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Sample records for adjuvant arthritis effect

  1. Inhibitory effects of andrographolide on activated macrophages and adjuvant-induced arthritis.

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    Gupta, Swati; Mishra, Kamla Prasad; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ganju, Lilly

    2018-04-01

    Andrographolide, a diterpenoid lactone obtained from plant Andrographis paniculata, is used in South Asian countries to relieve various inflammatory symptoms. To study the effects of this agent, the impact of andrographolide on production of inflammatory mediators were delineated in mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMϕ). Inflammatory mediators like nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-6 and related molecular mechanisms of andrographolide-mediated inhibition of enzymes/transcription factors were studied. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide was evaluated in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. The results indicated that andrographolide clearly inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-activated PMϕ in a dose-related manner. Immunoblot analyses revealed that andrographolide suppressed activation of both inducible NO synthase and cyclo-oxygenase-2 by directly targeting nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB. Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced paw edema in rats was also significantly inhibited by andrographolide treatment. From the data, we concluded that andrographolide imparted anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing two key inflammatory enzymes and a signaling pathway that mediates expression of variety of inflammatory cytokines/agents in situ. It is plausible that eventually, after further toxicologic characterization, andrographolide might be useful as a drug for the clinical treatment of various inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or diseases associated with joint pain.

  2. Effect of Feeding Status on Adjuvant Arthritis Severity, Cachexia, and Insulin Sensitivity in Male Lewis Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stofková, A.; Železná, Blanka; Romzová, Marianna; Uličná, O.; Kiss, A.; Skurlová, M.; Jurcovicová, J.

    -, ID 398026 (2010), s. 1-12 ISSN 0962-9351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0427; GA ČR GAP303/10/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * feeding Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.059, year: 2010

  3. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

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    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effects of CP-25 on Splenic T Cells of Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis.

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    Wang, Yang; Han, Chen-Chen; Cui, Dongqian; Luo, Ting-Ting; Li, Yifan; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Yang; Wei, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells play an important role. Paeoniflorin-6-oxy-benzenesulfonate (CP-25) shows a strong anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect in the joint of adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats, but the role of the spleen function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to research how CP-25 regulated spleen function of AA rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with CP-25 (50 mg/kg) orally from day 17 to 29 after immunization. The spleen histopathological changes were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and prostaglandin receptor subtypes (EPs) were screened by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The co-expression of GRK2 and EP2 as well as GRK2 and EP4 was measured by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation. The expression of GRK2 and EP4 in splenic T cells was further detected by immunofluorescence. CP-25 was found to relieve the secondary paw swelling, attenuate histopathologic changes, and downregulate GRK2, EP2 and EP4 expression in AA rats. Additionally, CP-25 not only downregulated the co-expression of GRK2 and EP4 but also downregulated GRK2, EP4 expression in splenic T cells of AA rats. From these results, we can infer that CP-25 play an anti-inflammatory and immune function by affecting the function of the splenic T cells.

  5. In vivo effect of pinosylvin and pterostilbene in the animal model of adjuvant arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačičková, T.; Drábiková, K.; Nosál, R.; Bauerová, K.; Mihalová, D.; Harmatha, Juraj; Pečivová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl. 2 (2010), s. 91-95 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * pinosylvin * pterostilbene * generation of reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2010 http://node.nel.edu

  6. The effect of curcumin and its nanoformulation on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

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    Zheng ZL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhaoling Zheng,1,* YanHua Sun,2,* Ziliang Liu,1 Mingqin Zhang,1 Chunqing Li,1 Hui Cai3 1Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dongying People’s Hospital, Dongying, 2Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microparticles Drug Delivery Technology, Jinan, 3Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine, Nanjing Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, induced by the prolonged inappropriate inflammatory responses, is one of the most prevalent of all chronic inflammatory joint diseases. Curcumin (CM, a yellow hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the herb turmeric, has various pharmacological activities against many chronic diseases and acts by inhibiting cell proliferation and metastasis and downregulating various factors, including nuclear factor kappa B, interleukin-1β and TNF-α. Given the pathogenesis of RA, we hypothesized that the drug also has antiarthritic effects. The aims of the present study included the following: 1 examining the therapeutic effect of CM administered via intravenous (iv injection on RA and 2 formulating the drug into oil–water nanoemulsions (Ns to overcome the low oral bioavailability of CM and achieve oral delivery of the drug.Methods: The effect of CM administered through iv injection on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was studied in terms of paw swelling, weight indices of the thymus and spleen, and pathological changes in nuclear factor kappa B expression and inflammatory cytokines. Methotrexate was used as a positive control. The CM-Ns were prepared using a high-pressure homogenizing method and characterized with respect to the particle size and morphology. The stability of the CM-Ns in simulated gastrointestinal (GI fluids and in vitro release were also investigated. A pharmacokinetic study of the CM-Ns and suspensions in which the plasma levels were determined using an high

  7. The effect of curcumin and its nanoformulation on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

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    Zheng, Zhaoling; Sun, YanHua; Liu, Ziliang; Zhang, Mingqin; Li, Chunqing; Cai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), induced by the prolonged inappropriate inflammatory responses, is one of the most prevalent of all chronic inflammatory joint diseases. Curcumin (CM), a yellow hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the herb turmeric, has various pharmacological activities against many chronic diseases and acts by inhibiting cell proliferation and metastasis and downregulating various factors, including nuclear factor kappa B, interleukin-1β and TNF-α. Given the pathogenesis of RA, we hypothesized that the drug also has antiarthritic effects. The aims of the present study included the following: 1) examining the therapeutic effect of CM administered via intravenous (iv) injection on RA and 2) formulating the drug into oil-water nanoemulsions (Ns) to overcome the low oral bioavailability of CM and achieve oral delivery of the drug. The effect of CM administered through iv injection on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was studied in terms of paw swelling, weight indices of the thymus and spleen, and pathological changes in nuclear factor kappa B expression and inflammatory cytokines. Methotrexate was used as a positive control. The CM-Ns were prepared using a high-pressure homogenizing method and characterized with respect to the particle size and morphology. The stability of the CM-Ns in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids and in vitro release were also investigated. A pharmacokinetic study of the CM-Ns and suspensions in which the plasma levels were determined using an high performance liquid chromatography method and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on a statistical moment theory was also performed in rats. CM administered via iv injection had a therapeutic effect on RA similar to methotrexate. CM-Ns with a diameter of approximately 150 nm were successfully prepared, and the drug was well encapsulated into the Ns without degradation in simulated GI conditions. The area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax for the CM-Ns were more than

  8. Suppressive effects of QFGJS, a preparation from an anti-arthritic herbal formula, on rat experimental adjuvant-induced arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiong; Zhou Hua; Wong Yuenfan; Xie Ying; Liu Zhong Qiu; Jiang Zhhong; Bian Zhaoxiang; Xu Hongxi; Liu Liang

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the anti-arthritic effects of QFGJS (a pharmaceutical preparation from herbs) on rheumatoid arthritis, adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) was established in male SD rats, and two administration protocols, i.e., oral treatment with different doses of QFGJS on the day of arthritis induction or on the day when visible clinical signs of arthritis occurred, were initiated and continued until day 30. Treatments with QFGJS using both administration protocols significantly suppressed the incidence and severity of arthritis in a dose-dependent manner, showing dramatic reduction of paw swelling and ESR throughout the disease progression of AIA. Radiological and histopathological examinations showed markedly decreased tissue and bone destruction of ankle joints in the QFGJS-treated rats. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly decreased in the QFGJS-treated rats. QFGJS demonstrates pronounced anti-arthritic effects on AIA, indicating that this herbal preparation would be a potent candidate as a novel botanical drug for further investigation

  9. Effects of Trichilia monadelpha (Meliaceae extracts on bone histomorphology in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis

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    INEMESIT OKON BEN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the effect of petroleum ether extract (PEE, ethyl acetate extract (EthE, and ethanol extract (EAE of Trichilia monadelpha stem bark on bone histomorphology in arthritis. Methods: Percentage inhibition of edema and arthritic scores in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced (0.1 ml of 5 mgml-1 of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in paraffin oil injected sub-plantar into the right hind paw arthritic Sprague-Dawley rats treated with PEE, EthE, or EAE (10, 30, and 100 mgkg-1, dexamethasone (0.3-3.0 mgkg-1 or methotrexate (0.1–1.0 mgkg-1 over a 28-day period were estimated. Rat paws were radiographed and scored. Body weights were taken and paw tissues harvested for histopathological studies. Results: The extracts significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 and dose-dependently reduced the polyarthritic phase of arthritis. EAE and PEE significantly (P≤0.01-0.0001 minimized edema spread from acute arthritic phase (day 0-10 to polyarthritic phase (day 10-28. EthE improved deteriorated body weight in arthritis. All extracts significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 improved arthritic score; reducing erythema, swelling and joint rigidity, and also significantly (P≤0.05-0.01 reduced hyperplasia, pannus formation, and exudation of inflammatory cells into synovial spaces. Conclusion: The stem bark extracts of Trichilia monadelpha reduce bone tissue damage and resorption associated with adjuvant-induced arthritis, hence could be useful in managing arthritis in humans. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 177-185

  10. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

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    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functio...

  11. The Potential Therapeutic Effect of Curcumin on the Adjuvant-induced Arthritis in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Nada, A.S.; Hegazy, M.E.; Kenawy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Naturalistic that provide medical or health benefits, including prevention and treatment of diseases. They may be advantageous in inflammation and exposure to radiation. The study was conducted to investigate curcumin potential to modulate, counteract or prevent the inflammatory response induced in arthritic irradiated and non-irradiated rats using the adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Diclofenac was used as a reference standard non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Results indicated that exposure of rats to single dose of gamma-radiation (6 Gy) before induction of inflammation increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumour necrosis factor-gamma (TNF-gamma) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum. Blood glutathione (GSH) was shown to be reduced in irradiated animals. Curcumin suppressed the elevated levels of TNF-gamma, PGE2 and MDA and was able to restore blood GSH level. Reduction in liver contents of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se) and iron (Fe) was recorded in animals irradiated before induction of inflammation. In addition, curcumin restored the hepatic contents of these trace elements. The present results suggest that irradiation of rats caused marked changes in the inflammatory response, while curcumin suppressed the inflammatory response in both irradiated and normal rats

  12. The natural stilbenoid pinosylvin and activated neutrophils: effects on oxidative burst, protein kinase C, apoptosis and efficiency in adjuvant arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančinová, V.; Perečko, T.; Nosál, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Šmidrkal, J.; Drábiková, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2012), s. 1285-1292 ISSN 1671-4083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : pinosylvin * reactive oxygen species * adjuvant arthritis Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.354, year: 2012

  13. Histopathologic evaluation of the effects of etodolac in established adjuvant arthritis in rats: evidence for reversal of joint damage.

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    Weichman, B M; Chau, T T; Rona, G

    1987-04-01

    Histopathologic evaluation of hindpaws from control rats with established adjuvant arthritis showed severe alterations in soft tissue and bone, as well as progressive, moderate-to-severe articular changes. Following treatment with etodolac for 28 days, soft tissue and articular changes were rated mild, and bone changes were rated moderate, but with remodeling. These findings indicate that etodolac partially reversed the joint damage in these rats.

  14. Agmatine ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis and inflammatory cachexia in rats.

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    Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

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    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. In vivo anti-arthritic and anti-nociceptive effects of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats.

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    Mahdi, Harith Jameel; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini Bin; Mahmud, Roziahanim; A/L Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2018-03-01

    The medicinal uses of plants are in many cases based exclusively on traditional knowledge without enough scientific evidences. Different parts of Moringa oleifera were traditionally used for the treatment of wide variety of ailments including arthritis and joints pain. The present study had been designed to evaluate the anti-arthritic and anti-nociceptive activities of ethanol extract of Moringa leaves, this being the most abundant plant part suitable for commercial mass production of botanical medicinal products. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats was used as disease model. CFA-induced inflammatory paw edema, body weight, arthritic index, X-ray radiography, hematological parameters, and walk track and locomotion analysis were all evaluated for the assessment of disease progression. In addition to that, anti-nociceptive activity was examined at different dose levels in both normal and arthritic-induced rats using Eddy's hot plate and tail flick thermal analgesia. The analysis of various arthritic assessment parameters used in this study revealed that Moringa extract has a considerable effect in preventing development or ameliorate arthritis disease severity. Moreover, the ethanol extract of Moringa leaves revealed significant anti-nociceptive activity at in both normal and CFA-induced arthritis rats in a dose-dependent manner. Ethanol extract of Moringa leaves appears to be a really promising as analgesic and arthritis medication, but a larger and more detailed preclinical and clinical studies especially in human is highly recommended.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects and hepatotoxicity of Tripterygium-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

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    Xue, Mei; Jiang, Zhen-zhou; Wu, Tao; Li, Ji; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xue-jun; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Yang, Shu-yu

    2012-08-15

    Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. (TWHF) has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive effects and its clinical use was restricted to some extent due to some toxic effects on the digestive, urogenital, and blood circulatory systems, especially the male reproductive system. In the previous study, we had confirmed that TWHF-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have protective effects on male reproductive toxicity in rats. Anti-inflammatory effects and hepatotoxicity of TWHF-SLN remain to be unidentified. The present study was focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats treated with TWHF-SLN as well as the effects of SLN delivery system on decreasing the hepatotoxicity induced by tripterygium. Sixty-four healthy male rats were randomly divided into eight groups with eight rats each. From day 18 after FCA injection, TWHF-SLN group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) and TWHF group (120, 60, 30 mg/kg) were administered by oral gavage for 24 consecutive days. The control group was with saline and model control group was without any treatment. The volume of the right hind paws was evaluated at 0, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 42 days post-injection of FCA by a home-made connected device. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and albumin (ALB) levels were evaluated by an autoanalyzer. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) malondialdehyde (MDA) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) levels were determined using commercial kits. The PG level in sera was examined by double antibody sandwich method. Tissue histopathology was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The results show that TWHF-SLN can significantly reduce rat paw volume at 60 mg/kg (psystem can enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of TWHF, and meanwhile has a protective effect against TWHF

  18. Soluble Dietary Fibers Can Protect the Small Intestinal Mucosa Without Affecting the Anti-inflammatory Effect of Indomethacin in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Rats.

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    Satoh, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hiroki; Hirakawa, Tomoe; Wada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    How to prevent the small intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs is an urgent issue to be resolved. In the present study, we examined the effects of soluble dietary fibers on both anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of indomethacin in arthritic rats. Male Wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used. Arthritis was induced by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant (killed M. tuberculosis) into the plantar region of the right hindpaw. The animals were fed a regular powder diet for rats or a diet supplemented with soluble dietary fibers such as pectin or guar gum. Indomethacin was administered once a day for 3 days starting 14 days after the adjuvant injection, when marked arthritis was observed. The volumes of the hindpaw were measured before and after indomethacin treatment to evaluate the effect of indomethacin on edema. The lesions in the small intestine were examined 24 h after the final dosing of indomethacin. Hindpaw volume was increased about 3 times 14 days after injection of the adjuvant. Indomethacin (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased hindpaw volume dose-dependently, but caused severe lesions in the small intestine at doses of 6 and 10 mg/kg. The addition of pectin (1-10 %) or guar gum (10 %) to the diet markedly decreased the lesion formation without affecting the anti-edema action of indomethacin. The same effects of pectin were observed when indomethacin was administered subcutaneously. It is suggested that soluble dietary fibers can prevent intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs without affecting the anti-inflammatory effect of these agents.

  19. Influence of various forms of dialyzable leukocyte extracts on rat adjuvant arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancikova, Maria; Rovensky, Jozef; Blazickova, Stanislava; Pekarek, J.; Cech, Karel

    1994-01-01

    Adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats is a chronic inflammatory disease, widely as an animal model for rheumatoid arthritis. In our study the effect of various fractions of dialyzable leukocyte extract (DLE): DLE I-molecular weight below 10 kDa (commercial preparation), DLE II-molecular weight below 5 kDa (suppressor fraction), DLE III-molecular weight 5-10 kDa on rat adjuvant-induced arthritis was studied. The adjuvant arthritic (AA) rats were treated with DLE fractions i.p. in solutions containing an active substance isolated from 12.5 x 10 6 and 6.25 x 10 6 leukocytes from day 1 (adjuvant injected) through day 18, every second day (total 9 times). Various markers in inflammation, immune function and joint destruction were evaluated: hind paw volume, serum hyaluronic acid, serum albumin and biopterin in urine. All these markers showed a significant improvement after using fraction DLE II in comparison with AA controls. Fractions DLE I and DLE III influenced only some markers of inflammation and immune function. Our results demonstrated a therapeutical effect of fraction DLE II on rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  20. In Vivo Detection of the Effect of Electroacupuncture on “Zusanli” Acupoint in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis through Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Yang, Hui; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Xiuli; Su, Chengkang; Long, Jia; Lin, Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment through optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vivo on rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. OCT images were obtained from the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats in control, model, and EA groups before modelling and 1 day, 8 days, 15 days, 22 days, and 29 days after modelling. Results demonstrated that the OCT signal of the ankle of the right hind paws of the rats was indistinct compared to 1 day after modelling and before modelling in the EA group. In the EA group, the light averaged attenuation coefficients of the ankle tissues decreased as treatment duration was prolonged after EA was administered (3.43, 2.96, 2.61, 2.42, and 2.29 mm−1, resp.). There was a significant difference in attenuation coefficient decrease between the 29th d and the 1st d for EA group compared with control group (P < 0.01). This condition indicated that the light absorption of the ankle of the treated rats in the EA group decreased. Therefore, OCT can be used to monitor the effect of treatment on rats with arthritis in vivo. PMID:27981046

  1. Esculetin reduces leukotriene B4 level in plasma of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis

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    Przemysław Rzodkiewicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin is a natural coumarin with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity. It acts as a potent inhibitor of lipoxygenases (5-LOX and 12-LOX and decreases the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9. Because both inhibition of lipoxygenases and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases are effective strategies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, we investigated whether esculetin may be effective in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Material and methods : The study was performed on male Lewis rats, in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Rats were divided into two groups: control (treated with 1% methylcellulose and experimental (treated with esculetin – 10 mg/kg ip.. The tested compound was administered for 5 consecutive days starting on the 21st day after induction of arthritis. Each group consisted of 7 animals. After 5 days of treatment, rats were anesthetized. The concentration of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 in plasma was determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Results : The LTB4 level in plasma of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis is increased in comparison to rats without inflammation (362 ±34 vs. 274 ±15 pg/ml, p < 0.01, respectively. Five-day treatment with esculetin in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats decreases the LTB4 level to a level comparable with rats without inflammation (284 ±23 pg/ml, p < 0.01. Conclusions : LTB4 is the most potent chemotactic agent influencing neutrophil migration into the joint. It is known that its level in serum of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis is increased and correlates with disease severity. Some other lipoxygenase inhibitors have already been tested as potential drug candidates in clinical and preclinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis (Zileuton, PF-4191834. Because esculetin decreases the LTB4 level in plasma of rats in adjuvant-induced arthritis, it may also be considered as an attractive

  2. Biochemical Evaluation of Withania somnifera Root Powder on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Rats

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    Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the biochemical effect of Withania somnifera Linn. Solanaceae, commonly known as ashwagandha on adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Results were compared to Indomethacin, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Arthritis was induced by an intra dermal injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (0.1 ml into the right hind paw of Wistar albino rats. Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/day and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/day were orally administered for 8 days (from 11th to 18th day after adjuvant injection. After the experimental period, all the animals were sacrificed and serum, liver and spleen samples were collected for further biochemical analysis. A significant increase in the activities of gluconeogenic enzymes, tissue marker enzymes, blood glucose level, WBC, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and acute phase proteins (hyaluronic acid, fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin was observed in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, whereas the activities of glycolytic enzymes, body weight, levels of hemoglobin, RBC count, and packed cell volume were found to be decreased. These biochemical alterations observed in arthritic animals were ameliorated significantly after the administration of Withania somnifera root powder (1000 mg/kg/b.wt and Indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.wt. Our results suggest that Withania somnifera root powder is capable of rectifying the above biochemical changes in adjuvant arthritis and it may prove to be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Topical Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Multiple Applications of S(+)-Flurbiprofen Plaster (SFPP) in a Rat Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

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    Sugimoto, Masanori; Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of multiple applications of S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP), a novel Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) patch, for the alleviation of inflammatory pain and edema in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model as compared to other NSAID patches. The AIA model was induced by the injection of Mycobacterium butyricum and rats were treated with a patch (1.0 cm × 0.88 cm) containing each NSAID (SFP, ketoprofen, loxoprofen, diclofenac, felbinac, flurbiprofen, or indomethacin) applied to the paw for 6 h per day for 5 days. The pain threshold was evaluated using a flexion test of the ankle joint, and the inflamed paw edema was evaluated using a plethysmometer. cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibition was evaluated using human recombinant proteins. Multiple applications of SFPP exerted a significant analgesic effect from the first day of application as compared to the other NSAID patches. In terms of paw edema, SFPP decreased edema from the second day after application, Multiple applications of SFPP were superior to those of other NSAID patches, in terms of the analgesic effect with multiple applications. These results suggest that SFPP may be a beneficial patch for providing analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects clinically. Drug Dev Res 77 : 206-211, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

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    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended.

    La artritis adyuvante es un modelo utilizado en animales y se caracteriza por ser muy parecida a la artritis reumatoide en humanos. Se trata de un modelo de trabajo utilizado con éxito para estudiar nuevos agentes anti-inflamatorios. En estudios previos (animales y clínica hemos demostrado que

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratheesh, M; Sandya, S; Pramod, C; Asha, S; Svenia, Jose P; Premlal, S; GrishKumar, B

    2017-02-01

    Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model. The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated. The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting. Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed. The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration. The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level. The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration. Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration. Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells. This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and

  6. Analgesic Effect of the Newly Developed S(+)-Flurbiprofen Plaster on Inflammatory Pain in a Rat Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masanori; Toda, Yoshihisa; Hori, Miyuki; Mitani, Akiko; Ichihara, Takahiro; Sekine, Shingo; Hirose, Takuya; Endo, Hiromi; Futaki, Nobuko; Kaku, Shinsuke; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research This article describes the properties of a novel topical NSAID (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) patch, SFPP (S(+)-flurbiprofen plaster), containing the potent cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, S(+)-flurbiprofen (SFP). The present studies were conducted to confirm human COX inhibition and absorption of SFP and to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of SFPP in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. COX inhibition by SFP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen was evaluated using human recombinant COX proteins. Absorption of SFPP, ketoprofen and loxoprofen from patches through rat skin was assessed 24 h after application. The AIA model was induced by injecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis followed 20 days later by the evaluation of the prostaglandin PGE2 content of the inflamed paw and the pain threshold. SFP exhibited more potent inhibitory activity against COX-1 (IC50  = 8.97 nM) and COX-2 (IC50  = 2.94 nM) than the other NSAIDs evaluated. Absorption of SFP was 92.9%, greater than that of ketoprofen and loxoprofen from their respective patches. Application of SFPP decreased PGE2 content from 15 min to 6 h and reduced paw hyperalgesia compared with the control, ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches. SFPP showed analgesic efficacy, and was superior to the ketoprofen and loxoprofen patches, which could be through the potent COX inhibitory activity of SFP and greater skin absorption. The results suggested SFPP can be expected to exert analgesic effect clinically. © 2016 The Authors Drug Development Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Toonaciliatin K against Adjuvant Arthritis

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    HaiXing Gou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toonaciliatin K is a natural limonoid purified from the Toona ciliata Roem. var. ciliata (Meliaceae. This study is to reveal the inflammatory suppression effect of toonaciliatin K and further the intrinsic mechanism. Firstly, anti-inflammatory effect of toonaciliatin K was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR results indicated that the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were downregulated by toonaciliatin K. The toonaciliatin K inhibited TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, LPS elicited the excess iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and protein production and toonaciliatin K attenuated the excess production. Western blot assay demonstrated that MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways play critical roles in the toonaciliatin K’s anti-inflammatory activity. Secondly, toonaciliatin K inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Thirdly, toonaciliatin K alleviated the paw swelling and improved arthritis clinical scores in the adjuvant arthritis rats. Toonaciliatin K decreased the proinflammatory cytokines levels and Mankin scores in adjuvant arthritis rats. The HE staining, safranin O-fast green, and toluidine blue staining results demonstrated that toonaciliatin K alleviated the histological changes of paw, for example, pannus formation, focal loss of cartilage, bone erosion, and presence of extra-articular inflammation. Hence, toonaciliatin K is a promising agent for treatment of arthritis.

  8. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernateck, M.; Becker, M.; Schwacke, C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). METHODS: Patients...

  9. Tofacitinib attenuates arthritis manifestations and reduces the pathogenic CD4 T cells in adjuvant arthritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertel, Smadar; Mahagna, Hussein; Karmon, Gidi; Watad, Abdulla; Amital, Howard

    2017-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by pronounced inflammation and leukocyte infiltration in affected joints. Tofacitinib is new agent, a selective inhibitor of Janus kinase (JAK) signaling pathways mediated by JAK1 and JAK3 and inhibits the key transcription factors STAT1 and STAT3. We investigated the action mechanisms of tofacitinib in rats with adjuvant-induced-arthritis (AIA). AIA-rats were treated orally with tofacitinib or with methotrexate. Arthritis severity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were evaluated, splenic cells were examined by flow cytometry and cytokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Tofacitinib markedly reduced the clinical status of treated rats in comparison to control group. Reduced joints inflammation and down-regulated serum CRP levels reflected the clinical manifestations of the treated rats. Tofacitinib down-regulated significantly the frequency of CD4 + IFN-γ + T cells and reduced IL-1β mRNA expression levels in the spleen of the treated rats. These results show that tofacitinib attenuated arthritis severity, modified splenic populations and cytokine imbalance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Anti-inflammation effect of methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-lactoside on adjuvant induced-arthritis rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Sun, Jialin; Xin, Wenyu; Li, Yongjie; Ni, Lin; Ma, Xiaowei; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dongming; Zhang, Tiantai; Du, Guanhua

    2015-03-01

    Methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-lactoside (MSL) is a derivative of natural salicylate isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder, which is widely used for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA), swelling and pain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSL on the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rat in vivo and explore the anti-inflammatory effects and mechanism of MSL in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine macrophages RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Our results showed that MSL significantly inhibited the arthritis progression in AIA rats, decreasing the right hind paw swelling and ankle diameter, attenuating histopathological changes and suppressing the plasma levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in AIA rats. Besides, MSL had potent anti-inflammatory effects on the LPS-activated RAW264.7. MSL dose-dependently inhibited the activity of COX-1, and COX-2. Moreover, MSL prominently inhibited LPS-induced activation of MAPK in RAW264.7 cells by blocking phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Our study suggests that MSL may be effective in the treatment of inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and regulating the MAPK signal pathway. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Relation cellular- molecular between serum IL10 levels and hyperalgesia variation in adjuvant- induced arthritis

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    Zenab Akhtari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regarding to the important anti-inflammatory role of IL10 during inflammation process and hyperalgesia and edema variation during CFA-induced arthritis and also the increase of Spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression, in this study researchers investigate the role of serum IL10 level on mOR expression and edema and hyperalgesia variation during different stages of Complete Freund`s Adjuvant (CFA - induced arthritis in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Mono-arthritis was induced by CFA and inflammatory symptoms (hyperalgesia and edema were assessed on 0, 3, 7, 14th and 21st days of study. Anti-IL10 was administered during the 21 days of study in different experimental groups. mOR expression were detected by western blotting on 0, 3,7, 14th and 21st days of study. Data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software version 19 with using one way ANOVA (post hoc Tokey's. Results: Our results showed that anti-IL10 administration in AA group (Adjuvant Arthritis caused an increase in the paw volume and hyperalgesia until 21st of study. Our study stated that there were no significant differences in spinal mOR expression between AA and AA+anti-IL10rats. Conclusion: Our study confirmed that anti-IL10administration caused to hyperalgesia and edema during AA inflammation. Also these findings suggested that mOR expression increased in chronic phase of AA inflammation, however an increase in the level of spinal mu opioid receptor (mOR expression during AA inflammation is not mediated directly via the effect of serum IL-10.

  12. High-Methionine Diet Attenuates Severity of Arthritis and Modulates IGF-I Related Gene Expressions in an Adjuvant Arthritis Rats Model

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    Mingxin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis, a synthesized form of adjuvant arthritis exhibited throughout many animal species, inhibits liver function and circulation of IGF-I and contributes to the degradation of skeletal muscle mass. One of the primary goals of the present study is determining whether a high-Methionine (high-Met diet is capable of reducing the adverse effects of arthritis, namely, loss of body mass. Following adjuvant injection, forty arthritic rats were randomly assigned to either a control group with a basal diet or a high-Met group with the same basal diet + 0.5% Methionine. After 14 days all rats were terminated. The high-Met group exhibited an increase in body weight and food intake in comparison with the control group (P<0.05. High-Met diet debilitated arthritis-induced surges in the gastrocnemius in both atrogin-1 and the MuRF1 expressions; however, it was observed to have little to no effect on atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression in soleus. At the same time, high-Met diet rats experienced a rise in IGF-I, with lowering of IGFBP-3 gene expression in the gastrocnemius and the soleus. These data suggest that arthritis severity can be partly attenuated by high-Met diet.

  13. Polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil inhibits adjuvant induced arthritis in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysakh, A; Ratheesh, M; Rajmohanan, T P; Pramod, C; Premlal, S; Girish kumar, B; Sibi, P I

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the protective efficacy of the polyphenolic fraction from virgin coconut oil (PV) against adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The activities of inflammatory, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation were estimated. PV showed high percentage of edema inhibition at a dose of 80mg/kg on 21st day of adjuvant arthritis and is non toxic. The expression of inflammatory genes such as COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were decreased by treatment with PV. Antioxidant enzymes were increased and on treatment with PV. The increased level of total WBC count and C-reactive protein in the arthritic animals was reduced in PV treated rats. Synovial cytology showed that inflammatory cells and reactive mesothelial cells were suppressed by PV. Histopathology of paw tissue showed less edema formation and cellular infiltration on supplementation with PV. Thus the results demonstrated the potential beneficiary effect of PV on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats and the mechanism behind this action is due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Jatropha curcas leaves exert anti-arthritic activity on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

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    Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Jatropha curcas leaves have been proven to be anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. In this study we examined the antiarthritic effects of ethanolic extract of J. curcas leaves using adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA in rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=8, consisting of normal group (0.9% NaCl, control group (complete Freund’s adjuvant/CFA 1 mg/ml, sodium diclofenac group at a dose of 6.75 mg/kg (p.o, ethanolic extract of J.curcas groups at doses of 150 mg/kg (p.o, 300 mg/kg (p.o and 600 mg/kg (p.o. Each group was induced by 0.2 ml CFA on day 1 and a booster injection on day 5. Extracts of J. curcas were administered on days 14-28. Arthritic scores were determined, then analyzed using Kruskal Wallis followed by Mann Whitney tests. Mobility scores were analyzed using one way analysis of variance, followed by least significant difference multiple comparison test. Arthritic joint histopathology was observed on day 29. RESULTS The results showed that the ethanolic extract of J. curcas leaves at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg significantly reduced arthritis scores (p<0.05 compared to control group (CFA. The J. curcas leaf extract at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg BW decreased mobility scores. Histopathology studies showed that the J. curcas extract reduced edema and cartilage destruction in arthritic joints. CONCLUSIONS The J. curcas leaf extract had anti-arthritic effects by reducing arthritis scores and mobility scores. The extract should be further examined as a potential candidate for anti-arthritic therapies.

