events comes from a glut of uranium on world markets coupled with the existence of uranium mines outside the US with significant cost advantages over US producers. The remedies sought by the latter, if adopted, hold the potential for broad disruption of significant commercial interests in international trade in nuclear materials and could adversely affect US nonproliferation objectives (NEA) [fr

  17. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  18. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  19. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S P

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  20. Botulinum toxin for treatment of restrictive strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Pilar S; Vera, Rebeca E; Mariñas, Laura G; Gómez de Liaño, Pilar S; Escribano, Jose V

    To study the types of acquired restrictive strabismus treated in a tertiary hospital and the outcome of treatment with botulinum toxin. We performed a 10-year retrospective study of patients with restrictive strabismus aged ≥18 years who were treated with botulinum toxin. Treatment was considered successful if the final vertical deviation was ≤5 PD, horizontal deviation ≤10 PD, with no head turn or diplopia. We included 27 cases (mean age, 61.9 years). Horizontal strabismus was diagnosed in 11.1%, vertical in 51.9%, and mixed in 37%. Strabismus was secondary to cataract surgery in 6 cases, high myopia in 6, orbital fractures in 5, retinal surgery in 5, Graves ophthalmopathy in 4, and repair of conjunctival injury in 1 case. Diplopia was diagnosed in all patients, head turn in 33.3%. The initial deviation was 14 PD (range, 2-40), the mean number of injections per patient was 1.6 (range, 1-3), and the mean dose was 9.5 IU (range, 2.5-22.5). At the end of follow-up, diplopia was recorded in 59.3%, head turn in 18.5%, surgical treatment in 51.9%, and need for prism glasses in 14.8%. Outcome was successful in 37% of patients (4 high myopia, 3 orbital fractures, 2 post-surgical retinal detachment, and 1 post-cataract surgery). Mean follow-up was 3±1.8 years. Vertical deviation was observed in half of the sample. The most frequent deviation was secondary to cataract surgery and high myopia. Treatment with botulinum toxin was successful in one-third of the patients at the end of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. The resurgence of selective contracting restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M; Verrilli, D K

    1997-10-01

    As managed care has spread, so has legislation to force plans to contract with any willing provider (AWP) and give patients freedom of choice (FOC). Managed care organizations' selective networks and provider integration reduce patient access to providers, along with provider access to paying patients, so many providers have lobbied for AWP-FOC laws. In opposition are managed care organizations (MCOs), which want full freedom to contract selectively to control prices and utilization. This article comprehensively describes laws in all fifty-one jurisdictions, classifies their relative strength, and assesses the implications of the laws. Most are relatively weak forms and all are limited in application by ERISA and the federal HMO Act. The article also uses an associative multivariate analysis to relate the selective contracting environments to HMO penetration rates, rural population, physician density, and other variables. States with weak laws also have higher HMO penetration and higher physician density, but smaller rural populations. We conclude that the strongest laws overly restrict the management of care, to the likely detriment of cost control. But where market power is rapidly concentrating, not restricting selective contracting could diminish long-term competition and patient access to care. In the face of uncertainty about the impact of these laws, an intermediate approach may be better than all or nothing. States should consider mandating that plans offer point-of-service options, for a separate premium. This option expands patient choice of plans at the time of enrollment and of providers at the time of care, yet maintains plans' ability to control core providers.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurugubelli Krishna, Rao; Vishnu Bhat, B

    2017-07-10

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pregnancy specific disease characterized by decreased growth rate of fetus than the normal growth potential at particular gestational age. In the current scenario it is a leading cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. In the last decade exhilarating experimental studies from several laboratories have provided fascinating proof for comprehension of molecular basis of IUGR. Atypical expression of enzymes governed by TGFβ causes the placental apoptosis and altered expression of TGFβ due to hyper alimentation causes impairment of lung function. Crosstalk of cAMP with protein kinases plays a prominent role in the regulation of cortisol levels. Increasing levels of NOD1 proteins leads to development of IUGR by increasing the levels of inflammatory mediators. Increase in leptin synthesis in placental trophoblast cells is associated with IUGR. In this review, we emphasize on the regulatory mechanisms of IUGR and its associated diseases. They may help improve the in-utero fetal growth and provide a better therapeutic intervention for prevention and treatment of IUGR.

  3. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Hungry for an Answer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been defined in several ways, but in general describes a condition in which the fetus exhibits poor growth in utero. This complication of pregnancy poses a significant public health burden as well as increased morbidity and mortality for the offspring. In human IUGR, alteration in fetal glucose and insulin homeostasis occurs in an effort to conserve energy and survive at the expense of fetal growth in an environment of inadequate nutrient provision. Several animal models of IUGR have been utilized to study the effects of IUGR on fetal glucose handling, as well as the postnatal reprogramming of energy metabolite handling, which may be unmasked in adulthood as a maladaptive propensity for cardiometabolic disease. This developmental programming may be mediated in part by epigenetic modification of essential regulators of glucose homeostasis. Several pharmacological therapies and nonpharmacological lifestyle modifications have shown early promise in mitigating the risk for or severity of adult metabolic phenotypes but still require further study of unanticipated and/or untoward side effects. PMID:26889018

  4. Estimation of fluctuation in restricted energy loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, T.; Hayashi, T.; Nagata, K.

    1983-01-01

    Restricted Energy Loss (REL) is defined as an energy loss [(dE/dX)/sub E//sub delta/<ν/] that produced the delta-rays of energies less than some specified energy ν and is often used as a simple measure of track structure. For example, REL is a measure of track formation threshold in plastic track detector and the growth rate of track in chemical etching solution is considered to depend only on REL given along the track. Using a stack of elastic sheets, recently, it became possible to identify isotopes of incident particles. In that case, the limit of mass resolution is determined by fluctuation of REL in the length of etch pit produced along the path of particle. A computer program was developed to calculate the probability distribution for energy deposition in absorber allowing for electron escape. In this calculation, it is assumed that all electrons with energies greater than a certain value epsilon/sub d/ escape. This means that this calculation directly gives the fluctuation of REL. Therefore, we tried to use the computer program to estimate the ultimate mass resolution in plastic detector. In this paper, we show firstly the comparison of ASB's calculation with the experimental results obtained by a gas counter and next the results of estimation of ultimate mass resolution in plastic detectors

  5. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  6. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  7. [Sodium restriction during pregnancy: an outdated advice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, P W; Peeters, L L

    1999-10-23

    Even in an early phase of pregnancy marked haemodynamic changes occur, including a fall in vascular resistance and blood pressure and a rise in cardiac output. To compensate for the increased intravascular capacity the kidney retains more sodium and water. Apparently, the set point of sodium homeostasis shifts to a higher level at the expense of an expansion of extracellular volume. Studies during the normal menstrual cycle have shown that these changes, albeit smaller, also occur during the luteal phase. These fluctuations with the menstrual cycle are less apparent if salt intake is low, suggesting that a high salt intake is needed to facilitate the process of sodium retention. In pregnancies complicated by hypertension and/or pre-eclampsia body fluid volumes are low with an enhanced tendency to retain sodium after a volume challenge. These data, together with the lack of an apparent benefit of sodium restriction, suggest that the practice of prescribing a low-salt diet to hypertensive pregnant women should be abandoned.

  8. An ontology for major histocompatibility restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Randi; Overton, James A; Seymour, Emily; Sidney, John; Kaufman, Jim; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Ellis, Shirley; Hammond, John; Butcher, Geoff W; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    MHC molecules are a highly diverse family of proteins that play a key role in cellular immune recognition. Over time, different techniques and terminologies have been developed to identify the specific type(s) of MHC molecule involved in a specific immune recognition context. No consistent nomenclature exists across different vertebrate species. To correctly represent MHC related data in The Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), we built upon a previously established MHC ontology and created an ontology to represent MHC molecules as they relate to immunological experiments. This ontology models MHC protein chains from 16 species, deals with different approaches used to identify MHC, such as direct sequencing verses serotyping, relates engineered MHC molecules to naturally occurring ones, connects genetic loci, alleles, protein chains and multi-chain proteins, and establishes evidence codes for MHC restriction. Where available, this work is based on existing ontologies from the OBO foundry. Overall, representing MHC molecules provides a challenging and practically important test case for ontology building, and could serve as an example of how to integrate other ontology building efforts into web resources.

  9. Calorie Restriction, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging may be defined as the time-dependent deterioration in function of an organism associated with or responsible for the increase in susceptibility to disease and probability of death with advancing age (Harman, 1981; Cefalu, 2011. Generally, the aging organisms are characterized by both biochemical and functional declines. Declining of basal metabolism rates, protein turnover, glucose tolerance, reproductive capacity, telomere shortening, and oxidative phosphorylation are related to the biochemical. Whilst, lung expansion volume, renal glomerular and tubular capacities, cardiovascular performance, musculoskeletal system, nerve conduction velocity, endocrine and exocrine systems, immunological defenses, and sensory systems are associated with the physiological declining (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. Some evidences indicated that, although members of a species develop into adults in the same way, even genetically similar or identical individuals, raised in identical conditions and eating identical food, but they may age differently (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. These aging differences are attributable to the life style particularly calorie and dietary restriction intakes, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and thus its implication on severity of damage, repair capacity, and error accumulation in cellular genetic material (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015; Mihaylova et al., 2014; Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Therefore, in molecular terms, aging can be defined as a decline of the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure the function of cells, tissues, and organs systems (Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Accordingly, if the homeostatic mechanism can be repaired, the result is rejuvenation.

  10. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  12. Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Despite the international controversies surrounding religious restrictions and freedoms, the topic has only recently received substantial research attention. Drawing on this new body of research, and multiple research projects in progress, this address explores both the origins and consequences of religious restrictions in the global arena. To understand the motives for restrictions, I propose hypotheses in three areas: the relationship or lack of relationship between institutional religion and the state, the willingness and capacity of the state to ensure freedoms, and the larger social and cultural pressures restricting freedoms, including social and political movements targeting minority religions. Turning to the consequences of religious restrictions, I explore how and why restrictions alter the religious economy (i.e., formation, supply and operation of religions) and are associated with higher levels of religious persecution, religious violence and intrastate conflict in general. Finally, I review additional areas where research is needed. PMID:25364225

  13. Recommendations of activity restriction in high-risk pregnancy scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Jane; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Bergholt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    activity restriction more often than obstetricians in five of the nine scenarios, in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labour, cervical ripening, total placenta praevia, and intrauterine growth restriction, whereas no differences were found in the remaining scenarios. Compared...... to the obstetricians, the midwives also reported that they expected the recommendation to be more effective. Most midwives and obstetricians reported that they thought strict activity restriction was associated with severe or moderate adverse effect, and recommended antithrombotic prophylaxis. Conclusions: Danish...... obstetricians and midwives prescribe activity restriction in most high-risk pregnancies. The degree of activity restriction and the presumed effect vary between clinicians. This may reflect different attitudes and lack of guidelines based on clinical studies of a possible benefit of activity restriction....

  14. Host Specificity of Salmonella typhimurium Deoxyribonucleic Acid Restriction and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Harvey; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1973-01-01

    The restriction and modification genes of Salmonella typhimurium which lie near the thr locus were transferred to a restrictionless mutant of Escherichia coli. These genes were found to be allelic to the E. coli K, B, and A restriction and modification genes. E. coli recombinants with the restriction and modification host specificity of S. typhimurium restricted phage λ that had been modified by each of the seven known host specificities of E. coli at efficiency of plating levels of about 10−2. Phage λ modified with the S. typhimurium host specificity was restricted by six of the seven E. coli host specificities but not by the RII (fi− R-factor controlled) host specificity. It is proposed that the restriction and modification enzymes of this S. typhimurium host specificity have two substrates, one of which is a substrate for the RII host specificity enzymes. PMID:4570605

  15. Consequences in Infants That Were Intrauterine Growth Restricted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Cosmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a condition fetus does not reach its growth potential and associated with perinatal mobility and mortality. Intrauterine growth restriction is caused by placental insufficiency, which determines cardiovascular abnormalities in the fetus. This condition, moreover, should prompt intensive antenatal surveillance of the fetus as well as follow-up of infants that had intrauterine growth restriction as short and long-term sequele should be considered.

  16. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  17. Activity restriction among women with a short cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, William A; Gilbert, Sharon A; Iams, Jay D; Spong, Catherine Y; Saade, George; Mercer, Brian M; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sorokin, Yoram; Leveno, Kenneth J; Tolosa, Jorge E; Thorp, John M; Caritis, Steve N; Van Dorsten, J Peter

    2013-06-01

    To estimate determinants of and outcomes associated with activity restriction among women with a short cervix. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of preterm birth among nulliparous women with singleton gestations and cervices less than 30 mm by midtrimester ultrasonography. Women were asked weekly whether they had been placed on pelvic, work, or nonwork rest. "Any activity restriction" was defined as being placed on any type of rest. Factors associated with any activity restriction were determined and the association between preterm birth and activity restriction was estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Of the 657 women in the trial, 646 (98%) responded to questions regarding activity restriction. Two hundred fifty-two (39.0%) were placed on any activity restriction at a median of 23.9 weeks (interquartile range 22.6-27.9 weeks). Women on activity restriction were older, more likely to have private insurance, less likely to be Hispanic, had a shorter cervical length, and were more likely to have funneling and intra-amniotic debris. Preterm birth at less than 37 weeks of gestation was more common among women placed on activity restriction (37% compared with 17%, Prestriction (adjusted odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.60-3.53). Results were similar for preterm birth at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Activity restriction did not reduce the rate of preterm birth in asymptomatic nulliparous women with a short cervix.

  18. Can early protein restriction induce the development of binge eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechine, Madge Farias; Borba, Tássia Karin; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco; Lopes-de-Souza, Sandra; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that perinatal undernourishment is a factor for binge eating. At 52 days rats born from dams fed on 17% protein (Control) or 8% protein (Undernourished) were distributed into four groups, two of which continued to be fed ad libitum chow and two were submitted to three consecutive Restricted/Refeeding (R/R) cycles. According to the following schedule: Control Naïve (from mothers fed 17% protein/no restriction phase); Control Restricted (from mothers fed 17% protein/restriction phase); Undernourished Naïve (from mothers fed 8% protein/no restriction phase); and Undernourished Restricted (from mothers fed 8% protein/restriction phase). Each cycle consisted of a restriction phase (in the first four days 40% of the mean daily individual chow intake was offered for consumption), followed by a refeeding phase (4 days of chow ad libitum). After the three cycles, all animals were subjected to a feeding test (chow diet and palatable food ad libitum for 24h). During the feeding test, the Undernourished Restricted demonstrated rebound hyperphagia during 2, 4 and 6h. These results suggest the perinatal undernourishment cannot contribute to a binge eating phenotype. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Restricted mass energy absorption coefficients for use in dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.

    1977-02-01

    When matter is irradiated by a photon beam the fraction of energy absorbed locally in some region Rsub(Δ) (where the size of the region Rsub(Δ) is related to the range of secondary electrons of some restriction energy Δ) is expressed by the restricted mass energy absorption coefficient. In this paper an example is given of how restricted mass energy absorption coefficients can be calculated from existing differential photon interaction cross sections. Some applications of restricted mass absorption coefficients in dosimetry are also given. (B.D.)

  20. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Protect stores and industrial supplies from tampering. (b) Designation of restricted areas. The OCS... stores and industrial supplies; and (vii) Areas containing hazardous materials. (c) The OCS facility...

  1. Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resource implications of adopting a restrictive neonatal blood transfusion policy. ... Objective. To determine whether adopting a restrictive BTF policy results in fewer transfusions. Methods. Data were retrospectively collected on all infants who received BTFs in the GSH nursery over a 6-month period following adoption of a ...

  2. Acute sleep restriction reduces insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction.......Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction....

  3. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4461 Gasoline use restrictions underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  4. 32 CFR 1903.16 - Restriction on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 1903.16 Section 1903.16... AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.16 Restriction on animals. Animals, except for those animals used for the assistance of persons with disabilities, or animals under the charge and control of the Central Intelligence...

  5. 32 CFR 234.12 - Restriction on animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction on animals. 234.12 Section 234.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.12 Restriction on animals. Animals, except guide dogs...

  6. 32 CFR 228.15 - Restriction regarding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restriction regarding animals. 228.15 Section 228.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.15 Restriction regarding animals. No animals except...

  7. 25 CFR 141.14 - Trade in livestock restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade in livestock restricted. 141.14 Section 141.14... livestock restricted. (a) No person other than an enrolled member of the tribe or any association... livestock from tribal members without a special permit issued by the Commissioner. (b) The Commissioner...

  8. Sequence specific inhibition of DNA restriction enzyme cleavage by PNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Egholm, M.; Berg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Plasmids containing double-stranded 10-mer PNA (peptide nucleic acid chimera) targets proximally flanked by two restriction enzyme sites were challenged with the complementary PNA or PNAs having one or two mismatches, and the effect on the restriction enzyme cleavage of the flanking sites was ass...