  15. Electroacupuncture Inhibits Inflammation Reaction by Upregulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

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    Tian-Feng He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is emerging as an alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect of acupuncture has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Xuanzhong (GB39; and Shenshu (BL23 markedly decreased the paw swelling and the histologic scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue, and reduced the body weight loss in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. However, the electrical stimulation at nonacupoint did not produce any beneficial effects against the experimental arthritis. Most interestingly, the electroacupuncture treatment resulted in an enhanced immunostaining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, in the synovial tissue. Moreover, the VIP-immunostaining intensity was significantly negatively correlated with the scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue (r=−0.483, P=.0026. In conclusion, these findings suggest that electroacupuncture may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of RA, at least partially through the induction of VIP expression.

  16. [Caprine arthritis-encephalitis: trial of an adjuvant vaccine preparation. I. Clinical and virological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Vitu, C; Fontaine, J J; Vignoni, M

    1993-04-01

    In purpose to protect goats against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the first group of kids (I) was inoculated with purified, inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions, the second group (II) with adjuvant and the third one (III) with culture medium. 2-4 months later, the three groups were challenged with virulent CAEV by intraarticular route. On the clinical level, vaccinated and challenged kids show more early and severe arthritis than other groups. On the virological level, isolation of lentivirus from white blood cells and different organs is more important in group I than groups II and III. Therefore, vaccinations with inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions do not protect against a virulent challenge; there is an enhancement of lesions. We note that the adjuvant elicits a mild non-specific protection against virulent challenge.

  17. Curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles ameliorate adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R; Kuhad, A; Kaur, I P; Chopra, K

    2015-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic and systemic inflammation, results in destruction of joints and cartilages. Effectiveness of curcumin has been established in a wide variety of inflammatory disorders, but its utility as a therapeutic agent is limited by its poor absorption, rapid metabolism and fast systemic elimination. To apprehend these limitations, we propose to use highly bioavailable curcumin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (C-SLNs) for the treatment of RA. In the present study, the protective effect of curcumin and its SLNs was evaluated in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. Arthritic rats exhibited marked decrease in paw withdrawal threshold in Randall-Selitto and von Frey hair test along with decreased reaction time in hot plate. Arthritic rats also showed significant joint hyperalgesia, joint stiffness and increased paw volume along with marked decrease in mobility score. Arthritic rats showed a significant increase in blood leukocyte count, oxidative-nitrosative stress, tumour necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody levels and radiological alterations in tibiotarsal joint. C-SLN administration (10 and 30 mg/kg), when compared with free curcumin (10 and 30 mg/kg), significantly and dose dependently ameliorated various symptoms of arthritis in rats, improved biochemical markers and preserved radiological alterations in joints of arthritic rats. The current findings suggest the protective potential of curcumin-SLNs in ameliorating CFA-induced arthritis in rats through attenuation of oxido-inflammatory and immunomodulatory cascade. Further, the results emphasize that SLNs are a novel approach to deliver curcumin into the inflamed joints and improve its biopharmaceutical performance. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Local cryotherapy improves adjuvant-induced arthritis through down-regulation of IL-6 / IL-17 pathway but independently of TNFα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Xavier; Martin, Hélène; Seguin-Py, Stéphanie; Maguin-Gaté, Katy; Moretto, Johnny; Totoson, Perle; Wendling, Daniel; Demougeot, Céline; Tordi, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Local cryotherapy is widely and empirically used in the adjuvant setting in rheumatoid arthritis treatment, however its own therapeutic and anti-inflammatory effects are poorly characterized. We aimed to evaluate the effects of local cryotherapy on local and systemic inflammation in Adjuvant-induced arthritis, a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. The effects of mild hypothermia (30°C for 2 hours) on cytokine protein levels (Multiplex/ELISA) were evaluated in vitro in cultured rat adjuvant-induced arthritis patellae. In vivo, local cryotherapy was applied twice a day for 14 days in arthritic rats (ice: n = 10, cold gas: n = 9, non-treated: n = 10). At day 24 after the induction of arthritis, cytokine expression levels were measured in grinded hind paws (Q-RT-PCR) and in the plasma (Multiplex/ELISA). In vitro, punctual mild hypothermia down-regulated IL-6 protein expression. In vivo, ice showed a better efficacy profile on the arthritis score and joint swelling and was better tolerated, while cold gas induced a biphasic response profile with initial, transient arthritis worsening. Local cryotherapy also exerted local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects, both at the gene and the protein levels: IL-6, IL-17A and IL-1β gene expression levels were significantly down-regulated in hind paws. Both techniques decreased plasma IL-17A while ice decreased plasma IL-6 protein levels. By contrast, we observed no effect on local/systemic TNF-α pathway. We demonstrated for the first time that sub-chronically applied local cryotherapy (ice and cold gas) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment in adjuvant-induced arthritis. Furthermore, we provided novel insights into the cytokine pathways involved in Local cryotherapy's local and systemic anti-inflammatory effects, which were mainly IL-6/IL-17A-driven and TNF-α independent in this model.

  19. Low-dose X-irradiation of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Efficacy of different fractionation schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebmann, A.; Hindemith, M.; Jahns, J.; Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G.; Madaj-Sterba, P.; Weisheit, S.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: low-dose radiotherapy is widely accepted as a very effective treatment option for inflammatory symptoms associated with painful degenerative joint disorders. Radiation doses and fractionation schedules in practical use are empirical and mainly based on clinical observations. Experimental data are rare. The efficacy of low-dose X-irradiation on adjuvant induced arthritis in rats using different fractionation schemes was investigated in vivo, in order to explore whether there is a dose and fractionation dependence. Material and methods: adjuvant arthritis in female lewis rats (n = 128) was induced by intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis on day 0. Both arthritic hind paws were sham-irradiated (group 1: days 10-14; group 2: days 15-19; group 3: days 22-26) or X-irradiated with either 5 x 1.0 Gy (group 4: days 10-14; group 6: days 15-19; group 8: days 22-26; group 10: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) or 5 x 0.5 Gy (group 5: days 10-14; group 7: days 15-19; group 9: days 22-26; group 11: days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18; group 12: days 10-14 and 22-26). The clinical parameters arthritis score (AS), hind paw volume (HPV), and body weight were determined. Results: a significant decrease of the clinical arthritis parameters was observed following 5 x 0.5 Gy or 5 x 1.0 Gy during the acute maximum of the inflammatory response (days 15-19). The most pronounced treatment effect was reached after two daily fractionated series of 5 x 0.5 Gy with an early treatment onset (days 10-14) and repetition in interval (days 22-26). After the application of 5 x 1.0 Gy on days 10-14 or in a protracted scheme (days 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18), only a nonsignificant positive trend could be detected. Daily fractionated X-irradiation in the chronic phase of adjuvant arthritis (days 22-26) did not show any positive clinical effect. Conclusion: low-dose radiotherapy is able to prevent a full-blown arthritic reaction if given during the florid phase of

  20. Anti-arthritic activity of Xanthium strumarium L. extract on complete Freund׳s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Zhao, Yong; Han, Ping; Yue, Wei; Ma, Xue-Qin; Rahman, Khalid; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

    2014-08-08

    Xanthium strumarium L. fruit (Xanthiu fruit) has been traditionally used as a medicinal herb in China for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatoid arthritis. However, the anti-arthritic activity of Xanthium strumarium fruit has still not been demonstrated. In the present study, we confirmed that the extract of Xanthium strumarium (EXS) prevents rheumatoid arthritis induced by Complete Freund׳s Adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Male Wistar rats (160±10 g) were immunized by intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of CFA into the left hind metatarsal footpad. EXS was administered orally at a dose of 300 and 75 mg/kg once a day after the induction of adjuvant arthritis. Methotrexate (3 mg/kg, twice a week) was used as a positive control. Paw swelling, arthritic score, body weight loss, spleen index, thymus index, serum cytokines, inflammatory mediators and histological change were measured. The chemical profile of EXS was analyzed by HPLC-DAD. We found that the EXS significantly suppressed paw swelling and arthritic score, increased body weight loss and decreased the thymus index. The overproduction of TNF-α and IL-1β were remarkably suppressed in the serum of all EXS-treated rats, and in contrast IL-10 was markedly increased. The level of COX-2 and 5-LOX was also decreased with EXS treatment. Ten phenolic acid derivatives were identified from 14 detected peaks by HPLC-DAD with the reference substances and verified by LC-MS. These results suggest the potential effect of EXS as an anti-arthritis agent towards CFA-induced arthritis in rats. Xanthium strumarium has the potential to be regarded as a candidate for use in general therapeutics and as an immune-modulatory medicine in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Auricular acupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernateck, M; Becker, M; Schwake, C

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). METHODS: Patients...

  2. MicroRNA-124 inhibits the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamachi, Yuji; Ohnuma, Kenichiro; Uto, Kenichi; Noguchi, Yoriko; Saegusa, Jun; Kawano, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous, non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional regulators. We analysed the in vivo effect of miRNA-124 (miR-124, the rat analogue of human miR-124a) on adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats. AIA was induced in Lewis rats by injecting incomplete Freund's adjuvant with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Precursor (pre)-miR-124 was injected into the right hind ankle on day 9. Morphological changes in the ankle joint were assessed by micro-CT and histopathology. Cytokine expression was examined by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. The effect of miR-124 on predicted target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) was examined by luciferase reporter assays. The effect of pre-miR-124 or pre-miR-124a on the differentiation of human osteoclasts was examined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. We found that miR-124 suppressed AIA in rats, as demonstrated by decreased synoviocyte proliferation, leucocyte infiltration and cartilage or bone destruction. Osteoclast counts and expression level of receptor activator of the nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), integrin β1 (ITGB1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) were reduced in AIA rats treated with pre-miR-124. Luciferase analysis showed that miR-124 directly targeted the 3'UTR of the rat NFATc1, ITGB1, specificity protein 1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α mRNAs. Pre-miR-124 also suppressed NFATc1 expression in RAW264.7 cells. Both miR-124 and miR-124a directly targeted the 3'-UTR of human NFATc1 mRNA, and both pre-miR-124 and pre-miR-124a suppressed the differentiation of human osteoclasts. We found that miR-124 ameliorated AIA by suppressing critical prerequisites for arthritis development, such as RANKL and NFATc1. Thus, miR-124a is a candidate for therapeutic use for human rheumatoid arthritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Transient anorexia, hyper-nociception and cognitive impairment in early adjuvant arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurlova, M; Stofkova, A; Kiss, A; Belacek, J; Pecha, O; Deykun, K; Jurcovicova, J

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, pain, anorexia, and cognitive changes. The enhanced production of cytokines appears before the full manifestation of the disease. So far, any experimental data on behavioral effects of early arthritis are lacking. In the present series we describe anorexia early changes in, pain hyper-sensitivity and altered cognitive behavior during the first four days of adjuvant arthritis in rats (AA), when no clinical signs are yet apparent. AA was induced to male Lewis rats by a single injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (cFA) at the base of the tail. Plasma leptin and ghrelin were measured using specific RIA methods. Gene expressions for food-regulatory peptides, neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC), were quantitated by TaqMan real-time PCR. Pain sensation was measured on all four limbs and tail by the plantar test. Cognitive functions were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Levels of orexigenic ghrelin as well as mRNA expression of orexigenic NPY in nucleus arcuatus (nRC)re significantly enhanced on day 2 of AA only. Reduced body weight and food intake persisted by day 4 with the most profound reduction on day 2. The mRNA for anorexigenic IL-1β in the nARC was significantly enhanced on days 2 and 4. Enhanced pain sensitivity was observed on day 2, as was the cognitive impairment given by longer time to find the hidden platform, longer time spent in thigmotaxis zone, and longer trajectory. The less effective strategy used to find the hidden platform was observed up to the day 4 of AA. Early stage of AA brings about reduced body weight, food intake, and activation of central orexigenic pathways. The observed anorexia could be ascribed to the over-expression of anorexigenic IL-1β which dominates over the NPY orexigenic effects. On day 2 of AA higher pain sensitivity and cognitive impairment appear. All the observed change tend

  4. Attenuation of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats by phonophoresis with an aqueous gel of the Amazonian plant Elaeoluma nuda (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merini, Lilian Regiani; Furtado, Silvânia da Conceição; de Oliveira, Marcelo Miguel Brito; Carneiro, Ana Lúcia Basílio; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Barcellos, José Fernando Marques

    2014-02-01

    Various species of the genus Pouteria (Elaeoluma) are used by the native population of Brazil because of, among other factors, their anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extract of the Amazonian plant Elaeoluma nuda were recently identified in prospective pharmacological studies. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of phonophoresis with aqueous gel extract of E. nuda in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced in Lewis rats with an adjuvant. Phonophoresis with E. nuda gel was then administered daily and the results compared with those obtained with phonophoresis of diclofenac diethylammonium gel and ultrasound therapy without phonophoresis. Arthritis in the different groups was evaluated by plethysmometry. Proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1α were quantified by cytometric bead array (CBA). The effect of phonophoresis of aqueous gel with E. nuda extract on arthritis in rats' paws (a 33% reduction compared with the controls) was the same as that produced by phonophoresis with diclofenac diethylammonium. Ultrasound therapy without phonophoresis produced no significant effect on the 21st day of therapy. There was a significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1α levels in the group treated with phonophoresis with E. nuda gel (p=0.0042; p=0.0003, respectively). Our results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of phonophoresis with E. nuda gel on cytokines TNF-α, IL-1α and adjuvant-induced arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab, Hany H.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE 2 and LTB 4 ) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of arthritic rats

  6. Carvedilol alleviates adjuvant-induced arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema: Modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany_h_arab@yahoo.com [Biochemistry Division, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sawalhi, Maha M. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-04-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease with cardiovascular complications as the leading cause of morbidity. Carvedilol is an adrenergic antagonist which has been safely used in treatment of several cardiovascular disorders. Given that carvedilol has powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties, we aimed to investigate its protective potential against arthritis that may add further benefits for its clinical usefulness especially in RA patients with concomitant cardiovascular disorders. Two models were studied in the same rat; adjuvant arthritis and subcutaneous air pouch edema. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for 21 days) effectively suppressed inflammation in both models with comparable efficacy to the standard anti-inflammatory diclofenac (5 mg/kg/day p.o.). Notably, carvedilol inhibited paw edema and abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates. The latter observation was confirmed by the histopathological assessment of the pouch lining that revealed mitigation of immuno-inflammatory cell influx. Carvedilol reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and protein thiols) and lowered the release of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), and eicosanoids (PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4}) in sera and exudates of arthritic rats. Interestingly, carvedilol, per se, didn't present any effect on assessed biochemical parameters in normal rats. Together, the current study highlights evidences for the promising anti-arthritic effects of carvedilol that could be mediated through attenuation of leukocyte migration, alleviation of oxidative stress and suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids. - Highlights: ► Carvedilol possesses promising anti-arthritic properties. ► It markedly suppressed inflammation in adjuvant arthritis and air pouch edema. ► It abrogated the leukocyte invasion to air pouch exudates and linings. ► It reduced/normalized oxidative stress markers in sera and exudates of

  7. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert W Lutz

    Full Text Available Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H, whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group. Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE or extra-cerebral (AA inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and

  8. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Norbert W; Fernandez, Carla; Pellissier, Jean-François; Cozzone, Patrick J; Béraud, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and adjuvant arthritis (AA) in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H), whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group). Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE) or extra-cerebral (AA) inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and/or due to the

  9. Study on Application of Static Magnetic Field for Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Taniguchi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the effectiveness of the application of static magnetic field (SMF on pain relief, we performed a study on rats with adjuvant arthritis (AA. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley (SD rats (age: 6 weeks, body weight: approximately 160 g were divided into three groups [SMF-treated AA rats (Group I, non-SMF-treated AA rats (Group II and control rats (Group III]. The SD rats were injected in the left hind leg with 0.6 mg/0.05 ml Mycobacterium butyrium to induce AA. The rats were bred for 6 months as chronic pain model. Thereafter, the AA rats were or were not exposed to SMF for 12 weeks. We assessed the changes in the tail surface temperature, locomotor activity, serum inflammatory marker and bone mineral density (BMD using thermography, a metabolism measuring system and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA method, respectively. The tail surface temperature, locomotor activity and femoral BMD of the SMF-exposed AA rats were significantly higher than those of the non-SMF-exposed AA rats, and the serum inflammatory marker was significantly lower. These findings suggest that the pain relief effects are primarily due to the increased blood circulation caused by the rise in the tail surface temperature. Moreover, the pain relief effects increased with activity and BMD of the AA rats.

  10. Role of Bifidobacterium bifidum and plant food extracts in improving microflora and biochemical and cytogenetic parameters in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Donya, S. M.; Abd El Khalek, A. B.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to discover plant food extracts and probiotics that may have bioactivity towards chronic inflammation. Three plant food extract mixtures expected to be rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of the different mixtures as well as probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum) were evaluated in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect, mechanism of action and safety of the three mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum were studied by measuring the size of inflammation and the determination of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, colonic bacteria profile and specific cytogenetic parameters. The contents of tocopherols, {beta}-carotene and phenolic compounds in the mixtures were determined. The results show that the tested mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess promising anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanism of action seems to involve a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory bio markers and an effect on colonic microflora. Genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation induced by adjuvant arthritis were prevented after supplementation with the tested mixtures. (Author) 61 refs.

  11. Study of new ways of supplementary and combinatory therapy of rheumatoid arthritis with immunomodulators. Glucomannan and Imunoglukán in adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerová, K; Paulovicová, E; Mihalová, D; Svík, K; Ponist, S

    2009-01-01

    We studied the anti-arthritic activity of glucomannan (GM) isolated from Candida utilis and of Imunoglukán, a beta-(1,3/1,6)-D-glucan (IMG) isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus. Adjuvant arthritis (AA) was induced intradermally by the injection of Mycobacterium butyricum in incomplete Freund's adjuvant to Lewis rats. Blood for biochemical and immunological analysis was collected on experimental days 1, 14, 21, and 28. A clinical parameter--hind paw volume (HPV)--was also measured. The detection of IL-1 alpha, IL-4, TNF alpha, and MCP-1 was done by immunoflowcytometry. On day 28--the end of the experiment--we determined spectrophotometrically: the total anti-oxidant status (TAS) of plasma samples along with thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels in plasma and we assessed the activity of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in hind paw joint homogenate. The experiments included healthy animals, arthritic animals without treatment, and arthritic animals with administration of glucomannan (GM-AA) in the oral daily dose of 15 mg/kg b.w. and of IMG (IMG-AA) in the oral daily dose of 2 mg/kg b.w. The progress of AA was manifested by all parameters monitored. Both substances had beneficial effects on HPV, TBARS levels, GGT activity, and TAS levels. For cytokine assessment, only IMG-AA samples were selected, considering the significant HPV improvement accompanied with the observed anti-oxidant action. IMG administration had a positive immunomodulating effect on all cytokine plasma levels measured, changed markedly due to arthritis progression. Thus, IMG may be considered as a candidate for combinatorial therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

  12. Synergistic activity of curcumin with methotrexate in ameliorating Freund's Complete Adjuvant induced arthritis with reduced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Pinnapureddy, Jyothi; Banji, Otilia J F; Saidulu, A; Hayath, Md Sikinder

    2011-10-01

    Methotrexate is employed in low doses for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. One of the major drawbacks with methotrexate is hepatotoxicity resulting in poor compliance of therapy. Curcumin is an extensively used spice possessing both anti-arthritic and hepatoprotective potential. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of curcumin (30 and 100 mg/kg) in combination with subtherapeutic dose of methotrexate (1 mg/kg) is salvaging hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress and producing synergistic anti-arthritic action with methotrexate. Wistar albino rats were induced with arthritis by subplantar injection of Freund's Complete Adjuvant and pronounced arthritis was seen after 9 days of injection. Groups of animals were treated with subtherapeutic dose of methotrexate followed half an hour later with 30 and 100mg/kg of curcumin from day 9 up to days 45 by intraperitoneal route. Methotrexate treatment in Freund's Complete Adjuvant induced arthritic animals produced elevation in the levels of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin. Enhanced oxidative stress in terms of measured lipid peroxides was observed in the methotrexate treated group. Curcumin significantly circumvented hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate as evidenced by a change in biochemical markers possibly due to its strong anti-oxidant action. Hepatoprotective potential of curcumin was also confirmed from histological evaluation. Sub-therapeutic dose of methotrexate elicited substantial anti-arthritic action when used in combination with curcumin implying that the latter potentiated its action. Concomitant administration of curcumin with methotrexate was also found to minimize liver damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Does lipophilicity per se induce adjuvant effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Larsen, Søren Thor; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Anthopogenically introduced substances and pollutants are suspected to promote sensitization and development of allergic airway diseases, that is, acting as adjuvants. Lipophilicity may serve as an immunological warning signal, promoting adjuvant effects. Whether the lipophilicity of an inhaled...... respiratory patterns were significantly affected in the MP groups. The OVA + Al(OH)3 group had a significantly higher IgG1 and IgE production, as well as higher eosinophil infiltration in the BAL fluid. These studies showed that effects of adjuvants not are necessarily due to their lipophilicity; that is...

  14. Oral Administration of Shark Type II Collagen Suppresses Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Wu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Shark type II collagen (SCII is extracted as a glycoprotein from the cartilage of blue shark (Prionace glauca. We aim to confirm the effects of oral tolerance of SCII on inflammatory and immune responses to the ankle joint of rheumatoid-arthritis rats induced by Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA. Materials and Methods: The onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA was observed 14 ± x days after injection of CFA. Rats in the control group were treated with acetic acid by oral administration (0.05 mmol kg−1d−1, days 14–28, while rats in experimental groups were treated by oral administration with SCII (1 or 3 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28, Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (TWP (10 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28, and bovine type II collagen from US (US-CII (1 mg kg−1d−1, days 14–28, respectively. The severity of arthritis was evaluated by the articular swelling. The immunological indexes observed included delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction, the level of interleukins 10 (IL-10 in rat blood serum and morphological characterization. Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC was performed to investigate the relationship between T cell apoptosis and specific immune tolerance induced by SCII. Results: Treatment with SCII for 2 weeks significantly attenuated the acute inflammation. The rats orally administrated with SCII at the level of 3 mg kg−1d−1 (SCII 3 and US-CII had decreased DTH reaction compared with rats in control group. Rats treated with SCII 3 had the highest level of IL-10 with 102 pg/mL. SCII with concentration of 10 μg/L could help to significantly enhance level of Fas/Apo-1 in T cell in vitro. The result of histological staining indicated that the recovery of the articular membranes of ankle joint in SCII 3 group was greatly enhanced. Conclusions: Our results suggest that appropriate dose of SCII can not only ameliorate symptoms but also modify the disease process of Complete-Freunds-Adjuvant-induced arthritis. Oral

  15. Oral and nasal administration of chicken type II collagen suppresses adjuvant arthritis in rats with intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Qiu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Yu-Xian; Dai, Min; Liu, Li-Hua

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the curative effects of oral and nasal administration of chicken type II collagen (CII) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats with meloxicam-induced intestinal lesions. AA model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam was established and those rats were divided randomly into six groups which included AA model, AA model+meloxicam, AA model+oral CII, AA model+nasal CII, AA model+ meloxicam+oral C II and AA model+meloxicam+nasal CII (n = 12). Rats was treated with meloxicam intragastrically for 7 d from d 14 after immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and then treated with chicken CII intragastrically or nasally for 7 d. Histological changes of right hind knees were examined. Hind paw secondary swelling and intestinal lesions were evaluated. Synoviocyte proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) from supernatants of intestinal homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. Intragastrical administration of meloxicam (1.5 mg/kg) induced multiple intestinal lesions in AA rats. There was a significant decrease of intestinal DAO activities in AA+meloxicam group (P<0.01) and AA model group (P<0.01) compared with normal group. DAO activities of intestinal homogenates in AA+meloxicam group were significantly less than those in AA rats (P<0.01). There was a significant increase of intestinal MPO activities in AA+meloxicam group compared with normal control (P<0.01). Oral or nasal administration of CII (20 microg/kg) could suppress the secondary hind paw swelling(P<0.05 for oral CII; P<0.01 for nasal CII), synoviocyte proliferation (P<0.01) and histopathological degradation in AA rats, but they had no significant effects on DAO and MPO changes. However, oral administration of CII (20 microg/kg) showed the limited efficacy on arthritis in AA+meloxicam model and the

  16. Sulforaphane Modulates Joint Inflammation in a Murine Model of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant-Induced Mono-Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Francisco Silva Rodrigues

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is characterized by inflammation of one or more joints, and affects ~1% of the adult population worldwide. Sulforaphane (SFN is a natural compound that has been suggested as an antioxidant. Here, SFN’s effects were evaluated in a murine mono-arthritis model. Mono-arthritis was induced in mice by a single intra-articular injection of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA-10 µg/joint, in 10 µL into the ipsilateral joint. The contralateral joint received an equal volume of PBS. On the 4th day post-joint inflammation induction, animals received either SFN (10 mg/kg or vehicle (3% DMSO in saline, intraperitoneally (i.p., twice a day for 3 days. Joint swelling and secondary mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia were evaluated over 7 days post-CFA. After this period, animals were culled and their blood and synovial fluid samples were collected for analysis of cell populations, cytokine release and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity. Knee joint samples were also collected for histology. SFN reduced joint swelling and damage whilst increasing the recruitment of Ly6C+ and Ly6G+ cells to CFA-injected joints. SFN-treated animals presented down-regulation of CD11b and CD62L on synovial fluid Ly6G+ cells. Synovial fluid samples obtained from CFA-injected joints and plasma samples of SFN-treated mice presented higher levels of IL-6 and increased activity of TrxR, in comparison with controls. These results indicate that SFN reduces knee joint damage by modulating cell activation/migration to the joints, cytokine production and increasing the activity of TrxR, and therefore, may represent an alternative treatment to joint inflammation.

  17. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States); Thippegowda, P.B., E-mail: btprabha@uic.edu [Department of Pharmacology, (M/C 868), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Kanum, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraj' s College, University of Mysore, Mysore (India)

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Adjuvant auricular electroacupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Auricular acupuncture and autogenic training in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernateck, Michael; Becker, Mareike; Schwake, Christine; Hoy, Ludwig; Passie, Torsten; Parlesak, Alexandr; Fischer, Michael J; Fink, Matthias; Karst, Matthias

    2008-08-01

    In contrast to psychological interventions the usefulness of acupuncture as an adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has not yet been demonstrated. The efficacy of auricular electroacupuncture (EA) was directly compared with autogenic training (AT). Patients with RA (n = 44) were randomized into EA or AT groups. EA and lessons in AT were performed once weekly for 6 weeks. Primary outcome measures were the mean weekly pain intensity and the disease activity score 28 (DAS 28); secondary outcome measures were the use of pain medication, the pain disability index (PDI), the clinical global impression (CGI) and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, which were assessed during the study period and 3 months after the end of treatment. At the end of the treatment and at 3-month follow-up a clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement (p < 0.05) could be observed in all outcome parameters and both groups. In contrast to the AT group, the onset of these effects in the EA group could already be observed after the 2nd treatment week. In the 4th treatment week the EA group reported significantly less pain than the AT group (p = 0.040). After the end of treatment (7th week) the EA group assessed their outcome as significantly more improved than the AT group (p = 0.035). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the EA group was significantly reduced (p = 0.010), and the serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was significantly increased compared to the AT group (p = 0.020). The adjuvant use of both EA and AT in the treatment of RA resulted in significant short- and long-term treatment effects. The treatment effects of auricular EA were more pronounced. Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis in F344----Lewis and in Lewis----F344 bone marrow chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Bruggen, M.C.; van den Broek, M.F.; van den Berg, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis and adjuvant arthritis (AA) are rat models for chronic, erosive polyarthritis. Both models can be induced in susceptible Lewis rats, whereas F344 rats are resistant. In AA as well as in SCW arthritis, antigen-specific T lymphocytes have been demonstrated to be crucial for chronic disease. In this communication the authors describe their studies to probe the cellular mechanism responsible for the difference in susceptibility of Lewis and F344, using bone marrow chimeras. By transplanting bone marrow cells from F344 into lethally irradiated Lewis recipients, Lewis rats were rendered resistant to SCW arthritis induction. F344 rats reconstituted with Lewis bone marrow, i.e., Lewis----F344 chimeras, develop an arthritis upon SCW injection. For AA comparable results were obtained. These data suggest that both resistance and susceptibility to bacterium-induced chronic arthritis are mediated by hemopoietic/immune cells and that the recipiental environment does not influence the susceptibility to chronic joint inflammation

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of pumpkin seed oil in an adjuvant arthritis model in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Okbi, S.Y.; Mohamed, D.A.; Kandil, E.; Abo-Zeid, M.A.; Mohammed, S.E.; Ahmed, E.K.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of pumpkin seed oils (PSOs) of an Egyptian and European variety, in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis. Edema thickness, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined as inflammatory biomarkers while malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were assessed as indicative of oxidative stress. Chromosomal aberration, sperm shape abnormalities, and DNA fragmentations are cytogenetic parameters which aid in tracing inflammatory and oxidative activity. Phenolic contents and β-carotene were determined in PSOs. The results showed elevated ESR, plasma TNF-α, plasma MDA, liver cellular DNA fragmentation, bone marrow chromosomal aberration, sperm shape abnormalities with a reduction in plasma TAC and body weight gain in an adjuvant arthritis control compared to a healthy control. Administration of low and high doses of either Egyptian or European PSO improved all the aforementioned parameters with variable degrees. [es

  1. Jobelyn® attenuates inflammatory responses and neurobehavioural deficits associated with complete Freund-adjuvant-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorogbe, Osarume; Ajayi, Abayomi M; Ben-Azu, Benneth; Oghwere, Ejiroghene E; Adebesin, Adaeze; Aderibigbe, Adegbuyi O; Okubena, Olajuwon; Umukoro, Solomon

    2018-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of the patients and a major cause of work disability. Current drugs for its treatment only provide palliative effect, as cure for the disease still remains elusive. Jobelyn ® (JB), a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory dietary supplement obtained from Sorghum bicolor, has been claimed to relieve arthritic pain. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate its effect on inflammatory and biochemical changes as well as neurobehavioural deficits associated with complete Freund-adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in mice. The effect of JB (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on inflammatory oedema, neurobehavioural deficits, levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) induced by 0.1 mL of CFA (10 mg/mL) was evaluated in male Swiss mice. Oral administration of JB (100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced inflammatory paw volume and reversed sensorimotor deficits induced by CFA. JB also reduced pain episodes, anxiety and depressive-like symptoms in CFA-mice. The increased level of oxidative stress in the joint and brain tissues of CFA-mice was reduced by JB. It also decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels induced by CFA in the joint tissue of mice. These findings suggest that Jobelyn ® attenuates inflammatory responses induced by CFA in mice via inhibition of oxidative stress and release of inflammatory cytokines. The ability of JB to attenuate CFA-induced nociception, sensorimotor deficits and depressive-like symptom suggests it might improve the quality of life of patients with arthritic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Topical Loperamide-Encapsulated Liposomal Gel Increases the Severity of Inflammation and Accelerates Disease Progression in the Adjuvant-Induced Model of Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Susan Hua

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the prophylactic effect of the peripherally-selective mu-opioid receptor agonist, loperamide, administered topically in a liposomal gel formulation on pain, inflammation, and disease progression in the adjuvant-induced model of experimental rheumatoid arthritis in female Lewis rats. In a randomized, blinded and controlled animal trial, AIA rats were divided into six groups consisting of eleven rats per group based on the following treatments: loperamide liposomal gel, free loperamide gel, empty liposomal gel, diclofenac gel (Voltaren®, no treatment, and naive control. Topical formulations were applied daily for a maximum of 17 days—starting from day 0 at the same time as immunization. The time course of the effect of the treatments on antinocieption and inflammation was assessed using a paw pressure analgesiometer and plethysmometer, respectively. Arthritis progression was scored daily using an established scoring protocol. At the end of the study, hind paws were processed for histological analysis. Administration of loperamide liposomal gel daily across the duration of the study produced significant peripheral antinociception as expected; however, increased the severity of inflammation and accelerated arthritis progression. This was indicated by an increase in paw volume, behavioral and observational scoring, and histological analysis compared to the control groups. In particular, histology results showed an increase in pannus formation and synovial inflammation, as well as an upregulation of markers of inflammation and angiogenesis. These findings may have implications for the use of loperamide and other opioids in arthritis and potentially other chronic inflammatory diseases.

  3. Role of Bifidobacterium bifidum and plant food extracts in improving microflora and biochemical and cytogenetic parameters in adjuvant arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donya, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to discover plant food extracts and probiotics that may have bioactivity towards chronic inflammation. Three plant food extract mixtures expected to be rich in phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols were prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of the different mixtures as well as probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum were evaluated in adjuvant arthritis in rats. The anti-inflammatory effect, mechanism of action and safety of the three mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum were studied by measuring the size of inflammation and the determination of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, colonic bacteria profile and specific cytogenetic parameters. The contents of tocopherols, β-carotene and phenolic compounds in the mixtures were determined. The results show that the tested mixtures and Bifidobacterium bifidum possess promising anti-inflammatory effects. The mechanism of action seems to involve a reduction in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers and an effect on colonic microflora. Genotoxicity and DNA fragmentation induced by adjuvant arthritis were prevented after supplementation with the tested mixtures.El objetivo de la presente investigación fue encontrar extractos de alimentos vegetales y probióticos que puedan tener bioactividad hacía la inflamación crónica. Mezclas de tres extractos de alimentos vegetales conocidos por su riqueza en compuestos fenólicos, carotenoides y tocoferoles han sido preparadas. La actividad anti-inflamatoria de las diferentes mezclas y de bacterias probióticas (Bifidobacterium bifidum fue evaluada en artritis adyuvante en ratas. El efecto anti-inflamatorio, mecanismo de acción y salubridad de las tres mezclas y de Bifidobacterium bifidum ha sido estudiado mediante la medida del tamaño de la inflamación y la determinación de biomarcadores de inflamación y estrés oxidativo, del perfil de bacterias del colón y de parámetros citogen

  4. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of Curcuma longa (turmeric) versus Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Gamal; Al-Kahtani, Mohammed Ali; El-Sayed, Wael Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    Turmeric (rich in curcuminoids) and ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Ayurveda/Chinese medicine since antiquity. Here, we compared the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant activity of these two plants in rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Both plants (at dose 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed (but with different degrees) the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing/decreasing the production of anti-inflammatory/pro-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the anti-oxidant defence system. The anti-arthritic activity of turmeric exceeded that of ginger and indomethacin (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), especially when the treatment started from the day of arthritis induction. The percentage of disease recovery was 4.6-8.3% and 10.2% more in turmeric compared with ginger and indomethacin (P turmeric over ginger and indomethacin, which may have beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis onset/progression as shown in AIA rat model.

  5. Psidium guajava leaves decrease arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

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    Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava leaf extract is effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Psidium guajava leaves can be developed into an alternative anti-arthritis treatment.

  6. Inhibitory effects of Cynodon dactylon L. on inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, G; Ratheesh, M; Shyni, G L; Helen, A

    2009-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon is one of the 10 auspicious herbs that constitute the group Dasapushpam in Ayurveda. Traditionally Cynodon dactylon L. is used against many chronic inflammatory diseases in India. The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon against rats with adjuvant- induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into the right hind paw produce inflammation of the joint. A significant increase in the levels of inflammatory mediators, myeloperoxidase, nitrite, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin was observed. This was associated with oxidative stress with a marked reduction in the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the levels of glutathione, vitamins C and E and an increase in the lipid peroxidation as indicated by the higher levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Cynodon dactylon (20mg/kg/b.wt) was orally administered to arthritic rats after adjuvant injection produced a significant attenuation in the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and ameliorated the arthritic changes to near normal conditions. Hence, the results of this study clearly indicate that Cynodon dactylon extract has a promising protective role against arthritis.

  7. Relationship Between and Laser Acupuncture Analgesia and the Function of Mast Cells in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats Treated by Acupuncture%Relationship Between and Laser Acupuncture Analgesia and the Function of Mast Cells in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程珂; 丁光宏; 沈雪勇; 吴凡

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the analgesia effect and of low-level combined- and single-laser irradiation on Zusanli (ST 36) in rats and the relationship between mast cell degranulation and laser acupuncture analgesia.Methods: A total of 66 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into normal control,model control,sham irradiation,10.6 μm laser (220 mW,40 Hz) 650nm laser(36mW,continuous),combined laser (10.6 μm+ 650 nm) groups.Arthritis mode 1 was established by injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (0.05 mL) into the left ankle joint.The paw withdrawal latency (PWL) was detected with a radiant heat algesimeter.Zusanli (ST 36) was irradiated with sham,single or combined laser for 30 min.After sacrifice under anesthesia (1% embutal),tissues of Zusanli (ST 36) area were sampled,sliced (5 μm) and stained with Toluidine Blue for skin for observing the mast cell degranulation.Results:Compared with model control and sham group,the pain threshold increased significantly in 650nm and combined laser groups (P<0.01),while remained no significant difference in 10.6 μm group.Compared with model and sham group,the degranulation ratios of mast cells in 650nm and combined laser group were significantly higher (P<0.001),while remained no significant difference in 10.6 μm group.The linear correlation coefficient between degranulation ratios of mast cells and PWL after laser acupuncture is 0.737 (P<0.001).Conclusion:Both 650 nm and combined laser stimulation of Zusanli (ST 36) can effectively raise pain threshold,and enhance degranulation ratio of mast cells at the stimulated acupoint.The result also suggested a linear correlation between degranulation ratio of mast cell and analgesia effect.

  8. Enhanced expressions of mRNA for neuropeptide Y and interleukin 1 beta in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei during adjuvant arthritis-induced anorexia in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofkova, Andrea; Haluzik, Martin; Zelezna, Blanka; Kiss, Alexander; Skurlova, Martina; Lacinova, Zdenka; Jurcovicova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Food intake is activated by hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is mainly under the dual control of leptin and ghrelin. Rat adjuvant arthritis (AA), similarly as human rheumatoid arthritis, is associated with cachexia caused by yet unknown mechanisms. The aim of our study was to evaluate NPY expression in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC) under the conditions of AA-induced changes in leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Since IL-1beta is involved in the central induction of anorexia, we studied its expression in the nARC as well. AA was induced to Lewis rats using complete Freund's adjuvant. On days 12, 15 and 18 after complete Freund's adjuvant injection, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and IL-1beta were determined by RIA or ELISA. The mRNA expressions for NPY, leptin receptor (OB-R), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr) and IL-1beta were determined by TaqMan RT-PCR from isolated nARC. In AA rats, decreased appetite, body mass and epididymal fat stores positively correlated with reduced circulating and epididymal fat leptin and adiponectin. Ghrelin plasma levels were increased. In nARC, mRNA for OB-R, Ghsr and NPY were overexpressed in AA rats. AA rats showed overexpression of mRNA for IL-1beta in nARC while circulating, and spleen IL-1beta was unaltered. During AA, overexpression of orexigenic NPY mRNA in nARC along with enhanced plasma ghrelin and lowered leptin levels occur. Decreased food intake indicates a predominant effect of the anorexigenic pathway. Activated expression of IL-1beta in nARC suggests its role in keeping AA-induced anorexia in progress. The reduction in adiponectin may also contribute to AA-induced anorexia. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The adjuvant use of calcium fructoborate and borax with etanercept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saad Abdulrahman; Abood, Sattar Jabir; Gorial, Faiq Isho

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects calcium fructoborate (CFB) and sodium tetraborate (NTB) as supplements in Iraqi patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) maintained on etanercept. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with 60 days treatment period was carried out at Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical city, Baghdad, Iraq. Eighty RA patients were randomized into three groups to receive either 220 mg/day CFB, 55 mg/day NTB in capsule dosage form (equivalent to 6 mg elemental Boron), or placebo formula once daily. Only 72 patients completed the study. All patients were clinically evaluated utilizing DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), simple disease activity index-C-reactive protein (CRP), and clinical disease activity index scores at baseline, and at the end of the study. Venous blood was obtained at baseline and after 60 days, and utilized for the measurement of ESR, hemoglobin, in addition to evaluation of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6. After 60 days, both types of boron significantly improve the clinical scores, in association with significant decrease in the serum levels of ESR, hsCRP, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α with remarkable superiority for calcium fructoborate (CFB) over sodium tetraborate (NTB), compared to baseline and placebo-treated group. The use of boron, as adjuvant with etanercept, has potentiated therapeutic outcomes in RA patients, and may be a new strategy to improve treatment, and avoid the problems associated with biologics utilized in RA treatment.

  10. The Effects of Pterostilbene on Neutrophil Activity in Experimental Model of Arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perečko, Tomáš; Drábiková, K.; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan; Poništ, S.; Bauerová, K.; Nosál, R.; Harmatha, Juraj; Jančinová, V.

    -, č. 106041 (2013), 106041/1-106041/7 ISSN 2314-6133 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : protein kinase C * adjuvant arthritis * rheumatoid arthritis * resveratrol Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  11. Modified Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan Suppresses Adjuvant Arthritis by Inhibiting Chemokines and Matrix-Degrading Enzymes

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    Siddaraju M. Nanjundaiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the joints that can lead to deformities and disability. The prolonged use of conventionally used drugs is associated with severe adverse reactions. Therefore, safer and less expensive therapeutic products are continually being sought. Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling dan (HLXL, a traditional Chinese herbal mixture, and its modified versions possess anti-arthritic activity. In this paper, we examined the influence of modified HLXL on two of the key mediators of arthritic inflammation and tissue damage, namely, chemokines and matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA model of RA. We treated arthritic Lewis rats with HLXL (2.3 g/kg by daily gavage beginning at the onset of AA. The control rats received the vehicle. At the peak phase of AA, rats were sacrificed and their draining lymph node cells (LNC and spleen adherent cells (SAC were tested. The HLXL-treated rats showed a significant reduction in the levels of chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and GRO/KC, MMPs (MMP 2 and 9, as well as cytokines (IL-6 and IL-17 that induce them, compared to the control vehicle-treated rats. Thus, HLXL controls arthritis in part by suppressing the mediators of immune pathology, and it might offer a promising alternative/adjunct treatment for RA.

  12. Opioid adjuvant strategy: improving opioid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Opioid analgesics continue to be the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of moderate to severe pain. Many patients, particularly those suffering from chronic pain, require chronic high-dose analgesic therapy. Achieving clinical efficacy and tolerability of such treatment regimens is hampered by the appearance of opioid-induced side effects such as tolerance, hyperalgesia and withdrawal syndrome. Among the therapeutic options to improve the opioid effectiveness, this current review focuses on strategies combining opioids to other drugs that can modulate opioid-mediated effects. We will discuss about experimental evidences reported for several potential opioid adjuvants, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, 5-HT7 agonists, sigma-1 antagonists, I2-R ligands, cholecystokinin antagonists, neuropeptide FF-R antagonists and toll-like receptor 4 antagonists.

  13. Enhanced expressions of mRNA for neuropeptide Y and interleukin 1 beta in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei during adjuvant arthritis-induced anorexia in Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stofková, A.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Kiss, A.; Skurlová, M.; Lacinová, Z.; Jurcovicová, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2009), s. 377-384 ISSN 1021-7401 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * anorexia * leptin * adiponectin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.034, year: 2009

  14. Anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of long termcalcium administrationduring adjuvant-induced arthritisin rats

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    Setareh Khashaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammation and edema Symptoms are physiological response to triggers that can be induced by different mediators such as cytokines. Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common form of arthritis which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane, severe and debilitating pain and progressive cartilage injury. It is clear that cytokines are involved in different stages of inflammation by inducing pro-inflammatory effects; TNF-α as a cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we attempted to investigate the role of prescription of calcium to reduce inflammatory edema and serum TNF-α level during different stages of arthritic inflammation induced by Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA injection in male Wistar rats.Methods:In this Applicable-Fundamental study, we used male Wistar rats and adjuvant arthritis was created by once subcutaneous injection of CFA in the right hindpaw of animals on day zero in experimental groups. Various doses of calcium were prepared and injected within 21 days of study. Hyperalgesia and paw volume changes wereassessed byradiant heat andplethysmometer over several days, respectively. The serum levels of TNF-α were studied by ELISA standard kit of rat during various phases and were measured according to the kit.Results:The results indicated dose related effects of long term calcium administration on edema, hyperalgesia and serum TNF-α level reduction. Daily treatment with effective dose of calcium (5 mg/kg in AA+ Ca group significantly decreased paw edema, hyperalgesia and serum TNF-α level incomparison to AA and AA+ Vehicle groups on days 7, 14 and 21 of study.Conclusions:Findings of this study showed;long term administration of calcium in the proper dosage can act as an anti-inflammatory agent and pain modulator during adjuvant-induced arthritis and a part of those effects may conducted by decreasing of serum TNF-α level.

  15. N-feruloylserotonin in preventive combination therapy with methotrexate reduced inflammation in adjuvant arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuncírová, V.; Poništ, S.; Mihalová, D.; Dráfi, F.; Nosáľ, R.; Acquaviva, A.; Gardi, C.; Harmatha, Juraj; Hrádková, I.; Bauerová, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 6 (2014), s. 616-626 ISSN 0767-3981 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : arthritis * inflammation * oxidative stress * combination therapy * methotrexate * N-feruloylserotonin Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.121, year: 2014

  16. Targeting TNF-α and NF-κB activation by bee venom: role in suppressing adjuvant induced arthritis and methotrexate hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Samar F; El-Bakly, Wesam M; Arafa, Hossam M; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2013-01-01

    Low dose methotrexate is the cornerstone for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. One of its major drawbacks is hepatotoxicity, resulting in poor compliance of therapy. Dissatisfied arthritis patients are likely to seek the option of complementary and alternative medicine such as bee venom. The combination of natural products with modern medicine poses the possibility of potential interaction between the two groups and needs investigation. The present study was aimed to investigate the modulatory effect of bee venom acupuncture on efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition of methotrexate. Complete Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats were treated for 3 weeks with methotrexate and/or bee venom. Arthritic score, ankle diameter, paw volume and tissue expression of NF-κB and TNF-α were determined to assess anti-arthritic effects, while anti-nociceptive effects were assessed by gait score and thermal hyperalgesia. Methotrexate toxicity was assessed by measuring serum TNF-α, liver enzymes and expression of NF-κB in liver. Combination therapy of bee venom with methotrexate significantly improved arthritic parameters and analgesic effect as compared to methotrexate alone. Bee venom ameliorated serum TNF-α and liver enzymes elevations as well as over expression of NF-κB in liver induced by methotrexate. Histological examination supported the results. And for the first time bee venom acupuncture was approved to increase methotrexate bioavailability with a significant decrease in its elimination. bee venom potentiates the anti-arthritic effects of methotrexate, possibly by increasing its bioavailability. Also, it provides a potent anti-nociceptive effect. Furthermore, bee venom protects against methotrexate induced hepatotoxicity mostly due to its inhibitory effect on TNF-α and NF-κB.

  17. Effect of nabumetone treatment on vascular responses of the thoracic aorta in rat experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, S; Onal, A; Hatip, F B; Sürücü, A; Alkanat, M; Koşay, S; Evinç, A

    2000-04-01

    Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drug which is known to cause less gastrointestinal damage than other NSAI drugs. This study was performed to evaluate whether nabumetone treatment might alter the vascular aberrations related to inflammation in a rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Nabumetone treatment (120 or 240 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1), orally) was initiated on the 15th day of adjuvant inoculation and continued for 14 days. Arthritic lesions, vascular contractile and relaxant responses and gastroduodenal histopathological preparations were evaluated 29 days after adjuvant inoculation. The contractile responses of aortic rings to phenylephrine and KCl were increased in grade 2 arthritic rats. In grade 3 arthritis only the phenylephrine contractility was decreased. The relaxant responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were decreased in grades 2 and 3. In healthy rats, nabumetone did not change the vascular responses. After treatment of arthritic rats with nabumetone, both the contractile and relaxant response of the aortic rings returned to normal, and arthritic score and paw swelling were reduced. Gastroduodenal histopathology did not show erosions or ulcers in any of the groups. In conclusion, nabumetone improved the systemic signs and vascular alterations in experimental arthritis without showing any gastrointestinal side effects. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. 激光穴位照射佐剂性关节炎大鼠的生物效应累积及其镇痛疗效观察%Observations on the Cumulative Biological Effect of Acupoint Laser Radiation and Its Analgesic Effect in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力佳; 杨华元

    2014-01-01

    光穴位照射治疗后,AA 大鼠相关血清细胞因子均在治疗出现转折点后呈缓慢增长或者下降趋势,即体现了激光照射治疗具有抛物线特征,说明随激光照射时长的增加,激光生物效应的产生累积,提示在激光治疗过程中要重视累积作用。%Objective To explore the mechanism of the cumulative biological effect of acupoint laser radiation and investigate its analgesic effect by comparing the therapeutic effects of semiconductor laser radiation versus acupuncture at point Zusanli(ST36) in acute adjuvant arthritis rats and to provide the experiment-based theoretical foundation and basis for the course of treatment of acute arthritis pain by clinical use of semiconductor laser. Method A rat model of AA was made by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant into rat toe. Eighty rats were randomly allocated to eight groups:model, blank, three-day laser radiation, five-day laser radiation, seven-day laser radiation, three-day acupuncture, five-day acupuncture and seven-day acupuncture treatment groups, 10 rats each. The three laser groups separately received 650 nm semiconductor laser radiation. The three acupuncture groups separately received acupuncture with a filiform needle at point Zusanli(ST36) on the inflammation-affected side. Rat general condition, body weight, pain threshold value and ankle swelling degree were observed. Serum inflammatory factors IL-1、TNF-αand IFN-γcontents were measured by ELISA. Result There were statistically significant posttreatment differences in body weight, joint swelling degree and pain threshold between the laser treatment and acupuncture treatment groups of rats (P<0.05). There was a statistically significant post-treatment difference in joint swelling degree between three-day laser, five-day laser and seven-day laser treatment groups (P<0.05). Pain threshold was lowest at five days after treatment and increased somewhat at seven days after treatment in both the three-day laser and three

  19. Curcumin potentiates the anti-arthritic effect of prednisolone in Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncha, Madhusudana; Naidu, Vegi Ganga Modi; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Gadepalli, Shankar Ganesh; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of curcumin in combination with prednisolone for the effective treatment of arthritis with reduced side effects when glucocorticoids therapy is indicated. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by subplantar injection of Freund's complete adjuvant, and animals were observed for the symptoms of arthritis during the period of 21 days. Combined treatment of curcumin with various doses of prednisolone (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) was evaluated in order to ascertain the efficacy and toxicity induced by steroid. Arthritic animals showed significant increase in tumour necrosis factor-α and IL-1β levels in paw tissue and IL-1β in serum. Combined therapy of curcumin with low doses of prednisolone showed pronounced beneficial effect on joint swelling, leucocyte count and biochemical parameters compared with prednisolone groups. Among the different doses used in the study, prednisolone at 1.25 mg/kg in combination with curcumin showed beneficial anti-arthritic activity and also reduced the steroid toxicity. This is evidenced by increase in body weight, low toxicity to immune organs, reduction in leucocyte count, increase in spleen anti-oxidant enzymes and potent inhibition of cytokines in combination group. Therefore, combined treatment of curcumin with low doses of prednisolone may find therapeutic use in arthritis. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Effects of processing adjuvants on traditional Chinese herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Processing of Chinese medicines is a pharmaceutical technique that transforms medicinal raw materials into decoction pieces for use in different therapies. Various adjuvants, such as vinegar, wine, honey, and brine, are used in the processing to enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of crude drugs. Proper processing is essential to ensure the quality and safety of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs. Therefore, sound knowledge of processing principles is crucial to the standardized use of these processing adjuvants and to facilitate the production and clinical use of decoction pieces. Many scientific reports have indicated the synergistic effects of processing mechanisms on the chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics of the active ingredients in TCMs. Under certain conditions, adjuvants change the content of active or toxic components in drugs by chemical or physical transformation, increase or decrease drug dissolution, exert their own pharmacological effects, or alter drug pharmacokinetics. This review summarizes various processing methods adopted in the last two decades, and highlights current approaches to identify the effects of processing parameters on TCMs. Keywords: Adjuvant, Processing, Synergism, Traditional Chinese medicine

  1. Targeting beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors differentially shifts Th1, Th2, and inflammatory cytokine profiles in immune organs to attenuate adjuvant arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne eLorton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR signaling to immune cell targets that typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA. Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB, a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day and/or phentolamine (PHEN, an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN and draining lymph node (DLN cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift Th cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ and DLN (greater IFN-γ cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN and co-treatment (PT promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10 and lowers TNF-α (PT only. In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLNs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and joint

  2. Assessment of side effects induced by injection of different adjuvant/antigen combinations in rabbits and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Koedam, M.A.; Wester, P.W.; Baumans, V.; Claassen, E.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the side effects induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA) and alternative adjuvants combined with different antigens. Rabbits and mice were injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly (rabbits) and intraperitoneally (mice) with different adjuvants (FA, Specol, RIBI, TiterMax,

  3. Evaluation of the concomitant use of methotrexate and curcumin on Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis and hematological indices in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Pinnapureddy, Jyothi; Banji, Otilia J F; Kumar, A Ranjith; Reddy, K Narsi

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the concomitant administration of methotrexate and curcumin for antiarthiritic activity in rats. Arthritis was induced in rats following a single subplantar injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (0.1 ml). Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. Group I and II were control injected with saline and Freund's complete adjuvant (0.1 ml), respectively. Group III arthritic rats were treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) on alternate days. Group IV received methotrexate (MTX) (2 mg/kg, i.p.) once in a week. Group-V and VI were treated with MTX (1 mg/kg, i.p.) once in a week and after 30 min received curcumin (30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, thrice a week, i.p.) from 10(th) to 45(th) days, respectively. Body weight and the paw volume was measured on 9(th), 16(th), 23(rd), 30(th), 37(th), and 45(th) days. Determination of complete blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration was determined on the 46(th) day. An improvement in body weight and a significant (P arthritis was observed with the combination treatment as compared to the positive control. A significant improvement in the hematological profile was also observed in rats treated with curcumin and methotrexate. The study showed a significant anti-arthritic action and protection from hematological toxicity with the combination treatment of methotrexate and curcumin.

  4. Effect of different adjuvant formulations on the immunogenicity and protective effect of a live Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine after intramuscular inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wei, Yanna; Xie, Haidong; Feng, Zhixin; Gan, Yuan; Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Maojun; Bai, Fangfang; Xie, Fang; Shao, Guoqing

    2014-06-05

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) vaccine strain 168 is an intrapulmonically injected attenuated live vaccine that is available in the Chinese market. The aim of this study was to develop suitable adjuvants for this live vaccine to provide effective protection after intramuscular inoculation. Several adjuvant components were screened to assess their toxicity for the live vaccine, and various adjuvant formulations were then designed and prepared. Vaccines supplemented with these adjuvants were used to immunize mice intramuscularly to assess the capacity of the adjuvants to induce a specific immune response. The screened formulations were then evaluated in pigs. Seven of the eight adjuvant components did not affect the viability of the live vaccine, and seven different adjuvant formulations were then designed. In mice, the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant significantly enhanced serum IgG responses against M. hyopneumoniae, while lymphocyte proliferation was enhanced by the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant, the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant. These four adjuvants were evaluated in pigs. Enhancement of specific lymphocyte proliferation responses was observed in the groups vaccinated with the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant. Significant enhancement of serum IgG antibody production was observed before challenge in pigs vaccinated with the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant, while after challenge, all of the animals that received vaccines containing adjuvants had higher antibody concentrations against M. hyopneumoniae than unvaccinated animals. Animals inoculated with a vaccine containing the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant (median score 3.57) or the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant (median score 5.28) had reduced lesion scores compared to unvaccinated animals

  5. Antinociceptive effect of chlorphenesin carbamate in adjuvant arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, S; Aihara, H

    1987-02-01

    The antinociceptive effect of chlorphenesin carbamate (CPC) and mephenesin were examined in adjuvant arthritic rats. In the behavioral study, CPC (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) but not mephenesin (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect, determined using the flexion test. In the electrophysiological study, CPC (25-50 mg/kg, i.v.) but not mephenesin (50 mg/kg, i.v.) depressed the evoked neuronal responses of nociceptive neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus (VB), while the evoked responses of non-nociceptive neurons were not depressed by either CPC (50 mg/kg, i.v.) or mephenesin (50 mg/kg, i.v.). The spontaneous firings of the VB nociceptive neurons were depressed by both CPC (50 mg/kg, i.v.) and mephenesin (50 mg/kg, i.v.). However, mephenesin (50 mg/kg, i.v.) but not CPC (50 mg/kg, i.v.) also depressed the spontaneous firings of the mesencephalic reticular formation (RF), in these adjuvant arthritic rats. These results indicate that CPC but not mephenesin, has an antinociceptive action in adjuvant arthritic rats.

  6. Effects of mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium on behavioral aspects of inflammatory arthritic pain induced by CFA adjuvant

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    Vida Nazemian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis is a type of inflammatory pain and is an autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disease which can lead to hyperalgesia, edema and decreased motor activity in affected area. Mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (MSC-CM has anti-inflammatory mediators which can regulate the immune responses, alleviate inflammatory symptoms and has a paracrine effects too. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium on behavioral aspects of inflammatory arthritic pain which induced by CFA adjuvant.Materials and Methods: Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis (AA was caused by single subcutaneous injection of CFA into the rats hind paw on day zero. MSC-CM was administered daily and intraperitoneal during the 21 days of the study after CFA injection. Hyperalgesia and edema were assessed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 of the study respectively with radian heat and plethysmometer instrument.Results: The results of this study indicated the significant roles of MSC-CM in betterment of inflammatory symptoms such as hyperalgesia and edema during different stages of inflammation caused by CFA. The continuing injection of MSC-CM could reduce the inflammatory symptoms.Conclusion: Long term treatment by MSC-CM can alleviate hyperalgesia and edema and decrease those to the level of the time before induction of inflammation.   

  7. Effect of Sodium Alginate Addition to Resveratrol on Acute Gouty Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while sodium alginate is a common pharmaceutic adjuvant with antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We performed an animal study to investigate the effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis. Methods: Twenty-four SPF Wistar mice were randomized to four groups receiving the combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol, resveratrol alone, colchicine, and placebo, respectively. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by injection of 0.05 ml monosodium urate (MSU solution (25g/mL into ankle joint cavity. IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 levels in both serum and synovial fluid were measured using ELISA. NLRP3 expression in the synovial tissues was measured using western plot. Results: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol significantly reduced synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 when compared with colchicines, and all P values were less than 0.0001. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol was also superior to resveratrol in terms of both serum levels and synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10. In addition, resveratrol, with or without sodium alginate, could reduce NLRP3 expression obviously in the synovial tissues. Conclusion: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol has better effect over colchicines in treating MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis.

  8. Comparing the Effect of Myristica fragrans and Flunixin on Adjuvant-Induced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Najafzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutmeg, Myristica fragrans Houtt, has shown anti-inflammatory properties in some studies. At present experimental study, we evaluated the effect of seed extract of nutmeg on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats in comparison with flunixin meglumine. Materials and Methods: Experimental study was done in six groups of Wistar rats (each group 8 rats as following: Group 1 was kept as control under similar conditions to other groups. All other rats received complete Freund's adjuvant at dose 0.1 ml which injected under skin of foot. Group 2 was received vehicle (normal saline. Group 3 received flunixin intraperitonealy at dose of 2 mg/kg body weight of rats daily for 12 days. Group4 to 6 received extract of nutmeg at dose 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg intraperitonealy and daily for 12 days. Four rats in each group were anesthetized and blood collected for serum analysis on 12th day. The ankle joint prepared for histopathological examination. The remained rats were kept until 21th day. Levels of the cytokine TNF-α in serum was measured using ELISA kit. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α in the group 2 were significantly increased; while nutmeg decreased the elevated TNF-α level in a dose-dependent manner but significantly with 300 mg/kg. The flunixin did not significantly decrease the levels of TNF-α. Nutmeg treated rats manifested pathological events in the ankle joints to a markedly lesser degree. Flunixin prevented pannus formation but it was ineffective in other lesions. Conclusion: Thus, nutmeg protected the joints against cartilage destruction and bone erosion in a dose-dependent manner.