  9. Cardiovascular adaptation to extrauterine life after intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Guerineau, Luciana; Perez-Cruz, Miriam; Gomez Roig, María D; Cambra, Francisco J; Carretero, Juan; Prada, Fredy; Gómez, Olga; Crispi, Fátima; Bartrons, Joaquim

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The adaptive changes of the foetal heart in intrauterine growth restriction can persist postnatally. Data regarding its consequences for early circulatory adaptation to extrauterine life are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess cardiac morphometry and function in newborns with late-onset intrauterine growth restriction to test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction causes cardiac shape and functional changes at birth. A comprehensive echocardiographic study was performed in 25 neonates with intrauterine growth restriction and 25 adequate-for-gestational-age neonates. Compared with controls, neonates with intrauterine growth restriction had more globular ventricles, lower longitudinal tricuspid annular motion, and higher left stroke volume without differences in the heart rate. Neonates with intrauterine growth restriction also showed subclinical signs of diastolic dysfunction in the tissue Doppler imaging with lower values of early (e') diastolic annular peak velocities in the septal annulus. Finally, the Tei index in the tricuspid annulus was higher in the intrauterine growth restriction group. Neonates with history of intrauterine growth restriction showed cardiac remodelling and signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Overall, there was a significant tendency to worse cardiac function results in the right heart. The adaptation to extrauterine life occurred with more globular hearts, higher stroke volumes but a similar heart rate compared to adequate-for-gestational-age neonates.

  10. Consequences of intrauterine growth restriction for the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Schreuder; A. van Wijk (Ans); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight due to intrauterine growth restriction is associated with various diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and end-stage renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of intrauterine growth restriction

  11. 49 CFR 236.813a - State, most restrictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State, most restrictive. 236.813a Section 236.813a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... State, most restrictive. The mode of an electric or electronic device that is equivalent to a track...

  12. ECO-generation for some restricted classes of compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Baril

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We study several restricted classes of compositions by giving one-to-one maps between them and different classes of restricted binary strings or pattern avoiding permutations. Inspired by the ECO method \\cite{BDPP99}, new succession rules for these classes are presented. Finally, we obtain generating algorithms in Constant Amortized Time (CAT for theses classes.

  13. 30 CFR 77.1502 - Auger holes; restriction against entering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger holes; restriction against entering. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Auger Mining § 77.1502 Auger holes; restriction against entering. No person shall be permitted to enter an auger hole except with the approval of the MSHA Coal Mine Safety and Health District...

  14. Synthesis of conformationally restricted beta-turn mimics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsselstijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims at developing methods for introducing conformational restriction in Beta-turns, the turn elements present in Beta-sheets. A conformationally restricted peptide might either be formed via incorporation of a bridging diamino acids in a growing peptide chain, or via covalent bond

  15. Reduced Automatic Motivational Orientation Towards Food in Restricting Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Esther M.; de Jong, Peter J.

    A striking and characteristic feature of the restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (AN) is that they are extremely successful in regulating their food intake in a destructive manner. A possible explanation for the persistent character of their restricted food intake could be a loss of the

  16. 7 CFR 301.92 - Restrictions on interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on interstate movement. 301.92 Section... Restrictions on interstate movement. (a) No person may move interstate from any quarantined area any regulated... plant that was found infected with Phytophthora ramorum, unless such movement is in accordance with part...

  17. Growth throughout childhood of children born growth restricted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukers, Fenny; Rotteveel, Joost; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Ganzevoort, Wessel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies that examine growth in growth-restricted children at birth do not discriminate between fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small for gestational age (SGA). These terms however are not synonymous. In SGA, stunting and increased weight gain have been reported. We do not know if this holds

  18. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... the best feed cost/kg gain values at restriction and re-alimentation. It is concluded that restricting growing pigs at 80% of the ad libitum intake of the control yields best performance and ... largely proved not to be very effective due to availability.

  19. Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted

  20. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  1. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary treatments consisted of providing feed ad libitum (ull fed) and two feed restriction treatments restrictingeedng 80 % of ad libitum ... A cost – benefit analysis was utilized for the economy of production. ... Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Qualitative versus quantitative feed restriction in Pekin breeder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    titative (60% of a group fed ad lib) feed restriction during the rearing period with a ... restriction to reduce growth rate and delay sexual maturity. Since the amount of .... ing in the cost of feed when compared to the more expensive ad lib diet.

  3. 75 FR 11620 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6918] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Cambodia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... Cambodia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination shall be reported to the Congress, and...

  4. 48 CFR 1403.570 - Restrictions on contractor advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on contractor advertising. 1403.570 Section 1403.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... 1403.570 Restrictions on contractor advertising. ...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5462 - Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Credit Securities § 615.5462 Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities. When consolidated and... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictive endorsement of bearer securities. 615.5462 Section 615.5462 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND...

  6. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification of...

  7. 50 CFR 635.21 - Gear operation and deployment restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear operation and deployment restrictions....21 Gear operation and deployment restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 57701, Sept. 22, 2010. The green-stick gear authorization requirements under paragraphs (c)(2)(v)(A), (c)(2)(v)(B...

  8. 50 CFR 665.127 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.127 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) American Samoa coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  9. 50 CFR 665.627 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Island Area Fisheries § 665.627 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  10. 50 CFR 665.227 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Fisheries § 665.227 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Hawaii coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp gun; (4...

  11. 50 CFR 640.22 - Gear and diving restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear and diving restrictions. 640.22... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.22 Gear and diving restrictions. (a) Prohibited gear and methods. (1) A spiny lobster may not be taken in the EEZ with a spear, hook, or similar device, or gear containing such...

  12. 50 CFR 665.427 - Allowable gear and gear restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable gear and gear restrictions. 665... Archipelago Fisheries § 665.427 Allowable gear and gear restrictions. (a) Mariana coral reef ecosystem MUS may be taken only with the following allowable gear and methods: (1) Hand harvest; (2) Spear; (3) Slurp...

  13. 37 CFR 1.144 - Petition from requirement for restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Inventions in One Application; Restriction § 1.144 Petition from requirement for restriction. After a final..., may petition the Director to review the requirement. Petition may be deferred until after final action on or allowance of claims to the invention elected, but must be filed not later than appeal. A...

  14. 37 CFR 1.142 - Requirement for restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at any time before final action. (b) Claims to the invention or inventions not elected, if not... Inventions in One Application; Restriction § 1.142 Requirement for restriction. (a) If two or more independent and distinct inventions are claimed in a single application, the examiner in an Office action will...

  15. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...

  16. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  17. [Restrictions for ICD patients in daily life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbe, Julia; Gradaus, Rainer; Zumhagen, Sven; Böcker, Dirk

    2005-11-01

    Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may experience loss of consciousness. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) may trigger undesired or inhibit necessary therapy in patients with an ICD. Therefore, questions about personal or professional activities for ICD patients arise. Restricting driving or other personal activities has adverse effects on the patient's quality of life. The national Societies of Cardiology provide recommendations for ICD patients concerning driving of motor vehicles. Patients with an ICD that is implanted prophylactically do not have to refrain from driving after recovery from the implantation procedure. Patients with arrhythmias are classified into different groups depending on the risk of recurrence of tachycardias and symptoms. Commercial driving is not allowed for patients with an ICD in Germany except for those with a prophylactic indication without a history of arrhythmias. Those patients may drive small cars but no trucks or busses. Guidelines for medical fitness in commercial or military flying are regulated by the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and ventricular tachycardias are a contraindication for both. Fortunately, loss of consciousness is not dangerous in most jobs. Strong sources of EMI can occur at special workplaces. Patients have to be advised and tested individually concerning their risk for EMI at their employment site before returning safely. Modern life exposes to an increasing amount of EMI. Intact household devices usually do not interfere with ICDs. Mobile phones may interfere with implanted devices. Interaction can be minimized by special precautions like maintaining a distance of minimum 10 cm between mobile phone and ICD. Electronic surveillance systems work differently and have the potential to interact with devices. Patients should be advised to pass those systems with avoiding longer exposure. The presence of an ICD is presently a contraindication for undergoing magnetic resonance imaging

  18. Restrictions in Availability of Drugs Used for Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Availability of drugs with high lethality has been hypothesized to increase the risk of self-poisoning suicides. A literature search concerning deliberate self-poisoning and the effect of restricting access to drugs was conducted, and the effect of restrictions in availability of barbiturates, tr...... in availability of drugs with high case fatality should be a part of suicide prevention strategies.......Availability of drugs with high lethality has been hypothesized to increase the risk of self-poisoning suicides. A literature search concerning deliberate self-poisoning and the effect of restricting access to drugs was conducted, and the effect of restrictions in availability of barbiturates......, tricyclic antidepressants, dextropropoxyphene, and weak analgesics was reviewed. The correlations between method-specific and overall suicide rates and sales figures for barbiturates, dextropropoxyphene, weak analgesics, and tricyclic antidepressants were reviewed. It is concluded that restriction...

  19. Retroviral restriction and dependency factors in primates and carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Hind J.; Poeschla, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have extended the rapidly developing retroviral restriction factor field to cells of carnivore species. Carnivoran genomes, and the domestic cat genome in particular, are revealing intriguing properties vis-à;-vis the primate and feline lentiviruses, not only with respect to their repertoires of virus-blocking restriction factors but also replication-enabling dependency factors. Therapeutic application of restriction factors is envisioned for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model has promise for testing important hypotheses at the basic and translational level. Feline cell-tropic HIV-1 clones have also been generated by a strategy of restriction factor evasion. We review progress in this area in the context of what is known about retroviral restriction factors such as TRIM5alpha, TRIMCyp, APOBEC3 proteins and BST-2/Tetherin. PMID:21715018

  20. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG...

  1. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports...

  2. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  3. Introducción a phpMyAdmin (4/4)

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Cueto, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Curso "Introducción al desarrollo web": inserción de filas de relación, modificación de la estructura de una tabla, definición de los valores a mostrar en la inserción de filas en una tabla de relación. Más información en http://idesweb.es

  4. From Admin to Strategy: The Changing Face of the HR Function. IES Report 332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkin, Penny; And Others

    Evidence from academic research and management experts in the United Kingdom and elsewhere confirms that the recent focus in work organizations on cost reductions through downsizing has changed the roles and structures of many human resources (HR) units. HR units have had to prove their contribution to the organization's bottom line, raise their…

  5. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  6. HIV-related travel restrictions: trends and country characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Felicia; Prytherch, Helen; Nesbitt, Robin C; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2013-06-03

    Increasingly, HIV-seropositive individuals cross international borders. HIV-related restrictions on entry, stay, and residence imposed by countries have important consequences for this mobile population. Our aim was to describe the geographical distribution of countries with travel restrictions and to examine the trends and characteristics of countries with such restrictions. In 2011, data presented to UNAIDS were used to establish a list of countries with and without HIV restrictions on entry, stay, and residence and to describe their geographical distribution. The following indicators were investigated to describe the country characteristics: population at mid-year, international migrants as a percentage of the population, Human Development Index, estimated HIV prevalence (age: 15-49), presence of a policy prohibiting HIV screening for general employment purposes, government and civil society responses to having non-discrimination laws/regulations which specify migrants/mobile populations, government and civil society responses to having laws/regulations/policies that present obstacles to effective HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support for migrants/mobile populations, Corruption Perception Index, and gross national income per capita. HIV-related restrictions exist in 45 out of 193 WHO countries (23%) in all regions of the world. We found that the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions have the highest proportions of countries with these restrictions. Our analyses showed that countries that have opted for restrictions have the following characteristics: smaller populations, higher proportions of migrants in the population, lower HIV prevalence rates, and lack of legislation protecting people living with HIV from screening for employment purposes, compared with countries without restrictions. Countries with a high proportion of international migrants tend to have travel restrictions - a finding that is relevant to migrant populations and travel

  7. Human cellular restriction factors that target HIV-1 replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent findings have highlighted roles played by innate cellular factors in restricting intracellular viral replication. In this review, we discuss in brief the activities of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G, bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2, cyclophilin A, tripartite motif protein 5 alpha (Trim5α, and cellular microRNAs as examples of host restriction factors that target HIV-1. We point to countermeasures encoded by HIV-1 for moderating the potency of these cellular restriction functions.

  8. Predicting support for restricting food marketing to youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Amir; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-01-01

    To address the obesity crisis, public health experts recommend major reductions in the marketing of unhealthy food to youth. However, policies to restrict food marketing are not currently viewed as politically feasible. This paper examines attitudes and knowledge about food marketing and support for restricting unhealthy food marketing [corrected] among one group of constituents: parents. A survey of 807 parents found that those most likely to support food marketing restrictions were also more likely to have negative views of current food practices. [corrected] These findings suggest that increased public education about the harm caused by food marketing may increase public support for policy interventions.

  9. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  10. Company Law as a Restriction to Free Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2014-01-01

    . There is evidence that non-discriminatory obstacles to free movement found in company law can be restrictions. However, recent cases show that the Court may be willing to apply a more restrictive approach where only non-discriminatory measures that have a qualified deterrent effect may constitute restrictions.......Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures...

  11. Removal of phase transfer agent leads to restricted dynamics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    has been investigated by infrared (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The experi- ... gauche defects near the head group for the 3D SAMs similar to 2D ... chain motion is more restricted in hydroxyl termi- nated SAMs.

  12. HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) - Restricted Access File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD) contain the universe of emergency department visits in participating States. Restricted access data files are...

  13. Supporting several levels of restriction in the UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Damm, Christian Heide; Thomsen, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Bas....... This approach potentially increases the usability of the UML, and thus ultimately leads to greater quality and adoption of UML models.......The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has provided software developers with an effective and efficient shared language. However, UML is often too restrictive in initial, informal, and creative modelling, and it is in some cases not restrictive enough, e.g., for code generation. Based...

  14. 77 FR 3037 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 13 January 20, 2012 Part II Department of Labor Employee Benefits Security... Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Exemptions...

  15. 40 CFR 152.168 - Advertising of restricted use products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advertising. (5) Billboards and posters. (c) The requirement may be satisfied for printed material by... in the broadcast of the spoken words “Restricted use pesticide,” or a statement of the terms of...

  16. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    .... In March 2003, the Administration eased restrictions on those visiting close family members in Cuba, while at the same time it eliminated travel for people-to-people educational exchanges unrelated...

  17. Drought Tip: Keeping Plants Alive under Drought or Water Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Hartin, Janet; Oki, Loren; Fujino, Dave; Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants that don't receive enough water eventually show signs of water stress. During a drought or under water restrictions aimed at water conservation, keeping plants alive can be particularly difficult.

  18. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  19. 76 FR 14083 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... firms that litigate securities fraud cases on a contingency fee basis. Finally, IFS stated that the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  20. Prenatal smoking exposure and asymmetric fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Loretta; Drummond, Sandra; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking exposure causes intrauterine fetal growth restriction ( IUGR), although its effects on fetal proportionality are less clearly defined. Aim: The present study assessed fetal proportionality in babies with IUGR using maternal salivary cotinine to indicate maternal smoking

  1. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  2. Phenylketonuria : tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, FJ; van Rijn, M; Bekhof, J; Koch, R; Smit, PGA

    Treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) consists of restriction of natural protein and provision of a protein substitute that lacks phenylalanine but is enriched in tyrosine. Large and unexplained differences exist, however, in the tyrosine enrichment of the protein substitutes. Furthermore, some

  3. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-AΔenv-GFP, ROD-AΔenv-RFP, or ROD-AΔenv-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  4. Food restriction reduces neurogenesis in the avian hippocampal formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara-Anne Robertson

    Full Text Available The mammalian hippocampus is particularly vulnerable to chronic stress. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by chronic stress and by administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Post-natal and adult neurogenesis are present in the avian hippocampal formation as well, but much less is known about its sensitivity to chronic stressors. In this study, we investigate this question in a commercial bird model: the broiler breeder chicken. Commercial broiler breeders are food restricted during development to manipulate their growth curve and to avoid negative health outcomes, including obesity and poor reproductive performance. Beyond knowing that these chickens are healthier than fully-fed birds and that they have a high motivation to eat, little is known about how food restriction impacts the animals' physiology. Chickens were kept on a commercial food-restricted diet during the first 12 weeks of life, or released from this restriction by feeding them ad libitum from weeks 7-12 of life. To test the hypothesis that chronic food restriction decreases the production of new neurons (neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation, the cell proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine was injected one week prior to tissue collection. Corticosterone levels in blood plasma were elevated during food restriction, even though molecular markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation did not differ between the treatments. The density of new hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced in the food-restricted condition, as compared to chickens fed ad libitum, similar to findings in rats at a similar developmental stage. Food restriction did not affect hippocampal volume or the total number of neurons. These findings indicate that in birds, like in mammals, reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with chronically elevated corticosterone levels, and therefore potentially with chronic stress in general. This finding is consistent with the

  5. Services trade restrictiveness and manufacturing productivity : the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    BEVERELLI, Cosimo; FIORINI, Matteo; HOEKMAN, Bernard M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of services trade restrictiveness on manufacturing productivity for a broad cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development. Decreasing services trade restrictiveness has a positive indirect impact on the manufacturing sectors that use services as intermediate inputs in production. We identify a critical role of local institutions in shaping this effect: countries with high institutional capacity benefit the most from services trade policy reforms in...

  6. Novel host restriction factors implicated in HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dibya; Rai, Madhu; Gaur, Ritu

    2018-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is known to interact with multiple host cellular proteins during its replication in the target cell. While many of these host cellular proteins facilitate viral replication, a number of them are reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication at various stages of its life cycle. These host cellular proteins, which are known as restriction factors, constitute an integral part of the host's first line of defence against the viral pathogen. Since the discovery of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G) as an HIV-1 restriction factor, several human proteins have been identified that exhibit anti-HIV-1 restriction. While each restriction factor employs a distinct mechanism of inhibition, the HIV-1 virus has equally evolved complex counter strategies to neutralize their inhibitory effect. APOBEC3G, tetherin, sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain 1 (SAMHD1), and trim-5α are some of the best known HIV-1 restriction factors that have been studied in great detail. Recently, six novel restriction factors were discovered that exhibit significant antiviral activity: endoplasmic reticulum α1,2-mannosidase I (ERManI), translocator protein (TSPO), guanylate-binding protein 5 (GBP5), serine incorporator (SERINC3/5) and zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP). The focus of this review is to discuss the antiviral mechanism of action of these six restriction factors and provide insights into the probable counter-evasion strategies employed by the HIV-1 virus. The recent discovery of new restriction factors substantiates the complex host-pathogen interactions occurring during HIV-1 pathogenesis and makes it imperative that further investigations are conducted to elucidate the molecular basis of HIV-1 replication.

  7. Open superstring field theory on the restricted Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Sebastian; Sachs, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    It appears that the formulation of an action for the Ramond sector of open superstring field theory requires to either restrict the Hilbert space for the Ramond sector or to introduce auxiliary fields with picture −3/2. The purpose of this note is to clarify the relation of the restricted Hilbert space with other approaches and to formulate open superstring field theory entirely in the small Hilbert space.

  8. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily...

  9. Immediate metabolic consequences of intrauterine growth restriction and low birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Jatinder; Gates, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Optimal fetal growth resulting in a 'normally grown' term infant is of paramount importance for assuring a healthy start for postnatal growth and development. Fetal, infant and childhood growth restriction is an important clinical problem for obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatricians and globally, for public health. Worldwide, an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birthweight and a substantial proportion are small for gestational age. Many advances have been made in defining growth restriction by prenatal techniques, thus allowing the recognition of intrauterine growth restriction. Distinguishing infants who are small but have appropriate growth potential from those with growth restriction is important in order to apply obstetric surveillance, anticipate neonatal problems and plan for postneonatal guidance. It is clear that the fetus in growth-restricted pregnancies has limited supply of nutrients and oxygen. The resultant changes, if involving the placenta as well, can lead to circulatory and metabolic changes affecting both short- and long-term survival and development. In this paper, the causes and immediate consequence of being born with low birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction or small for gestational age will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Host Cell Restriction Factors that Limit Influenza A Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Villalón-Letelier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection of different cell types induces a unique spectrum of host defence genes, including interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs and genes encoding other proteins with antiviral potential. Although hundreds of ISGs have been described, the vast majority have not been functionally characterised. Cellular proteins with putative antiviral activity (hereafter referred to as “restriction factors” can target various steps in the virus life-cycle. In the context of influenza virus infection, restriction factors have been described that target virus entry, genomic replication, translation and virus release. Genome wide analyses, in combination with ectopic overexpression and/or gene silencing studies, have accelerated the identification of restriction factors that are active against influenza and other viruses, as well as providing important insights regarding mechanisms of antiviral activity. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding restriction factors that mediate anti-influenza virus activity and consider the viral countermeasures that are known to limit their impact. Moreover, we consider the strengths and limitations of experimental approaches to study restriction factors, discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo studies, and the potential to exploit restriction factors to limit disease caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses.

  11. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Léger, Damien; Medkour, Terkia; Dubois, Alexandre; Bayon, Virginie; Chennaoui, Mounir; Perrot, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping. A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed. Laboratory-based study. 11 healthy male volunteers. Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area. Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  12. Napping reverses increased pain sensitivity due to sleep restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Faraut

    Full Text Available To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping.A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed.Laboratory-based study.11 healthy male volunteers.Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon.Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area.Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.

  13. Screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausman, Andrea; McCarthy, Fergus P; Walker, Melissa; Kingdom, John

    2012-01-01

    To provide comprehensive background knowledge relevant to the SOGC Maternal-Fetal Medicine Committee-approved guideline entitled "Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management." Publications in English were retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library in January 2011 using appropriate controlled vocabulary via MeSH terms (fetal growth restriction and small for gestational age) and any key words (fetal growth, restriction, growth retardation, intrauterine growth restriction [IUGR], low birth weight, small for gestational age). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials, and high-quality prospective and retrospective observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Evidence obtained from at least one properly randomized controlled trial, Cochrane Reviews, and high quality cohort data have been combined to provide clinicians with evidence to optimize their practice for screening, diagnosis, and management of intrauterine growth restriction. Considerable advances have been made to improve clinicians' ability to screen, diagnose, and manage pregnancies with suspected IUGR more effectively, including several properly randomized controlled trials. Pregnancies with late-onset IUGR may be managed equally effectively by early delivery or delayed delivery (with increased surveillance) anticipating favourable outcomes. By contrast, many aspects of the management of early-onset IUGR require further clinical trials.

  14. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  15. Perceived need for restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brna, Paula M; Gordon, Kevin E; Woolridge, Elaine; Dooley, Joseph M; Wood, Ellen

    2017-08-01

    Children and youth with epilepsy have long been subjected to excessive restrictions on extracurricular activities due to concerns over risk of injury. Over time physicians and medical regulatory associations have liberalized the advice given for people with epilepsy to promote independence, self-esteem and general health benefits of physical activity. Current evidence suggests that few restrictions are needed for children with epilepsy beyond water-related precautions and avoidance of very high-risk activities. However, more stringent restrictions on daily activities may be imposed by caregivers. This study was aimed at exploring current perceptions of parents regarding restrictions on activity for children with epilepsy and the child's perspective on restrictions related to the diagnosis. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a sample of parent-child dyads of children/youth with epilepsy attending summer camp for children with epilepsy age 8-18years. A 10-item validated HARCES Parent Scale of Childhood Epilepsy was completed by the parent/guardian and a modified-HARCES completed by the child. The primary objective was to assess the degree of restrictions placed on children with epilepsy from the perspective of child and parent assessed independently. Agreement of perceived restrictions between parent-child dyads was also determined. 21 parent/guardian-child pairs were recruited with mean age of children/youth 12.7years (range 9-16years). Total HARCES scores for parents and guardians ranged from 11-26 (x=16.5; SD 4.9) while total scores for children with epilepsy similarly ranged from 10-25 (x=15.2; SD 4.9). There were no differences in total parent scores when analyzed by child's age (13years), gender, age of seizure onset, seizure frequency or seizure type. Total HARCES scores showed no agreement between parent and child pairs with correlation of 0.2798 (95% CI -0.173-0.635). Children and youth with epilepsy often face activity restrictions based on

  16. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Influence of traffic restriction on road and construction fugitive dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Gang; Li, Gang; Qin, Jian-Ping; Fan, Shou-Bin; Huang, Yu-Hu; Nie, Lei

    2009-05-15

    By monitoring the road and construction dust fall continuously during the "Good Luck Beijing" sport events, the reduction of road and construction dust fall caused by traffic restriction was studied. The contribution rate of road and construction dust to particulate matter of Beijing atmosphere environment, and the emission ratio of it to total local PM10 emission were analyzed. The results show that the traffic restriction reduces road and construction dust fall significantly. The dust fall average value of ring roads was 0.27 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the "traffic restriction" period, and the values were 0.81 and 0.59 g x (m2 x d)(-1) 1 month and 7 days before. The dust fall average value of major arterial and minor arterial was 0.21 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the "traffic restriction" period, and the values were 0.54 and 0.58 g x (m2 x d)(-1) 1 month and 7 days before. The roads emission reduced 60%-70% compared with before traffic restriction. The dust fall average values of civil architecture and utility architecture were 0.61 and 1.06 g x (m2 x d)(-1) in the "traffic restriction" period, and the values were 1.15 and 1.55 g x (m2 x d)(-1) 20 days before. The construction dust reduced 30%-47% compared with 20 days before traffic restriction. Road and construction dust emission are the main source of atmosphere particulate matter in Beijing, and its contribution to ambient PM10 concentration is 21%-36%. PM10 emitted from roads and constructions account for 42%-72% and 30%-51% of local emission while the local PM10 account for 50% and 70% of the total emission.

  19. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-12-01

    Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all") or perceived influence of parental rules ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all"). Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying "a lot" was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver's safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively support parents in supervising and monitoring their teen driver. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  1. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Terminal Differentiation of Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew J; Beaver, Charlotte M; Goodier, Martin R; Bottomley, Christian; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia F M; Boldrin, Luisa; Whitmore, Charlotte; Morgan, Jennifer; Pearce, Daniel J; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Immune senescence is a natural consequence of aging and may contribute to frailty and loss of homeostasis in later life. Calorie restriction increases healthy life-span in C57BL/6J (but not DBA/2J) mice, but whether this is related to preservation of immune function, and how it interacts with aging, is unclear. We compared phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, across the lifespan, of calorie-restricted (CR) and control C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Calorie restriction preserves a naïve T cell phenotype and an immature NK cell phenotype as mice age. The splenic T cell populations of CR mice had higher proportions of CD11a - CD44 lo cells, lower expression of TRAIL, KLRG1, and CXCR3, and higher expression of CD127, compared to control mice. Similarly, splenic NK cells from CR mice had higher proportions of less differentiated CD11b - CD27 + cells and correspondingly lower proportions of highly differentiated CD11b + CD27 - NK cells. Within each of these subsets, cells from CR mice had higher expression of CD127, CD25, TRAIL, NKG2A/C/E, and CXCR3 and lower expression of KLRG1 and Ly49 receptors compared to controls. The effects of calorie restriction on lymphoid cell populations in lung, liver, and lymph nodes were identical to those seen in the spleen, indicating that this is a system-wide effect. The impact of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell maturation is much more profound than the effect of aging and, indeed, calorie restriction attenuates these age-associated changes. Importantly, the effects of calorie restriction on lymphocyte maturation were more marked in C57BL/6 than in DBA/2J mice indicating that delayed lymphocyte maturation correlates with extended lifespan. These findings have implications for understanding the interaction between nutritional status, immunity, and healthy lifespan in aging populations.

  2. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  3. HIV restriction by APOBEC3 in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Krisko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune restriction factors represent important specialized barriers to zoonotic transmission of viruses. Significant consideration has been given to their possible use for therapeutic benefit. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases are potent immune defense molecules capable of efficiently restricting endogenous retroelements as well as a broad range of viruses including Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B virus (HBV, Human Papilloma virus (HPV, and Human T Cell Leukemia virus (HTLV. The best characterized members of this family are APOBEC3G (A3G and APOBEC3F (A3F and their restriction of HIV. HIV has evolved to counteract these powerful restriction factors by encoding an accessory gene designated viral infectivity factor (vif. Here we demonstrate that APOBEC3 efficiently restricts CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif. However, our results also show that CXCR4-tropic HIV can escape from APOBEC3 restriction and replicate in vivo independent of Vif. Molecular analysis identified thymocytes as cells with reduced A3G and A3F expression. Direct injection of vif-defective HIV into the thymus resulted in viral replication and dissemination detected by plasma viral load analysis; however, vif-defective viruses remained sensitive to APOBEC3 restriction as extensive G to A mutation was observed in proviral DNA recovered from other organs. Remarkably, HIV replication persisted despite the inability of HIV to develop resistance to APOBEC3 in the absence of Vif. Our results provide novel insight into a highly specific subset of cells that potentially circumvent the action of APOBEC3; however our results also demonstrate the massive inactivation of CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif.

  4. Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla P. Meek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64 and older adults (age 65+ with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population.

  5. Evaluation of placenta in foetal demise and foetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch, Ujwala; Guruvare, Shyamala; Bhat, Sudha S; Rai, Lavanya; Rao, Sugandhi

    2013-11-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the pathological changes of the placenta in foetal death and foetal growth restriction and to find correlation of the findings with clinical causes. Prospective study at a tertiary care hospital. Gross and histopathological examinations of the placentae were carried out in pregnancies with foetal demise (IUD) and Foetal Growth Restriction (FGR). SPSS, version 11.5. Placentae of twenty seven women with foetal demise and of equal number of women with foetal growth restriction were studied. Placental weight was less than 10(th) percentile in 61.5% women in IUD group and in 93% women in the FGR group. Gross examination of placentae showed abnormalities in 12 (44%) women of IUD group and in 16 (59%) women of FGR group. Histopathological abnormalities were observed in 74.1% women of the IUD group and in 66.7% women of FGR group. Placental histopathology correlated with clinical risk factors in 60% women of IUD group and in 40% women of FGR group. Among the women with no clinically explainable cause for IUD and FGR, 86% and 57% had placental histopathological abnormalities respectively. The histopathological abnormalities of the placenta can be used to document the clinical causes of foetal demise and growth restriction; it may explain the causes in cases of clinically unexplained foetal demise and foetal growth restriction.

  6. Restrictions on Software for Personal and Professional Use

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of computer security incidents detected at CERN are due to additional software installed for personal and professional use. As a consequence, the smooth operation of CERN is put at risk and often many hours are lost solving the problems. To reduce this security risk, installation and/or use of software on CERN's computing and network infrastructure needs to be restricted. Therefore: Do NOT install software for personal use Do NOT install 'free' or other software unless you have the expertise to configure and maintain it securely. Please comply to these rules to keep our computer systems safe. Further explanation of these restrictions is at http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions Restricted software, known to cause security and/or network problems (e.g. KaZaA and other P2P/Peer-to-Peer file sharing applications, Skype P2P telephony software, ICQ, VNC, ...), is listed at: http://cern.ch/security/software-restrictions/list

  7. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects.

  8. Restrictions of process machine retooling at machine-building enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of the national economy depends on the technological level of the machine-building enterprises production equipment. Today in Russia there are objective and subjective restrictions for the optimum policy formation of the manufacturing equipment renewal. The analysis of the manufacturing equipment age structure dynamics in the Russian machine-building complex indicates the negative tendencies intensification: increase in the equipment service life, reduction in the share of up-to-date equipment, and drop in its use efficiency. The article investigates and classifies the main restrictions of the manufacturing equipment renewal process, such as regulatory and legislative, financial, organizational, competency-based. The economic consequences of the revealed restrictions influence on the machine-building enterprises activity are shown.

  9. Almost-Quantum Correlations Violate the No-Restriction Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Guryanova, Yelena; Acín, Antonio; Navascués, Miguel

    2018-05-18

    To identify which principles characterize quantum correlations, it is essential to understand in which sense this set of correlations differs from that of almost-quantum correlations. We solve this problem by invoking the so-called no-restriction hypothesis, an explicit and natural axiom in many reconstructions of quantum theory stating that the set of possible measurements is the dual of the set of states. We prove that, contrary to quantum correlations, no generalized probabilistic theory satisfying the no-restriction hypothesis is able to reproduce the set of almost-quantum correlations. Therefore, any theory whose correlations are exactly, or very close to, the almost-quantum correlations necessarily requires a rule limiting the possible measurements. Our results suggest that the no-restriction hypothesis may play a fundamental role in singling out the set of quantum correlations among other nonsignaling ones.