  9. The adjuvant use of calcium fructoborate and borax with etanercept in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Abdulrahman Hussain

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects calcium fructoborate (CFB and sodium tetraborate (NTB as supplements in Iraqi patients with active RA maintained on Etanercept. Materials and Methods: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with 60 days treatment period was carried out at Baghdad Teaching Hospital, Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq. Eighty RA patients were randomized into 3 groups to receive either 220 mg/day calcium fructoborate, 55 mg/day sodium tetraborate in capsule dosage form (equivalent to 6 mg elemental Boron, or placebo formula once daily. Only 72 patients completed the study. All patients were clinically evaluated utilizing DAS28-ESR, SDAI-CRP and CDAI scores at baseline and at the end of the study. Venous blood was obtained at baseline and after 60 days, and utilized for the measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, hemoglobin (Hb, in addition to evaluation of C-reactive protein (hsCRP, TNF-α, interleukin-1α (IL-1α and IL-6. Results: After 60 days, both types of boron significantly improve the clinical scores, in association with significant decrease in the serum levels of ESR, hsCRP, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α with remarkable superiority for CFB over NTB, compared to baseline and placebo-treated group. Conclusion: The use of boron, as adjuvant with etanercept, have potentiated therapeutic outcomes in RA patients, and may be a new strategy to improve treatment and avoid the problems associated with biologics utilized in RA treatment. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(1.000: 58-64

  10. The effect of several adjuvants on glufosinate effectiveness in Conyza species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cerejido, M C; Bastida, F; Menendez, J

    2009-01-01

    The effect of several adjuvants on the effectiveness of glufosinate and the role of adherence and contact angle modifications due to the presence of these adjuvants in the spraying solution on the increase in efficacy observed on the broadleaved weeds Conyza albida and Conyza bonariensis has been determined under laboratory controlled conditions. The adjuvants used on the experiment were a mixture of methyl oleate and palmitate (MO/MP), a dodecylbenzene ammonium sulphonate (DBAS), a paraffinic oil (PO), an alkylglycol ester (AGE), and a lecithin + propionic acid + non ionic surfactant based product (LI-700). Dose-response experiments showed that C. albida displayed higher susceptibility to glufosinate than C. bonariensis, no matter the adjuvant tested. However, none of the mixtures increased the herbicide effectiveness on C. atlbida, with LI 700 and PO showing an antagonistic effect on the herbicide efficacy. On C. bonariensis, MO/MP and DBAS showed significant better results than non-amended glufosinate controls, with LI 700 showing again an antagonistic effect. Both adherence and contact angle studies were inconclusive, since adjuvants with best adherence and contact angle values were not the most effective ones. Therefore, other unknown parameters putatively modified by adjuvants such as herbicide penetration should be questioned.

  11. Inhibition of plasma kallikrein-kinin system to alleviate renal injury and arthritis symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jingyu; Wei, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. Impairment of kidney functions in RA was observed. However, the mechanism of kidney injury of RA has not been clear. Plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) was involved in inflammatory processes in kidney disease. This study aimed to explore the role of plasma KKS in immune reactions and kidney injury of RA. The paw of AA rats appeared to be swelling and redness, the arthritis index was significantly increased on the 18, 21 and 24 d after injection and secondary inflammation in multi-sites was observed. Kidney dysfunction accompanied with inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular epithelial cell mitochondrial swelling and vacuolar degeneration, renal glomerular foot process fusions and glomerular basement membrane thickening were observed in AA rats. The expressions of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in kidney of AA rats were increased. In addition, expressions of BK, PK, B1R and B2R in the renal tissue of AA rats were up-regulated. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were low in kidney. Plasma kallikrein (PK) inhibitor PKSI-527 attenuated arthritis signs and renal damage, and inhibited BK, PK, B1R and B2R expressions. The protein expressions of P38, p-P38 and p-JNK and IFN-γ and TNF-α were inhibited by PKSI-527. These findings demonstrate that plasma KKS activation contributed to the renal injury of AA rats through MAPK signaling pathway. Plasma KKS might be a potential target for RA therapy.

  12. Effect of DETOX as an adjuvant for melanoma vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, N; Oratz, R; Chen, D; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Abeles, G; Bystryn, J C

    1995-04-01

    The identification of effective adjuvants is critical for tumor vaccine development. Towards this end, we examined whether the immunogenicity of a melanoma vaccine could be potentiated by DETOX, an adjuvant consisting of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and purified mycobacterial cell-wall skeleton (CWS). Nineteen patients with resected stage III melanoma were immunized with a polyvalent melanoma antigen vaccine (40 micrograms) admixed with DETOX, q3 wks x 4. Seven patients received vaccine + low-dose DETOX (10 micrograms MPL + 100 micrograms CWS) and 12 received vaccine + high-dose DETOX (20 micrograms MPL + 200 micrograms CWS). A non-randomized control group of 35 patients was treated similarly with 40 micrograms vaccine + alum. One week after the fourth vaccine immunization, melanoma antibodies were increased over baseline in 7/7 (100%) patients treated with vaccine + low-dose DETOX, 8/12 (67%) patients treated with vaccine + high-dose DETOX, and in 4/19 (21%) of vaccine + alum patients. For the entire DETOX group, the antibody response rate was 15/19 (79%) compared 4/19 (21%) in the alum group (p or = 15 mm increase in DTH response over baseline) was induced in 50% of the entire DETOX group versus in 47% of the alum group. Median disease-free (DF) survival for the entire DETOX group was 17.8 months compared with 32.1 months in the alum group (p DETOX markedly potentiated antibody but had little effect on DTH responses to melanoma vaccine immunization. It did not appear to improve disease-free survival in comparison to alum in this non-randomized study.

  13. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter,

  14. Nociception contributes to the formation of myogenic contracture in the early phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis in a rat knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneguchi, Akinori; Ozawa, Junya; Moriyama, Hideki; Yamaoka, Kaoru

    2017-07-01

    It is unknown how joint contracture is generated in inflamed joints. This study aimed to clarify the role of nociception on the formation of joint contracture secondary to arthritis. Monoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into rat knees. On day 5 after CFA injection, the passive extension range of motion (ROM) of knee joints were measured, both before and after myotomy of knee flexors, to evaluate the extent of muscular contribution to CFA-induced joint contracture. The steroidal anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone could prevent ROM restrictions completely, both before and after myotomy. On the other hand, the opioid analgesic drug morphine did not prevent the development of restricted ROM observed after myotomy, while it did before myotomy. This indicates that nociception contributes to joint contracture through alterations in muscular structure (myogenic factors). Next, we tested the hypothesis that nociception-induced reflexive flexor muscle contractions cause myogenic contracture in arthritic joints. To do this, chemical denervation was performed by Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections into knee flexor muscles, simultaneously with CFA injections into the knee. As expected, BTX-A could alleviate ROM restrictions observed before myotomy. These findings suggest that nociceptive-related muscle contractions play an essential role in the formation of joint contracture. Thus, our study indicates that analgesic management during an early stage of joint arthritis is an essential mean to prevent the formation of joint contracture. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1404-1413, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Repeated administration of mazindol reduces spontaneous pain-related behaviors without modifying bone density and microarchitecture in a mouse model of complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced knee arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-González, LE; Martínez-Martínez, A; Vargas-Muñoz, VM; Acosta-González, RI; Plancarte-Sánchez, R; Anaya-Reyes, M; Fernández del Valle-Laisequilla, C; Reyes-García, JG; Jiménez-Andrade, JM

    2017-01-01

    Background The role of dopaminergic system in the development of rheumatoid arthritis-related pain, a major symptom in this disease, has not been explored. Therefore, the anti-nociceptive effect of mazindol, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, was evaluated in a model of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Furthermore, as studies have shown that the dopaminergic system regulates bone metabolism, the effect of mazindol on bone mass and microarchitecture was determined. Methods Adult ICR male mice received intra-articular injections of either CFA or saline into the right knee joint every week. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors (flinching and guarding) and locomotor activity were assessed at day 26 post-first CFA, following which, a single intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered dose of mazindol was given (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg). Then, the antinociceptive effect of a repeated administration of 3 mg/kg mazindol (daily, i.p.; day 15–day 26) was evaluated. Additionally, at day 26, the participation of D1-like, D2-like or opioid receptors in the antinociceptive effect of mazindol was evaluated. The effect of mazindol on bone density and microarchitecture was evaluated by micro-computed tomography. Results Acute administration of mazindol decreased the spontaneous pain-like behaviors in a dose-dependent manner without reducing the knee edema. However, mazindol at 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity; therefore, 3 mg/kg mazindol was used for further studies. Repeated administration of 3 mg/kg mazindol significantly decreased the pain-like behaviors without modifying locomotor activity. The antinociceptive effect of mazindol was blocked by administration of a D2-like receptor antagonist (haloperidol), but not by administration of D1-like receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) or an opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone). Repeated administration of mazindol did not significantly modify the density and microarchitecture of periarticular bone of the arthritic

  16. Adverse effects of methotrexate in three psoriatic arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Hideki; Watarai, Akira; Nakano, Toshiaki; Katayama, Chieko; Nishiyama, Hiromi; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2014-04-01

    Methotrexate, a folic acid analogue with anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects, is commonly used to treat patients with severe destructive psoriatic arthritis and has considerable efficacy. Combined anti-tumor necrosis factor and MTX therapy result in less treatment discontinuation due to adverse events. Despite its efficacy, MTX may result in adverse effects including hepatic, pulmonary, and renal toxicity as well as lymphoproliferative disorders and predisposition to infection. We herein report rare adverse effects of MTX treatment, specifically asymptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis, renal cell carcinoma, and lateral uveitis, in three psoriatic arthritis patients treated with MTX. MTX is an important drug for the treatment for psoriatic arthritis patient, but an awareness of the possible adverse effects is needed.

  17. Effects of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant treatment after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Orobia AJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Antonio J Mateo Orobia,1–3 Paula Casas Pascual,1,4 José Á Cristóbal Bescós,1 Diana Perez García,1,4 Carlos Peiro Embid,1,4 M Ángeles del Buey Sayas,1,4 Valentyna Korobko Kulikova,1 Noelia Lafuente Ojeda5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Quirón, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, 3Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano-Blesa, 5Department of Anesthesiology, Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet, Zaragoza, Spain Purpose: To evaluate the effect of 3% trehalose as an adjuvant in the standard treatment after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.Design: Interventional prospective comparative single-blind study.Setting: Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Quirón Zaragoza, Spain.Methods: A total of 26 eyes (13 patients were included, of which 12 eyes (group 1 received conventional treatment with lubricant drops of hyaluronic acid (0.15% and 14 eyes (group 2 received, additionally, an ophthalmic solution of 3% trehalose. Pre- and postoperative quality-of-life tests and vital stains, tear breakup time, and osmolarity measurements were made.Results: We obtained statistically significant differences between the groups in the Symptom Assessment in Dry Eye test in all visits with respect to severity, and in the postoperative day 1 visit with respect to frequency, in all cases favoring the trehalose treatment. The values of osmolarity were not significantly different between groups. However, we did find significant differences in the Oxford scale in day 90 for the trehalose treatment (P<0.001, and in the National Eye Institute scale in day 30 (P=0.02.Conclusion: The results of this exploratory study indicate that the adjuvant treatment with 3% trehalose could be superior with respect to the standard treatment, with improvements in the objective and subjective parameters of tear quality. Keywords: dry eye syndrome, trehalose

  18. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Ho166 in rats with acute and chronic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Lopez, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of an intraarticular injection of hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 ( Ho 166 HA) was evaluated. For this evaluation 72 antigen-induced arthritis rats; the arthritis was induced by an intraarticular injection of a suspension of ovoalbumin and Freund's adjuvant complete. The 72 rats were divided in three groups: control group, acute arthritis group and chronic arthritis group. The evaluation of the therapeutic effect was achieved by the measuring of the perimeter of the arthritic knee joint in different days after the intraarticular injection of 0,5 μCi of Ho 166 -HA (day 0, 4, 9, 14, 19, 30). Also a biological distribution study was done at 4, 24 and 48 hours in different organs, through the counting of its radiation. The results of the biological distribution showed that a very high percent of the injected activity remains inside the joint, with minimal activity in other organs, which indicates that the extra articular leakage is very low. The evaluation of the articular perimeter, demonstrated that Ho 166 -HA has a therapeutic effect , which was shown by comparing the control group (6.42 ±0.43 cm right knee; 6.14 ±0.31 cm left knee) with the acute arthritis group (5.11 ±0.3 cm right knee; 4.95 ±0.39 cm left knee) with significantly statistical values (p≤0,01); also the control group was compared with the chronic arthritis group (5.6 ±0.56 cm right knee; 5.47 ±0.51 cm left knee), with significantly statistical values (p≤0,01). This therapeutic effect was evident too when evaluating the measure of the articular perimeter in acute and chronic arthritis groups through the time with significantly statistical values (p≤0,01). In conclusion the hydroxyapatite particles labeled with Holmium-166 are biologically stable in vivo and have a therapeutic effect in the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis in rats [es

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease: a cost effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Krijnen (Pieta); C.J. Kaandorp; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); D. van Schaardenburg (Dirkjan); H.J. Moens; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the cost effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for haematogenous bacterial arthritis in patients with joint disease. METHODS: In a decision analysis, data from a prospective study on bacterial arthritis in 4907 patients with joint

  1. Curative effect of ganglioside sodium for adjuvant therapy on acute severe craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Liang Deng

    2017-01-01

    >Conclusions: The adjuvant therapy of ganglioside sodium in patients with severe craniocerebral injury can effectively reduce ICP, improve PbtO2 and alleviate the injuries of neurons and glial cells caused by oxidative stress.

  2. Effects by periodontitis on pristane-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kaja; Lönnblom, Erik; Tour, Gregory; Kats, Anna; Mydel, Piotr; Georgsson, Pierre; Hultgren, Catharina; Kharlamova, Nastya; Norin, Ulrika; Jönsson, Jörgen; Lundmark, Anna; Hellvard, Annelie; Lundberg, Karin; Jansson, Leif; Holmdahl, Rikard; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2016-11-03

    An infection-immune association of periodontal disease with rheumatoid arthritis has been suggested. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-existing periodontitis on the development and the immune/inflammatory response of pristane-induced arthritis. We investigated the effect of periodontitis induced by ligature placement and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) infection, in combination with Fusobacterium nucleatum to promote its colonization, on the development of pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in rats (Dark Agouti). Disease progression and severity of periodontitis and arthritis was monitored using clinical assessment, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT)/intraoral radiographs, antibody response, the inflammatory markers such as α-1-acid glycoprotein (α-1-AGP) and c-reactive protein (CRP) as well as cytokine multiplex profiling at different time intervals after induction. Experimentally induced periodontitis manifested clinically (P periodontitis-induction led to severe arthritis in all rats demonstrating that the severity of arthritis was not affected by the pre-existence of periodontitis. Endpoint analysis showed that 89% of the periodontitis-affected animals were positive for antibodies against arginine gingipain B and furthermore, the plasma antibody levels to a citrullinated P. gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD) peptide (denoted CPP3) were significantly (P periodontitis rats with PIA. Additionally, there was a trend towards increased pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and increased α-1-AGP levels in plasma from periodontitis-challenged PIA rats. Pre-existence of periodontitis induced antibodies against citrullinated peptide derived from PPAD in rats with PIA. However, there were no differences in the development or severity of PIA between periodontitis challenged and periodontitis free rats.

  3. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bradley K. Fritz,1 W. Clint Hoffmann,1 and W. E. Bagley2 Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial...Application Flat Fan Nozzles REFERENCE: Fritz, Bradley K., Hoffmann, W. Clint, and Bagley, W. E., “Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on...factors. Twelve spray-solution treatments were evaluated, ten of which contained a formulated glyphosate product and nine of these con- tained an

  4. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intrathecal adjuvants are added to local anaesthetics to improve the quality of neuraxial blockade and prolong the duration of analgesia during spinal anaesthesia. Used intrathecally, fentanyl improves the quality of spinal blockade as compared to plain bupivacaine and confers a short duration of post ...

  5. Histologic effects of mandibular protrusion splints in antigen-induced TMJ arthritis in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    von Bremen, Julia; K?hler, Kernt; Siudak, Krystyna; Zahner, Daniel; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Background Although it is common clinical practice to treat children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) with functional appliances, the scientific evidence for this is limited. The aim of this study was to study the histologic effects of mandibular protrusion splints in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in rabbits. Methods Twenty-eight ten-week old New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: AO (TMJ arthritis, no splint), AS (TMJ arthritis, mandibular splint ...

  6. The effects of orally administered Bacillus coagulans and inulin on prevention and progression of rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhari, Khadijeh; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Nazifi, Saeid; Sajedianfard, Javad; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics have been considered as an approach to addressing the consequences of different inflammatory disorders. The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic inulin also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. In the present study, an in vivo model was conducted to investigate the possible influences of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin, both in combination and/or separately, on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using arthritis-induced rat model. Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six experimental groups as follows: 1) control: normal healthy rats fed with standard diet, 2) disease control (RA): arthritis-induced rats fed with standard diet, 3) prebiotic (PRE): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin, 4) probiotic (PRO): RA+ 10(9) spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5) synbiotic (SYN): RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin and 10(9) spores/day B. coagulans, and 6) treatment control: (INDO): RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with the listed diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by the biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for fibrinogen (Fn), serum amyloid A (SAA), and TNF-α and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGp) was performed on day 21, 28, and 35 (7, 14 and 21 days post RA induction), respectively. Pretreatment with PRE, PRO, and SYN diets significantly inhibits SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P coagulans and prebiotic inulin can improve the biochemical and clinical parameters of induced RA in rat.

  7. Effect of adjuvants on responses to skin immunization by microneedles coated with influenza subunit vaccine.

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    William C Weldon

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of vaccine delivery to the skin by vaccine-coated microneedles; however there is little information on the effects of adjuvants using this approach for vaccination. Here we investigate the use of TLR ligands as adjuvants with skin-based delivery of influenza subunit vaccine. BALB/c mice received 1 µg of monovalent H1N1 subunit vaccine alone or with 1 µg of imiquimod or poly(I:C individually or in combination via coated microneedle patches inserted into the skin. Poly(I:C adjuvanted subunit influenza vaccine induced similar antigen-specific immune responses compared to vaccine alone when delivered to the skin by microneedles. However, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine elicited higher levels of serum IgG2a antibodies and increased hemagglutination inhibition titers compared to vaccine alone, suggesting enhanced induction of functional antibodies. In addition, imiquimod-adjuvanted vaccine induced a robust IFN-γ cellular response. These responses correlated with improved protection compared to influenza subunit vaccine alone, as well as reduced viral replication and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs. The finding that microneedle delivery of imiquimod with influenza subunit vaccine induces improved immune responses compared to vaccine alone supports the use of TLR7 ligands as adjuvants for skin-based influenza vaccines.

  8. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Free and nanoencapsulated vitamin D3 : effects on E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in an animal model with induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Karine Lanes; da Silveira, Leonardo Lanes; Thorstenberg, Maria Luiza Prates; Cabral, Fernanda Licker; Castilhos, Livia Gelain; Rezer, João Felipe Peres; de Andrade, Diego Fontana; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Einloft Palma, Heloísa; de Andrade, Cinthia Melazzo; Pereira, Renata da Silva; Martins, Nara Maria Beck; Bertonchel Dos Santos, Claudia de Mello; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa

    2016-06-01

    The effect of vitamin D3 in oral solution (VD3 ) and vitamin D3 -loaded nanocapsules (NC-VD3 ) was analysed in animals with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis (AR). For this purpose, we evaluated scores for arthritis, thermal hyperalgesia and paw oedema, as well as histological analyses and measurements of the activity of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) enzymes in rat lymphocytes. Haematological and biochemical parameters were also determined. The doses administered were 120 UI/day of VD3 and 15.84 UI/day of NC-VD3 . Fifteen days after the induction of AR, the groups were treated for 15 days with vitamin D3 . The results demonstrated that VD3 was able to reduce arthritis scores, thermal hyperalgesia and paw oedema in rats with CFA-induced arthritis. However, treatment with NC-VD3 did not reduce arthritis scores. The histological analyses showed that both formulations were able to reduce the inflammatory changes induced by CFA. The activity of E-NTPDase in rat lymphocytes was higher in the AR compared with the control group, while the activity of E-ADA was lower. This effect was reversed after the 15-day treatment. Data from this study indicates that both forms of vitamin D3 seem to contribute to decreasing the inflammatory process induced by CFA, possibly altering the activities of ectoenzymes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The effects promoted by both formulations of vitamin D3 , either in oral solution or nanoencapsulated form, strongly suggests the softening of the inflammatory process induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), possibly altering the E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities. However, it is known that vitamin D has a beneficial effect on the modulation of the immune system components responsible for the inflammatory process. Moreover, the establishment of responses to treatment with vitamin D3 may provide an alternative for inhibiting the proinflammatory

  10. Intranasal Immunization Using Mannatide as a Novel Adjuvant for an Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Its Adjuvant Effect Compared with MF59.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ting Ren

    Full Text Available Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice. Humoral immunity was assessed by both the ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI methods using antigen-specific antibodies. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the IFN-γ level were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. The post-vaccination serum HI antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs for the H1N1 and H3N2 strains, antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA GMTs, mucosal SIgA GMT, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the high-dose PA-adjuvanted vaccine group. The seroconversion rate and the mucosal response for the H3N2 strain were significantly elevated after high-dose PA administration. These adjuvant effects of high-dose PA for the influenza vaccine were comparable with those of the MF59 adjuvant, and abnormal signs or pathological changes were not found in the evaluated organs. In conclusion, PA is a novel mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccination with the ITIV that has safe and effective mucosal adjuvanticity in mice and successfully induces both serum and mucosal antibody responses and a cell-mediated response.

  11. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Ruge, W.; Mueller, W.; Pavelka, K.

    1976-01-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 μCi yttrium 90( 90 Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 μCi. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with 90 Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of 90 Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with 90 Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for 90 Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment. (U.K.)

  12. Effects of yttrium 90 on experimental allergic arthritis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Ruge, W [Sandoz A.G., Basel (Switzerland); Mueller, W; Pavelka, K

    1976-02-01

    Fifteen weeks after allergic arthritis developed in the knee joint of 17 immunized rabbits, 8 animals were given an injection of 200 ..mu..Ci yttrium 90(/sup 90/Y) into the left joint cavity and 7 were injected with 400 ..mu..Ci. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks, and at 6 to 12 months after the injection. Two uninjected animals used as morphological controls were sacrificed 13 weeks after immunization, and showed allergic arthritis had progressed to severe inflammation of the knee joint marked by massive round-cell infiltration, oedema, and proliferation of synovial mesothelium in the synovial villi and joint capsule. Treatment with /sup 90/Y was effective 2 weeks after injection and the disappearance of inflammatory odema and marked regression of round-cell infiltration. This was accompanied by degeneration of the synovial mesothelium and fibrosis of the subsynovial tissue and synovial vessels as a secondary effect of the radiation. In the animals with severe allergic arthritis, the healing effects of /sup 90/Y were more marked than the secondary effects of the radiation which were dose-dependent. Treatment with /sup 90/Y of arthritic knee joints with the lowest effective dose of the isotope - if necessay with repeated application - seems justified. A single large dose does not have a greater therapeutic effect and causes more radiation damage to the joint. In view of the possible secondary effects in the joint, the indication for /sup 90/Y therapy should be restricted, particularly in young patients, to cases of chronic relapsing arthritis unresponsive to other treatment.

  13. Therapeutic effect of Cryptotanshinone on experimental rheumatoid arthritis through downregulating p300 mediated-STAT3 acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Chun; Gao, Hui; Li, Cuixian; Li, Dong; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Min; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Liang

    2017-08-15

    The balance between T helper 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells, plays a critical role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The differentiation of Th17 cells requires the activation of STAT3, which determines the balance of Th17/Treg. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of Cryptotanshinone (CTS) on collagen induced mouse arthritis and explored the underlying mechanisms. Arthritis was induced in DBA/1 mice with bovine collagen type II and complete Freund's adjuvant. CTS was given at 20mgkg -1 d -1 or 60mgkg -1 d -1 by gavage for 6weeks. The immuno-inflammation and joint destruction were evaluated and the balance of Th17/Treg was determined. STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation were detected by western blotting, and the involvement of p300 was investigated by siRNA and plasmid overexpression. CTS at a dose of 60mgkg -1 d -1 ameliorated the inflammation and joint destruction in CIA mice. It improved Th17/Treg imbalance, and inhibited both acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3. CTS reduced p300 expression and its binding to STAT3, but increased phosphorylated AMPK. Knockdown of p300 mimicked the inhibitory effect of CTS on STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation, which could be partially rescued by overexpression of p300-WT, but not p300-dominant negative (DN) construct. Our study suggested that the anti-arthritis effects of CTS were attained through suppression of p300-mediated STAT3 acetylation. Our data suggest that CTS might be a potential immune modulator for RA treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Repeated administration of mazindol reduces spontaneous pain-related behaviors without modifying bone density and microarchitecture in a mouse model of complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced knee arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robledo-González LE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available LE Robledo-González,1 A Martínez-Martínez,1 VM Vargas-Muñoz,1 RI Acosta-González,2 R Plancarte-Sánchez,3 M Anaya-Reyes,4 C Fernández del Valle-Laisequilla,5 JG Reyes-García,6 JM Jiménez-Andrade1 1Laboratorio de Farmacología, 2Departamento de Análisis Clínicos, Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Reynosa-Aztlán, UAT, Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico; 3Departamento de Anestesiología, Terapia Intensiva y Clínica del Dolor, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Investigación Clínica y Farmacovigilancia, 5Investigación Clínica y Farmacovigilancia, Productos Medix, S.A. de C.V., Mexico City, Mexico; 6Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico Background: The role of dopaminergic system in the development of rheumatoid arthritis-related pain, a major symptom in this disease, has not been explored. Therefore, the antinociceptive effect of mazindol, a dopamine uptake inhibitor, was evaluated in a model of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis. Furthermore, as studies have shown that the dopaminergic system regulates bone metabolism, the effect of mazindol on bone mass and microarchitecture was determined.Methods: Adult ICR male mice received intra-articular injections of either CFA or saline into the right knee joint every week. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors (flinching and guarding and locomotor activity were assessed at day 26 post-first CFA, following which, a single intraperitoneally (i.p. administered dose of mazindol was given (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg. Then, the antinociceptive effect of a repeated administration of 3 mg/kg mazindol (daily, i.p.; day 15–day 26 was evaluated. Additionally, at day 26, the participation of D1-like, D2-like or opioid receptors in the antinociceptive effect of mazindol was evaluated. The effect of mazindol on bone density and microarchitecture was evaluated by micro

  15. Effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal versus lobular breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truin, W; Voogd, A C; Vreugdenhil, G; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M; Siesling, S; Roumen, R M

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the lack of response of invasive lobular breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we questioned the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in relation to histology. Women with primary nonmetastatic invasive ductal or (mixed type) lobular breast cancer, aged 50-70 years, diagnosed between 1995 and 2008, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and followed until January 1, 2010. The patients were divided in two groups: one group receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy only and the other receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy in combination with adjuvant chemotherapy. In total, 19,609 patients had ductal cancer and 3685 had lobular cancer. The 10-year overall survival rate in ductal cancer when treated with hormonal therapy alone was 69%, compared with 74% with the combination therapy (P lobular cancer, 10-year survival rates were 68% after hormonal treatment alone and 66% after the combination therapy (P = 0.45). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in ductal cancer after combination therapy was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.76; P lobular cancer was 1.00 (95% CI 0.82-1.21; P = 0.97). Adjuvant chemotherapy seems to confer no additional beneficial effects in postmenopausal patients with pure or mixed type lobular breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy.

  16. Electroacupuncture Inhibition of Hyperalgesia in Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis: Involvement of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Dopamine Receptor Subtypes in Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Shou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA has been regarded as an alternative treatment for inflammatory pain for several decades. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of EA have not been thoroughly clarified. Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors are related to pain relief. Accumulating evidence has shown that the CB1 and dopamine systems sometimes interact and may operate synergistically in rat striatum. To our knowledge, dopamine D1/D2 receptors are involved in EA analgesia. In this study, we found that repeated EA at Zusanli (ST36 and Kunlun (BL60 acupoints resulted in marked improvements in thermal hyperalgesia. Both western blot assays and FQ-PCR analysis results showed that the levels of CB1 expression in the repeated-EA group were much higher than those in any other group (P=0.001. The CB1-selective antagonist AM251 inhibited the effects of repeated EA by attenuating the increases in CB1 expression. The two kinds of dopamine receptors imparted different actions on the EA-induced CB1 upregulation in AA rat model. These results suggested that the strong activation of the CB1 receptor after repeated EA resulted in the concomitant phenomenon of the upregulation of D1 and D2 levels of gene expression.

  17. Adjuvant effect in aquaculture fish of cell-wall glycolipids isolated from acid-fast bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Araki, Kyosuke; Nishimura, Sayaka; Kuriyama, Hideki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Atsushi

    2018-08-01

    Mycobacteriosis and nocardiosis in cultured fish caused by infections with acid-fast bacteria, are responsible for large economic losses globally. In this study, we suggest a novel adjuvant using glycolipids that activates host immune systems. The immune response to glycolipids stimulation was investigated using ginbuna crucian carp. Ginbuna vaccinated with FKC (formalin-killed cells) + glycolipids isolated from Mycobacterium sp., upregulated inflammatory- and Th1-related cytokines, and a DTH (delayed-type hypersensitivity) response was confirmed only in ginbuna vaccinated with FKC + glycolipids. These observations suggest that glycolipids activated host innate and cell-mediated immunity. Subsequently, we evaluated the adjuvant effect of glycolipids against amberjack nocardiosis. In a challenge test, a higher survival rate was observed in amberjack vaccinated with FKC + glycolipids emulsified with conventional oil adjuvant than in fish vaccinated with FKC + oil adjuvant without glycolipids. Therefore, glycolipids potentially could be used as a practical, economical and safe adjuvant for aquaculture fish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of adjuvants on IgG subclasses elicited by virus-like Particles

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    Visciano Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus-Like Particles (VLPs represent an efficient strategy to present and deliver conformational antigens to the immune system, inducing both arms of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, their particulate structure surrounded by cell membrane provides an adjuvanted effect to VLP-based immunizations. In the present study, the elicitation of different patterns of IgG subclasses by VLPs, administered in CpG ODN1826 or poly(I:C adjuvants, has been evaluated in an animal model. Results Adjuvanted VLPs elicited a higher titer of total specific IgG compared to VLPs alone. Furthermore, while VLPs alone induced a balanced TH2 pattern, VLPs formulated with either adjuvant elicited a TH1-biased IgG subclasses (IgG2a and IgG3, with poly(I:C more potent than CpG ODN1826. Conclusions The results confirmed that adjuvants efficiently improve antigen immunogenicity and represent a suitable strategy to skew the adaptive immune response toward the differentiation of the desired T helper subset, also using VLPs as antigen.