  10. The ability of multimerized cyclophilin A to restrict retrovirus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanbakht, Hassan; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Yuan Wen; Yeung, Darwin F.; Li Xing; Song Byeongwoon; Sodroski, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In owl monkeys, the typical retroviral restriction factor of primates, TRIM5α, is replaced by TRIMCyp. TRIMCyp consists of the TRIM5 RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains, as well as the intervening linker regions, fused with cyclophilin A. TRIMCyp restricts infection of retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), with capsids that can bind cyclophilin A. The TRIM5 coiled coil promotes the trimerization of TRIMCyp. Here we show that cyclophilin A that is oligomeric as a result of fusion with a heterologous multimer exhibits substantial antiretroviral activity. The addition of the TRIM5 RING, B-box 2 and Linker 2 to oligomeric cyclophilin A generated a protein with antiretroviral activity approaching that of wild-type TRIMCyp. Multimerization increased the binding of cyclophilin A to the HIV-1 capsid, promoting accelerated uncoating of the capsid and restriction of infection

  11. Affective neural response to restricted interests in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa J; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Heacock, Jessica; Schauder, Kimberly B; Loring, Whitney A; Rogers, Baxter P; Pryweller, Jennifer R; Newsom, Cassandra R; Cockhren, Jurnell; Cao, Aize; Bolton, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Restricted interests are a class of repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) whose intensity and narrow focus often contribute to significant interference with daily functioning. While numerous neuroimaging studies have investigated executive circuits as putative neural substrates of repetitive behavior, recent work implicates affective neural circuits in restricted interests. We sought to explore the role of affective neural circuits and determine how restricted interests are distinguished from hobbies or interests in typical development. We compared a group of children with ASD to a typically developing (TD) group of children with strong interests or hobbies, employing parent report, an operant behavioral task, and functional imaging with personalized stimuli based on individual interests. While performance on the operant task was similar between the two groups, parent report of intensity and interference of interests was significantly higher in the ASD group. Both the ASD and TD groups showed increased BOLD response in widespread affective neural regions to the pictures of their own interest. When viewing pictures of other children's interests, the TD group showed a similar pattern, whereas BOLD response in the ASD group was much more limited. Increased BOLD response in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex distinguished the ASD from the TD group, and parent report of the intensity and interference with daily life of the child's restricted interest predicted insula response. While affective neural network response and operant behavior are comparable in typical and restricted interests, the narrowness of focus that clinically distinguishes restricted interests in ASD is reflected in more interference in daily life and aberrantly enhanced insula and anterior cingulate response to individuals' own interests in the ASD group. These results further support the involvement of affective neural networks in repetitive behaviors in ASD. © 2013 The

  12. [Suplemented restricted diet in old patients with chronic renal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplan, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    In last decades was confirmed remarkable increase in number of old patients with chronic kidney disease. Despide of developments in dialysis technology and kidney transplantation there is a growing number of old patients who are not suitable for these methods. Recently were published data showing long-term effect of protein restricted diet supplemented with keto amino acids in elderly. Based on our results obtained in re-analysis of 3 000 patients we can confirm also good compliance and low risk of malnutrition.Key words: chronic kidney disease - keto amino acids - old age - restricted diet.

  13. Restriction genes for retroviruses influence the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Hansen, Bettina; Nissen, Kari K

    2013-01-01

    known for a long time. Today human restriction genes for retroviruses include amongst others TRIMs, APOBEC3s, BST2 and TREXs. We have therefore looked for a role of these retroviral restriction genes in MS using genetic epidemiology. We here report that markers in two TRIMs, TRIM5 and TRIM22...... and a marker in BST2, associated statistically with the risk of getting MS, while markers in or near APOBEC3s and TREXs showed little or no effect. This indicates that the two TRIMs and BST2 influence the risk of disease and thus supports the hypothesis of a viral involvement....

  14. Site-specific DNA transesterification catalyzed by a restriction enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Sasnauskas, Giedrius; Connolly, Bernard A.; Halford, Stephen E.; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2007-01-01

    Most restriction endonucleases use Mg2+ to hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds at specific DNA sites. We show here that BfiI, a metal-independent restriction enzyme from the phospholipase D superfamily, catalyzes both DNA hydrolysis and transesterification reactions at its recognition site. In the presence of alcohols such as ethanol or glycerol, it attaches the alcohol covalently to the 5′ terminus of the cleaved DNA. Under certain conditions, the terminal 3′-OH of one DNA strand can attack the t...

  15. Semiparametric regression for restricted mean residual life under right censoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    is not observed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose the proportional restricted mean residual life model for fitting survival data under right censoring. For inference on the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the asymptotic properties...... of the proposed estimators are established. In addition, a class of goodness-of-fit test is presented to assess the adequacy of the model. The finite sample behavior of the proposed estimators is evaluated through simulation studies, and the approach is applied to a set of real life data collected from...

  16. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the growth rate of premature infants in the first weeks of life and factors associated with extrauterine growth restriction. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 254 premature infants in a neonatal intensive care unit conducted from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. Infants who died or had malformations incompatible with life were excluded. Median weight curves according to gestational age were constructed for the first four weeks of life. The Fenton growth chart calculations provided the weight Z-scores. Extrauterine growth restriction was defined as corrected weight-for-age Z-score ≤-2. Perinatal, morbidity, and health care variables were analyzed. The Poisson regression model yielded the prevalenceratios . Associations between extrauterine growth restriction and the perinatal, morbidity, and care variables were investigated. Poisson regression controlled possible confounding factors. Results: The frequency of extrauterine growth restriction was 24.0%. Most (85.0% small-for-gestational-age infants developed extrauterine growth restriction; 55.3% of extrauterine growth restriction cases involved small-for-gestational-age infants. Premature infants with gestational age >32 weeks did not recover the median birth weight until the third week of life and had a higher frequency of small-for-gestational-age. The Z-scores of non-small-for-gestational-age infants decreased more after birth than those of small-for-gestational-age infants. extrauterine growth restriction was associated with small-for-gestational-age (PR=6.14; 95%CI=3.33-11.33;p <0.001 and time without enteral diet (PR=1.08; 95%CI=1.04-1.13; p =0.010. Conclusion: Extrauterine growth restriction occurs in premature infants of all gestational age. The participation of small-for-gestational-age and nutritional practices in its genesis is noteworthy. We suggest prospective studies of all premature infants. The implementation of best care practices

  17. Restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Søren; Jensen, Annette Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Can the restricted use of antibiotics in organic pig farming be documented to provide a safer, high quality meat product with less antibiotic resistant bacteria? The project SafeOrganic aims to document that the restricted use of antimicrobials in organic pig production leads to lower levels...... of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with the level in conventional pigs. However, the project will also address the risk of losing this quality parameter, due to a widespread practice of slaughtering organic pigs together with conventional pigs, implying a risk of cross-contamination....

  18. Restriction Theorem for Principal bundles in Arbitrary Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurjar, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove two basic restriction theorem for principal bundles on smooth projective varieties in arbitrary characteristic generalizing the analogues theorems of Mehta-Ramanathan for vector bundles. More precisely, let G be a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically...... closed field k and let X be a smooth, projective variety over k together with a very ample line bundle O(1). The main result of the paper is that if E is a semistable (resp. stable) principal G-bundle on X w.r.t O(1), then the restriction of E to a general, high multi-degree, complete-intersection curve...

  19. Partial digestion with restriction enzymes of ultraviolet-irradiated human genomic DNA: a method for identifying restriction site polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, C.; Romeo, G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for partial digestion of total human DNA with restriction enzymes has been developed on the basis of a principle already utilized by P.A. Whittaker and E. Southern for the analysis of phage lambda recombinants. Total human DNA irradiated with uv light of 254 nm is partially digested by restriction enzymes that recognize sequences containing adjacent thymidines because of TT dimer formation. The products resulting from partial digestion of specific genomic regions are detected in Southern blots by genomic-unique DNA probes with high reproducibility. This procedure is rapid and simple to perform because the same conditions of uv irradiation are used for different enzymes and probes. It is shown that restriction site polymorphisms occurring in the genomic regions analyzed are recognized by the allelic partial digest patterns they determine

  20. Incremental Effect of the Addition of Prescriber Restrictions on a State Medicaid's Pharmacy-Only Patient Review and Restriction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, Shellie L; Pham, Timothy; Teel, Ashley; Nesser, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    Patient review and restriction programs (PRRPs), used by state Medicaid programs to limit potential abuse and misuse of opioids and related controlled medications, often restrict members to a single pharmacy for controlled medications. While most states use a restricted pharmacy access model, not all states include restricted prescriber access. Oklahoma Medicaid (MOK) added a restricted prescriber access feature to its PRRP in July 2014. To evaluate the incremental effect that the addition of a prescriber restriction to MOK's pharmacy-only PRRP had on the pharmacy and resource utilization of the enrolled members. MOK members with at least 6 months of enrollment in the pharmacy-only PRRP were restricted to a maximum of 3 prescribers for controlled substances in July 2014 and were identified as "cases." Using a propensity score method, cases were matched to controls from the MOK non-PRRP enrolled population based on demographics and baseline health care utilization. Data from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2014, were evaluated. Each member's monthly health care resource utilization, defined in terms of medical and pharmacy costs, prescription counts, and opioid use per member per month (PMPM), was analyzed. A difference-indifferences (DID) regression estimated the change in resource utilization following the July 2014 policy change. This study included 378 controls and 126 cases after propensity matching. No differences were noted for daily morphine equivalents, benzodiazepine prescriptions, or maintenance prescriptions. There were decreases in mean PMPM use for both groups for short-acting opioid (SAO) claims (P evidence that overall opioid claims were affected, the addition of prescriber restrictions may have resulted in an incremental change to SAO, prescriber, and pharmacy use in the PRPP population. Use of PRRPs may be an effective tool in reducing inappropriate use of prescription opioids within payer systems. The question remains whether these changes

  1. 45 CFR 1226.10 - Hatch Act restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hatch Act restrictions. 1226.10 Section 1226.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY... candidates on canvassing or speaking tours. (12) Participation in or organizing a political parade. (13...

  2. 4 CFR 201.9 - Restrictions on charging fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on charging fees. 201.9 Section 201.9 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.9... the news media. (2) The Board shall provide without charge to all but commercial users: (i) The first...

  3. Effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting the ranging behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we assessed the effectiveness of electro-fencing for restricting movement patterns of several wild ungulates in Akagera National Park (NP), Rwanda. Following the turmoil of the Rwandan genocide and civil war (1991–1995), large numbers of returning war refugees brought about an increasing pressure on land use, ...

  4. DOPING AND OTHER RESTRICTED METHODS IN SPORTS SUMMARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Bjelica

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Since sport has become an industry, it has lost all its elements of tolerance and chivalry and become an arena which is made for making profi t. Under those conditions everyone wanted to succeed by no means. The stocks such as: power, speed and endurance were of immeasurable value on the market. The level of the biomothoric dimensions could be raised as a matter of course or, unfortunately, by using restricted substances where the science was abused. Many private laboratories have started with the production of the restricted substances whose aim was to raise the level of power, strength and endurance, but only temporary, because the harmful effects lasted much longer and even caused lethal consequences. The natives from the South Africa used to use a kind of alcohol drink which was called “dop”. That word came to Europe by the Dutchmen, where it has become a “doping” in English. These restricted substances can be classifi ed into the groups with a specifi c effect. These substances are called restricted substances and methods in sports. These are the substances such as: stimulants, narcotics, canabiodies, anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, beta-2 agonists, anti-estrogen agenses, covered agenses and glycocorticoids.

  5. Classifying images using restricted Boltzmann machines and convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhijun; Xu, Tongde; Dai, Chenyu

    2017-07-01

    To improve the feature recognition ability of deep model transfer learning, we propose a hybrid deep transfer learning method for image classification based on restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). It integrates learning abilities of two models, which conducts subject classification by exacting structural higher-order statistics features of images. While the method transfers the trained convolutional neural networks to the target datasets, fully-connected layers can be replaced by restricted Boltzmann machine layers; then the restricted Boltzmann machine layers and Softmax classifier are retrained, and BP neural network can be used to fine-tuned the hybrid model. The restricted Boltzmann machine layers has not only fully integrated the whole feature maps, but also learns the statistical features of target datasets in the view of the biggest logarithmic likelihood, thus removing the effects caused by the content differences between datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed method has improved the accuracy of image classification, outperforming other methods on Pascal VOC2007 and Caltech101 datasets.

  6. Fetal Growth Restriction at the Limits of Viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Lees, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The outcome of early small-for-gestational age and/or intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses is reviewed. In these fetuses the outcome appears to be considerably poorer than that of appropriately grown fetuses and this seems mainly to be caused by intrauterine malnutrition rather than by hypoxemia.

  7. 13 CFR 120.383 - Restrictions on loan processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on loan processing. 120.383 Section 120.383 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS.... Since greater risk may be associated with a loan to an applicant under this program, a Certified Lender...

  8. 17 CFR 1.22 - Use of customer funds restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of customer funds... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.22 Use of customer funds restricted. No futures commission merchant shall use, or permit the use of, the customer funds of...

  9. On some special cases of the restricted assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C. (Chao); R.A. Sitters (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider some special cases of the restricted assignment problem. In this scheduling problem on parallel machines, any job j can only be assigned to one of the machines in its given subset Mj of machines. We give an LP-formulation for the problem with two job sizes and show that it

  10. First order normalization in the perturbed restricted three–body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper performs the first order normalization that will be employed in the study of the nonlinear stability of triangular points of the perturbed restricted three – body problem with variable mass. The problem is perturbed in the sense that small perturbations are given in the coriolis and centrifugal forces. It is with variable ...

  11. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  12. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  13. Moment Restriction-based Econometric Methods: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kunitomo (Naoto); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Nishiyama (Yoshihiko)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMoment restriction-based econometric modelling is a broad class which includes the parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric approaches. Moments and conditional moments themselves are nonparametric quantities. If a model is specified in part up to some finite dimensional parameters,

  14. 29 CFR 15.23 - Restrictions on certain claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions noted: (a) Money or currency. Claims may be allowed for loss of money or currency (which includes... currency is limited to an amount which is determined to have been reasonable for the claimant to have had... motor vehicles were required to be used for official Government business (official Government business...

  15. 22 CFR 513.225 - Failure to adhere to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall not knowingly do business under a covered transaction with a person who is— (1) Debarred or... excluded from the covered transaction. (b) Violation of the restriction under paragraph (a) of this section may result in disallowance of costs, annulment or termination of award, issuance of a stop work order...

  16. Distribution Learning in Evolutionary Strategies and Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Oswin

    The thesis is concerned with learning distributions in the two settings of Evolutionary Strategies (ESs) and Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs). In both cases, the distributions are learned from samples, albeit with different goals. Evolutionary Strategies are concerned with finding an optimum ...

  17. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  18. The Historical Foundations of Religious Restrictions in Contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP abolished its total ban on religious activities in 1982. However, the distrust that the CCP feels for religions remains obvious today, and the religious restrictions in contemporary China remain tight. Conventional wisdom tells us that the official atheist ideology of Marxism-Leninism is the main reason behind the CCP’s distrust for, and restriction of, religion. However, taking a historical institutionalist perspective, this paper argues that the religious restrictions in contemporary China are in fact rooted in the fierce political struggles of the country’s two major revolutions in the first half of the twentieth century. Without the support of religious groups, the Nationalist Republicans would have found it difficult to survive and succeed in overthrowing the Qing Dynasty during the Chinese Republican Revolution in the first decade of the twentieth century. Likewise, without cooperating with a wide range of religious groups, the CCP would have struggled to defeat the Nationalist regime and the Japanese invaders in the Chinese Communist Revolution between 1920s and 1940s. Thanks to the collaborations and struggles with various religious groups during the two revolutions which lead to its eventual ascent to power, the CCP thoroughly understands the organisational strength and mobilising capability embedded within religious groups. The tight restrictions on religious affairs in contemporary China is therefore likely to stem from the CCP’s worry that prospective competitors could mobilise religious groups to challenge its rule through launching, supporting, or sponsoring collective actions.

  19. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  20. Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of endemicity and range restriction among southern African coastal marine invertebrates. RJ Scott, CL Griffiths, TB Robinson. Abstract. Southern Africa supports a rich marine biota of 12 734 currently described marine species. Although the distribution and overall species-richness patterns of several component ...

  1. 12 CFR 5.65 - Restrictions on undercapitalized institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on undercapitalized institutions. 5.65 Section 5.65 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES... defined in 12 CFR part 6. ...

  2. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hatchability of incubated duck eggs owing to restricted feed intake. ... Egg numbers, infertile eggs, fertile eggs, dead embryos, and duck- lings hatched were recorded for each of the 12 pens. At the same time as the six male and 24 female ducks were ..... treatment but thereafter there was a drop, even lower than the.

  3. 78 FR 51696 - Restrictions on Legal Assistance to Aliens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION 45 CFR Part 1626 Restrictions on Legal Assistance to Aliens AGENCY... assistance to aliens. The revisions are intended to implement three statutory changes on aliens eligible for... provided to aliens, were enacted in 1996 and have been reincorporated annually with amendments. Section 504...

  4. 31 CFR 360.48 - Restrictions on reissue; denominational exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; denominational exchange. 360.48 Section 360.48 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... GOVERNING DEFINITIVE UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Reissue and Denominational Exchange § 360.48 Restrictions on reissue; denominational exchange. Reissue is not permitted solely to change denominations. ...

  5. Use of qualitative feed restriction as a management strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 5-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of qualitative feed restriction through the use low-quality diet on finisher broiler performance, and to determine if sufficient compensatory growth can be achieved at that phase of broiler production. Seventytwo (72) 4 weeks old broiler chicks of Anak strain ...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4362 - Rights and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... parking areas or facilities. (ii) Any contract or lease, including franchises and licenses, to which a declarant is a party. (iii) The requirements of paragraphs (a)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section do not apply... restrictions are acceptable: (i) A requirement that leases have a minimum initial term of up to 1 year; or (ii...

  7. Stability analysis of nonlinear systems with slope restricted nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian; Du, Jiajia; Gao, Qing

    2014-01-01

    The problem of absolute stability of Lur'e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP) lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  8. Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems with Slope Restricted Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of absolute stability of Lur’e systems with sector and slope restricted nonlinearities is revisited. Novel time-domain and frequency-domain criteria are established by using the Lyapunov method and the well-known Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov (KYP lemma. The criteria strengthen some existing results. Simulations are given to illustrate the efficiency of the results.

  9. 28 CFR 549.13 - Programming, duty, and housing restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Programming, duty, and housing... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Infectious Disease Management § 549.13 Programming, duty, and housing restrictions. (a) The CD will assess any inmate with an infectious disease for appropriateness for programming...

  10. Restriction Inhibition Assay: A Qualitative and Quantitative Method to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rich fractions (PRFs) with high affinity for EcoRI and HindIII restriction sequences and correlate their interaction to an anticancer activity. Methods: pBR322 linear plasmid DNA was used as a template to screen the sequence-selective inhibition of ...

  11. Restricted Interests and Anxiety in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Michael A.; Lin, C. Enjey; Van Dyke, Marilyn; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    A preoccupation with restricted interests (RI) is a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Engagement in RI is commonly observed in this population and impacts social, adaptive, and emotional functioning. The presence of anxiety disorders and overlap in symptom expression with RI, such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), in children…

  12. 50 CFR 648.88 - Multispecies open access permit restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multispecies open access permit... Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries § 648.88 Multispecies open access permit restrictions. (a) Handgear permit. A vessel issued a valid open access NE multispecies Handgear permit is...

  13. Proposal of Realization Restricted Quantum Game with Linear Optic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haijun; Fang Ximing

    2006-01-01

    We present a quantum game with the restricted strategic space and its realization with linear optical system, which can be played by two players who are separated remotely. This game can also be realized on any other quantum computers. We find that the constraint brings some interesting properties that are useful for making game models.

  14. 76 FR 50535 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7555] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to Lebanon Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs... States to waive the requirements of Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Lebanon and I hereby...

  15. 7 CFR 1786.167 - Restrictions to additional RUS financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions to additional RUS financing. 1786.167... additional RUS financing. (a) No borrower that prepays an electric loan at a discount as provided under this... borrower is unable to obtain financing at reasonable terms to restore the system from non-RUS sources...

  16. 31 CFR 315.6 - Restrictions on registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchased as a gift to a minor under a gifts-to-minors statute must be registered as prescribed by the... States but only if the bonds are purchased on a payroll deduction plan and the owner provides a taxpayer... resident of any restricted area. (c) Minors. (1) Minors may purchase with their wages, earnings, or other...

  17. Kamm on Inviolability and Agent-Relative Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Agent-relative restrictions prohibit minimizing violations: that is, they require us not to minimize the total number of their violations by violating them ourselves. Frances Kamm has explained this prohibition in terms of the moral worth of persons, which, in turn, she explains in term...

  18. Restrictions in social participation of young adults with spina bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of

  19. Growth restriction and gender influence cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Emily; Baerts, Willem; Alderliesten, Thomas; Derks, Jan; Lemmers, Petra; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of fetal growth restriction and gender on cerebral oxygenation in preterm neonates during the first 3 days of life. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, The Netherlands. PATIENTS: 68 (41 males)

  20. Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Maternal Nutrient Restriction during the Period of Embryonic and Maximal Placental Growth on Organ Development in the Adult Sheep. ... Objective: It is apparent that maternal under nutrition at specific period during pregnancy has differential effects on placental and fetal development, such that the resulting ...

  1. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall provide interstate transmission or billing and collection services to an entity offering any service within the scope...

  2. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...% and less All uses (domestic and nondomestic) Unclassified Paraquat (dichloride) and paraquat bis... subsoil ......do Do. ......do All subsoil uses Unclassified Sulfotepp Sprays and smoke generators All uses Restricted Inhalation hazard to humans. Zinc Phosphide All formulations 2% and less All domestic uses and non...

  3. Restrictive Language Policy in Practice: English Learners in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    As the most restrictive language policy context in the United States, Arizona's monolingual and prescriptive approach to teaching English learners continues to capture international attention. More than five school years after initial implementation, this study uses qualitative data from the individuals doing the policy work to provide a holistic…

  4. Effect of quantitative feed restriction on pullet development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hen-day and hen-housed production levels as well as cost of feed per unit weight or dozen eggs, were not significantly affected by the treatments. These studies showed that when growing birds are restricted in quantity of feed fed, they respond with a reduction in mature weight, but the laying phase is unaffected.

  5. 49 CFR 591.7 - Restrictions on importations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) IMPORTATION OF VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT SUBJECT TO FEDERAL SAFETY, BUMPER AND THEFT PREVENTION STANDARDS § 591.7 Restrictions on importations. (a) A vehicle or... a vehicle or equipment item under § 591.5(j) does not intend to export or destroy the vehicle or...

  6. 24 CFR 888.315 - Restrictions on retroactive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND... Elderly or Handicapped, and Special Allocations Projects § 888.315 Restrictions on retroactive payments...

  7. Removing the Restrictions Imposed on Finite State Machines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determines an effective method of removing the fixed and finite state amount of memory that restricts finite state machines from carrying out compilation jobs that require larger amount of memory. The study is ... The conclusion reviewed the various steps followed and made projections for further reading. Keyword: ...

  8. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are

  9. 15 CFR 2008.15 - General restrictions on access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions on access. 2008.15 Section 2008.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED...

  10. Calvin's Restrictions on Interest : Guidelines for the Credit Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Calvin’s view on the legitimacy of interest has had a great impact on the economic development of Western society. Although Calvin took a fundamentally positive attitude to interest, he also proposed several restrictions on the charging of interest. In this article, we investigate the relevance of

  11. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that dietary caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition can increase longevity. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of CR on oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory cytokines in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Forty 12-week old male Wistar rats, weighing ...

  12. 7 CFR 57.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 57.800 Section 57... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of Eggs...

  13. Guiding IEP Teams on Meeting the Least Restrictive Environment Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Teri A.; Hart, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Leslie; Love, Jessica; Baxter, Christine M.; Gartin, Barbara; Schaefer Whitby, Peggy J.

    2014-01-01

    Two diametrically opposed beliefs are held concerning the meaning of the least restrictive environment (LRE) when determining the class placements of students with disabilities. One group adheres to the placement philosophy that the LRE is always the general education setting. The other group believes that the LRE is where the students' needs may…

  14. A whole genome screen for HIV restriction factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon cellular entry retroviruses must avoid innate restriction factors produced by the host cell. For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV human restriction factors, APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein-B-mRNA-editing-enzyme, p21 and tetherin are well characterised. Results To identify intrinsic resistance factors to HIV-1 replication we screened 19,121 human genes and identified 114 factors with significant inhibition of infection. Those with a known function are involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes including receptor signalling, vesicle trafficking, transcription, apoptosis, cross-nuclear membrane transport, meiosis, DNA damage repair, ubiquitination and RNA processing. We focused on the PAF1 complex which has been previously implicated in gene transcription, cell cycle control and mRNA surveillance. Knockdown of all members of the PAF1 family of proteins enhanced HIV-1 reverse transcription and integration of provirus. Over-expression of PAF1 in host cells renders them refractory to HIV-1. Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses and HIV-2 are also restricted in PAF1 expressing cells. PAF1 is expressed in primary monocytes, macrophages and T-lymphocytes and we demonstrate strong activity in MonoMac1, a monocyte cell line. Conclusions We propose that the PAF1c establishes an anti-viral state to prevent infection by incoming retroviruses. This previously unrecognised mechanism of restriction could have implications for invasion of cells by any pathogen.

  15. Restrictive or Liberal Red-Cell Transfusion for Cardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazer, C David; Whitlock, Richard P; Fergusson, Dean A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of a restrictive versus liberal red-cell transfusion strategy on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 5243 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who had a E...

  16. 7 CFR 982.41 - Free and restricted percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percentages in effect at the end of the previous marketing year shall be applicable. [51 FR 29548, Aug. 19... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 982.41 Free and restricted percentages. The free and...

  17. Data Input and Content Exploration in Scenarios with Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractAs technology evolves, new devices and interaction techniques are developed. These transformations create several challenges in terms of usability and user experience. Our research faces some challenges for data input or content exploration in scenarios with restrictions. It is not our

  18. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines (extented abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and models derived from them have been successfully used as basic building blocks in deep neural networks for automatic features extraction, unsupervised weights initialization, but also as standalone models for density estimation, activity recognition and so on.

  19. The non-isospectral AKNS hierarchy with reality conditions restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lingjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will prove the existence of the non-isospectral AKNS hierarchy with reality conditions restriction and construct the matrix form Darboux transformation. Using this Darboux transformation, the solutions of the relevant nonlinear equations can be expressed explicitly

  20. 77 FR 65840 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Advance... for our advance notice of proposed rulemaking that solicits public comment on whether and how we... importation of plant material that is a host of CWR. This action will allow interested persons additional time...

  1. Evaluation of Feeding Torerance in Intrauterine Growth Restricted Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozzetti, V.

    2016-01-01

    Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) is an important and common problem in obstetrics. The purpose of the present thesis was to investigate: 1. Feeding issues in IUGR preterm infants; 2. Clinical and strumental parameters as predictors of feeding tolerance in IUGR preterm infants; 3. Splanchnic

  2. Deep Restricted Kernel Machines Using Conjugate Feature Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suykens, Johan A K

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this letter is to propose a theory of deep restricted kernel machines offering new foundations for deep learning with kernel machines. From the viewpoint of deep learning, it is partially related to restricted Boltzmann machines, which are characterized by visible and hidden units in a bipartite graph without hidden-to-hidden connections and deep learning extensions as deep belief networks and deep Boltzmann machines. From the viewpoint of kernel machines, it includes least squares support vector machines for classification and regression, kernel principal component analysis (PCA), matrix singular value decomposition, and Parzen-type models. A key element is to first characterize these kernel machines in terms of so-called conjugate feature duality, yielding a representation with visible and hidden units. It is shown how this is related to the energy form in restricted Boltzmann machines, with continuous variables in a nonprobabilistic setting. In this new framework of so-called restricted kernel machine (RKM) representations, the dual variables correspond to hidden features. Deep RKM are obtained by coupling the RKMs. The method is illustrated for deep RKM, consisting of three levels with a least squares support vector machine regression level and two kernel PCA levels. In its primal form also deep feedforward neural networks can be trained within this framework.

  3. Consensus Based Definition of Growth Restriction in the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beune, Irene M; Bloomfield, Frank H; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Embleton, Nicholas D; Rozance, Paul J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wynia, Klaske; Gordijn, Sanne J

    2018-05-01

    To develop a consensus definition of growth restriction in the newborn that can be used clinically to identify newborn infants at risk and in research to harmonize reporting and definition in the current absence of a gold standard. An international panel of pediatric leaders in the field of neonatal growth were invited to participate in an electronic Delphi procedure using standardized methods and predefined consensus rules. Responses were fed back at group-level and the list of participants was provided. Nonresponders were excluded from subsequent rounds. In the first round, variables were scored on a 5-point Likert scale; in subsequent rounds, inclusion of variables and cut-offs were determined with a 70% level of agreement. In the final round participants selected the ultimate algorithm. In total, 57 experts participated in the first round; 79% completed the procedure. Consensus was reached on the following definition: birth weight less than the third percentile, or 3 out of the following: birth weight definition for growth restriction in the newborn. This definition recognizes that infants with birth weights 10th percentile can be growth restricted. This definition can be adopted in clinical practice and in clinical trials to better focus on newborns at risk, and is complementary to the previously determined definition of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endogenous technology in dairy farming under environmental restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerlings, J.H.M.; Komen, M.H.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an applied general equilibrium AGE model written in mixed-complementarity format is used to analyse the effects of an increase in milk quota in the Netherlands when nitrogen emissions in agriculture are restricted. The model combines the strengths of AGE models and mathematical

  5. Kamm on Inviolability and Agent-Relative Restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Agent-relative restrictions prohibit minimizing violations: that is, they require us not to minimize the total number of their violations by violating them ourselves. Frances Kamm has explained this prohibition in terms of the moral worth of persons, which, in turn, she explains in terms...

  6. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. Parental perceptions of teen driving: Restrictions, worry and influence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A.; Bhat, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of “worry” about their teen driver’s safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen’s driving. Methods We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental “worry,” and influence of rules regarding their teen’s driving, reported by teen’s driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver’s license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”) or perceived influence of parental rules (“a lot” versus “somewhat, not very much or not at all”). Results Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying “a lot” was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Conclusions and Practical Applications Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver’s safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively

  8. GENETIC CONTROL OF RESTRICTION AND MODIFICATION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Herbert

    1964-01-01

    Boyer, Herbert (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Genetic control of restriction and modification in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1652–1660. 1964.—Bacterial crosses with K-12 strains of Escherichia coli as Hfr donors (Hfr Hayes, Hfr Cavalli, and Hfr P4X-6) and B/r strains of E. coli as F− recipients were found to differ from crosses between K-12 Hfr donors and K-12 F− recipients in two ways: (i) recombinants (leu, pro, lac, and gal) did not appear at discrete time intervals but did appear simultaneously 30 min after matings were initiated, and (ii) the linkage of unselected markers to selected markers was reduced. Integration of a genetic region linked to the threonine locus of K-12 into the B/r genome resulted in a hybrid which no longer gave anomalous results in conjugation experiments. A similar region of the B strain was introduced into the K-12 strain, which then behaved as a typical B F− recipient. These observations are interpreted as the manifestation of host-controlled modification and restriction on the E. coli chromosome. This was verified by experiments on the restriction and modification of the bacteriophage lambda, F-lac, F-gal, and sex-factor, F1. It was found that the genetic region that controlled the mating responses of the K-12 and B/r strains also controlled the modification and restriction properties of these two strains. The genes responsible for the restricting and modifying properties of the K-12 and B strains of E. coli were found to be allelic, linked to each other, and linked to the threonine locus. PMID:14240953

  9. Placental weight and birth weight to placental weight ratio in monochorionic and dichorionic growth-restricted and non-growth-restricted twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Alves Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the placental weight and birth weight/placental weight ratio for intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were compared in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The association between cord insertion type and placental lesions in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins was also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 105 monochorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=40; non-intrauterine growth restriction=65 and 219 dichorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=57; non-intrauterine growth restriction=162 placentas were analyzed. A significantly lower placental weight was observed in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic (p=0.022 and dichorionic (p<0.001 twins compared to non-intrauterine growth-restricted twins. There was no difference in the birth weight/placental weight ratio between the intrauterine growth restriction and non-intrauterine growth restriction groups for either monochorionic (p=0.36 or dichorionic (p=0.68 twins. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were not associated with cord insertion type or with placental lesions. CONCLUSION: Low placental weight, and consequently reduced functional mass, appears to be involved in fetal growth restriction in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The mechanism by which low placental weight influences the birth weight/placental weight ratio in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins needs to be determined in larger prospective studies.

  10. 10 CFR 2.903 - Protection of restricted data and national security information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of restricted data and national security... Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.903 Protection of restricted data and national security information. Nothing in this subpart shall relieve any person from safeguarding Restricted Data or...

  11. 10 CFR 1045.33 - Appointment of restricted data management official.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointment of restricted data management official. 1045... DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.33 Appointment of restricted data management official. (a) Each agency with access to RD or FRD shall...

  12. 78 FR 40958 - Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2504A & R-2504B; Camp Roberts, CA, and Restricted Area R-2530...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...-0515; Airspace Docket No. 13-AWP-8] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Restricted Areas R-2504A & R-2504B; Camp Roberts, CA, and Restricted Area R-2530; Sierra Army Depot, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the descriptions of restricted areas R...