  19. Effect of synthetic adjuvants of biological activity of spleen proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartasheva, A.L.; Yuferova, N.V.; Drozhennikov, V.A.; Orlova, E.B.; Perevezentseva, O.S.; Filatov, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration to mice of synthetic adjuvants of a polyanion type increases the spleen mass by 500% and rises the content of proteins with activity of inhibitor of DNAase 1. A protein fraction isolated from the spleen of treated animals administered to exposed (7.7 Gy) mice alone or in a combination with exogenous DNA increases survival up to 61.1 and 80.5%, respectively, as opposed to 36.6% in the case of administration of proteins from intact animals, or 8.3% in the control (no treatment). The protein fraction from treated animals administered to mice exposed to 5.1-5.5 Gy accelerates the recovery of hemopoesis and immune response better than proteins of intact animals

  20. The Effects of Different Concentrations of Epinephrine Adjuvant to Levobupivacaine on Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Yeyen

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Epinephrine added to levobupivacaine in low concentrations accelerates wound healing in the early phase by stimulating fibrosis, and has no adverse effects on surgical sites. Long-term studies are needed for late effects of epinephrine adjuvant levobupivacaine. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 92-96

  1. Carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate esters are safe and effective adjuvants for humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, Luuk A Th; Platenburg, Peter Paul L I; Bajramovic, Jeffrey; Veth, Jennifer; Sauerwein, Robert; Roeffen, Will; Pohl, Marie; van Amerongen, Geert; Stittelaar, Koert J; van den Bosch, Johannes F

    2017-05-31

    Carbohydrate fatty acid sulphate esters (CFASEs) formulated in a squalane-in-water emulsion are effective adjuvants for humoral responses to a wide range of antigens in various animal species but rise in body temperature and local reactions albeit mild or minimal hampers application in humans. In rabbits, body temperature increased 1°C one day after intramuscular (IM) injection, which returned to normal during the next day. The effect increased with increasing dose of CFASE but not with the number of injections (up to 5). Antigen enhanced the rise in body temperature after booster immunization (P100-fold after the second immunization. In ferrets immunized with 7.5μg of inactivated influenza virus A/H7N9, CMS adjuvant gave 100-fold increase in HAI antibody titres after the first and 25-fold after the second immunisation, which were 10-20-fold higher than with the MF59-like AddaVax adjuvant. In both models, a single immunisation with CMS adjuvant revealed similar or higher titres than two immunisations with either benchmark, without detectable systemic and local adverse effects. Despite striking chemical similarities with monophospholipid A (MPL), CMS adjuvant did not activate human TLR4 expressed on HEK cells. We concluded that the synthetic CMS adjuvant is a promising candidate for poor immunogens and single-shot vaccines and that rise in body temperature, local reactions or activation of TLR4 is not a pre-requisite for high adjuvanticity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. [The effect of aluminum adjuvant and immunization schedule on immunogenicity of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ming; Xie, Bing-Feng; Cao, Han; Tong, Shao-Yong; Wang, Jun-Rong; Yu, Xiao-Ping; Tang, Yang; Yang, Jing-Ran; Sun, Ming-Bo

    2013-04-01

    To study the effect of aluminume adjuvant and immunization schedule on immunogenicity of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Four batches of Sabin IPV were produced by different concentrations of type 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus and administrated on three-dose schedule at 0, 1, 2 months and 0, 2, 4 months on rats. Serum samples were collected one month after each dose and neutralizing antibody titers against three types poliovirus were determined by micro-neutralization assay. The GMTs of neutralizing antibodies against three types poliovirus increased significantly and the seropositivity rates were 100% in all groups after 3 doses. There was no significant difference between two immunization schedules, and the 0, 2, 4 month schedule could induce higher level neutralizing antibody compared to the 0, 1, 2 month schedule. The groups with aluminum adjuvant could induce higher level neutralizing antibody compared to the groups without adjuvant. Aluminum djuvant and immunization schedule could improve the immunogenicity of Sabin IPV.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of herbal preparation EM 1201 in adjuvant arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laimis Akramas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study suggests that EM 1201 has protective activity against arthritis and demonstrated its potential beneficiary effect analogical to diclofenac. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of EM 1201 in rats with AA support the need of further investigations by using it as supplementary agent alone or together with other anti-arthritic drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Cost-utility and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; van Dongen, Johanna M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Huijsmans, Rosalie; Hellendoorn-van Vreeswijk, Jeannette A. J. H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    A home-based, low-intensity physical activity program (Onco-Move) and a supervised, moderate-to-high intensity, combined resistance and aerobic exercise program (OnTrack) have proven to be effective in maintaining physical fitness and reducing fatigue among breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant

  5. Effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal versus lobular breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truin, W.; Voogd, A.C.; Vreugdenhil, G.; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M.; Siesling, Sabine; Roumen, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background On the basis of the lack of response of invasive lobular breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we questioned the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy in relation to histology. Patients and methods Women with primary nonmetastatic invasive ductal or (mixed type) lobular breast

  6. Immunological and antitumor effects of IL-23 as a cancer vaccine adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overwijk, Willem W.; de Visser, Karin E.; Tirion, Felicia H.; de Jong, Laurina A.; Pols, Thijs W. H.; van der Velden, Yme U.; van den Boorn, Jasper G.; Keller, Anna M.; Buurman, Wim A.; Theoret, Marc R.; Blom, Bianca; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Kruisbeek, Ada M.; Kastelein, Robert A.; Haanen, John B. A. G.

    2006-01-01

    The promising, but modest, clinical results of many human cancer vaccines indicate a need for vaccine adjuvants that can increase both the quantity and the quality of vaccine-induced, tumor-specific T cells. In this study we tested the immunological and antitumor effects of the proinflammatory

  7. Carbohydrate fatty acid monosulphate esters are safe and effective adjuvants for humoral responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, L.A.T.; Platenburg, P.; Bajramovic, J.; Veth, J.; Sauerwein, R.; Roeffen, W.; Pohl, M.; Amerongen, G. van; Stittelaar, K.J.; Bosch, J.F. van den

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid sulphate esters (CFASEs) formulated in a squalane-in-water emulsion are effective adjuvants for humoral responses to a wide range of antigens in various animal species but rise in body temperature and local reactions albeit mild or minimal hampers application in humans. In

  8. The effects of pressure on arthritic knees in a rat model of CFA-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sung Tae; Lee, Chang-Hyung; Choi, Hyeunseok; Shin, Yong Il; Ha, Ki Tae; Ye, Hanna; Shim, Hyun Bo

    2013-01-01

    Pain is influenced by weather changes under certain circumstances, and inflammatory pain in animal models is ameliorated by pressure, but the underlying mechanism of atmospheric pressure has not been clearly elucidated. To examine the effect of pressure on pain in an arthritic animal model. Controlled animal study. Laboratory animal study. Following an injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into one side of a knee joint, 32 rats were assigned randomly to 2 groups and either placed under 1 or 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) in a hyperbaric chamber for 5 hours. The pain levels were assessed daily for up to 2 weeks post-injection to determine the changes in weight bearing (WB) of the affected limbs. In addition, the levels of gelatinase, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression in the synovial fluids of the knees were analyzed. After arthritis induction, the rats in the 1 ATA group showed reduced WB of the affected limbs (CFA injection in the 1 ATA group. However, repetitive exposure to 2.5 ATA significantly reduced this ratio in the 2.5 ATA group. Although a sufficient number of samples were used to support the hypothesis that high atmospheric pressure improves a painful condition in this study, an additional larger-scale study will be needed to confirm these findings. Exposure to elevated pressures appears to relieve arthritic pain for extended periods by reducing the inflammatory process and should be considered as a possible alternative pain-reducing therapy.

  9. Estimating the adjuvant chemotherapy effect in elderly stage II and III colon cancer patients in an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Yeol; Cha, In-Ho; Ahn, Joong Bae; Kim, Nam Kyu; Rha, Sun Young; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Roh, Jae Kyung; Shin, Sang Joon

    2013-05-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has been known as a standard treatment for patients with resected colon cancer. However, in elderly colon cancer patients, the characteristics of patients are heterogeneous with regard to life expectancy and comorbidities. Thus, with regard to the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer, it is difficult to extrapolate data of clinical trials from the younger into the older general population. Data for 382 elderly colon cancer patients were analyzed: 217 in Stage II and 165 in Stage III. The efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated in elderly colon cancer patients after a match by the propensity score method. For matched patients with Stage II colon cancer, there was no significant efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in the risk of death during all follow-up periods (P-value, 0.06-0.37). Though there was a tendency that the adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the death rate during the follow-up periods, it was not statistically significant. In the case of Stage III, the adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly effective in matched patients for 5-year (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.90) and overall survival (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.94). Adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients with Stage II colon cancer is not effective, whereas elderly patients with Stage III with adjuvant chemotherapy appear to have a better survival rate in the general population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the C-reactive protein level in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Bartels, Else M.; Bliddal, Henning

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs.......To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs....

  11. Nanoparticulate Tubular Immunostimulating Complexes: Novel Formulation of Effective Adjuvants and Antigen Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Sanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New generation vaccines, based on isolated antigens, are safer than traditional ones, comprising the whole pathogen. However, major part of purified antigens has weak immunogenicity. Therefore, elaboration of new adjuvants, more effective and safe, is an urgent problem of vaccinology. Tubular immunostimulating complexes (TI-complexes are a new type of nanoparticulate antigen delivery systems with adjuvant activity. TI-complexes consist of cholesterol and compounds isolated from marine hydrobionts: cucumarioside A2-2 (CDA from Cucumaria japonica and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG from marine algae or seagrass. These components were selected due to immunomodulatory and other biological activities. Glycolipid MGDG from marine macrophytes comprises a high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, which demonstrate immunomodulatory properties. CDA is a well-characterized individual compound capable of forming stable complex with cholesterol. Such complexes do not possess hemolytic activity. Ultralow doses of cucumariosides stimulate cell as well as humoral immunity. Therefore, TI-complexes comprising biologically active components turned out to be more effective than the strongest adjuvants: immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs and complete Freund’s adjuvant. In the present review, we discuss results published in series of our articles on elaboration, qualitative and quantitative composition, ultrastructure, and immunostimulating activity of TI-complexes. The review allows immersion in the history of creating TI-complexes.

  12. The therapeutic effect of probiotics on rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdelrahman Tarek; Khattab, Mohammed; Ahmed, Ali Mahmoud; Turk, Tarek; Sakr, Nora; M Khalil, Adham; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Sawaf, Bisher; Hirayama, Kenji; Huy, Nguyen Tien

    2017-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which probiotics appears to have an immune modulating action along with decreased inflammatory process. Therefore, we aim to investigate the efficacy of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. A comprehensive literature search was performed using nine databases including PubMed and Web of Science. Interesting data was extracted and meta-analyzed. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane Collaboration's tool. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD 42016036769). We found nine studies involving 361 patients who met our eligibility criteria. Our meta-analysis indicated that pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly lower in the probiotics compared with the placebo group (standardized mean difference = - 0.708; 95% confidence interval (CI) - 1.370 to 0.047, P = 0.036). However, there was no difference between probiotics and placebo in disease activity score (mean difference 0.023; 95% CI - 0.584 to 0.631, P = 0.940). Probiotics lowered pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 in RA; however, its clinical effect is still unclear. Hence, many high-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are still needed to prove this effect.

  13. The effects of orally administered Bacillus coagulans and inulin on prevention and progression of rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Abhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics have been considered as an approach to addressing the consequences of different inflammatory disorders. The spore-forming probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects in both animals and humans. The prebiotic inulin also potentially affects the immune system as a result of the change in the composition or fermentation profile of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Objective: In the present study, an in vivo model was conducted to investigate the possible influences of probiotic B. coagulans and prebiotic inulin, both in combination and/or separately, on the downregulation of immune responses and the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, using arthritis-induced rat model. Design: Forty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were randomly categorized into six experimental groups as follows: 1 control: normal healthy rats fed with standard diet, 2 disease control (RA: arthritis-induced rats fed with standard diet, 3 prebiotic (PRE: RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin, 4 probiotic (PRO: RA+ 109 spores/day B. coagulans by orogastric gavage, 5 synbiotic (SYN: RA+ 5% w/w long-chain inulin and 109 spores/day B. coagulans, and 6 treatment control: (INDO: RA+ 3 mg/kg/day indomethacin by orogastric gavage. Feeding with the listed diets started on day 0 and continued to the end of study. On day 14, rats were injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA to induce arthritis. Arthritis activity was evaluated by the biochemical parameters and paw thickness. Biochemical assay for fibrinogen (Fn, serum amyloid A (SAA, and TNF-α and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (α1 AGp was performed on day 21, 28, and 35 (7, 14 and 21 days post RA induction, respectively. Results: Pretreatment with PRE, PRO, and SYN diets significantly inhibits SAA and Fn production in arthritic rats (P < 0.001. A significant decrease in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, was seen in the PRE, PRO, and SYN

  14. Side Effects of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Patients With Testicular Seminoma Stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamulin, M.; Grgic, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the side effects of adjuvant radiotherapy of testicular seminoma stage I patients were followed up in the period between 13 to 84 months (median 28 months). The most frequent side effects in these patients during radiotherapy were gastrointestinal problems (nausea/vomiting), psychologic and cognitive problems and minor sexual problems. The reported side effects were treated by antimmimetics and anxiolytics. After radiotherapy, the side effects persisted in 6 % of patients but therapy was needed only in few. Healthy children were born to 76 % of patients in the age group 18 - 39 years after radiotherapy. The present study shows that adjuvant irradiation of paraaortal lymph nodes with total a dose of 24 Gy in 16 daily fractions in testicular seminoma patients causes acceptable side effects with acceptable quality of life and fertility, however in conditions of individual approach and family consulting. (author)

  15. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  16. [Identification of Zaocys type II collagen and its effect on arthritis in mice with collagen-induced arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Feng, Zhi-tao; Zhu, Jun-qing; Wu, Xiang-hui; Li, Juan

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the homology of Zaocys type 1I collagen ( ZC II ) with the C II collagen from other species, and to investigate the effect of ZC II on arthritis in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). ZC II was purified with restriction pepsin digestion. Then SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry were used to identify the protein,the homology of the ZC II peptide was analyzed with Mass Spectrometry. The model of CIA mice were induced by subcutaneous injection of Chicken C II into male C57BL/6 mice from the base of the tails. After immunization,ZC II [H,M,L:40,20 and 10 μg/(kgd) ]was administered orally to mice from day 21 to 28 accordingly. The severity of the arthritis in each limb was evaluated using a macroscopic scoring system, and his- topathological change of joint was observed by light microscope with HE staining. The molecular weight of ZC II protein deter- mined by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis was between 110 kD and 140 kD, and UV absorption peak appeared at around 230 nm in wave- length. The peptide mass fingerprinting(PMF) of the purified protein by Mass Spectrometry analysis showed that it had at least 4 peptides matched with other species,and the protein score was greater than 95%. Compared with normal group,the CIA model group had significantly higher scores for arthritis and histopathological changes (P II peptide-treated mice with CIA were significantly lower than the mice from CIA model group(P II has high homology with the C II from other species. Oral administration of ZC II can suppress arthritis in mice with CIA and ameliorate the histopathological changes of the joint.

  17. A cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant therapies for resected adenocarcinoma of the rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several prospective randomized trials have shown a significant survival advantage with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy following surgical resection of adenocarcinoma of the rectum. Recent and ongoing trials are evaluating the role of modulated and/or protracted venous infusion [PVI] chemotherapy with pelvic irradiation [PRT]. The economic implications of additional therapies compared with their incremental benefits have not been rigorously analyzed. This study attempts to assess the incremental cost effectiveness of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone, and secondly, adjuvant therapy with PVI delivery systems versus rapid infusion. METHODS: A Markov model was constructed to describe the natural history of rectal carcinoma [stage B2, C] following surgical resection in a hypothetical cohort of 60 year old patients. This model was used to perform two sets of comparisons: [1] surgery alone versus adjuvant bolus fluorouracil [5-FU] with PRT, and [2] bolus 5-FU with PRT versus PVI 5-FU with PRT. Relapse rates and overall survival were derived from an early GITSG trial for the first comparison and from the NCCTG 86-47-51 trial for the second comparison. Medicare reimbursement rates and reports from health maintenance organizations were used to obtain net medical costs of adjuvant treatments, routine follow-up, advanced recurrent disease, and terminal illness as a result of rectal carcinoma. Total years of life and medical costs were projected over an 8-year time horizon for the first comparison [GITSG data] and over a 5-year time horizon for the second comparison [NCCTG data]. Monetary and nonmonetary benefits were discounted at 5% per year. Adjustments for quality of life, costs of adverse effects from treatment, and indirect costs of disease or treatment were not included in this current analysis. RESULTS: The main survival and economic outcomes for each treatment arm in the two comparisons are reported in the table below. For the first comparison

  18. Avastin exhibits therapeutic effects on collagen-induced arthritis in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Da, Gula; Li, Hongbin; Zheng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    Avastin is the monoclonal antibody for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This study aimed to investigate therapeutic effect of Avastin on type II collagen-induced arthritis. Type II chicken collagen was injected into the tails of Wistar rats, and 60 modeled female rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): Avastin group, Etanercept group, and control group. Arthritis index and joint pad thickness were scored, and the pathology of back metapedes was analyzed. The results showed that compared to control group, the arthritis index, target-to-non-target ratio, synovial pathological injury index, serum levels of VEGF and tumor necrosis factor alpha, and VEGF staining were decreased significantly 14 days after Avastin or Etanercept treatment, but there were no significant differences between Avastin group and Etanercept group. These data provide evidence that Avastin exhibits similar effects to Etanercept to relieve rheumatoid arthritis in rat model and suggest that Avastin is a promising therapeutic agent for rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Safety and effectiveness of MF-59 adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven

    2015-06-08

    The squalene oil-in-water emulsion MF-59 adjuvant was developed initially to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in populations such as children and adults with known suboptimal response. Developed in the 1990s, it was initially licensed in Europe for use in seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly. Since that time, both Avian and p2009H1N1 vaccines have also been developed. Overall, more than 30,000 individuals have participated in clinical trials of MF-59 adjuvanted vaccine and more than 160 million doses of licensed vaccine have been administered. Safety and effectiveness data from clinical trials and observation studies attest to the safety of MF-59 and to its ability to enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in children and the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on skin dendritic cell functions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Mezard, Pierre; Chavagnac, Cyril; Bosset, Sophie; Ionescu, Marius; Peyron, Eric; Kaiserlian, Dominique; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Bérard, Frédéric

    2003-10-15

    Psychological stress affects the pathophysiology of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanisms by which stress could modulate immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we report that application of a psychological stress before immunization exerts an adjuvant effect on dendritic cell (DC), resulting in increased primary and memory Ag-specific T cell immune responses. Acute stress dramatically enhanced the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to haptens, which is mediated by CD8(+) CTLs. This effect was due to increased migration of skin DCs, resulting in augmented CD8(+) T cell priming in draining lymph nodes and enhanced recruitment of CD8(+) T cell effectors in the skin upon challenge. This adjuvant effect of stress was mediated by norepinephrine (NE), but not corticosteroids, as demonstrated by normalization of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and DC migratory properties following selective depletion of NE. These results suggest that release of NE by sympathetic nerve termini during a psychological stress exerts an adjuvant effect on DC by promoting enhanced migration to lymph nodes, resulting in increased Ag-specific T cell responses. Our findings may open new ways in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, e.g., psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  1. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy on quality of life among breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, G.; Bolund, C.; Fornander, T.; Rutqvist, L.E.; Sjoeden, P.-O.

    1991-01-01

    Late effects of adjuvant treatment on perceived health and quality of life were assessed through a questionnaire mailed to 448 premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients, free from recurrence 2-10 years after primary therapy. The patients had been randomised to postoperative radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy as adjuncts to primary surgery. The differences between the two treatments were generally small. However, the radiotherapy patients had significantly greater problems with decreased stamina, symptoms related to the operation scar and anxiety. The chemotherapy patients had significantly more problems with smell aversion. Activity level inside and outside the home, anxiousness and depressive symptoms were similar in both groups. The chemotherapy patients scored their overall quality of life higher than the radiotherapy patients. (author)

  2. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy and postoperative radiotherapy on quality of life among breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, G.; Bolund, C.; Fornander, T.; Rutqvist, L.E. (Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)); Sjoeden, P.-O. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1991-09-01

    Late effects of adjuvant treatment on perceived health and quality of life were assessed through a questionnaire mailed to 448 premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients, free from recurrence 2-10 years after primary therapy. The patients had been randomised to postoperative radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy as adjuncts to primary surgery. The differences between the two treatments were generally small. However, the radiotherapy patients had significantly greater problems with decreased stamina, symptoms related to the operation scar and anxiety. The chemotherapy patients had significantly more problems with smell aversion. Activity level inside and outside the home, anxiousness and depressive symptoms were similar in both groups. The chemotherapy patients scored their overall quality of life higher than the radiotherapy patients. (author).

  3. Endogenous IL-22 Plays a Dual Role in Arthritis: Regulation of Established Arthritis via IFN-γ Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justa, Shivali; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Sarkar, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Objective IL-22 is elevated in patients with inflammatory arthritis and correlates with disease activity. IL-22 deficient mice have reduced incidence of arthritis. Recombinant IL-22 restrains progression of arthritis via increase in IL-10 responses when administered prior to onset of arthritis. These findings imply a possible dual role of IL-22 in inflammatory arthritis depending on the phase of arthritis. Experiments outlined here were designed to elucidate the contribution of endogenous IL-22 before and after the onset of arthritis. Methods Collagen induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in DBA1 or IFN-γ deficient mice following immunization with collagen and complete Freund's adjuvant. Anti-IL-22 antibody or isotype control were administered prior to or after onset of arthritis and disease progression assessed by clinical scoring and histopathology. IL-22, IL-17 and IFN-γ responses were measured by ELISA and flowcytometry. Anti-collagen antibody responses were analyzed by ELISA. Expression of IL-22R1 in CD4+ cells was elucidated by flowcytometry and real time PCR. Results Collagen specific IL-22 responses were expanded during arthritis and IL-22 producing cells were discrete from IL-17 or IFN-γ producing cells. Neutralization of IL-22 after onset of arthritis resulted in significant increase in Th1 responses and significantly reduced severity of arthritis. CD4+ cells from arthritic mice showed increased surface expression of IL-22R1. In vitro, CD4+T cells cultured with antigen presenting cells in the presence or absence of IL-22 suppressed or induced IFN-γ, respectively. The protective effect of anti-IL-22 was reversed in IFN-γ deficient mice. Moreover, administration of anti-IL-22 prior to onset of arthritis augmented arthritis severity. Conclusion We show for the first time that IL-22 plays a dual role: protective prior to the onset of arthritis and pathogenic after onset of arthritis. The pathogenic effect of IL-22 is dependent on suppression of IFN

  4. Effect of some adjuvants application on enhancing sulfosulfuron herbicide performance on Phalaris minor- Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays environmental pollution by pesticides application is a major concern for health. Efficiency of many herbicides can be increased by adding adjuvants to the spray solution. Therefore greenhouse study was conducted during 2014 to determine the efficacy of three adjuvants (Citogate, Castor oil and Canola oil at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 (%v/v with 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g a.i\\ha of sulfosulfuron herbicide on littleseed canary grass. Results showed that the adjuvants enhanced the efficacy of sulfosulfuron in decreasing the dry weights of littleseed canary grass. Performance of herbicide was increased with enhancing its concentrations. Measured ED50 and ED90 concentrations of sulfosulfuron in control were 16.74 and 32.22 g a.i\\ha, respectively. Whereas the values for Citogate 0.2 (%v\\v, was 5.86 and 13.34 g a.i\\ha, respectively. The addition of Citogate and Castor oil had the highest and lowest effect on sulfosulfuron efficacy against Littleseed canary grass. In conclusion, the study revealed that Citogate concentrations had powerful effects on herbicide efficacy followed by Canola oil.

  5. Effects of petroleum oil and soybean oil in adjuvants for postemergence herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean oil is an abundant and renewable resource through annual crop production. The replacement of paraffin oil with soybean oil in agricultural adjuvants would create an additional market for surplus soybeans and help alleviate dependence on non-renewable petroleum oil. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to compare effects of a petroleum oil-emulsifier blend (POC) and a soybean oil-emulsifier blend (SBOC) as adjuvants for postemergence herbicides. In field experiments, little difference was observed between POC and SBOC in the ability to enhance control of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.) with 0.6 or 1.1 kg/ha bentazon [3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide]. Control of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) with 0.1 kg/ha sethoxydim {2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one} was enhanced more by POC than by SBOC. The effects of adjuvants and relative humidity (RH) on absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the methyl ester of 14 C-haloxyfop {2-[4-[[3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid} in corn (Zea mays L.) were investigated. Addition of 1.0% (v/v) POC to the treatment solution resulted in greater foliar absorption and translocation of 14 C than addition of 1.0% (v/v) SBOC

  6. Effect of adjuvant lithium on thyroxine (T4) concentration after radioactive iodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Emmanuel NiiBoye; Vangu, Mboyo-Di-Tamba Heben Willy [University of the Witwatersrand, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiation Sciences, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-10-15

    To study the effect of adjuvant lithium on serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in patients treated with radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy in our environment. This was a prospective simple randomized comparative, experimental cohort study of patients with hyperthyroidism referred for RAI ablation therapy in the two main academic hospitals in Johannesburg between February 2014 and September 2015. Amongst the 163 participants in the final analysis, 75 received RAI alone and 88 received RAI with lithium. The difference in mean T4 concentrations at 3 months between the RAI-only group (17.67 pmol/l) and the RAI with lithium group (11.55 pmol/l) was significant with a small effect size (U = 2328.5, Z = -2.700, p = 0.007, r = 0.01). Significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed as early as 1 month after RAI (p = 0.0001) in the RAI with lithium group, but in the RAI-only group, significant decreases in T4 concentrations were observed only at 3 months after RAI therapy (p = 0.000). Women and patients with Graves' disease who received RAI with adjuvant lithium also showed significant decreases in T4 concentrations at 1 month (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Adjuvant lithium leads to an earlier and better response to RAI therapy with lower T4 concentrations that are achieved earlier. This earlier response and decrease in T4 concentrations were noted in patients with Graves' disease and nodular goitre, and in women with hyperthyroidism who received adjuvant lithium therapy. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation Effect of Adjuvant on Mesosulfuron+Iodosulfuron Herbicide Performance on Littleseed Canarygrass Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. kargar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adjuvant application is one of the most important ways to increase herbicide efficacy and decrease environmental damaging effects of herbicides. In general, It has displayed that a very few of the spray droplets retained on the surface of leaf plants and the majority of them bounce off the leaf surface. Therefore, in spraying processes, adjuvant designed to enhance the absorbing, emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, sticking, wetting, or penetrating properties of pesticides. Adjuvant are most often used with herbicides to help a pesticide spread over a leaf surface and penetrate the waxy cuticle of a leaf or to penetrate through the small hairs present on a leaf surface. Surfactants and crop oils are two types of adjuvant that are used for increasing efficacy of herbicides. In many cases, significant increases have been observed in biological activity with the addition of surfactants or crop oils. For example, the performance of specific graminicides and some sulfonylureas is usually increased by the addition of tank-mix oils. It is generally accepted that the benefit of oils is related to their ability to increase the drying period of droplets during their fly time before their impact on the plants, to improve the spreading of the deposit on difficult-to-wet targets (mainly Graminaceae, to act as solubilizing agents, and above all to enhance the penetration of herbicides into the plants. Among commercially available adjuvants, emulsified vegetable oils have been shown to increase droplet retention and spreading, and enhance absorption and translocation of active ingredients. It has been reported that efficacy of atrazine, bentazone, phenmedipham and rimsulfuron on various weeds were increased by the addition of rapeseed oils to solution spray. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of adjuvant concentrations on surface tension of aqueous solutions, an experiment was conducted as completely randomized design with 4

  8. Relative effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for invasive lobular compared with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Schelomo; Hui, Jane Yuet Ching; Huang, Jing Li; Kizy, Scott; Beckwith, Heather; Blaes, Anne H; Rueth, Natasha M; Tuttle, Todd M

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) have distinct clinical, pathologic, and genomic characteristics. The objective of the current study was to compare the relative impact of adjuvant chemotherapy on the survival of patients with ILC versus those with IDC. Women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (HER2) -negative, stage I/II IDC and ILC who received endocrine therapy were identified from the 2000 to 2014 California Cancer Registry. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were collected. Ten-year overall survival (OS) was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards modeling. In total, 32,997 women with IDC and 4638 with ILC were identified. The receipt of chemotherapy significantly decreased during the study for both subtypes. For patients with IDC, the 10-year OS rate was 95% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 93% (P chemotherapy. For patients with ILC, the 10-year OS rate was 94% among those who received endocrine therapy alone versus 92% (P chemotherapy. After adjusting for patient and treatment factors, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with a decreased 10-year hazard of death for patients with IDC (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.92). In contrast, adjuvant chemotherapy was not independently associated with the adjusted 10-year hazard of death for patients with ILC (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.46). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with improved OS for patients with ER-positive, HER2-negative, stage I/II ILC. Avoidance of ineffective chemotherapy will markedly reduce the adverse effects and economic burden of breast cancer treatment for a large proportion of patients with breast cancer. Cancer 2017;123:3015-21. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  9. In vivo effect of pinosylvin and pterostilben in the animal model of adjuvant arthritis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mačičková, T.; Pečivová, J.; Drábiková, K.; Bauerová, K.; Mihalová, D.; Harmatha, Juraj; Nosáľ, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2010), A61-A62 ISSN 1337-6853. [Toxcon 2010, Borderless Toxicology. 15th Interdisciplinary Toxicological Conference & Advanced Toxicological Course. 06.09.-10.09.2010, Stará Lesná - Hotel Academia] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : pinosylvin * oxidative stress * inflammation * pterostilbene * stilbenoid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  10. The effect of montelukast in a model of gouty arthritis induced by sodium monourate crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Loida; Arjona, Marjorie; Blanco, Gustavo; Alvarez, Stuart; Arcila, Eduardo; Ortega, Arnaldo; Nuñez, Dubelis; Verzura, Julie; Tovar, Robert; Bethencourt, Sarah; Riera, Ricardo; Mora-Orta, Sioly; Corado, José

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are the first line of therapy in acute gouty arthritis. NSAIDs inhibit the cyclooxygenase pathway, but not the lipooxygenase activity and can have many adverse effects and thus have a limited effect on the control of inflammation in this disease. In this work we studied the effect of montelukast on the cellular inflammatory infiltrate in a model of murine arthritis induced by sodium monourate crystals (SMU), using a subcutaneous air cavity (air p...

  11. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The duration of effective analgesia was longer in the midazolam group ... There was no significant difference (P 0.4047). ... events, peripheral vasoconstriction, and metabolic acido- .... determined and recorded every hour. ..... scriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of ... Long-term intrathecal adminis-.

  12. The effect of X-rays on the experimental arthritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Parker, R.; Seed, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the therapeutic efficacy of low doses of X-rays on different in-vivo models of monoarticular arthritis which have been developed for the investigation of anti-inflammatory drugs. Zymosan or heat-inactivated mycobacterium tuberculosis was injected into 1 knee joint of Wistar rats to produce, via different pathogenetic mechanisms, an acute monoarticular arthritis. Five days later, the amount of joint swelling, bone destruction and cartilage catabolism were measured. Immediately after arthritis induction, the knees were irradiated with a single dose of 5 Gy or with 4 daily fractions of 1 Gy. X-irradiation with daily doses of 1 Gy significantly reduced bone loss and cartilage degradation in Zymosan-induced arthritis and joint swelling in mycobacterium tuberculosis induced arthritis. However, a single high radiation dose significantly increased bone loss in mycobacterium tuberculosis induced arthritis. These data confirm the hypothesis of an anti-inflammatory effect of low radiation doses which so far has been based only on clinical experience. By using an established model of monoarticular arthritis we have now the opportunity to study the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory radiation effect in comparison to that of anti-inflammatory drugs. This way, we hope to provide a scientific basis for the use of radiotherapy in various painful degenerative joint disorders. (orig.) [de

  13. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  14. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments...

  15. Adjuvant effects of aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed allergens and allergoids - differences in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, B; Bellinghausen, I; Lund, L; Henmar, H; Lund, G; Adler Würtzen, P; Saloga, J

    2014-06-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a clinically effective therapy for immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic diseases. To reduce the risk of IgE-mediated side effects, chemically modified allergoids have been introduced. Furthermore, adsorbance of allergens to aluminium hydroxide (alum) is widely used to enhance the immune response. The mechanisms behind the adjuvant effect of alum are still not completely understood. In the present study we analysed the effects of alum-adsorbed allergens and allergoids on their immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo and their ability to activate basophils of allergic donors. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (DC) were incubated with native Phleum pratense or Betula verrucosa allergen extract or formaldehyde- or glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, adsorbed or unadsorbed to alum. After maturation, DC were co-cultivated with autologous CD4(+) T cells. Allergenicity was tested by leukotriene and histamine release of human basophils. Finally, in-vivo immunogenicity was analysed by IgG production of immunized mice. T cell proliferation as well as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ production were strongly decreased using glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, but did not differ between alum-adsorbed allergens or allergoids and the corresponding unadsorbed preparations. Glutaraldehyde modification also led to a decreased leukotriene and histamine release compared to native allergens, being further decreased by adsorption to alum. In vivo, immunogenicity was reduced for allergoids which could be partly restored by adsorption to alum. Our results suggest that adsorption of native allergens or modified allergoids to alum had no consistent adjuvant effect but led to a reduced allergenicity in vitro, while we observed an adjuvant effect regarding IgG production in vivo. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Bone effects of biologic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Addolorata; Neve, Anna; Maruotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Biologic agents used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are able to reduce both disease activity and radiographic progression of joint disease. These drugs are directed against several proinflammatory cytokines (TNF α , IL-6, and IL-1) which are involved both in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and progression of joint structural damage and in systemic and local bone loss typically observed in RA. However, the role of biologic drugs in preventing bone loss in clinical practice has not yet clearly assessed. Many clinical studies showed a trend to a positive effect of biologic agents in preventing systemic bone loss observed in RA. Although the suppression of inflammation is the main goal in the treatment of RA and the anti-inflammatory effects of biologic drugs exert a positive effect on bone metabolism, the exact relationship between the prevention of bone loss and control of inflammation has not been clearly established, and if the available biologic drugs against TNF α , IL-1, and IL-6 can exert their effect on systemic and local bone loss also through a direct mechanism on bone cell metabolism is still to be clearly defined.

  17. Effects and mechanisms of total glucosides of paeony on joint damage in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L; Wei, W; Zheng, Y-Q; Jia, X-Y

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of total glucosides of paeony (TGP), an effective compound of Chinese traditional herbal medicine (CTM), on collagen -induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. CIA was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats immunized with chicken type II collagen in Freund's complete adjuvant. TGP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered to rats from day 14 to 28 after immunization. Arthritis was evaluated by hind paw swelling, polyarthritis index, and histological examination. Activities of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were determined and the ultrastructure of synoviocytes was observed. The proliferation and the production of vascular epidermal growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were detected. The administration of TGP (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days) suppressed secondary inflammatory reactions and histological changes in CIA model. The ultrastructure of synoviocytes from CIA rats was changed, and the level of IL-1 and TNF alpha produced by macrophage-like synoviocytes (MLS) from CIA rats was elevated. TGP (50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days) inhibited above changes significantly. The MLS supernatants of CIA rats induced more cell proliferation and more production of VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1 and MMP-3 in FLS of CIA than those supernatants from CIA rats treated with TGP (50, 100 mg/kg, ig x 14 days). These results indicate that TGP exerts a suppressive effect on joint destruction in rat CIA. The therapeutic effect of TGP could be associated with its ability to ameliorate the secretion and metabolism of synoviocytes and to inhibit the abnormal proliferation and VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1 and MMP-3 production by FLS.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of pumpkin seed oil in an adjuvant arthritis model in rats; Actividad antiinflamatoria de dos variedades de aceite de semillas de calabaza en un modelo de artritis adyuvante en ratas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S.Y.; Mohamed, D.A.; Kandil, E.; Abo-Zeid, M.A.; Mohammed, S.E.; Ahmed, E.K.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of pumpkin seed oils (PSOs) of an Egyptian and European variety, in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis. Edema thickness, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined as inflammatory biomarkers while malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were assessed as indicative of oxidative stress. Chromosomal aberration, sperm shape abnormalities, and DNA fragmentations are cytogenetic parameters which aid in tracing inflammatory and oxidative activity. Phenolic contents and β-carotene were determined in PSOs. The results showed elevated ESR, plasma TNF-α, plasma MDA, liver cellular DNA fragmentation, bone marrow chromosomal aberration, sperm shape abnormalities with a reduction in plasma TAC and body weight gain in an adjuvant arthritis control compared to a healthy control. Administration of low and high doses of either Egyptian or European PSO improved all the aforementioned parameters with variable degrees. [Spanish] El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de aceites de calabaza (PSOs) de variedades egipcia y europea, en un modelo de rata con artritis adyuvante. El espesor del edema, el factor de necrosis tumoral (TNF-α) y la velocidad de sedimentación eritrocitaria (ESR) se determinaron como biomarcadores inflamatorios, mientras que el malondialdehído (MDA) y la capacidad antioxidante total (TAC) fueron evaluados como indicativos de estrés oxidativo. La aberración cromosómica, las anomalías de la forma del esperma y las fragmentaciones del ADN son parámetros citogenéticos que ayudan a localizar la actividad inflamatoria y oxidativa. Se determinaron contenidos fenólicos y β-caroteno en PSOs. Los resultados mostraron elevado ESR, TNF-α plasmático, MDA plasmática, fragmentación del ADN del hígado, aberración cromosómica de la médula ósea, anomalías de la forma

  19. Comparison of adjuvants for immune potentiating properties and side effects in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.; Koedam, M.A.; Claassen, I.; Claassen, E.

    1995-01-01

    Four types of adjuvants were evaluated as alternatives to the use of Freund's complete adjuvant in mice. The adjuvants evaluated included a water-in-oil emulsion (Specol), a microorganism (Lactobacillus), preformed immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOM) containing rabies virus glycoprotein and a

  20. Effects of Oral Administration of Type II Collagen on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentham, David E.; Dynesius-Trentham, Roselynn A.; Orav, E. John; Combitchi, Daniel; Lorenzo, Carlos; Sewell, Kathryn Lea; Hafler, David A.; Weiner, Howard L.

    1993-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory synovial disease thought to involve T cells reacting to an antigen within the joint. Type II collagen is the major protein in articular cartilage and is a potential autoantigen in this disease. Oral tolerization to autoantigens suppresses animal models of T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, including two models of rheumatoid arthritis. In this randomized, double-blind trial involving 60 patients with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis, a decrease in the number of swollen joints and tender joints occurred in subjects fed chicken type II collagen for 3 months but not in those that received a placebo. Four patients in the collagen group had complete remission of the disease. No side effects were evident. These data demonstrate clinical efficacy of an oral tolerization approach for rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. The effects of arthritis gloves on people with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Inflammatory Arthritis with hand pain: a study protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (the A-GLOVES trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Yeliz; Sutton, Chris; Cotterill, Sarah; Adams, Jo; Camacho, Elizabeth; Arafin, Nazina; Firth, Jill; O'Neill, Terence; Hough, Yvonne; Jones, Wendy; Hammond, Alison

    2017-05-30

    Arthritis gloves are regularly provided as part of the management of people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and undifferentiated (early) inflammatory arthritis (IA). Usually made of nylon and elastane (i.e. Lycra®), these arthritis gloves apply pressure with the aims of relieving hand pain, stiffness and improving hand function. However, a systematic review identified little evidence supporting their use. We therefore designed a trial to compare the effectiveness of the commonest type of arthritis glove provided in the United Kingdom (Isotoner gloves) (intervention) with placebo (control) gloves (i.e. larger arthritis gloves providing similar warmth to the intervention gloves but minimal pressure only) in people with these conditions. Participants aged 18 years and over with RA or IA and persistent hand pain will be recruited from National Health Service Trusts in the United Kingdom. Following consent, participants will complete a questionnaire booklet, then be randomly allocated to receive intervention or placebo arthritis gloves. Within three weeks, they will be fitted with the allocated gloves by clinical specialist rheumatology occupational therapists. Twelve weeks (i.e. the primary endpoint) after completing the baseline questionnaire, participants will complete a second questionnaire, including the same measures plus additional questions to explore adherence, benefits and problems with glove-wear. A sub-sample of participants from each group will be interviewed at the end of their participation to explore their views of the gloves received. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention, compared to placebo gloves, will be evaluated over 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is hand pain during activity. Qualitative interviews will be thematically analysed. This study will evaluate the commonest type of arthritis glove (Isotoner) provided in the NHS (i.e. the intervention) compared to a placebo glove. The results will help

  2. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant anastrozol in post-menopausal women with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Andre Deeke; Sasse, Emma Chen

    2009-01-01

    Carry out an economic analysis of the incorporation of anastrozole as adjuvant hormone therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer in a Brazilian setting. The cost-effectiveness estimate comparing anastrozole to tamoxifen was made from the perspectives of the patient, private health insurance, and government. A Markov model was designed based on data from ATAC trial after 100 months follow-up in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 postmenopausal women in Brazil, using outcomes projections for a 25-year period. Resource utilization and associated costs were obtained from preselected sources and specialists' opinions. Treatment costs varied according to the perspective used. The incremental benefit was inserted in the model to obtain the cost of quality-adjusted life-year gained (QALY). Benefit extrapolations for a 25-year time line showed an estimate of 0.29 QALY gained with anastrozole compared to tamoxifen. The cost-effectiveness ratio per QALY gained depended on which perspective was used. There was an increment of R$ 32.403,00/QALY in the public health system/government, R$ 32.230,00/QALY for private health system, and R$ 55.270,00/QALY for patients. The benefit from adjuvant anastrozole in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer is associated to major differences in cost-effectiveness ratio and varies with the different perspectives. According to current WHO parameters, the increment is considered acceptable under public and private health system perspectives, but not from that of the patient.

  3. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles provide strong adjuvant effect for hepatitis B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sandra; Soares, Edna; Borchard, Gerrit; Borges, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells. The addition of pRC/CMV-HBs to the HBsAg-adsorbed NPs inhibited IL-17 secretion but had minor effect on IFN-γ levels. Lastly, pRC/CMV-HBs-loaded NPs generated a weak serum antibody response. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan NPs provide a strong humoral adjuvant effect for HBsAg and induce a Th1/Th17-mediated cellular immune responses worth explore for hepatitis B virus vaccination.

  4. Effect of adjuvants on the humoral immune response to congopain in mice and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateregga John

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.

  5. c-di-GMP is an Effective Immunomodulator and Vaccine Adjuvant Against Pneumococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Abiodun D.; Paton, James C.; Kirby, Alun C.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Cook, Jan; Hyodo, Mamoru; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Karaolis, David K. R.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a unique bacterial intracellular signaling molecule capable of stimulating enhanced protective innate immunity against various bacterial infections. The effects of intranasal pretreatment with c-di-GMP, or intraperitoneal coadministration of c-di-GMP with the pneumolysin toxoid (PdB) or PspA before pneumococcal challenge, was investigated in mice. We found that c-di-GMP had no significant direct short-term effect on the growth rate of S. pneumoniae either in vitro or in vivo. However, intranasal pretreatment of mice with c-di-GMP resulted in significant decrease in bacterial load in lungs and blood after serotypes 2 and 3 challenge, and significant decrease in lung titers after serotype 4 challenge. Potential cellular mediators of these enhanced protective responses were identified in lungs and draining lymph nodes. Intraperitoneal coadministration of c-di-GMP with PdB or PspA before challenge resulted in significantly higher antigen-specific antibody titers and increased survival of mice, compared to that obtained with alum adjuvant. These findings demonstrate that local or systemic c-di-GMP administration stimulates innate and adaptive immunity against invasive pneumococcal disease. We propose that c-di-GMP can be used as an effective broad spectrum immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant to prevent infectious diseases. PMID:18640167

  6. Longitudinal Assessments of Quality of Life in Endometrial Cancer Patients: Effect of Surgical Approach and Adjuvant Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Tien; Menard, Chantal; Samant, Rajiv; Choan, E.; Hopkins, Laura; Faught, Wylam; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is often considered for endometrial cancer. We studied the effect of RT and surgical treatment on patients' quality of life (QOL). Methods and Materials: All patients referred to the gynecologic oncology clinics with biopsy findings showing endometrial cancer were recruited. QOL assessments were performed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL questionnaire-C30, version 3. Assessments were obtained at study entry and at regular 3-month intervals for a maximum of 2 years. Open-ended telephone interviews were done every 6 months. Linear mixed regression models were built using QOL domain scores as dependent variables, with the predictors of surgical treatment and adjuvant RT type. Results: A total of 40 patients were recruited; 80% of the surgeries were performed by laparotomy. Significant improvements were seen in most QOL domains with increased time from treatment. Adjuvant RT resulted in significantly more severe bowel symptoms and improvement in insomnia compared with conservative follow-up. No significant adverse effect from adjuvant RT was seen on the overall QOL. Bowel symptoms were significantly increased in patients treated with laparotomy compared with laparoscopy in the patients treated with whole pelvic RT. Qualitatively, about one-half of the patients noted improvements in their overall QOL during follow-up, with easy fatigability the most prevalent. Conclusion: No significant adverse effect was seen on patients' overall QOL with adjuvant pelvic RT after the recovery period. The acute adverse effects on patients' QOL significantly improved with an increasing interval from diagnosis.

  7. Effect of Education on Perceived Self-Efficacy for Individuals with Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magfiret Kara Kasikci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Arthritis self-efficacy characterizes individuals’ confidence in managing their arthritis. Patienteducation in arthritis aims to improve health outcomes by prompting people to adopt self-managementbehaviours. Therefore, perceived self-efficacy and patient education in arthritis is of great importance.Aims: This study was performed to determine the effects of education on self-efficacy perception in arthritisindividuals.Methodology: This study was a semi-experimental of pre-test and post test design in an equivalent controlgroup. The research was conducted in a physiotherapy and immunology clinics in Erzurum, Turkey. The datawere obtained from 80 individuals with arthritis. These eighty arthritis individuals were composed 40 of whomwere in the experimental and 40 of whom were in control group. As the data gathering tools, a questionnaireform and arthritis self-efficacy scale (ASES were used. ASES developed by Lorig et al. and adjusted fromEnglish to Turkish by Ünsal&Kaşıkçı was used to measure individuals’ self-efficacy. Questionnaire form andscale were completed by the individuals in both groups. Patients in the experimental group were educated withthe booklet. The education program was applied 4 times, once in 3 weeks. The time required for each stage was45~60 minutes. In the control group, care was provided according to the usual routine.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the pre-test ASES scores of the individuals inboth groups. Self-efficacy levels after education were significantly improved in the experimental groupcompared to the control group.Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the planned education can be considered an effectiveintervention for increasing self-efficacy perception in arthritis individuals.

  8. adverse effects of low dose methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.T.; Khan, D.A.; Khan, F.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the frequency of adverse effects attributed to Methotrexate (MTX) toxicity and serum minimum toxic concentration with low dose MTX in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from March 2010 to March 2011. Methodology: One hundred and forty adult patients of RA receiving low dose MTX (10 mg/week) for at least 3 months, ere included by consecutive sampling. Blood samples were collected 2 hours after the oral dose of MTX. Serum alanine transaminase and creatinine were analyzed on Hitachi and blood counts on Sysmex analyzer. Serum MTX concentration was measured on TDX analyzer. Results: Out of one hundred and forty patients; 68 males (49%) and 72 females (51%), 38 developed MTX toxicity (27%), comprising of hepatotoxicity in 12 (8.6%), nephrotoxicity in 3 (2.1%), anaemia in 8 (5.7%), leucopenia in 2 (1.4%), thrombocytopenia in 3 (2.1%), pancytopenia in 2 (1.4%), gastrointestinal adverse effects in 5 (3.6%) and mucocutaneous problems in 3 (2.1%). Receiver operating characteristic curve revealed serum minimum toxic concentration of MTX at cutoff value of 0.71 mu mol/l with a sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76%. Conclusion: Adverse effects of low dose MTX were found in 27% of RA patients, mainly comprising of hepatotoxicity and haematological problems. MTX toxicity can be detected by therapeutic drug monitoring of serum concentration of 0.71 mu mol/l with sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76% in the patients on low dose MTX maintenance therapy. (author)

  9. Influence of Asian dust particles on immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation in asthma model mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kurai

    Full Text Available An Asian dust storm (ADS contains airborne particles that affect conditions such as asthma, but the mechanism of exacerbation is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation induced by airborne particles collected on ADS days and the original ADS soil (CJ-1 soil in asthma model mice.Airborne particles were collected on ADS days in western Japan. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized by intranasal instillation with ADS airborne particles and/or Dermatophagoides farinae (Df, and with CJ-1 soil and/or Df for 5 consecutive days. Df-sensitized mice were stimulated with Df challenge intranasally at 7 days after the last Df sensitization. At 24 hours after challenge, serum allergen specific antibody, differential leukocyte count and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were measured, and airway inflammation was examined histopathologically.Co-sensitization with ADS airborne particles and Df increased the neutrophil and eosinophil counts in BALF. Augmentation of airway inflammation was also observed in peribronchiolar and perivascular lung areas. Df-specific serum IgE was significantly elevated by ADS airborne particles, but not by CJ-1 soil. Levels of interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 were higher in BALF in mice treated with ADS airborne particles.These results suggest that substances attached to ADS airborne particles that are not in the original ADS soil may play important roles in immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation.

  10. No adjuvant effect of Bacillus thuringiensis-maize on allergic responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reiner

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM foods are evaluated carefully for their ability to induce allergic disease. However, few studies have tested the capacity of a GM food to act as an adjuvant, i.e. influencing allergic responses to other unrelated allergens at acute onset and in individuals with pre-existing allergy. We sought to evaluate the effect of short-term feeding of GM Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-maize (MON810 on the initiation and relapse of allergic asthma in mice. BALB/c mice were provided a diet containing 33% GM or non-GM maize for up to 34 days either before ovalbumin (OVA-induced experimental allergic asthma or disease relapse in mice with pre-existing allergy. We observed that GM-maize feeding did not affect OVA-induced eosinophilic airway and lung inflammation, mucus hypersecretion or OVA-specific antibody production at initiation or relapse of allergic asthma. There was no adjuvant effect upon GM-maize consumption on the onset or severity of allergic responses in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

  11. Analysis of the dose-sparing effect of adjuvanted Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuofan; Ding, Wenting; Guo, Qi; Liu, Ze; Zhu, Zhe; Song, Shaohui; Li, Weidong; Liao, Guoyang

    2018-03-30

    Sabin-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine(sIPV) is gradually replacing live-attenuated oral polio vaccine(OPV). Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine(sIPV) has played a vital role in reducing economic burden of poliomyelitis and maintaining appropriate antibody levels in the population. However, due to its high cost and limited manufacturing capacity, sIPV cannot reach its full potential for global poliovirus eradication in developing countries. Therefore, to address this situation, we designed this study to evaluate the dose-sparing effects of AS03, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) admixed with sIPV in rats. Our results showed that a combination of 1/4-dose sIPV adjuvanted with AS03 or AS03 with BW006 provides a seroconversion rate similar to that of full-dose sIPV without adjuvant and that, this rate is 5-fold higher than that of 1/4-dose sIPV without adjuvant after the first immunization. The combination of AS03 or AS03 with BW006 as an adjuvant effectively reduced sIPV dose by at least 4-fold and induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. Therefore, our study revealed that the combination of AS03 or AS03 with BW006 is a promising adjuvant for sIPV development.

  12. Adjuvant effects of therapeutic glycolipids administered to a cohort of NKT cell-diverse pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiaga, Bianca L; Whitener, Robert L; Staples, Charles R; Driver, John P

    2014-11-15

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique lymphocyte population that makes important contributions to host defense against numerous microbial pathogens. The powerful immunomodulatory effects of these cells can be exploited in mice by cognate antigens for multiple therapeutic purposes, including for protection from infectious diseases and as adjuvants to improve vaccines against microbial organisms. These applications have potential to treat and prevent infectious diseases in livestock species that express NKT cells, including pigs. In this study, immune tissues from commercial swine of mixed genetic background were compared for NKT cell frequency, cytokine secretion and subset ratios. Pigs were also injected with the model antigen hen-egg lysozyme (HEL) in conjunction with one of three glycosphingolipids, alpha-galactosylceramide (αGC), OCH and C-glycoside that selectively activate NKT cells, to assess the adjuvant potential of each. There was significant variation between individual pigs for all NKT cell parameters measured. The NKT cell agonists elicited HEL-specific immune responses of different quality, but only αGC increased the systemic concentration of NKT cells. Peripheral blood NKT cell frequency measured prior to treatment was a poor predictor of how individual animals responded to NKT cell therapy. However, our results show that although NKT cells vary considerably between pigs, there exists considerable potential to harness these cells to protect swine from infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: a cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering ...

  14. Collagen-Induced Arthritis: A model for Murine Autoimmune Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrosimone, K. M.; Jin, M.; Poston, B.; Liu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a common autoimmune animal model used to study rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The development of CIA involves infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into the joint, as well as T and B cell responses to type II collagen. In murine CIA, genetically susceptible mice (DBA/1J) are immunized with a type II bovine collagen emulsion in complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA), and receive a boost of type II bovine collagen in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA) 21 days aft...

  15. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M

    2000-01-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfact......The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice...

  16. The effects of the Mediterranean diet on rheumatoid arthritis prevention and treatment: a systematic review of human prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Casuarina; Kouvari, Matina; D'Cunha, Nathan M; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Mellor, Duane D; Kellett, Jane; Naumovski, Nenad

    2018-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive autoimmune disease characterised by severely swollen and painful joints. To compliment pharmacotherapy, people living with rheumatoid arthritis often turn to dietary interventions such as the Mediterranean diet. The aim of the present systematic review is to discuss the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the management and prevention of rheumatoid arthritis in human prospective studies. Four studies met the inclusion criteria, including two intervention studies reporting improvement in the pain visual analogue scale (p Mediterranean diet groups. Only one study reported a reduction in the 28 joint count disease activity score for rheumatoid arthritis for the Mediterranean diet group (p Mediterranean diet in reducing pain and increasing physical function in people living with rheumatoid arthritis. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to support widespread recommendation of the Mediterranean diet for prevention of rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Vaccination of mice for research purpose: alum is as effective as and safer than complete Freund adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    L. Punzi; Y. Shoenfeld; B. Bottazzi; M. Gatto; A. Ghirardello; R. Luisetto; N. Bassi; A. Doria

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving many organ systems. Glomerulonephritis (GLN) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in SLE. It has recently been demonstrated that adjuvants of vaccines could cause the so called ASIA syndrome. The study aimed to assess the effects of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) vs alum injections in NZB/NZWF1 mice. Mice (n=10 each group) were injected with a total volume of 200 μL of: CFA in PBS (group 1), alum in PBS (...

  18. [Different aluminum adjuvants significantly enhances the effect of immunization on Brucella Omp31].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Rui; Xiang, Qingke; Liu, Zhongqi; Xiao, Fei; Yang, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses and immune protection. Methods AP and AH adjuvants were prepared and separately mixed with Brucella Omp31 protein to measure the adsorption rates. The AP- and AH-absorbed Omp31 protein were intraperitoneally injected into BLAB/c mice at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and meanwhile, unabsorbed Omp31 protein and PBS were used as controls. The levels of serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract secretion sIgA were determined by ELISA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Spleen cells were collected for culture at 6 weeks, and the cells were stimulated by Omp31 for 48 hours followed by the analysis of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the supernatants by ELISA, and the determination of lymphocyte proliferation by CCK-8 assay. The mice were challenged with Brucella at 6 weeks, and bacterial content in spleen tissue was determined 1 and 2 weeks later. Results AP and AH could absorb over 70% and 85% of the Omp31 protein, respectively, for solutions at all the tested concentrations. ELISA suggested that serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract sIgA levels peaked 2 weeks after the last immunization for both AP and AH groups, and antibody level was higher in the AP and AH groups than the control groups, and higher in the AH group than in the AP group. CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferating rate of lymphocytes induced by the AH group was significantly higher than that by the AP group, and the AH group also showed significantly higher IFN-γ level in the supernatant than the AP group, but no significant difference in IL-10 level. The AH group had remarkably lower bacterial load in the spleen than the AP group 2 weeks after challenged by Brucella 16M strain. Conclusion Both AP and AH adjuvants effectively enhanced immunogenicity and immune protection of the Brucella Omp31 protein, and AH was superior to AP in

  19. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles. © 2013.

  20. The immediate effects of taping therapy on knee pain and depression in patients with degenerative arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Won; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Park, Chi-Bok

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to identify the immediate effects of taping therapy on knee pain and depression among patients with degenerative arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 32 patients with degenerative arthritis were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the experimental group that underwent taping therapy and the control group that underwent regular treatment (16 patients per group). In the experimental group, therapeutic tape was wrapped all around the knee joint. Pain and depression were measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. [Results] The intra-group comparison showed significant differences in VAS and BDI for the experimental group. The intergroup comparison showed that the differences in VAS and BDI within the experimental group appeared significant relative to the control group. [Conclusion] It was observed that taping therapy showed an immediate effect in decreasing knee pain and depression among patients with degenerative arthritis.

  1. Survival Outcomes in Resected Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Effect of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vern-Gross, Tamara Z.; Shivnani, Anand T.; Chen, Ke; Lee, Christopher M.; Tward, Jonathan D.; MacDonald, O. Kenneth; Crane, Christopher H.; Talamonti, Mark S.; Munoz, Louis L.; Small, William

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has not been clearly established. We analyzed survival outcomes of patients with resected extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and examined the effect of adjuvant RT. Methods and Materials: Data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program between 1973 and 2003. The primary endpoint was the overall survival time. Cox regression analysis was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the following clinical variables: age, year of diagnosis, histologic grade, localized (Stage T1-T2) vs. regional (Stage T3 or greater and/or node positive) stage, gender, race, and the use of adjuvant RT after surgical resection. Results: The records for 2,332 patients were obtained. Patients with previous malignancy, distant disease, incomplete or conflicting records, atypical histologic features, and those treated with preoperative/intraoperative RT were excluded. Of the remaining 1,491 patients eligible for analysis, 473 (32%) had undergone adjuvant RT. After a median follow-up of 27 months (among surviving patients), the median overall survival time for the entire cohort was 20 months. Patients with localized and regional disease had a median survival time of 33 and 18 months, respectively (p < .001). The addition of adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in overall or cause-specific survival for patients with local or regional disease. Conclusion: Patients with localized disease had significantly better overall survival than those with regional disease. Adjuvant RT was not associated with an improvement in long-term overall survival in patients with resected extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Key data, including margin status and the use of combined chemotherapy, was not available through the SEER database.

  2. Assessing the real-world cost-effectiveness of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER-2/neu positive breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hedden, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Among women with surgically removed, high-risk HER-2\\/neu-positive breast cancer, trastuzumab has demonstrated significant improvements in disease-free and overall survival. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the currently recommended 12-month adjuvant protocol of trastuzumab using a Markov modeling approach and real-world cost data.

  3. Therapeutic effect of cortistatin on experimental arthritis by downregulating inflammatory and Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Chorny, Alejo; Del Moral, Raimundo G; Varela, Nieves; Delgado, Mario

    2007-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic inflammation in the joints and subsequent destruction of the cartilage and bone. To propose a new strategy for the treatment of arthritis based on the administration of cortistatin, a newly discovered neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory actions. DBA/1J mice with collagen-induced arthritis were treated with cortistatin after the onset of disease, and the clinical score and joint histopathology were evaluated. Inflammatory response was determined by measuring the levels of various inflammatory mediators (cytokines and chemokines) in joints and serum. T helper cell type 1 (Th1)-mediated autoreactive response was evaluated by determining the proliferative response and cytokine profile of draining lymph node cells stimulated with collagen and by assaying the content of serum autoantibodies. Cortistatin treatment significantly reduced the severity of established collagen-induced arthritis, completely abrogating joint swelling and destruction of cartilage and bone. The therapeutic effect of cortistatin was associated with a striking reduction in the two deleterious components of the disease-that is, the Th1-driven autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Cortistatin downregulated the production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, decreased the antigen-specific Th1-cell expansion, and induced the production of regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor beta1. Cortistatin exerted its effects on synovial cells through both somatostatin and ghrelin receptors, showing a higher effect than both peptides protecting against experimental arthritis. This work provides a powerful rationale for the assessment of the efficacy of cortistatin as a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Allergy adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Mari; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Løvik, Martinus

    2008-04-18

    There is growing evidence that in addition to augmenting the severity of asthma and allergic diseases, particulate air pollution also increases the incidence of allergy and asthma. We studied the adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic on the immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). OVA with and without particles was injected into one hind footpad of Balb/cA mice. All particles together with OVA significantly increased the level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, compared to groups given OVA or particles alone. Reference diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with OVA induced the highest levels of IgE, whereas no clear difference was observed between particles from road traffic and wood smoke. Road traffic particles collected in the autumn induced higher IgE values with OVA than corresponding particles collected during the winter season when studded tires are used, suggesting that studded tire-generated road pavement particles have less allergy adjuvant activity than exhaust particles. Compared to OVA or particles alone, all particles with OVA increased popliteal lymph node cell numbers, cell proliferation, ex vivo secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 after ConA stimulation, and the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD19, MHC class II, CD86 and CD23). Wood smoke particles with OVA induced somewhat higher cellular responses than road traffic particles, but less than DEP with OVA which seemed to be the most potent particle in inducing cellular as well as antibody responses. Thus, wood smoke particles had about the same capacity to enhance allergic sensitization as road traffic particles, but less than diesel exhaust particles.