  13. Unaccompanied adolescents seeking asylum - Poorer mental health under a restrictive reception : poorer mental health under a restrictive reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Boer, J.B.; Bean, T.; Korfker, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the effects of a stringent reception policy on the mental health of unaccompanied adolescent asylum seekers by comparing the mental health of adolescents in a restricted campus reception setting and in a setting offering more autonomy (numbers [response rates]: 69 [93%] and 53 [69%],

  14. Intracellular diffusion restrictions in isolated cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkedal Rikke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of intracellular diffusion of adenine nucleotides has been studied intensively on adult rat cardiomyocytes. However, their cause and role in vivo is still uncertain. Intracellular membrane structures have been suggested to play a role. We therefore chose to study cardiomyocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, which are thinner and have fewer intracellular membrane structures than adult rat cardiomyocytes. Previous studies suggest that trout permeabilized cardiac fibers also have diffusion restrictions. However, results from fibers may be affected by incomplete separation of the cells. This is avoided when studying permeabilized, isolated cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of diffusion restrictions in trout cardiomyocytes by comparing ADP-kinetics of mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers, permeabilized cardiomyocytes and isolated mitochondria from rainbow trout heart. Experiments were performed at 10, 15 and 20°C in the absence and presence of creatine. Results Trout cardiomyocytes hypercontracted in the solutions used for mammalian cardiomyocytes. We developed a new solution in which they retained their shape and showed stable steady state respiration rates throughout an experiment. The apparent ADP-affinity of permeabilized cardiomyocytes was different from that of fibers. It was higher, independent of temperature and not increased by creatine. However, it was still about ten times lower than in isolated mitochondria. Conclusions The differences between fibers and cardiomyocytes suggest that results from trout heart fibers were affected by incomplete separation of the cells. However, the lower ADP-affinity of cardiomyocytes compared to isolated mitochondria indicate that intracellular diffusion restrictions are still present in trout cardiomyocytes despite their lower density of intracellular membrane structures. The lack of a creatine effect indicates that

  15. Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder: an illustrative case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a new diagnostic category in DSM-5. Although replacing Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood, it is not restricted to childhood presentations. In keeping with the broader aim of revising and updating criteria and text to better reflect lifespan issues and clinical expression across the age range, ARFID is a diagnosis relevant to children, adolescents, and adults. This case example of a 13-year old boy with ARFID illustrates key issues in diagnosis and treatment planning. The issues discussed are not exhaustive, but serve as a guide for central diagnostic and treatment issues to be considered by the clinician. It is anticipated that the inclusion of specific criteria for ARFID as a category within Feeding and Eating Disorders in DSM-5 will stimulate research into its typology, prevalence, and incidence in different populations and facilitate the development of effective, evidence-based interventions for this patient group. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Focusing and restricting: two aspects of motivational selectivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Michaela; Freund, Alexandra M

    2006-03-01

    Using a short-term longitudinal design, the authors investigated implications of 2 facets of motivational selectivity--restricting (to few goals) and focusing (on central and similar goals)--for goal-pursuit investment. Participants were 20-69 years old (Time 1, N = 177; Time 2, N = 160). Results show that motivational selectivity in terms of focusing (but not in terms of restricting) is associated with an enhanced involvement in goal pursuit (assessed 3 months later), irrespective of age. Structural equation models demonstrated that this association is completely mediated by the degree of mutual facilitation among goals. Furthermore, motivational selectivity increases from middle to older adulthood. This contributes to the maintenance of high goal involvement into later adulthood, despite aging-related increases in resource limitations. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Performance of a New Restricted Biased Estimator in Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin ASAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the variance of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE inflates when the explanatory variables are correlated. This situation is called the multicollinearity problem. As a result, the estimations of the model may not be trustful. Therefore, this paper introduces a new restricted estimator (RLTE that may be applied to get rid of the multicollinearity when the parameters lie in some linear subspace  in logistic regression. The mean squared errors (MSE and the matrix mean squared errors (MMSE of the estimators considered in this paper are given. A Monte Carlo experiment is designed to evaluate the performances of the proposed estimator, the restricted MLE (RMLE, MLE and Liu-type estimator (LTE. The criterion of performance is chosen to be MSE. Moreover, a real data example is presented. According to the results, proposed estimator has better performance than MLE, RMLE and LTE.

  18. Evaluating the economic cost of natural gas strategic storage restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejarque, Joao Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to implement a single market for gas. One of the components of this market is a regulated provision for ''security of supply'' which consists of rules for the implementation and use of a given reserve stock of gas. We investigate the impact of this policy on the profitability of a storage operator, using data from Denmark and Italy. Keeping storage capacity constant, the costs of the strategic stock are around 20% of the value of the storage market for Denmark, and 16% for Italy. This cost is due to the inability to extract arbitrage profits from the captive stock. Furthermore, the strategic storage restriction induces behavior that would virtually never be replicated by a private storage operator in an unconstrained market, in particular in the first 6 months of the year when unconstrained firms empty their reservoirs much faster, suggesting the strategic restriction is unnecessarily distorting the market. (author)

  19. Endocrine responses to water restriction in desert sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Muna M.M.

    1994-01-01

    For ruminants grazing in semi-arid areas, the maintenance of balanced water and energy metabolism is challenging to productivity.The metabolic effects of water restriction usually stimulate endocrine which control metabolic activity depending on the thermal environment.Radioimmunoasay technique was used to determine the level of endocrine hormones, namely thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH),thyroxine(T4) and cortisol in desert sheep.Intermittent watering every 24h, 48h and 72h increased TSH level during the morning but decreased it during the afternoon.T4 level decreased during both morning and afternoon.The cortisol level was depressed by water restriction during the morning and afternoon but showed an overlapping pattern with that of the control during the afternoon. (Author)

  20. Circumvention of MHC class II restriction by genetic immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, K; Lu, C; Chang, H D; Croft, M; Zanetti, M; Gerloni, M

    2001-11-12

    The fate of T cell responses to peptide-based vaccination is subject to constraints by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), MHC restriction. Using as a model system of T and B cell epitopes from the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite, we show that vaccination by somatic transgene immunization readily primes Balb/c mice (H-2(d)) a strain previously reported to be non-responder to immunization with a synthetic peptide vaccine encompassing these epitopes. Following genetic vaccination Balb/c mice developed a primary T cell response comparable to that of the responder strain C57Bl/6 (H-2(b)). Following booster immunization on day 45 Balb/c mice responded with a typical T cell memory response. Priming induced the formation of specific antibodies, which rose sharply after booster immunization. These findings suggests that genetic immunization can circumvent MHC class II restriction.

  1. Generating families in the restricted three-body problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hénon, Michel

    The classical restricted three-body problem is of fundamental importance because of its applications in astronomy and space navigation, and also as a simple model of a non-integrable Hamiltonian dynamical system. A central role is played by periodic orbits, of which many have been computed numerically. This is the second volume of an attempt to explain and organize the material through a systematic study of generating families, the limits of families of periodic orbits when the mass ratio of the two main bodies becomes vanishingly small. We use quantitative analysis in the vicinity of bifurcations of types 1 and 2. In most cases the junctions between branches can now be determined. A first-order approximation of families of periodic orbits in the vicinity of a bifurcation is also obtained. This book is intended for scientists and students interested in the restricted problem, in its applications to astronomy and space research, and in the theory of dynamical systems.

  2. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... differences with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 31 trials totalling 9813 randomised patients were included. The proportion of patients receiving red blood cells (relative risk 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.63, 8923 patients, 24 trials) and the number of red blood cell units transfused (mean...... were associated with a reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused and number of patients being transfused, but mortality, overall morbidity, and myocardial infarction seemed to be unaltered. Restrictive transfusion strategies are safe in most clinical settings. Liberal transfusion...

  3. Restricting oral fluid and food intake during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singata, Mandisa; Tranmer, Joan; Gyte, Gillian M L

    2013-08-22

    Restricting fluids and foods during labour is common practice across many birth settings with some women only being allowed sips of water or ice chips. Restriction of oral intake may be unpleasant for some women, and may adversely influence their experience of labour. To determine the benefits and harms of oral fluid or food restriction during labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of restricting fluids and food for women in labour compared with women free to eat and drink. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We identified 19 studies of which we included five, involving 3130 women. We excluded eight studies, one awaits classification and five are ongoing studies. All the included studies looked at women in active labour and at low risk of potentially requiring a general anaesthetic. One study looked at complete restriction versus giving women the freedom to eat and drink at will; two studies looked at water only versus giving women specific fluids and foods and two studies looked at water only versus giving women carbohydrate drinks.When comparing any restriction of fluids and food versus women given some nutrition in labour, the meta-analysis was dominated by one study undertaken in a highly medicalised environment. There were no statistically significant differences identified in: caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 1.25, five studies, 3103 women), operative vaginal births (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.10, five studies, 3103 women) and Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes (average RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.68, four studies, 2902 infants), nor in any of the other outcomes assessed. Women's views were not assessed. The pooled data were insufficient to assess the

  4. Control of wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed A. H.; En, Chang Yong

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a simulation and practical control system for wheeled mobile robot in restricted environment. A wheeled mobile robot with 3 wheels is fabricated and controlled by proportional derivative active force control (PD-AFC) to move in a pre-planned restricted environment to maintain the tracking errors at zero level. A control system with two loops, outer by PD controller and inner loop by Active Force Control, are designed to control the wheeled mobile robot. Fuzzy logic controller is implemented in the Active force Control to estimate the inertia matrix that will be used to calculate the actual torque applied on the wheeled mobile robot. The mobile robot is tested in two different trajectories, namely are circular and straight path. The actual path and desired path are compared.

  5. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  6. DOE Land Disposal Restrictions strategy report for radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This report is based on preliminary information available at the time of the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Strategy Workshop in June 1989, and the critical review of the workshop data conducted by the Office Of Defense Programs and the affected Operations Offices in July and August 1989. The purpose of the workshop and this subsequent report is to identify the magnitude and scope of LDR issues and impacts regarding the storage, treatment, and disposal of RMW, and to suggest potential strategies for addressing LDR requirements. This report was prepared under the overall direction and coordination of the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Environmental Guidance Division, RCRA/CERCLA Unit (EH-231). The report is a product of the LDR Strategy Workshop held during the month of June 1989. The workshop was divided into two work groups: a Land Disposal Restriction compliance strategy group and a RMW Best Demonstrated Available Technology and National Capacity Variance group

  7. Restrictive extraocular myopathy: A presenting feature of acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Heireman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with binocular diplopia in primary gaze for 1 year. Orthoptic evaluation showed 10-prism diopter right eye hypotropia and 6-prism diopter right eye esotropia. The elevation and abduction of the right eye were mechanically restricted. This was associated with systemic features suggestive of acromegaly. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma. An elevated serum insulin-like growth factor I level and the failure of growth hormone suppression after an oral glucose load biochemically confirmed the diagnosis of acromegaly. Computed tomography (CT of the orbit demonstrated bilateral symmetrical enlargement of the medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle bellies. All tests regarding Graves-Basedow disease were negative. Although rare, diplopia due to a restrictive extraocular myopathy could be the presenting symptom of acromegaly.

  8. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, A R; Horhoianu, I A; Dumitrascu, M C; Horhoianu, V

    2014-06-15

    The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the truly growth restricted fetus who is predisposed to perinatal complications, even if its parameters are above the cut-off limits established. In this article, we present the clinical tools of fetal growth assessment: Symphyseal-Fundal Height (SFH) measurement, the fetal ultrasound parameters widely taken into consideration when discussing fetal growth: Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW); several types of growth charts and their characteristics: populational growth charts, standard growth charts, individualized growth charts, customized growth charts and growth trajectories.

  9. Work-hour restrictions as an ethical dilemma for residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Robert O; Austin, Mary T; Tarpley, John L; Griffin, Marie R; Lomis, Kimberly D

    2006-04-01

    We propose that the standardized work-hour limitations have created an ethical dilemma for residents. A survey tool was designed to assess factors that influence the number of hours residents work and report. The program directors of pediatrics, internal medicine, and general surgery at our institution supported their residents' participation. A voluntary, anonymous survey of these residents was performed. One hundred seventy of 265 eligible residents were surveyed. Eighty-one percent of residents surveyed responded. Eighty percent of respondents reported exceeding work-hour restrictions at least once within the past 6 months. The factor of greatest influence measured was concern for patient care (80%). Forty-nine percent of respondents admitted underreporting their work hours. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour restrictions have created an ethical dilemma for residents. Our data show that a significant number of residents feel compelled to exceed work-hour regulations and report those hours falsely.

  10. Fasting, circadian rhythms, and time restricted feeding in healthy lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valter D.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-01-01

    Summary Feeding in most animals is confined to a defined period, leaving short periods of fasting that coincide with sleep. Fasting enables organisms to enter alternative metabolic phases, which rely less on glucose and more on ketone body-like carbon sources. Both intermittent and periodic fasting result in benefits ranging from prevention to the enhanced treatment of diseases. Similarly, time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding time is restricted to certain hours of the day, allows the daily fasting period to last >12 h, thus imparting pleiotropic benefits in multiple organisms. Understanding the mechanistic link between nutrients and the fasting benefits is leading to the identification of fasting mimicking diets (FMDs) that achieve changes similar to those caused by fasting. Given the pleiotropic and sustained benefits of TRF and FMD, both basic science and translational research are warranted to develop fasting-associated interventions into effective and inexpensive treatments with the potential to improve healthspan. PMID:27304506

  11. Strong dietary restrictions protect Drosophila against anoxia/reoxygenation injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vigne

    Full Text Available Reoxygenation of ischemic tissues is a major factor that determines the severity of cardiovascular diseases. This paper describes the consequences of anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R stresses on Drosophila, a useful, anoxia tolerant, model organism.Newly emerged adult male flies were exposed to anoxic conditions (<1% O2 for 1 to 6 hours, reoxygenated and their survival was monitored.A/R stresses induced a transient increase in mortality which peaked at the time of reoxygenation. Then flies recovered low mortality rates similar to those of control flies. A/R induced mortality was strongly dependent on dietary conditions during the 48 h that preceded anoxia. Well fed flies were anoxia sensitive. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protected flies against A/R injuries. The tolerance to anoxia was associated to large decreases in glycogen, protein, and ATP contents. During anoxia, anoxia tolerant flies produced more lactate, less phosphate and they maintained more stable ATP levels than anoxia sensitive flies. Moderate dietary restrictions, which increased the longevity of normoxic flies, did not promote resistance to A/R stresses. Diet dependent A/R injuries were still observed in sigma loss of function mutants and they were insensitive to dietary rapamycin or resveratrol. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribose-furanoside, an activator AMP kinase decreased A/R injuries. Mutants in the insulin signalling pathway were more anoxia tolerant in a fed state.Long A/R stresses induce a transient increase in mortality in Drosophila. This mortality is highly dependent on dietary conditions prior to the stress. Strong dietary restrictions and starvation conditions protect flies against A/R injuries, probably by inducing a major remodelling of energy metabolism. The results also indicate that mechanistically different responses develop in response to dietary restrictions of different strengths. AMP kinase and the insulin signalling

  12. Effect of restriction of working memory on reported paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T

    1999-02-01

    56 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Watson, Clark, and Tellegen's 1988 Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Experimental group participants, but not control group participants, rehearsed a five-digit number while completing the Paranormal Belief Scale. Analysis showed higher reported paranormal belief for experimental group participants but no differences on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Results are discussed in terms of the effect of restriction in working memory on the critical evaluation of paranormal phenomena.

  13. Ad libitum and restricted day and night sleep architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompeli, Anna St; Muurlink, Olav; Gavala, Alexandra; Myrianthefs, Pavlos; Fildissis, Georgios; Baltopoulos, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first controlled comparison of restricted versus unrestricted sleep in both day and night sleep categories. A repeated measures study of a homogenous group of young women without sleep disorders (n=14) found that stage 1, 2, 3 and REM sleep, as well as sleep latency were not statistically different between day ad libitum sleep (DAL) and day interrupted (DI) sleep categories, while night interrupted (NI) and ad libitum (NAL) sleep showed strikingly different architecture.

  14. Restrictions of process machine retooling at machine-building enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova Elena; Tipner Ludmila; Ershov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    The competitiveness of the national economy depends on the technological level of the machine-building enterprises production equipment. Today in Russia there are objective and subjective restrictions for the optimum policy formation of the manufacturing equipment renewal. The analysis of the manufacturing equipment age structure dynamics in the Russian machine-building complex indicates the negative tendencies intensification: increase in the equipment service life, reduction in the share of...

  15. Entry Restrictions, Corruption and Extortion in the Context of Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Cabelkova

    2001-01-01

    This paper argues that even temporary barriers to entry present at the very beginning of transition may lead to permanent extortion development. Entry restrictions, if binding, lead to excess profits, which create an incentive to extort. The emergence of extortionists reduces the expected profit from production, making producers expect extortion in the future. If, after this adaptation of expectations, the government removes the barriers to entry, only a few new firms will enter the market. H...

  16. Effects of the restriction of hand gestures on disfluency.

    OpenAIRE

    Finlayson, Sheena; Forrest, Victoria; Lickley, Robin; Beck, Janet M

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental pilot study of disfluency and gesture rates in spontaneous speech where speakers perform a communication task in three conditions: hands free, one arm immobilized, both arms immobilized. Previous work suggests that the restriction of the ability to gesture can have an impact on the fluency of speech. In particular, it has been found that the inability to produce iconic gestures, which depict actions and objects, results in a higher rate of disfluency. Mode...

  17. Restrictions on running IRC (Internet Relay Chat) at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Due to the large number of computer security incidents at CERN where intruders have used IRC (Internet Relay Chat) software to control computers, IRC connections will be blocked in the CERN firewall from 1st February 2005. Personal use of IRC software is not permitted at CERN. Further details of the restrictions on both personal and professional use of IRC are documented at http://cern.ch/security/IRC.