  5. Allergy adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsen, Mari; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Lovik, Martinus

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that in addition to augmenting the severity of asthma and allergic diseases, particulate air pollution also increases the incidence of allergy and asthma. We studied the adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic on the immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). OVA with and without particles was injected into one hind footpad of Balb/cA mice. All particles together with OVA significantly increased the level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, compared to groups given OVA or particles alone. Reference diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with OVA induced the highest levels of IgE, whereas no clear difference was observed between particles from road traffic and wood smoke. Road traffic particles collected in the autumn induced higher IgE values with OVA than corresponding particles collected during the winter season when studded tires are used, suggesting that studded tire-generated road pavement particles have less allergy adjuvant activity than exhaust particles. Compared to OVA or particles alone, all particles with OVA increased popliteal lymph node cell numbers, cell proliferation, ex vivo secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 after ConA stimulation, and the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD19, MHC class II, CD86 and CD23). Wood smoke particles with OVA induced somewhat higher cellular responses than road traffic particles, but less than DEP with OVA which seemed to be the most potent particle in inducing cellular as well as antibody responses. Thus, wood smoke particles had about the same capacity to enhance allergic sensitization as road traffic particles, but less than diesel exhaust particles

  6. Effect of Bizhongxiao decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF levels in collagen-induced arthritis in rat synovial joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Ya-jing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a chronic autoimmune disease, affects sufferers in many different ways. Treatment of this chronic condition is particularly challenging. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM provides alternatives. Bizhongxiao decoction (BZX is a TCM complex, which has been used clinically for many years to treat RA. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae on IL-1 and TNF-1 levels in rats with RA, and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Methods Ninety healthy normal female SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal (control, model, BZX decoction, and the three dismantled formulae (I: heat-clearing and detoxication, II: dissipating dampness, and III: blood circulation promotion. Apart from the normal (control group, the rats in each group were injected subcutaneously with bovine type II collagen and complete Freund adjuvant to establish a collagen-induced arthritis model, so that inhibition of foot swelling in the rats by BZX decoction and its dismantled formulae could be observed. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF in synovial joints at various time points. Results Twenty-one days after the model was established, the levels of TNF and IL-1 were significantly higher in the model group, BZX decoction group and dismantled formula groups I, II and III than in the normal controls (P  Conclusions BZX decoction and the three dismantled formulae examined down-regulated the inflammatory factors IL-1 and TNF in collagen-induced arthritis rat models, but BZX exerted the strongest effect.

  7. Effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on sleep quality and sleep disturbances in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løppenthin, Katrine; Esbensen, Bente Appel; Jennum, Poul

    2014-01-01

    of an intermittent aerobic exercise intervention on sleep, assessed both objectively and subjectively in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial including 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis randomly assigned to an exercise training intervention or to a control group....... The intervention consists of 18 session intermittent aerobic exercise training on a bicycle ergometer three times a week. Patients are evaluated according to objective changes in sleep as measured by polysomnography (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes include changes in subjective sleep quality and sleep...... disturbances, fatigue, pain, depressive symptoms, physical function, health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness. DISCUSSION: This trial will provide evidence of the effect of intermittent aerobic exercise on the improvement of sleep in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which is considered...

  8. Collagen-Induced Arthritis: A model for Murine Autoimmune Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, K M; Jin, M; Poston, B; Liu, P

    2015-10-20

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is a common autoimmune animal model used to study rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The development of CIA involves infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into the joint, as well as T and B cell responses to type II collagen. In murine CIA, genetically susceptible mice (DBA/1J) are immunized with a type II bovine collagen emulsion in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and receive a boost of type II bovine collagen in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) 21 days after the first injection. These mice typically develop disease 26 to 35 days after the initial injection. C57BL/6J mice are resistant to arthritis induced by type II bovine collagen, but can develop arthritis when immunized with type II chicken collagen in CFA, and receive a boost of type II chicken collagen in IFA 21 days after the first injection. The concentration of heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37RA (MT) in CFA also differs for each strain. DBA/1J mice develop arthritis with 1 mg/ml MT, while C57BL/6J mice require and 3-4 mg/ml MT in order to develop arthritis. CIA develops slowly in C57BL/6J mice and cases of arthritis are mild when compared to DBA/1J mice. This protocol describes immunization of DBA/1J mice with type II bovine collagen and the immunization of C57BL/6J mice with type II chicken collagen.

  9. Protective effect of CSN1S2 protein of goat milk on ileum microstructure and inflmmation in rat-CFAinduced rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rista Nikmatu Rohmah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of goat milk alpha (S2-casein (CSN1S2 protein on ileum microstructure and inflammation in rat-complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis model. Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of two models. The body weight, food intake and albumin level of all subjects were calculated. The ileum microstructures were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Histopathological analysis was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and the level expressions of immunoglobulin E, secretory immunoglobulin A, interleukin-17, interleukin-10, Ki-67 and caspase-9 were measured by using western blotting. Results: CSN1S2 protein of milk or yogurt could repair the ileum villi of rat arthritis group similar to the normal. The level expressions showed the immunoglobulin E, secretory immunoglobulin A, interleukin-17 and caspase-9 decreased in milk CSN1S2 protein and yogurt CSN1S2 protein rat groups. The level expression of interleukin-10 was increased, and also Ki- 67 was significantly increased in milk CSN1S2 protein and yogurt CSN1S2 protein rat groups. CSN1S2 protein of milk and yogurt could increase the body weight and albumin significantly, meanwhile food intake increased but not significantly. Conclusions: CSN1S2 protein of goat milk and yogurt could repair the ileum microstructure, suppress inflammatory process and also increase the body weight, food intake and albumin level. This result indicates that goat CSN1S2 protein may protect the ileum disorder in rheumatoid arthritis disease.

  10. The effect of cognitive behavior therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaimaat, F. W.; Brons, M. R.; Geenen, R.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) three patients groups were studied: a cognitive behavioral therapy group (CBT), an occupational therapy group (OT), and a waiting-list control group. The CBT received a comprehensive,

  11. Effect of a fungicide and spray adjuvant on queen-rearing success in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M; Percel, Eric G

    2013-10-01

    Commercial producers of honey bee queens (Apis mellifera L.) have reported unexplained loss of immature queens during the larval or pupal stage. Many affected queen-rearing operations are situated among the almond orchards of California and report these losses in weeks after almond trees bloom. Almond flowers are a rich foraging resource for bees, but are often treated with fungicides, insecticides, and spray adjuvants during bloom. Anecdotal reports by queen producers associate problems in queen development with application of the fungicide Pristine (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) and spray adjuvants that are tank-mixed with it. To test the effect of these compounds on queen development, a new bioassay was developed in which queens are reared in closed swarm boxes for 4 d, until capping, with nurse bees fed exclusively on artificially contaminated pollen. Pollen was treated with four concentrations of formulated Pristine (0.4, 4, 40, and 400 ppm), a spray adjuvant (Break-Thru, 200 ppm), the combination of Pristine and spray adjuvant (400:200 ppm), the insect growth regulator insecticide diflubenzuron (100 ppm) as a positive control, or water as negative control. Chemical analysis revealed that low concentrations of pyraclostrobin (50 ppb), but no boscalid, were detectable in royal jelly secreted by nurse bees feeding on treated pollen. No significant difference in queen development or survival was observed between any of the experimental treatments and the negative control. Only diflubenzuron, the positive control, caused a substantial reduction in survival of immature queens.

  12. Effect of radiosynovectomy in patients with inflammatory joint disorders not caused by rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, S.; Klutmann, S.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Clausen, M.; Sawula, J.A.; Brenner, W.; Henze, E.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Effect of radiosynovectomy (RS) should be evaluated both by subjective and objective parameters in patients with osteoarthritis and in patients with inflammatory joint disorders not caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: A total of 98 joints in 61 patients were investigated. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group included 35 patients with therapy-resistant effusions caused by severe osteoarthritis (46 joints). The second group consisted of 26 patients (52 joints) with ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondylarthropathy, psoriatic arthritis, pigmented villo-nodular synovitis, and recurrent synovitis following surgery. Effect of RS was evaluated by a standardized questionnaire and quantified by T/B-ratios derived from blood pool images prior to and after RS. Results: Within the first patient group suffering from osteoarthritis, 40% showed a good or excellent improvement of clinical symptoms, 51% were unchanged, and in 9% symptoms worsened. Similar results were found in the second patient group. The majority of unchanged results were small finger joints. In contrast, wrist and knee joints showed a better improvement. Good correlation between results of bone scan and patients subjective impression was found in 38% and 67% in the first and the second patient group, respectively. Conclusion: Radiosynovectomy might be an effective treatment in osteoarthritis and inflammatory joint disorders not caused by rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.) [de

  13. Gonococcal arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI); Disseminated gonococcemia; Septic arthritis - gonococcal arthritis ... Gonococcal arthritis is an infection of a joint. It occurs in people who have gonorrhea , which is caused by ...

  14. Effect Of Fasting And Vegetarian Diet On The Improvement Of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalvat A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high incidence of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, the conventional treatments and the experimental observations have shown that by taking particular foods or omitting some foods form ordinary diet, the disease symptoms of the patients reduce. The interesting point is that fasting lowers the objective and subjective indexes of disease activities in most patients who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. The effects of a short-time fast and subsequent vegetarian diets for one year, on the rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied in this research. Materials and Methods: 52 patients (40 females and 12 males with definite rheumatoid arthritis, based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria were selected and duly studied with single blind method. 28 patients were selected after one month fasting at Ramadan. From the tenth day, a vegetarian diet was prescribed for them. This diet was continued for three moths. After three moths, the diet was changed to a combination of milk, vegetables and fruits. Two of the patients left the study at the end of Ramadan. A group of 24 non-fasting patients with ordinary food diet were selected as control group. Results: In the patients subject of study (with the average age of 39+14.5 and average 36 months disease, after four weeks of fasting under vegetarian diet, significant improvement was found in many of their disease indexes based on ACR criteria, such as joint pain and joint swelling, length of morning stiffness and responds to a health evaluation questionnaires. These suitable effects have still remained the same after one year. With respect to the findings, it is concluded that fasting and a changed diet had left significant effects on all calculated indexes. Although short time fasting had suitable effects in most patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, almost in all cases, the disease recurred when the patient returned to his/her ordinary food diet. Conclusion: The results of the

  15. The effect of adjuvant radiation on survival in early stage clear cell ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogen, Liat; Thomas, Gillian; Bernardini, Marcus; Bassiouny, Dina; Brar, Harinder; Gien, Lilian T; Rosen, Barry; Le, Lisa; Vicus, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on survival in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). Data collection and analysis of stage I and II OCCC patients treated at two tertiary centers in Toronto, between 1995 and 2014, was performed. Descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival probability estimates were completed. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves. 163 patients were eligible. 44 (27%) patients were treated with adjuvant RT: 37 of them received adjuvant chemotherapy (CT), and 7 had RT only. In the no-RT group, there were 119 patients: 83 patients received adjuvant CT and 36 had no adjuvant treatment. The 10year progression free survival (PFS) was 65% for patients treated with RT, and 59% no-RT patients. There were a total of 41 (25%) recurrences in the cohort: 12 (27.2%) patients in RT group and 29 (24.3%) in the no-RT group. On multivariable analysis, adjuvant RT was not significantly associated with an increased PFS (0.85 (0.44-1.63) p=0.63) or overall survival (OS) (0.84 (0.39-1.82) p=0.66). In the subset of 59 patients defined as high-risk: stage IC with positive cytology and/or surface involvement and stage II: RT was not found to be associated with a better PFS (HR 1.18 (95% CI: 0.55-2.54) or O S(HR 1.04 (95% CI: 0.40-2.69)). Adjuvant RT was not found to be associated with a survival benefit in patients with stage I and II ovarian clear cell carcinoma or in a high risk subset of patients including stage IC cytology positive/surface involvement and stage II patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of adjuvants and reduced rates of crop protection agents on weed infestation, health and lodging of spring barley (Hordeum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in the cultivation of spring barley was carried out in the period 2007-2009 at the Experimental Farm in Czesławice (central Lublin region on grey-brown podzolic soil derived from loess (soil quality class II. The study involved 3 rates of herbicides, growth retardant and fungicides (100%, 75%, 50% as well as different adjuvant types (oil, surface- active, mineral adjuvant. Plots without any adjuvant were the control treatment. Conventional tillage was used, while mineral fertilization was adjusted to high initial soil nutrient availability. A hypothesis was made that the reduction of pesticide rates by 25-50%, with the simultaneous addition of adjuvants, would allow health, weed infestation and lodging of spring barley to be maintained at a level similar to that obtained under the conditions when maximum rates are applied without any adjuvant. It was also assumed that particular adjuvants could show different interactions with the tested groups of crop protection agents. It was proved that the application of full recommended rates of pesticides gave the best values of the indicators relating to weed infestation, health and lodging of spring barley. However, thanks to the addition of adjuvants to the spray solution, the application of pesticide doses reduced by 25% produced similar results. A higher reduction of pesticide rates (by 50% had an adverse effect on the traits in question. In such case, there was noted higher weed infestation of the spring barley crop, compensation of some weed species, and increased stem-base infection by the fungal disease complex. On the other hand, less radical changes were observed in the case of spring barley lodging. The above-mentioned situation occurred in spite of the fact that the action of pesticides was aided by adjuvants. From the group of adjuvants under comparison, the oil adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC showed the best interaction with the crop protection agents under consideration.

  17. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of UC-MSCs on inflammation and thrombosis of the rats with collagen type II induced arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuan-ming; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Lian-jun; Ma, Li; Ni, Jun; Wang, Zhong-qiang; Wu, Wei

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the immunoregulation effects of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) on the rats with collagen II induced arthritis (CIA). The rats were first immunized by intradermal injection of chicken collagen type II emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to monitor their swelling of foot, hair color and action state. After injected UC-MSC by caudal vein, the rats were scored with the arthritis index (AI) once a week. Then, the concentration of interleukin (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and D-dimer (D-D), antithrombin-III (AT-III), thrombomodulin (TM) in plasma were detected by ELISA. Obvious swellings of the feet were found in the experiment group compared with normal one. ELISA analysis showed that the concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, D-D and TM in plasma of the experiment group as of (200.48 ± 15.04) ng/L, (450.25 ± 45.39) ng/L, (274.26 ± 67.93) ng/L and (9.18 ± 0.84) µg/L, respectively were higher than of(167.62 ± 0.97) ng/L, (371.44 ± 21.26) ng/L, (193.95 ± 8.22) ng/L and (6.30 ± 0.32) µg/L respectively in normal group (P < 0.05), but the concentration of AT-III \\[(89.57 ± 6.40) ng/L\\] was lower than normal group \\[(112.82 ± 1.74) ng/L\\] (P < 0.05). The levels of cytokines through the UC-MSCs treatment were significantly different from the model group (P < 0.05). After 9 weeks, these cytokines in the UC-MSCs group were mostly the same as the normal group. The thrombophilia status of the CIA rats was caused by immune injury. The UC-MSCs reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines and regulated and repaired the balance of coagulation and anticoagulation system of the body to cure the immune-related thrombophilia.

  19. Adjuvant effect of liposome in chicken result from induction of nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuh-Feng [Division of Nephrology, Taipei Medical University-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Deng, Ming-Chung [Department of Hog Cholera, Animal Health Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Li-Ping; Jiang, Pei-Rong; Liu, Der-Zen [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Jan, Tong-Rong [Department and Graduate Institute of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I, E-mail: tonyliu@tmu.edu.tw, E-mail: hsiehfangi@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Intranasal delivery of liposome-encapsulated inactivated Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) is known to be an effective vaccine for inducing immunity in the respiratory tract from our previous reports. Four-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens were intranasally immunized with NDV entrapped in phosphatidylcholine-liposomes (PC-Lip). The mucosal levels of anti-NDV s-immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum IgG, a high hemagglutination inhibition titer (1:640), and the high survival rate with the PC-Lip vaccine were comparable to those of our previous report. The immune mechanisms of the PC-Lip adjuvant were determined by in vitro cellular experiments using the NO production of chicken spleen macrophages. The most important finding of this study was proving that macrophages were stimulated by PC-Lip via the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B activation pathways. This finding may be useful for developing potent mucosal vaccine delivery systems in the future.

  20. Adjuvant effects of inhaled mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate in BALB/cJ mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jitka Stilund; Larsen, Søren Thor; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2007-01-01

    Phthalates, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), are widely used and have been linked with the development of wheezing and asthma. The main metabolite of DEHP, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), was investigated for adjuvant effects in a mouse inhalation model. BALB/cJ mice were exposed...... to aerosols of 0.03 or 0.4 mg/m(3) MEHP 5 days/week for 2 weeks and thereafter weekly for 12 weeks together with a low dose of ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen. Mice exposed to OVA alone or OVA+Al(OH)(3) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Finally, all groups were exposed to a nebulized...... as of eosinophils in BAL fluid were observed. OVA-specific IgG1 production in both MEHP groups was significantly increased. OVA-specific IgE and IgG2a were not increased significantly. A dose-dependent increase in inflammatory cells was observed in BAL fluid, leading to significantly higher lymphocyte...

  1. Effect of self-efficacy and physical activity goal achievement on arthritis pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittle, Keegan P; De Gucht, Véronique; Hurkmans, Emalie J; Vlieland, Thea P M Vliet; Peeters, André J; Ronday, H Karel; Maes, Stan

    2011-11-01

    To examine physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals in relation to self-reported pain and quality of life among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). At baseline, 271 patients with RA were asked to specify a physical activity goal, and filled in questionnaires assessing physical activity, motivation, and self-efficacy for physical activity, arthritis pain, and quality of life. Six months later, patients indicated to what extent they had achieved their baseline physical activity goal and completed the same set of questionnaires. These data were used to construct multiple mediation models that placed physical activity and physical activity goal achievement as mediators between self-efficacy and motivation on one hand, and arthritis pain and quality of life on the other. A total of 106 patients with RA completed both questionnaires. Self-efficacy at baseline predicted subsequent level of physical activity and achievement of physical activity goals. Goal achievement had a direct effect upon quality of life outcomes. Bootstrapping confidence intervals revealed indirect effects of self-efficacy upon arthritis pain and quality of life through goal achievement, but not through physical activity. Higher levels of self-efficacy for physical activity increase the likelihood that patients will achieve their physical activity goals. Achievement of physical activity goals seems to be related to lower self-reported arthritis pain, and higher levels of quality of life. In practice, clinicians can foster self-efficacy and goal achievement by assisting patients in setting realistic and attainable exercise goals, developing action plans, and by providing feedback on goal progress. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Effects of adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 763 A VG in rainbow trout injection vaccinated against Yersinia ruckeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaafar, Rzgar M; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM) caused by the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri is a major threat to freshwater production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) throughout all life stages. Injection vaccination of rainbow trout against Y. ruckeri infection has been shown to confer better protection...... fish (NonVac), 2) fish injected with a commercial vaccine (AquaVac(®) Relera™) (ComVac), 3) fish injected with an experimental vaccine (ExpVac), 4) fish injected with an experimental vaccine + adjuvant (ExpVacAdj) and 5) fish injected with adjuvant alone (Adj). Injection of the experimental vaccine...... of the adjuvant as the challenge produced 100% mortality in the NonVac group, 60% mortality in both of ComVac and Adj groups and only 13 and 2.5% mortalities in the ExpVac and the ExpVacAdj groups, respectively....

  3. Metabolomic Elucidation of the Effects of Curcumin on Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Kim, Sooah; Hwang, Jiwon; Kim, Jungyeon; Lee, You Sun; Koh, Eun-Mi; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and joint disability. Curcumin is known to be effective in ameliorating joint inflammation in RA. To obtain new insights into the effect of curcumin on primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS, N = 3), which are key effector cells in RA, we employed gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics. Metabolomic profiling of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α...

  4. Gap between short- and long-term effects of patient education in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermann, K.; Fransen, J.; Knols, R.H.; Uebelhart, D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review educational or psychoeducational interventions for patients with rheumatoid arthritis focusing on long-term effects, especially health status. METHODS: Two independent reviewers appraised the methodologic quality of the included randomized controlled trials,

  5. Air Pollution and Climate Change Effects on Allergies in the Anthropocene: Abundance, Interaction, and Modification of Allergens and Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Kampf, Christopher J; Lucas, Kurt; Lang-Yona, Naama; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Lakey, Pascale S J; Lai, Senchao; Liu, Fobang; Kunert, Anna T; Ziegler, Kira; Shen, Fangxia; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Weber, Bettina; Bellinghausen, Iris; Saloga, Joachim; Weller, Michael G; Duschl, Albert; Schuppan, Detlef; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2017-04-18

    Air pollution and climate change are potential drivers for the increasing burden of allergic diseases. The molecular mechanisms by which air pollutants and climate parameters may influence allergic diseases, however, are complex and elusive. This article provides an overview of physical, chemical and biological interactions between air pollution, climate change, allergens, adjuvants and the immune system, addressing how these interactions may promote the development of allergies. We reviewed and synthesized key findings from atmospheric, climate, and biomedical research. The current state of knowledge, open questions, and future research perspectives are outlined and discussed. The Anthropocene, as the present era of globally pervasive anthropogenic influence on planet Earth and, thus, on the human environment, is characterized by a strong increase of carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and combustion- or traffic-related particulate matter in the atmosphere. These environmental factors can enhance the abundance and induce chemical modifications of allergens, increase oxidative stress in the human body, and skew the immune system toward allergic reactions. In particular, air pollutants can act as adjuvants and alter the immunogenicity of allergenic proteins, while climate change affects the atmospheric abundance and human exposure to bioaerosols and aeroallergens. To fully understand and effectively mitigate the adverse effects of air pollution and climate change on allergic diseases, several challenges remain to be resolved. Among these are the identification and quantification of immunochemical reaction pathways involving allergens and adjuvants under relevant environmental and physiological conditions.

  6. Effect of zymosan and poly (I:C) adjuvants on responses to microneedle immunization coated with whole inactivated influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ju-Hyung; Noh, Jin-Yong; Kim, Kwon-Ho; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Ji-Ho; Jeong, Seong Dong; Jung, Dae-Yoon; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-11-10

    Microneedles are the micrometer size devices used for the delivery of vaccines and biotherapeutics. In order to increase the vaccine efficacy and reduce the antigen dose, there is a significant need to find some adjuvants for the microneedle vaccination. In this study, zymosan, which is the cell wall preparation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or poly (I:C) was coated on a microneedle with inactivated influenza virus, and then immunized into BALB/c mouse to determine the immunogenicity, protection and synergetic effect between two adjuvants. As a result, the group administered with zymosan and vaccine antigen showed significantly stronger IgG response, HI titer and IgG subtypes without any adverse effects, compared to the group immunized with the vaccine antigen alone. Also, there were enhanced cellular immune responses in the group received adjuvant with vaccine antigen. In addition, they showed superior protection and lung viral reduction against lethal viral challenge. Taken together, this study confirms that zymosan can be used as an immunostimulant for microneedle vaccination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Psoriatic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, L.H.; Espinoza, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the titles are: The history and epidemiologic definition of psoriatic arthritis as a distinct entity; Psoriatic arthritis: Further epidemiologic and genetic considerations; The radiologic features of psoriatic arthritis; and Laboratory findings and pathology of psoriatic arthritis

  8. Juvenile Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile arthritis (JA) is arthritis that happens in children. It causes joint swelling, pain, stiffness, and loss of motion. It can affect any joint, but ... of JA that children get is juvenile idiopathic arthritis. There are several other forms of arthritis affecting ...

  9. The ketogenic diet is an effective adjuvant to radiation therapy for the treatment of malignant glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G Abdelwahab

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4:1 (fat:carbohydrate+protein ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas. METHODS: We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging. RESULTS: Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173 and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001. Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days. CONCLUSIONS: KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

  10. Effectiveness of Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant for tuberculin PPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ardestani, Susan Kaboudanian; Zeinali, Majid; Mosaveri, Nader; Mohammad Taheri, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has T-helper 1 (Th1) immunostimulatory activities but because of toxicity and pyrogenicity cannot be used as an adjuvant. Brucella abortus LPS has less toxicity and no pyrogenic properties in comparison to other bacterial LPS. In the current study, the immunostimulatory properties of B. abortus LPS were evaluated for its adjuvant activity. Tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was extracted and after anion-exchange chromatography on Q-sepharose column, two fractions (17 and 23), which dominantly contained 30- and 70-kDa antigens, were collected for immunological studies. BALB/c mice were immunized with four different antigen preparations (BCG, PPD, 17th and 23rd PPD fractions) along with complete Freund's adjuvant or B. abortus LPS. The T-cell immune response of mice was assessed by measurement of Th1-type cytokine (IFN-γ) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-5 and IL-10) levels. Also, the humoral immunity was evaluated by measuring the specific IgG levels. Our results showed that immunization of mice with 17th PPD fraction along with B. abortus LPS can induce a Th1-type cytokine response characterized with a high IFN-γ/IL-5 ratio, while immunization with PPD or 23rd PPD fraction along with the same adjuvant resulted to a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Late cutaneous effects of a local potent steroid during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether treatment with a local potent corticosteroid during adjuvant external radiotherapy (ERT) of breast cancer is associated with late skin toxicity. Material and methods: Sixty patients (32 treated with potent corticoid cream versus 28 controls t...

  12. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bosschem

    Full Text Available Helicobacter suis (H. suis is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin, administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  13. Effects of Biologic Agents in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Amyloidosis Treated with Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Saeki, Takako; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine the safety and effects of therapy with biologics on the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis on hemodialysis (HD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of reactive AA amyloidosis participated in the study. The survival was calculated from the date of HD initiation until the time of death, or up to end of June 2015 for the patients who were still alive. HD initiation was according ...

  14. Inflammatory responses and side effects generated by several adjuvant-containing vaccines in turbot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noia, M; Domínguez, B; Leiro, J; Blanco-Méndez, J; Luzardo-Álvarez, A; Lamas, J

    2014-05-01

    Several of the adjuvants used in fish vaccines cause adhesions in internal organs when they are injected intraperitoneally. We describe the damage caused by vaccines containing different adjuvants in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus and show that internal adhesions can be greatly reduced by injecting the fish in a specific way. Injection of fish with the needle directed towards the anterior part of the peritoneal cavity induced formation of a single cell-vaccine mass (CVM) that became attached to the parietal peritoneum. However, injection of the fish with the needle pointing in the opposite direction generated many small CVM that became attached to the visceral and parietal peritoneum and in some cases caused internal adhesions. We describe the structural and cellular changes in the adjuvant-induced CVMs. The CVMs mainly comprised neutrophils and macrophages, although most of the former underwent apoptosis, which was particularly evident from day 3 post-injection. The apoptotic cells were phagocytosed by macrophages, which were the dominant cell type from the first days onwards. All of the vaccines induced angiogenesis in the area of contact between the CVM and the mesothelium. Vaccines containing oil-based adjuvants or microspheres induced the formation of granulomas in the CVM; however, no granulomas were observed in the CVM induced by vaccines containing aluminium hydroxide or Matrix-Q(®) as adjuvants. All of the vaccines induced strong migration of cells to the peritoneal cavity. Although some of these cells remained unattached in the peritoneal cavity, most of them formed part of the CVM. We also observed migration of the cells from the peritoneal cavity to lymphoid organs, indicating bidirectional traffic of cells between the inflamed areas and these organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of 15-lipoxygenase in the inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Liou, Houng-Chi; Yang, Rong-Sen; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2012-07-01

    15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is involved in many pathological processes. The aim of this study is to examine the role of 15-LOX in the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and inflammatory arthritis. It was found that treatment of 15-LOX downstream product of 15-(S)-HETE (15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) increased the mRNA and protein levels of MMP-2 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast (RASF) derived from rheumatoid arthritis patients. The enhancement effect of 15-(S)-HETE was antagonized by the addition of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor). Treatment of 15-(S)-HETE increased the phosphorylation of AKT, nuclear translocation of p65 and the breakdown of IκBα. TNF-α and IL-1β are the key cytokines involved in arthritis and also increase the activity of MMP-2 in RASF, which was antagonized by pretreatment with 15-LOX inhibitor PD146176 or knockdown of 15-LOX. It was also found that these two cytokines increased the expression of 15-LOX in RASF. Treatment of glucocorticoid but not NSAIDs inhibited 15-(S)-HETE-induced expression of MMP-2. In comparison with wild-type mice, adjuvant-induced arthritis and MMP-2 expression in synovial membrane were markedly inhibited in 15-LOX knockout (KO) mice. These results indicate that 15-LOX plays an important role in the disease progression of arthritis and may be involved in the inflammatory action induced by TNF-α and IL-1β. 15-LOX is thus a good target for developing drugs in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hees Hiske L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major depressive disorder is among the medical conditions with the highest negative impact on work outcome. However, little is known regarding evidence-based interventions targeting the improvement of work outcomes in depressed employees. In this paper, the design of a randomized controlled trial is presented in order to evaluate the effectiveness of adjuvant occupational therapy in employees with depression. This occupational intervention is based on an earlier intervention, which was designed and proven effective by our research group, and is the only intervention to date that specifically targets work outcome in depressed employees. Methods/Design In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, a total of 117 participants are randomized to either 'care as usual' or ' care as usual' with the addition of occupational therapy. Patients included in the study are employees who are absent from work due to depression for at least 25% of their contract hours, and who have a possibility of returning to their own or a new job. The occupational intervention consists of six individual sessions, eight group sessions and a work-place visit over a 16-week period. By increasing exposure to the working environment, and by stimulating communication between employer and employee, the occupational intervention aims to enhance self-efficacy and the acquisition of more adaptive coping strategies. Assessments take place at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-ups. Primary outcome measure is work participation (hours of absenteeism and time until work resumption. Secondary outcome measures are work functioning, symptomatology, health-related quality of life, and neurocognitive functioning. In addition, cost-effectiveness is evaluated from a societal perspective. Finally, mechanisms of change (intermediate outcomes and potential patient-treatment matching variables are investigated. Discussion This study hopes to provide valuable knowledge

  17. Mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Dai, Sheng-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, also named Chinese Paeony, is a Chinese herb. A decoction of its root has been used to treat painful or inflammatory disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. A water/ethanol extract of Radix Paeoniae is known as total glycosides of paeony (TGP), of which paeoniflorin is the major active component. Preclinical studies show that TGP/paeoniflorin is able to diminish pain, joint swelling, synovial hypertrophy, and the severity of bone erosion and cartilage degradation in experimental arthritis. TGP/paeoniflorin suppresses inflammatory process by reducing the production of prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TGP/paeoniflorin also inhibits the proliferation of lymphocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes, the formation of new blood vessels, and the production of matrix metalloproteinases. Clinical data show that TGP is effective to relieve the symptoms and signs of rheumatoid arthritis without significant adverse effects. Recently, TGP is widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-Arthritic Effect of Chebulanin on Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglan Zhao

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic degenerative autoimmune disease characterized by persistent inflammation of synovial membranes, which leads to cartilage destruction and bone erosion. To date, there are no effective therapies to slow the progress of this degenerative condition. Here, we evaluate the anti-arthritic effect of chebulanin, an abundant anti-inflammatory agent isolated from Terminalia chebula, in collagen induced arthritis in DBA/1 mice by intragastric administration. Arthritic severity was scored by performing histopathological evaluation of the joints and measuring the expression of inflammatory cytokines and relative enzymes by immunohistochemical staining. In parallel, bone destruction and erosion were confirmed by micro-CT. Our data revealed that chebulanin significantly improved the severity of arthritis. Specifically, the histopathological characteristics of the tissues were improved and expression of TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-3 and COX-2 in the paws and joints of the treated mice decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with control mice. Furthermore, micro-CT analysis revealed that chebulanin induced a dose-dependent reduction in cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Taken together, our findings suggest that chebulanin suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators and prevents cartilage destruction and bone erosion in mice. Therefore, chebulanin is a strong therapeutic alternative for the treatment of RA.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF INFLIXIMAB IN PATIENTS WITH EARLY AND LATE JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.I. Alexeeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of a study of effectiveness and safety of infliximab — monoclonal antibodies to the tumor necrotizing factor (TNF in treatment of 100 patients11 months — 17 years old with early and late articular types of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The duration of treatment was 3 months — 2 years. Infliximap was delivered intravenously by scheme: infusion on 0, 2nd, 6th weeks and then every 8th week. The single dose of infliximab in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis was 6.7 (5.5; 9.0 mg/kg, with late type — 6.0 (5.0; 7.0 mg/kg of body weight. 102 weeks of treatment with anti-TNF-agent provided development of clinical remission, decrease and normalization of laboratory tests of disease’s activity, total restoration of joint’s function, increase of quality of life (on 97% in patients with early type, and 72% 0 in ones with late type. The drug was abolished in 39 (39% of patients, 23% — due to the development of secondary inefficiency, and 11% — due to the development of unfavorable effects.Key words: children, early and late rheumatoid arthritis, treatment, infliximab.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:30-42

  20. Effect of N-Feruloylserotonin and Methotrexate on Severity of Experimental Arthritis and on Messenger RNA Expression of Key Proinflammatory Markers in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Pašková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease, leading to progressive destruction of joints and extra-articular tissues, including organs such as liver and spleen. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a potential immunomodulator, natural polyphenol N-feruloylserotonin (N-f-5HT, with methotrexate (MTX, the standard in RA therapy, in the chronic phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA in male Lewis rats. The experiment included healthy controls (CO, arthritic animals (AA, AA given N-f-5HT (AA-N-f-5HT, and AA given MTX (AA-MTX. N-f-5HT did not affect the body weight change and clinical parameters until the 14th experimental day. Its positive effect was rising during the 28-day experiment, indicating a delayed onset of N-f-5HT action. Administration of either N-f-5HT or MTX caused reduction of inflammation measured as the level of CRP in plasma and the activity of LOX in the liver. mRNA transcription of TNF-α and iNOS in the liver was significantly attenuated in both MTX and N-f-5HT treated groups of arthritic rats. Interestingly, in contrast to MTX, N-f-5HT significantly lowered the level of IL-1β in plasma and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver and spleen of arthritic rats. This speaks for future investigations of N-f-5HT as an agent in the treatment of RA in combination therapy with MTX.