  18. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  19. Inherited thrombophilia in pregnant women with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriu, Letitia; Copaciu, Elena; Tulbure, Dan; Talmaci, Rodica; Secara, Diana; Coriu, Daniel; Cirstoiu, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major cause of fetal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. The role of mutation in the factor V gene, prothrombin gene, MTHFR gene, as risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction during pregnancy, is not very well known so far. This is a retrospective study of 151 pregnant women with a history of complicated pregnancy: intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss or maternal venous thromboembolism, who were admitted in Bucharest Emergency University Hospital, during the period January 2010 to July 2014. Genetic testing was performed for all the cases to detect: factor V Leiden mutation, G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene, C677T mutation and A1298C mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Blood samples were obtained as soon as the diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction was established with ultrasonography. The following gene mutations were associated with increased risk of IUGR: G20210A prothrombin gene mutation (OR 4.81, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.22, p= 0.043), G1691A factor V gene mutation (factor V Leiden) (OR 1.58, 95% CI 0.61 - 4.080, p= 0.347), C677T MTHFR gene mutation (OR 1.61, 95% CI 0.79 to 3.26, p= 0.186), compound heterozygous MTHFR C677T and A1298C (OR 1.66, 95% CI 0.81- 3.42, p= 0.169). Particularly, for G20210A prothrombin gene mutation we found statistically significant risk (p≤0.05) of IUGR.

  20. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, AR; Horhoianu, IA; Dumitrascu, MC; Horhoianu, V

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small fetus that does not require special surveillance and the t...

  1. A database for compliance with land disposal restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, M.W.

    1990-09-01

    The new restrictions on land disposal introduce additional challenges to hazardous waste managers. Laboratory waste streams consisting of small volumes of diverse waste types will be particularly difficult to manage due to the large number of possible treatment standards that could be applied. To help remedy this management problem, a user-friendly database has been developed to provide the regulatory information required for each of the hazardous wastes present in the wastes stream of a large research laboratory. 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Restricted access: aboriginal women and health care in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Falcon-Borduas, Amelie

    2010-01-01

    Restricted Access: Aboriginal Women and Health Care in Canada” addresses the barriers faced by indigenous women when accessing health care services in Canada. Using the distinction of practical (or needs-based) and strategic (or equity-based) barriers, it highlights the impact of physical isolation, cultural differences, and socio-economic disparities when using health services. However, the emphasis is placed on strategic challenges and more specifically on the impact of marginalization fro...

  3. Restrictions on SU(5) as a grand unified theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellard, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some restrictions imposed upon Grand Unified Theories by dynamical symetry breakdown are examined. They are shown that, in particular, theories SU(5) as symmetry group, with 3 or more fermion families undergo dynamical symmetry breakdown, and some of the fermions will acquire mass at the Grand Unified scale. On the other hand, the SO(10) group, with 3 families is free from this problem. (Author) [pt

  4. Essays on Currency Competition, Institutional Restrictions and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Arghya

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on currency competition, institutional restrictions and exchange rates. When faced with currency competition, a country's government has two tools at its disposal: reduce the level of inflation or place institutional barriers to the use of foreign currency. In the first chapter, I propose a two-country, two-currency New Monetarist model to study currency competition. I model institutional barriers as a `tax' on the real value of foreign currency hol...

  5. RESTRICTING PESTICIDE USE: THE IMPACT ON PROFITABILITY BY FARM SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, Gerald W.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Vasavada, Utpal

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 226 cash grain farms in the Lake States-Corn Belt region are analyzed to estimate the impact of restricting pesticide use on profits. These 226 farms are classified into small medium, and large farms according to their sale revenues. The results suggest the existence of pest management practices that could substantially reduce pesticide use without incurring economic losses. The reductions in profit associated with gradual reduction in pesticide expenditure appear to increase with...

  6. Model of adipose tissue cellularity dynamics during food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, H A; Géloën, A; Soulage, C O

    2015-01-07

    Adipose tissue and adipocytes play a central role in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to obesity. Size of fat cells depends on the balance of synthesis and mobilization of lipids and can undergo important variations throughout the life of the organism. These variations usually occur when storing and releasing lipids according to energy demand. In particular when confronted to severe food restriction, adipocyte releases its lipid content via a process called lipolysis. We propose a mathematical model that combines cell diameter distribution and lipolytic response to show that lipid release is a surface (radius squared) limited mechanism. Since this size-dependent rate affects the cell׳s shrinkage speed, we are able to predict the cell size distribution evolution when lipolysis is the only factor at work: such as during an important food restriction. Performing recurrent surgical biopsies on rats, we measured the evolution of adipose cell size distribution for the same individual throughout the duration of the food restriction protocol. We show that our microscopic model of size dependent lipid release can predict macroscopic size distribution evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary restriction alters fine motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lori K; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2005-08-07

    A number of standard behavioral tasks in animal research utilize food rewards for positive reinforcement. In order to enhance the motivation to participate in these tasks, animals are usually placed on a restricted diet. While dietary restriction (DR) has been shown to have beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury, life span and aging processes, it might also represent a stressor. Since stress can influence a broad range of behaviors, the purpose of this study was to assess whether DR may have similar effects on skilled movement. Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained and tested in a skilled reaching task both prior to and during a mild food restriction regimen that maintained their body weights at 90-95% of baseline weight for eight days. The observations revealed that DR decreased reaching success and increased the number of attempts to grasp a single food pellet. The animals appeared to be more frantic when attempting to reach for food pellets, and the time taken to reach for 20 pellets decreased following the onset of DR. A second experiment investigating behaviors that do not require food rewards, including a ladder rung walking task and an open field test, confirmed that rats on DR display deficits in skilled movements and are hyperactive. These findings suggest that results obtained in motor tasks using food rewards need to be interpreted with caution. The findings are discussed with respect to stress associated with DR.

  8. Hypotrochoids in conformal restriction systems and Virasoro descendants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A conformal restriction system is a commutative, associative, unital algebra equipped with a representation of the groupoid of univalent conformal maps on connected open sets of the Riemann sphere, along with a family of linear functionals on subalgebras, satisfying a set of properties including conformal invariance and a type of restriction. This embodies some expected properties of expectation values in conformal loop ensembles CLE κ (at least for 8/3 iθ and w. We find that it has an expansion in positive powers of u and u-bar , and that the coefficients of pure u ( u-bar ) powers are holomorphic in w ( w-bar ). We identify these coefficients (the ‘hypotrochoid fields’) with certain Virasoro descendants of the identity field in conformal field theory, thereby showing that they form part of a vertex operator algebraic structure. This largely generalizes works by the author (in CLE), and the author with his collaborators Riva and Cardy (in SLE 8/3 and other restriction measures), where the case of the ellipse, at the order u 2 , led to the stress–energy tensor of CFT. The derivation uses in an essential way the Virasoro vertex operator algebra structure of conformal derivatives established recently by the author. The results suggest in particular the exact evaluation of CLE expectations of products of hypotrochoid fields as well as nontrivial relations amongst them through the vertex operator algebra, and further shed light onto the relationship between CLE and CFT. (paper)

  9. BARRIER MARKET RESTRICTIONS, THEIR ECONOMIC NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimova Ekaterina Yurievna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subject: indicators of modern economic growth in construction, published by the government agencies, reflect individual directions of growth. At the same time, the analysis of the reasons for the unachieved results is conducted by various researchers primarily from the standpoint of the inadequacy of economic and other resources. This article deals with the problem of ensuring the growth of construction enterprises from the viewpoint of systemic barriers, and in this regard, these barriers are defined as the subject of the present research. Research objectives: studying the concept of barrier market restrictions, their impact on the activities of construction companies. Materials and methods: statistical data in the field of housing construction, provided by the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation and Rosstat, is examined to solve the given tasks set. The content of state programs and activities of state institutions in the field of support and development of construction activities is considered. Based on investigations of sustainable economic development, an understanding of the constraints and incentives for development is revealed. Results: we have identified the content of barrier market restrictions, which are not possible to overcome only by involving additional economic resources in the turnover. The ways of confronting these restrictions are shown. Conclusions: it was shown that implementation of promising activities is impossible without overcoming various systemic constraints. Their structure is described in sufficient detail. Principles of economic sustainable development are proposed. It was proved that the reserve system can serve as an effective way to overcome market barriers.

  10. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs

  11. Cytosine methylation dysregulation in neonates following intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Einstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM, manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and control subjects.Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4A gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins.Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease.

  12. Cytosine Methylation Dysregulation in Neonates Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Tushar D.; Fazzari, Melissa J.; Verma, Amit; Barzilai, Nir; Greally, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Perturbations of the intrauterine environment can affect fetal development during critical periods of plasticity, and can increase susceptibility to a number of age-related diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM), manifesting as late as decades later. We hypothesized that this biological memory is mediated by permanent alterations of the epigenome in stem cell populations, and focused our studies specifically on DNA methylation in CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from cord blood from neonates with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and control subjects. Methods and Findings Our epigenomic assays utilized a two-stage design involving genome-wide discovery followed by quantitative, single-locus validation. We found that changes in cytosine methylation occur in response to IUGR of moderate degree and involving a restricted number of loci. We also identify specific loci that are targeted for dysregulation of DNA methylation, in particular the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4A) gene, a well-known diabetes candidate gene not previously associated with growth restriction in utero, and other loci encoding HNF4A-interacting proteins. Conclusions Our results give insights into the potential contribution of epigenomic dysregulation in mediating the long-term consequences of IUGR, and demonstrate the value of this approach to studies of the fetal origin of adult disease. PMID:20126273

  13. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2012-03-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

  14. Aging, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction in different model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-08-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions.

  15. Waste management and the land disposal restriction storage prohibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    RCRA Sect. 3004(j) prohibits storage of wastes that have been prohibited from land disposal, unless that storage is for the purpose of accumulating sufficient quantities of hazardous wastes to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal. This requirement was incorporated as part of the Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) regulations. Under the LDR storage prohibition, facilities may only store restricted wastes in containers and tanks. As stated in the Third LDR rule, storage of prohibited waste is only allowed in non-land based storage units since land-based storage is a form of disposal. The EPA has recognized that generators and storers of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) may find it impossible to comply with storage prohibition in cases where no available treatment capacity exists. Additionally, under the current regulatory interpretation, there is no provision that would allow for storage of wastes for which treatment capacity and capability are not available, even where capacity is legitimately being developed. Under the LDR program, restricted wastes that are disposed of, or placed into storage before an LDR effective date, are not subject to the LDR requirements. However, if such wastes are removed from a storage or disposal site after the effective date, such wastes would be subject to LDR requirements. The purpose of this information brief is to clarify what waste management practices constitute removal from storage

  16. Weak values in a classical theory with an epistemic restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanjai, Angela; Cavalcanti, Eric G; Bartlett, Stephen D; Rudolph, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Weak measurement of a quantum system followed by postselection based on a subsequent strong measurement gives rise to a quantity called the weak value: a complex number for which the interpretation has long been debated. We analyse the procedure of weak measurement and postselection, and the interpretation of the associated weak value, using a theory of classical mechanics supplemented by an epistemic restriction that is known to be operationally equivalent to a subtheory of quantum mechanics. Both the real and imaginary components of the weak value appear as phase space displacements in the postselected expectation values of the measurement device's position and momentum distributions, and we recover the same displacements as in the quantum case by studying the corresponding evolution in our theory of classical mechanics with an epistemic restriction. By using this epistemically restricted theory, we gain insight into the appearance of the weak value as a result of the statistical effects of post selection, and this provides us with an operational interpretation of the weak value, both its real and imaginary parts. We find that the imaginary part of the weak value is a measure of how much postselection biases the mean phase space distribution for a given amount of measurement disturbance. All such biases proportional to the imaginary part of the weak value vanish in the limit where disturbance due to measurement goes to zero. Our analysis also offers intuitive insight into how measurement disturbance can be minimized and the limits of weak measurement. (paper)

  17. Better understanding flow-restricted environments from hideout return analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollar, Ph.; Viricel-Honorez, L.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding and controlling the chemical phenomena in flow-restricted areas of the secondary side of steam generators (SG) is a key point in fighting against corrosion (IGA) in these areas. Hence, more than 150 hideout returns from French plants are used to assess the chemical environment in flow-restricted areas. The influence of several parameters such as tube support plates design, SG blowdown flowrate and temperature at the end of hideout returns, on returned weights and on flow-restricted environments predicted by modelling are examined. A correlation between different operating and returned chemistry indexes (molar ratios), and IGA is sought: no link is found between IGA and Na/Cl molar ratio at the beginning of hideout returns. However, as IGA extends, the returned weights of sodium and chloride seem to decrease, suggesting a greater hideout and a lower hideout return efficiency, perhaps due to SG fouling, and/or a smaller hideout/hideout return thanks to an improved operating chemistry. Using the pH computed from hideout return data as an index for the presence of IGA is also studied: no correlation is found between the two. Improving plants chemistry is finally proposed, based on an optimization of hideout returns. (authors)

  18. Light Modulates Leptin and Ghrelin in Sleep-Restricted Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G. Figueiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic sleep restrictions cause a reduction in leptin and an increase in ghrelin, both of which are associated with hunger. Given that light/dark patterns are closely tied to sleep/wake patterns, we compared, in a within-subjects study, the impact of morning light exposures (60 lux of 633-nm [red], 532-nm [green], or 475-nm [blue] lights to dim light exposures on leptin and ghrelin concentrations after subjects experienced 5 consecutive days of both an 8-hour (baseline and a 5-hour sleep-restricted schedule. In morning dim light, 5-hour sleep restriction significantly reduced leptin concentrations compared to the baseline, 8-hour sleep/dim-light condition (1,32 = 2.9; =0.007. Compared to the 5-hour sleep/dim-light condition, the red, green, and blue morning light exposures significantly increased leptin concentrations (1,32 = 5.7; <0.0001, 1,32 = 3.6; =0.001, and 1,32 = 3.0; =0.005, resp.. Morning red light and green light exposures significantly decreased ghrelin concentrations (1,32 = 3.3; <0.003 and 1,32 = 2.2; =0.04, resp., but morning blue light exposures did not. This study is the first to demonstrate that morning light can modulate leptin and ghrelin concentrations, which could have an impact on reducing hunger that accompanies sleep deprivation.

  19. Hanford land disposal restrictions plan for mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    Since the early 1940s, the Hanford Site has been involved in the production and purification of nuclear defense materials. These production activities have resulted in the generation of large quantities of liquid and solid radioactive mixed waste. This waste is subject to regulation under authority of both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Atomic Energy Act. The State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have entered into an agreement, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) to bring Hanford Site Operations into compliance with dangerous waste regulations. The Tri-Party Agreement was amended to require development of the Hanford Land Disposal Restrictions Plan for Mixed Wastes (this plan) to comply with land disposal restrictions requirements for radioactive mixed waste. The Tri-Party Agreement requires, and the this plan provides, the following sections: Waste Characterization Plan, Storage Report, Treatment Report, Treatment Plan, Waste Minimization Plan, a schedule, depicting the events necessary to achieve full compliance with land disposal restriction requirements, and a process for establishing interim milestones. 34 refs., 28 figs., 35 tabs.

  20. Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers. PMID:22345238

  1. Calorie restriction increases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Civitarese

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction without malnutrition extends life span in a range of organisms including insects and mammals and lowers free radical production by the mitochondria. However, the mechanism responsible for this adaptation are poorly understood.The current study was undertaken to examine muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in response to caloric restriction alone or in combination with exercise in 36 young (36.8 +/- 1.0 y, overweight (body mass index, 27.8 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2 individuals randomized into one of three groups for a 6-mo intervention: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% caloric restriction; and CREX, caloric restriction with exercise (CREX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increased energy expenditure (EE. In the controls, 24-h EE was unchanged, but in CR and CREX it was significantly reduced from baseline even after adjustment for the loss of metabolic mass (CR, -135 +/- 42 kcal/d, p = 0.002 and CREX, -117 +/- 52 kcal/d, p = 0.008. Participants in the CR and CREX groups had increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in mitochondrial function such as PPARGC1A, TFAM, eNOS, SIRT1, and PARL (all, p < 0.05. In parallel, mitochondrial DNA content increased by 35% +/- 5% in the CR group (p = 0.005 and 21% +/- 4% in the CREX group (p < 0.004, with no change in the control group (2% +/- 2%. However, the activity of key mitochondrial enzymes of the TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle (citrate synthase, beta-oxidation (beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and electron transport chain (cytochrome C oxidase II was unchanged. DNA damage was reduced from baseline in the CR (-0.56 +/- 0.11 arbitrary units, p = 0.003 and CREX (-0.45 +/- 0.12 arbitrary units, p = 0.011, but not in the controls. In primary cultures of human myotubes, a nitric oxide donor (mimicking eNOS signaling induced mitochondrial biogenesis but failed to induce SIRT1 protein expression, suggesting that additional factors may regulate SIRT1 content during CR.The observed increase in

  2. The influence of food restriction on the small bowel: Does intensive short‑term food restriction lead to weight loss?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makovický, Peter; Tůmová, E.; Volek, Z.; Makovický, P.; Arnone, J.M.; Švecová, Ivana; Samasca, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2017), s. 361-365 ISSN 0006-9248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : experimental medicine * food restriction * rabbit * slimming * small bowel weight loss Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Pathology Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2016

  3. Developmental Programming of Cardiovascular Disease Following Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Findings Utilising A Rat Model of Maternal Protein Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Lim, Kyungjoon; Pearson, James T.; Black, M. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, studies have demonstrated links between risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood and adverse events that occurred very early in life during fetal development. The concept that there are embryonic and fetal adaptive responses to a sub-optimal intrauterine environment often brought about by poor maternal diet that result in permanent adverse consequences to life-long health is consistent with the definition of “programming”. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on long-term cardiac structure and function, with particular emphasis on the effects of maternal protein restriction. Much of our recent knowledge has been derived from animal models. We review the current literature of one of the most commonly used models of IUGR (maternal protein restriction in rats), in relation to birth weight and postnatal growth, blood pressure and cardiac structure and function. In doing so, we highlight the complexity of developmental programming, with regards to timing, degree of severity of the insult, genotype and the subsequent postnatal phenotype. PMID:25551250

  4. Restriction enzyme body doubles and PCR cloning: on the general use of type IIs restriction enzymes for cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Eszter; Huszár, Krisztina; Bencsura, Petra; Kulcsár, Péter István; Vodicska, Barbara; Nyeste, Antal; Welker, Zsombor; Tóth, Szilvia; Welker, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    The procedure described here allows the cloning of PCR fragments containing a recognition site of the restriction endonuclease (Type IIP) used for cloning in the sequence of the insert. A Type IIS endonuclease--a Body Double of the Type IIP enzyme--is used to generate the same protruding palindrome. Thus, the insert can be cloned to the Type IIP site of the vector without digesting the PCR product with the same Type IIP enzyme. We achieve this by incorporating the recognition site of a Type IIS restriction enzyme that cleaves the DNA outside of its recognition site in the PCR primer in such a way that the cutting positions straddle the desired overhang sequence. Digestion of the PCR product by the Body Double generates the required overhang. Hitherto the use of Type IIS restriction enzymes in cloning reactions has only been used for special applications, the approach presented here makes Type IIS enzymes as useful as Type IIP enzymes for general cloning purposes. To assist in finding Body Double enzymes, we summarised the available Type IIS enzymes which are potentially useful for Body Double cloning and created an online program (http://group.szbk.u-szeged.hu/welkergr/body_double/index.html) for the selection of suitable Body Double enzymes and the design of the appropriate primers.

  5. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Feinman, Richard D

    2005-11-16

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO). Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG), low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The conclusion is probably not

  6. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic Syndrome (MetS represents a constellation of markers that indicates a predisposition to diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other pathologic states. The definition and treatment are a matter of current debate and there is not general agreement on a precise definition or, to some extent, whether the designation provides more information than the individual components. We consider here five indicators that are central to most definitions and we provide evidence from the literature that these are precisely the symptoms that respond to reduction in dietary carbohydrate (CHO. Carbohydrate restriction is one of several strategies for reducing body mass but even in the absence of weight loss or in comparison with low fat alternatives, CHO restriction is effective at ameliorating high fasting glucose and insulin, high plasma triglycerides (TAG, low HDL and high blood pressure. In addition, low fat, high CHO diets have long been known to raise TAG, lower HDL and, in the absence of weight loss, may worsen glycemic control. Thus, whereas there are numerous strategies for weight loss, a patient with high BMI and high TAG is likely to benefit most from a regimen that reduces CHO intake. Reviewing the literature, benefits of CHO restriction are seen in normal or overweight individuals, in normal patients who meet the criteria for MetS or in patients with frank diabetes. Moreover, in low fat studies that ameliorate LDL and total cholesterol, controls may do better on the symptoms of MetS. On this basis, we feel that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction. Insofar as this is an accurate characterization it is likely the result of the effect of dietary CHO on insulin metabolism. Glucose is the major insulin secretagogue and insulin resistance has been tied to the hyperinsulinemic state or the effect of such a state on lipid metabolism. The

  7. Sex selection and restricting abortion and sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Julie

    2007-11-01

    Sex selection in India and China is fostered by a limiting social structure that disallows women from performing the roles that men perform, and relegates women to a lower status level. Individual parents and individual families benefit concretely from having a son born into the family, while society, and girls and women as a group, are harmed by the widespread practice of sex selection. Sex selection reinforces oppression of women and girls. Sex selection is best addressed by ameliorating the situations of women and girls, increasing their autonomy, and elevating their status in society. One might argue that restricting or prohibiting abortion, prohibiting sex selection, and prohibiting sex determination would eliminate sex selective abortion. But this decreases women's autonomy rather than increases it. Such practices will turn underground. Sex selective infanticide, and slower death by long term neglect, could increase. If abortion is restricted, the burden is placed on women seeking abortions to show that they have a legally acceptable or legitimate reason for a desired abortion, and this seriously limits women's autonomy. Instead of restricting abortion, banning sex selection, and sex determination, it is better to address the practice of sex selection by elevating the status of women and empowering women so that giving birth to a girl is a real and positive option, instead of a detriment to the parents and family as it is currently. But, if a ban on sex selective abortion or a ban on sex determination is indeed instituted, then wider social change promoting women's status in society should be instituted simultaneously.

  8. Calorie restriction increases cigarette use in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Hess, Judith M; Henningfield, Jack; Gorelick, David A

    2005-05-01

    Cigarette smokers weigh less than nonsmokers, and smokers often gain weight when they quit. This is a major barrier to smoking cessation, especially among women. However, strict dieting is not recommended during smoking cessation out of concern that it might promote relapse. This concern derives, in part, from the observation that calorie restriction increases self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals. This relationship has never been experimentally demonstrated in humans. To evaluate whether calorie restriction increases cigarette smoking in humans. Seventeen (nine males, eight females) healthy, normal-weight smokers not attempting to quit were cycled in partially counterbalanced order, double-blind, through four diets-normal calorie (2,000-2,800 kcal/day), low calorie (700 kcal/day deficit), low-carbohydrate (CHO)/normal-calorie, and low-CHO/low-calorie-for 6 days per diet in an inpatient research ward. Smoking was assessed by cigarette counts, breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and cigarette craving. Compared with the normal-calorie diet, while on the low-calorie diet, subjects smoked 8% more cigarettes (Plow-CHO/normal-calorie diet showed no significant effect on either variable, but there was a 15% increase in breath CO levels (Plow-CHO/low-calorie diet. There were no changes in self-reported cigarette craving or mood. Consistent with animal studies, moderate calorie restriction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in cigarette smoking, with no independent effect of CHO deprivation. These findings suggest that dieting may increase smoking behavior and could impede smoking-cessation attempts.

  9. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

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    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  10. Metabolomics of Dietary Fatty Acid Restriction in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mütze, Ulrike; Beblo, Skadi; Kortz, Linda; Matthies, Claudia; Koletzko, Berthold; Bruegel, Mathias; Rohde, Carmen; Thiery, Joachim; Kiess, Wieland; Ceglarek, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. Methodology/Principal Findings 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6–C18) in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re-) absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6) a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 and thromboxane B3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion/Significance Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta-oxidation. No functional

  11. Ifit2 Is a Restriction Factor in Rabies Virus Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin M; Fensterl, Volker; Lawrence, Tessa M; Hudacek, Andrew W; Sen, Ganes C; Schnell, Matthias J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the interactions between rabies virus (RABV) and individual host cell proteins is critical for the development of targeted therapies. Here we report that interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (Ifit2), an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) with possible RNA-binding capacity, is an important restriction factor for rabies virus. When Ifit2 was depleted, RABV grew more quickly in mouse neuroblastoma cells in vitro This effect was replicated in vivo , where Ifit2 knockout mice displayed a dramatically more severe disease phenotype than wild-type mice after intranasal inoculation of RABV. This increase in pathogenicity correlated to an increase in RABV mRNA and live viral load in the brain, as well as to an accelerated spread to brain regions normally affected by this RABV model. These results suggest that Ifit2 exerts its antiviral effect mainly at the level of viral replication, as opposed to functioning as a mechanism that restricts viral entry/egress or transports RABV particles through axons. IMPORTANCE Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease with a nearly 100% case fatality rate. Although there are effective vaccines for rabies, this disease still takes the lives of about 50,000 people each year. Victims tend to be children living in regions without comprehensive medical infrastructure who present to health care workers too late for postexposure prophylaxis. The protein discussed in our report, Ifit2, is found to be an important restriction factor for rabies virus, acting directly or indirectly against viral replication. A more nuanced understanding of this interaction may reveal a step of a pathway or site at which the system could be exploited for the development of a targeted therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Early childhood neurodevelopment after intrauterine growth restriction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Terri A; Grunau, Ruth E; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Pinnamaneni, RagaMallika; Foran, Adrienne; Alderdice, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Children who experienced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be at increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes in early childhood. The objective of this study was to carry out a systematic review of neurodevelopmental outcomes from 6 months to 3 years after IUGR. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care, and CINAHL databases were searched by using the search terms intrauterine, fetal, growth restriction, child development, neurodevelopment, early childhood, cognitive, motor, speech, language. Studies were eligible for inclusion if participants met specified criteria for growth restriction, follow-up was conducted within 6 months to 3 years, methods were adequately described, non-IUGR comparison groups were included, and full English text of the article was available. A specifically designed data extraction form was used. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using well-documented quality-appraisal guidelines. Of 731 studies reviewed, 16 were included. Poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes after IUGR were described in 11. Ten found motor, 8 cognitive, and 7 language delays. Other delays included social development, attention, and adaptive behavior. Only 8 included abnormal Doppler parameters in their definitions of IUGR. Evidence suggests that children are at risk for poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes following IUGR from 6 months to 3 years of age. The heterogeneity of primary outcomes, assessment measures, adjustment for confounding variables, and definitions of IUGR limits synthesis and interpretation. Sample sizes in most studies were small, and some examined preterm IUGR children without including term IUGR or AGA comparison groups, limiting the value of extant studies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Smoking restrictions and hospitalization for acute coronary events in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Demidenko, Eugene; Malenka, David J.; Li, Zhongze; Gohlke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Aims To study the effects of smoking restrictions in Germany on coronary syndromes and their associated costs. Methods and results All German states implemented laws partially restricting smoking in the public and hospitality sectors between August 2007 and July 2008. We conducted a before-and-after study to examine trends for the hospitalization rate for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for an insurance cohort of 3,700,384 individuals 30 years and older. Outcome measures were hospitalization rates for coronary syndromes, and hospitalization costs. Mean age of the cohort was 56 years, and two-thirds were female. Some 2.2 and 1.1% persons were hospitalized for angina pectoris and AMI, respectively, during the study period from January 2004 through December 2008. Law implementation was associated with a 13.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2, 18.4) decline in angina pectoris and an 8.6% (5.0, 12.2) decline in AMI after 1 year. Hospitalization costs also decreased significantly for the two conditions—9.6% (2.5, 16.6) for angina pectoris and 20.1% (16.0, 24.2) for AMI at 1 year following law implementation. Assuming the law caused the observed declines, it prevented 1,880 hospitalizations and saved 7.7 million Euros in costs for this cohort during the year following law implementation. Conclusions Partial smoking restrictions in Germany were followed by reductions in hospitalization for angina pectoris and AMI, declines that continued through 1 year following these laws and resulted in substantial cost savings. Strengthening the laws could further reduce morbidity and costs from acute coronary syndromes in Germany. PMID:22350716

  14. Smoking restrictions and hospitalization for acute coronary events in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Demidenko, Eugene; Malenka, David J; Li, Zhongze; Gohlke, Helmut; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-03-01

    To study the effects of smoking restrictions in Germany on coronary syndromes and their associated costs. All German states implemented laws partially restricting smoking in the public and hospitality sectors between August 2007 and July 2008. We conducted a before-and-after study to examine trends for the hospitalization rate for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for an insurance cohort of 3,700,384 individuals 30 years and older. Outcome measures were hospitalization rates for coronary syndromes, and hospitalization costs. Mean age of the cohort was 56 years, and two-thirds were female. Some 2.2 and 1.1% persons were hospitalized for angina pectoris and AMI, respectively, during the study period from January 2004 through December 2008. Law implementation was associated with a 13.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2, 18.4) decline in angina pectoris and an 8.6% (5.0, 12.2) decline in AMI after 1 year. Hospitalization costs also decreased significantly for the two conditions-9.6% (2.5, 16.6) for angina pectoris and 20.1% (16.0, 24.2) for AMI at 1 year following law implementation. Assuming the law caused the observed declines, it prevented 1,880 hospitalizations and saved 7.7 million Euros in costs for this cohort during the year following law implementation. Partial smoking restrictions in Germany were followed by reductions in hospitalization for angina pectoris and AMI, declines that continued through 1 year following these laws and resulted in substantial cost savings. Strengthening the laws could further reduce morbidity and costs from acute coronary syndromes in Germany.

  15. Restricted Field IMRT Dramatically Enhances IMRT Planning for Mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Aaron M.; Schofield, Deborah; Hacker, Fred; Court, Laurence E.; Czerminska, Maria M.S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the target coverage and normal tissue sparing of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for mesothelioma after extrapleural pneumonectomy. Methods and Materials: Thirteen plans from patients previously treated with IMRT for mesothelioma were replanned using a restricted field technique. This technique was novel in two ways. It limited the entrance beams to 200 o around the target and three to four beams per case had their field apertures restricted down to the level of the heart or liver to further limit the contralateral lung dose. New constraints were added that included a mean lung dose of <9.5 Gy and volume receiving ≥5 Gy of <55%. Results: In all cases, the planning target volume coverage was excellent, with an average of 97% coverage of the planning target volume by the target dose. No change was seen in the target coverage with the new technique. The heart, kidneys, and esophagus were all kept under tolerance in all cases. The average mean lung dose, volume receiving ≥20 Gy, and volume receiving ≥5 Gy with the new technique was 6.6 Gy, 3.0%, and 50.8%, respectively, compared with 13.8 Gy, 15%, and 90% with the previous technique (p < 0.0001 for all three comparisons). The maximal value for any case in the cohort was 8.0 Gy, 7.3%, and 57.5% for the mean lung dose, volume receiving ≥20 Gy, and volume receiving ≥5 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Restricted field IMRT provides an improved method to deliver IMRT to a complex target after extrapleural pneumonectomy. An upcoming Phase I trial will provide validation of these results

  16. HEARING FUNCTION IN PREMATURE CHILDREN WITH INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rakhmanova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial audiological test was performed in 136 premature children with various gestational age born from single fetation. The children were divided into 2 groups: prematures with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and prematures with normal weight for their gestational age (normotrophy. The study showed that the rate of passing the initial audiological test using the method of DPOAE was lower in both ears in children with IUGR, than in children with normotrophy. The correlation between the results of initial audiological test and birth weight was found: the lower was weight, the higher was risk of absence of acoustic response registration on initial examination.

  17. Phase transitions in restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Adriano; Genovese, Giuseppe; Sollich, Peter; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    We study generalized restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors for units and weights, interpolating between Boolean and Gaussian variables. We present a complete analysis of the replica symmetric phase diagram of these systems, which can be regarded as generalized Hopfield models. We underline the role of the retrieval phase for both inference and learning processes and we show that retrieval is robust for a large class of weight and unit priors, beyond the standard Hopfield scenario. Furthermore, we show how the paramagnetic phase boundary is directly related to the optimal size of the training set necessary for good generalization in a teacher-student scenario of unsupervised learning.

  18. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline....... For the suggested model, some covariate effects are allowed to be time-varying. To estimate the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the large sample properties of the resulting estimators are established. In addition, to assess the adequacy of the model, we investigate a goodness...

  19. Visual expression of the experiences of restrictive eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Edith

    Background of the research: Visual methods are used in nursing research. These methods include media such as film, video, still images, material artifacts and drawing. The current study is a PhD project, dealing with children's experiences of eating restrictively (diabetes or obesity). Visual...... and as an option in the dialogue with the patient. Material and method description: Drawing, modeling and role-playing with stuffed animals is part of the material from the study and illustrate how visual methods can be used in relationship with the child. Result: The play and creativity have a function...

  20. Detecting Violations of Unidimensionality by Order-Restricted Inference Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eHeene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The assumption of unidimensionality and quantitative measurement represents one of the key concepts underlying most of the commonly applied of item response models. The assumption of unidimensionality is frequently tested although most commonly applied methods have been shown having low power against violations of unidimensionality whereas the assumption of quantitative measurement remains in most of the cases only an (implicit assumption. On the basis of a simulation study it is shown that order restricted inference methods within a Markov Chain Monte Carlo framework can successfully be used to test both assumptions.