  1. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; Bagan, Leticia; Bagan, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis has been regarded as a potential risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A systematic review is made to determine whether nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with RA offers benefits in terms of the clinical activity and inflammatory markers of the disease. Material and Methods A search was made of the Medline-PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and Scopus databases to identify studies on the relationship between the two disease processes, and especially on the effects of nonsurgical treatment in patients of this kind. The search was based on the following keywords: rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontitis (MeSH), rheumatoid arthritis AND periodontal treatment. Results Eight articles on the nonsurgical treatment of patients with periodontitis and RA were finally included in the study. All of them evaluated clinical (DAS28) and laboratory test activity (ESR, CRP, IL-6, TNFα) before and after treatment. A clear decrease in DAS28 score and ESR was recorded, while other parameters such as CRP, IL-6 and TNFα showed a non significant tendency to decrease as a result of treatment. Conclusions Nonsurgical treatment improved the periodontal condition of patients with periodontitis and RA, with beneficial effects upon the clinical and laboratory test parameters (DAS28 and ESR), while other inflammatory markers showed a marked tendency to decrease. However, all the studies included in the review involved small samples sizes and follow-up periods of no more than 6 months. Larger and particularly longitudinal studies are therefore needed to more firmly establish possible significant relations between the two disease processes. Key words:Periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontal treatment. PMID:26946202

  2. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  3. Adjuvant effects of aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed allergens and allergoids – differences in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydenreich, B; Bellinghausen, I; Lund, L; Henmar, H; Lund, G; Adler Würtzen, P; Saloga, J

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a clinically effective therapy for immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic diseases. To reduce the risk of IgE-mediated side effects, chemically modified allergoids have been introduced. Furthermore, adsorbance of allergens to aluminium hydroxide (alum) is widely used to enhance the immune response. The mechanisms behind the adjuvant effect of alum are still not completely understood. In the present study we analysed the effects of alum-adsorbed allergens and allergoids on their immunogenicity in vitro and in vivo and their ability to activate basophils of allergic donors. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (DC) were incubated with native Phleum pratense or Betula verrucosa allergen extract or formaldehyde-or glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, adsorbed or unadsorbed to alum. After maturation, DC were co-cultivated with autologous CD4+ T cells. Allergenicity was tested by leukotriene and histamine release of human basophils. Finally, in-vivo immunogenicity was analysed by IgG production of immunized mice. T cell proliferation as well as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-10 and interferon (IFN)-γ production were strongly decreased using glutaraldehyde-modified allergoids, but did not differ between alum-adsorbed allergens or allergoids and the corresponding unadsorbed preparations. Glutaraldehyde modification also led to a decreased leukotriene and histamine release compared to native allergens, being further decreased by adsorption to alum. In vivo, immunogenicity was reduced for allergoids which could be partly restored by adsorption to alum. Our results suggest that adsorption of native allergens or modified allergoids to alum had no consistent adjuvant effect but led to a reduced allergenicity in vitro, while we observed an adjuvant effect regarding IgG production in vivo. PMID:24528247

  4. Effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to local anesthetics for brachial plexus block: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Shin

    Full Text Available Tramadol, a 4-phenyl-piperidine analog of codeine, has a unique action in that it has a central opioidergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic analgesic, and peripheral local anesthetic (LA effect. Many studies have reported contradictory findings regarding the peripheral analgesic effect of tramadol as an adjuvant to LA in brachial plexus block (BPB. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of tramadol as an adjunct to LA in BPB during shoulder or upper extremity surgery.We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, KoreaMed databases, and Google Scholar for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs that compared BPB with LA alone and BPB with LA and tramadol. Primary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia. Secondary outcomes were the effects of tramadol as an adjuvant on time to onset of sensory block and motor block and on adverse effects. We performed the meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.3 software.We identified 16 RCTs with 751 patients. BPB with tramadol prolonged the duration of sensory block (mean difference [MD], -61.5 min; 95% CI, -95.5 to -27.6; P = 0.0004, motor block (MD, -65.6 min; 95% CI, -101.5 to -29.7; P = 0.0003, and analgesia (MD, -125.5 min; 95% CI, -175.8 to -75.3; P < 0.0001 compared with BPB without tramadol. Tramadol also shortened the time to onset of sensory block (MD, 2.1 min; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1; P < 0.0001 and motor block (MD, 1.2 min; 95% CI, 0.2 to 2.1; P = 0.010. In subgroup analysis, the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia was prolonged for BPB with tramadol 100 mg (P < 0.05 but not for BPB with tramadol 50 mg. The quality of evidence was high for duration of analgesia according to the GRADE system. Adverse effects were comparable between the studies.In upper extremity surgery performed under BPB, use of tramadol 100 mg as an adjuvant to LA appears to prolong the duration of sensory block, motor block, and analgesia, and

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Lubeck, Deborah; Lalla, Deepa; Paton, Virginia; Dueck, Amylou; Perez, Edith A

    2007-08-01

    Adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy provides significant clinical benefit in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to assess clinical and economic implications of adding trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy, based upon joint analysis of NSABP B-31 and NCCTG N9831 trials. A Markov model with 4 health states was used to estimate the cost utility for a 50-year-old woman on the basis of trial results through 4 years and estimates of long-term recurrence and death based on a meta-analysis of trials. From 6 years onward, rates of recurrence and death were assumed to be the same in both trastuzumab and chemotherapy-only arms. Incremental costs were estimated for diagnostic and treatment-related costs. Analyses were from payer and societal perspectives, and these analyses were projected to lifetime and 20-year horizons. Over a lifetime, the projected cost of trastuzumab per quality-adjusted life year (QALY; discount rate 3%) gained was 26,417 dollars (range 9,104 dollars-69,340 dollars under multiway sensitivity analysis). Discounted incremental lifetime cost was 44,923 dollars, and projected life expectancy was 3 years longer for patients who received trastuzumab (19.4 years vs 16.4 years). During a 20-year horizon, the projected cost of adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy was 34,201 dollars per QALY gained. Key cost-effectiveness drivers were discount rate, trastuzumab price, and probability of metastasis. The cost-effectiveness result was robust to sensitivity analysis. Trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of early stage breast cancer was projected to be cost effective over a lifetime horizon, achieving a cost-effectiveness ratio below that of many widely accepted oncology treatments. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  6. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation on hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The hand is one of the main elements of the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA due to deformities, which occur in approximately 90% of patients. It is a serious problem, both in the psychological and functional aspect, connected with muscle strength reduction, a limited range of motion and non-acceptance of the changes in the shape of the limb. The study aimed to assess the effect of rehabilitation on the function of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 40 women with RA. The patients had been previously treated at the Rehabilitation Department of the National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation in Warsaw. The study group underwent 3 weeks of rehabilitation involving individual therapy, exercises with equipment, patient education and physical therapy. The control group included women without a diagnosis of RA, hands pain-free and fully mobile. In both groups the hand was assessed for grip value, grip quality and manipulative ability. In the study group the basis of pain intensity was noted. The measurements were performed twice – prior to the rehabilitation and after 3 weeks of rehabilitation in women with RA and once in women without hand problems. Results : The results obtained revealed marked limitation of hand function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment resulted in an improvement of all assessed parameters except cylindrical grip, in which only a part of the findings was statistically significant. Conclusions : The analysis of the study material showed that appropriately adjusted and conducted hand physiotherapy in women with rheumatoid arthritis contributed to the improvement of its function by pain reduction, improved value and quality of grip, and also increased manipulative ability.

  7. Therapeutic effect of dioscin on collagen-induced arthritis through reduction of Th1/Th2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yachun; Xing, Enhong; Song, Hongru; Feng, Guiying; Liang, Xiujun; An, Gao; Zhao, Xiaofei; Wang, Mi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the therapeutic effect of dioscin on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Mice model of CIA was induced by chicken collagen II and arthritis index was assessed. After suspension of dioscin (100mg/kg/d) or triptolide was intragastrically administered, the left paw swelling and body weight of each mouse were measured. Then tissue samples were assayed by histopathological analysis. The levels of Th1 and Th2 were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of p-STAT1, p-STAT4 and p-STAT6 was demonstrated by western blot analysis, and T-bet and GATA-3 expression was detected by RT-PCR. The paw swelling and arthritis index were decreased and body weight was increased in the high dose of dioscin group compared to the model group (PTh1/Th2 in the dioscin group (0.82±0.24) and triptolide group (0.99±0.44) was lower than that in the model group (1.84±0.70, PTh1/Th2 cells, which could reduce the expression of p-STAT4, increase the expression of p-STAT6 and GATA3 in the synovial tissue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  9. The Effect of Triptolide in Rheumatoid Arthritis: From Basic Research towards Clinical Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Triptolide (TP, a major extract of the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF, has been shown to exert potent pharmacological effects, especially an immunosuppressive effect in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, its multiorgan toxicity prevents it from being widely used in clinical practice. Recently, several attempts are being performed to reduce TP toxicity. In this review, recent progress in the use of TP for RA, including its pharmacological effects and toxicity, is summarized. Meanwhile, strategies relying on chemical structural modifications, innovative delivery systems, and drug combinations to alleviate the disadvantages of TP are also reviewed. Furthermore, we also discuss the challenges and perspectives in their clinical translation.

  10. Effects of Fungicide and Adjuvant Sprays on Nesting Behavior in Two Managed Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek R Artz

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of empirical evidence showing that wild and managed bees are negatively impacted by various pesticides that are applied in agroecosystems around the world. The lethal and sublethal effects of two widely used fungicides and one adjuvant were assessed in cage studies in California on blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, and in cage studies in Utah on alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata. The fungicides tested were Rovral 4F (iprodione and Pristine (mixture of pyraclostrobin + boscalid, and the adjuvant tested was N-90, a non-ionic wetting agent (90% polyethoxylated nonylphenol added to certain tank mixtures of fungicides to improve the distribution and contact of sprays to plants. In separate trials, we erected screened cages and released 20 paint-marked females plus 30-50 males per cage to document the behavior of nesting bees under treated and control conditions. For all females in each cage, we recorded pollen-collecting trip times, nest substrate-collecting trip times (i.e., mud for O. lignaria and cut leaf pieces for M. rotundata, cell production rate, and the number of attempts each female made to enter her own or to enter other nest entrances upon returning from a foraging trip. No lethal effects of treatments were observed on adults, nor were there effects on time spent foraging for pollen and nest substrates and on cell production rate. However, Rovral 4F, Pristine, and N-90 disrupted the nest recognition abilities of O. lignaria females. Pristine, N-90, and Pristine + N-90 disrupted nest recognition ability of M. rotundata females. Electroantennogram responses of antennae of O. lignaria females maintained in the laboratory did not differ significantly between the fungicide-exposed and control bees. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that two commonly used fungicides and a non-ionic adjuvant can disrupt nest recognition in two managed solitary bee species.

  11. Effects of Fungicide and Adjuvant Sprays on Nesting Behavior in Two Managed Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Derek R; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of empirical evidence showing that wild and managed bees are negatively impacted by various pesticides that are applied in agroecosystems around the world. The lethal and sublethal effects of two widely used fungicides and one adjuvant were assessed in cage studies in California on blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, and in cage studies in Utah on alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata. The fungicides tested were Rovral 4F (iprodione) and Pristine (mixture of pyraclostrobin + boscalid), and the adjuvant tested was N-90, a non-ionic wetting agent (90% polyethoxylated nonylphenol) added to certain tank mixtures of fungicides to improve the distribution and contact of sprays to plants. In separate trials, we erected screened cages and released 20 paint-marked females plus 30-50 males per cage to document the behavior of nesting bees under treated and control conditions. For all females in each cage, we recorded pollen-collecting trip times, nest substrate-collecting trip times (i.e., mud for O. lignaria and cut leaf pieces for M. rotundata), cell production rate, and the number of attempts each female made to enter her own or to enter other nest entrances upon returning from a foraging trip. No lethal effects of treatments were observed on adults, nor were there effects on time spent foraging for pollen and nest substrates and on cell production rate. However, Rovral 4F, Pristine, and N-90 disrupted the nest recognition abilities of O. lignaria females. Pristine, N-90, and Pristine + N-90 disrupted nest recognition ability of M. rotundata females. Electroantennogram responses of antennae of O. lignaria females maintained in the laboratory did not differ significantly between the fungicide-exposed and control bees. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that two commonly used fungicides and a non-ionic adjuvant can disrupt nest recognition in two managed solitary bee species.

  12. Analgesic effects of carprofen and liposome-encapsulated butorphanol tartrate in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Sladky, Kurt K; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Stading, Ben R; Klauer, Julia M; Keuler, Nicholas S; Brown, Carolyn S; Heath, Timothy D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the microcrystalline sodium urate (MSU) method for inducing arthritis in parrots and to compare the analgesic efficacy of long-acting liposome-encapsulated butorphanol (LEBT), carprofen, or a combination of both. 20 Hispaniolan parrots. MSU was injected into a tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal (intertarsal) joint to induce arthritis (time 0). Four treatments were compared (LEBT [15 mg/kg, SC] administered once at time 0; injections of carprofen [3 mg/kg, IM, q 12 h] starting at time 0; administration of LEBT plus carprofen; and a control treatment of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Weight load testing and behavioral scoring were conducted at 0, 2, 6, 26, and 30 hours. Injection of MSU into the intertarsal joint induced arthritis, which resolved within 30 hours. Treatment with LEBT or LEBT plus carprofen resulted in significantly greater weight-bearing load on the limb with induced arthritis, compared with the control treatment. Treatment with carprofen alone caused a slight but nonsignificant improvement in weight-bearing load on the arthritic limb, compared with the control treatment. Behaviors associated with motor activity and weight bearing differed between the control and analgesic treatments. Butorphanol was an effective treatment for pain associated with arthritis, but carprofen administered every 12 hours was insufficient. Injection of MSU to induce arthritis in a single joint was a good method for evaluating tonic pain in parrots, and measurement of the weight-bearing load was accurate for assessment of arthritic pain; however, behavioral changes associated with pain were subtle.

  13. Suppression of Inflammation and Arthritis by Orally Administrated Cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao-Xin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxin (CTX from Naja naja atra venom (NNAV reportedly had analgesic effect in animal models but its role in inflammation and arthritis was unknown. In this study, we investigated the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antiarthritic actions of orally administered CTX-IV isolated from NNAV on rodent models of inflammation and adjuvant arthritis. CTX had significant anti-inflammatory effects in models of egg white induced nonspecific inflammation, filter paper induced rat granuloma formation, and capillary osmosis tests. CTX significantly reduced the swelling of paw induced by egg white, the inflammatory exudation, and the formation of granulomas. CTX reduced the swelling of paw, the AA clinical scores, and pathological alterations of joint. CTX significantly decreased the number of the CD4 T cells and inhibited the expression of relevant proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-6. CTX significantly inhibited the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and reduced the level of p-STAT3 in FLS. These results suggest that CTX inhibits inflammation and inflammatory pain and adjuvant-induced arthritis. CTX may be a novel therapeutic drug for treatment of arthritis.

  14. Effect of probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy on serum indexes of acute cerebral infarction patients during rehabilitation period

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    Li Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy on serum indexes of acute cerebral infarction patients in rehabilitation period. Methods: A total of 102 patients with acute cerebral infarction were treated in our hospital from August 2011 to June 2015, were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and were randomly divided into observation group 51 cases and control group 51 cases according to the order of hospitalization. Control group received atorvastatin treatment alone, observation group received probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy, and then differences in levels of serum CXCL16, HMGB1, CD40L and Fibulin-5, P-selectin, NPY, CGRP, visfatin and others, chemokines and inflammation-related factors, vascular endothelial cells and fibrinolytic function, etc were compared between two groups after treatment. Results: Serum CXCL16, HMGB1, CD40L and Fibulin-5 levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum P-selectin, NPY, visfatin, UCH-L1, sVCAM-1 and SAA levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while CGRP level was higher than that of control group; serum CCL-19, CCL-21, YKL-40, IL-33 and IL- 18 values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum vWF, PAI-1 and plasminogen levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while 6-K-PGF1α and tPA levels were higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Probucol combined with atorvastatin adjuvant therapy for acute cerebral infarction patients in rehabilitation period can effectively optimize patients’ general status and avoid re-infarction in recovery period, and it has positive clinical significance.

  15. Vaccination of mice for research purpose: alum is as effective as and safer than complete Freund adjuvant

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    L. Punzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease involving many organ systems. Glomerulonephritis (GLN is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in SLE. It has recently been demonstrated that adjuvants of vaccines could cause the so called ASIA syndrome. The study aimed to assess the effects of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA vs alum injections in NZB/NZWF1 mice. Mice (n=10 each group were injected with a total volume of 200 μL of: CFA in PBS (group 1, alum in PBS (group 2, PBS (group 3 as controls, PTX3/CFA (group 4, PTX3/alum (group 5, 3 times, 3 weeks apart /given in each injection, three weeks apart from ten weeks of age. Urine samples were collected weekly to evaluate proteinuria. Blood samples were collected before every injection, at 21 weeks of age, and at death to evaluate levels of anti-PTX3 and anti-dsDNA. Proteinuria free survival and survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method using Mantel-Cox’s test for comparisons. CFA-treated mice developed both anti-dsDNA antibodies and proteinuria earlier and at higher levels than alumtreated and PBS-injected mice, starting from 13 weeks of age. Proteinuria free survival rates (proteinuria ≥300 mg/dL and survival rates were lower in CFA-treated mice than those treated with alum or injected with PBS (P<0.001 for all. No difference was observed between the alum-treated group and PBS-injected mice. Notably, groups 4 and 5, immunized with PTX3, developed anti-PTX3 antibodies and no significant difference was observed. Alum seems to be as effective as and safer than CFA as adjuvant, since it did not affect disease progression in immunized NZB/NZWF1 mice.

  16. Effect of adjuvant levosimendan therapy on neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines in elderly patients with chronic heart failure

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    Li Lei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of adjuvant levosimendan therapy on neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: A total of 100 elderly patients with chronic heart failure who were treated in the hospital between March 2014 and March 2017 were divided into control group and levosimendan group by random number table, each with 50 cases. Control group received clinical routine therapy for chronic heart failure, and levosimendan group received routine therapy combined with adjuvant levosimendan therapy. The differences in serum levels of RAAS indexes, thyroid hormones, myocardial damage indexes and endothelial function indexes were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: At T0, there was no statistically significant difference in serum levels of RAAS indexes, thyroid hormones, myocardial damage indexes and endothelial function indexes between the two groups. At T1, serum RAAS indexes PRA, AngⅡ and ALD levels of levosimendan group were lower than those of control group; serum thyroid hormones TT3, TT4, FT3 and FT4 levels of levosimendan group were higher than those of control group; serum myocardial damage indexes cTnⅠ, H-FABP and NT-proBNP levels of levosimendan group were lower than those of control group; serum endothelial function index NO level of levosimendan group was higher than that of control group while ET-1 level was lower than that of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant levosimendan therapy for elderly patients with chronic heart failure can effectively adjust the secretion of neuroendocrine hormones and reduce the myocardial and vascular endothelial damage.

  17. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  18. Effects of Chinese Medicine as Adjunct Medication for Adjuvant Chemotherapy Treatments of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Lijing; Dong, Changsheng; Liu, Jiaxiang; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Jianfang; Shen, Xiaoyong; Che, Jiaming; Yang, Yi; Huang, Hai; Li, Hegen; Sun, Jianli; Jiang, Yi; Mao, Zhujun; Chen, Peiqi; Gong, Yabin; Jin, Xiaolin; Xu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a combination medication with adjuvant chemotherapy on postoperative early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. The 314 patients with completely resected stage IB, II or IIIA cancers were assigned into vinorelbine plus cisplatin/carboplatin (NP/NC) (control, n = 158) and NP/NC with additional TCM (intervention, n = 156) groups. The primary endpoint was QOL scores; secondary endpoints were the toxicity and safety of the regimens. The NP/NC regimen caused mild (grade 1 or 2) non-hematologic toxic effects in the patients comprising vomiting (43.6%), fatigue (36.9%), pain (23%), dry mouth (27.6%) and diarrhea (7.9%). The incidence of adverse events was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (0.57% vs 4.02%, P = 0.037). Transient severe (grade 3 or 4) hematological toxic effects occurred less often (hemoglobin reduction (11.9 vs 22.5 percent) and total bilirubin increased (to 42.1 vs 46.2%) in the intervention compared to the control group during the 2nd chemotherapy cycle. When combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, TCM led to partial relief of symptoms in addition to a reduction of side-effects and adverse events caused by the NP/NC regimens. PMID:28436479

  19. Bayesian comparative effectiveness study of four consensus treatment plans for initial management of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: FiRst-Line Options for Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis Treatment (FROST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrovic, Peter A; Beukelman, Timothy; Tomlinson, George; Feldman, Brian M; Schanberg, Laura E; Kimura, Yukiko

    2018-03-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a rare febrile arthritis of childhood characterized by a potentially severe course, including prolonged glucocorticoid exposure, growth failure, destructive arthritis, and life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome. Early cytokine-blocking biologic therapy may improve long-term outcomes, although some systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients respond well to non-biologic treatment, leaving optimal management undefined. Consequently, treatment of new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis by expert clinicians varies widely. To describe a pragmatic, observational comparative effectiveness study that takes advantage of diversity in the management of a rare disease: FiRst-Line Options for Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis Treatment (FROST), comparing non-biologic and biologic consensus treatment plans for new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis within the 60-center Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance Registry (CARRA). FiRst-Line Options for Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis Treatment (FROST) is a multicenter, prospective, non-randomized study that compares four Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) consensus treatment plans for new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: (1) glucocorticoids alone, (2) methotrexate, (3) interleukin-1 blockade, and (4) interleukin-6 blockade. Patients consenting to participation in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry are started on one of four Consensus Treatment Plans at the discretion of the treating physician. The outcome of primary interest is clinically inactive disease off glucocorticoids at 9 months, comparing non-biologic (Consensus Treatment Plans 1 + 2) versus biologic (Consensus Treatment Plans 3 + 4) strategies. Bayesian analytic methods will be employed to evaluate response rates, using propensity scoring to balance treatment groups for potential

  20. [Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbiti, Mohammed; Bouhamidi, Bahia; Louzi, Lhoussaine

    2017-01-01

    Acute septic arthritis is rare. It is associated with poor prognosis in terms of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of a 61-year old patient with spontaneous Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis. He suffered from complicated diabetes associated with positive blood cultures and synovial fluid cultures. Patient's evolution was favorable thanks to early diagnosis and initiation of adequate antibiotic therapy. Proteus mirabilis septic arthritis is rare. On that basis we conducted a literature review of cases of Proteus mirabilis pyogenic arthritis to highlight the risk factors, pathogenesis, treatment and evolution of these diseases. Diagnosis is commonly based on microbiological analysis, early articular puncture biopsy is performed before the initiation of antibiotic treatment, direct examination, culture and antibiogram which are useful as guidance for antibiotic therapy. Septic arthritis is a diagnostic and therapeutic emergency; early management of this disease allows total healing without after-effects.

  1. Arthritis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision Leadership News Partners & Sponsors Careers Code of Ethics Financials Annual Report Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms & Conditions Donate Press Store Blog Community Local Offices Kids Get Arthritis Too Español Arthritis Today Social Media Newsletters Sign Up for E-Newsletters Arthritis Foundation ...

  2. Ionic imbalance and lack of effect of adjuvant treatment with methylene blue in the hamster model of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis in humans usually involves hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia and the putative mechanism underlying such ionic imbalances may be related to nitric oxide (NO production. We previously demonstrated the correlation between serum levels of NO and the severity of renal disease in patients with severe leptospirosis. Methylene blue inhibits soluble guanylyl cyclase (downstream of the action of any NO synthase isoforms and was recently reported to have beneficial effects on clinical and experimental sepsis. We investigated the occurrence of serum ionic changes in experimental leptospirosis at various time points (4, 8, 16 and 28 days in a hamster model. We also determined the effect of methylene blue treatment when administered as an adjuvant therapy, combined with late initiation of standard antibiotic (ampicillin treatment. Hypokalaemia was not reproduced in this model: all of the groups developed increased levels of serum potassium (K. Furthermore, hypermagnesaemia, rather than magnesium (Mg depletion, was observed in this hamster model of acute infection. These findings may be associated with an accelerated progression to acute renal failure. Adjuvant treatment with methylene blue had no effect on survival or serum Mg and K levels during acute-phase leptospirosis in hamsters.

  3. Mast cells contribute to the mucosal adjuvant effect of CTA1-DD after IgG-complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Larsson, Lisa; Mattsson, Johan; Lycke, Nils; Xiang, Zou

    2010-09-01

    Mast cell activation is one of the most dramatic immune-mediated responses the body can encounter. In the worst scenario (i.e., anaphylaxis), this response is fatal. However, the importance of mast cells as initiators and effectors of both innate and adaptive immunity in healthy individuals has recently been appreciated. It was reported that mast cell activation can be used as an adjuvant to promote Ag-specific humoral immune responses upon vaccination. In this study, we have used a clinically relevant mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin A1 subunit (CTA1)-DD, which is a fusion protein composed of CTA1, the ADP-ribosylating part of cholera toxin, and DD, two Ig-binding domains derived from Staphylococcus aureus protein A. CTA1-DD in combination with polyclonal IgG induced degranulation and production of TNF-alpha from mouse mast cells. Furthermore, CTA1-DD and polyclonal IgG complex induced mast cell degranulation in mouse skin tissue and nasal mucosa. We also found that intranasal immunization with hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl) acetyl (NP) coupled to chicken gammaglobulin admixed with CTA1-DD complexed with polyclonal IgG greatly enhanced serum IgG anti-NP Ab responses and stimulated higher numbers of NP-specific plasma cells in the bone marrow as compared with that observed in mice immunized with NP-chicken gammaglobulin with CTA1-DD alone. This CTA1-DD/IgG complex-mediated enhancement was mast cell dependent because it was absent in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that a clinically relevant adjuvant, CTA1-DD, exerts additional augmenting effects through activation of mucosal mast cells, clearly demonstrating that mast cells could be further exploited for improving the efficacy of mucosal vaccines.

  4. The effect of postoperative radiotherapy on the feasibility of optimal dose adjuvant CMF chemotheraphy in stage II breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkes, A.; Brufman, G.; Rizel, S.; Weshler, Z.; Biran, S.; Fuks, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The impact of a number of variables upon the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy given to 87 patients with Stage II breast carcinoma was retrospectively analyzed. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF). Drugs were given in optimal doses (85% or more of the planned dose) to 17% of the patients; in intermediate doses (66 to 84% of the planned dose) to 50% of the patients; and in low doses (65% or less of the planned dose) to 33% of the patients. Myelosuppression was the main reason for giving intermediate or low doses. At a median follow-up of three years, 84% of all patients remain alive. Radiation therapy preceding chemotherapy was given to 70% of the patients, concomitant irradation and chemotherapy to 15%, and 13 patients (15%) received chemotheapy only. Of the 14 patients who received optimal doses of CMF, 12 (86%) also received radiation therapy. Disease-free survival at three years is similar for irradiated and nonirradiated patients, but the latter have a higher incidence of local recurrence (5% vs. 15%), although the difference is not statistically significant. Delay in the intiation of chemotherapy, mostly because of the administration of postoperative irradiation, adversely affected the probability and duration of disease-free survival, particulararly in premenopausal women in whom chemotherapy was started within more than 90 days of mastectomy. The administration of optimal doses of adjuvant chemotherapy should follow the primary treatment to the breast tumor as closely as possible. If radiation therapy is indicated as well, it should be delivered concomitantly with chemotherapy, given the feasibility of administering both modalities simultaneously, as demonstrated in this study

  5. Alternatives to Mineral Oil Adjuvants in Vaccines Against Aeromonas salmonicida subs. salmonicida in Rainbow Trout Offer Reductions in Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Christensen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...... protection appears similar to that of the benchmark formulation, thus introducing viable, potential alternative types of adjuvants for use in future fish vaccines....

  6. Endocrine effects of adjuvant letrozole + triptorelin compared with tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Emanuela; Morabito, Alessandro; De Maio, Ermelinda; Di Rella, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Gravina, Adriano; Labonia, Vincenzo; Landi, Gabriella; Nuzzo, Francesco; Pacilio, Carmen; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; D'Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Botti, Gerardo; Gallo, Ciro; Perrone, Francesco; de Matteis, Andrea

    2008-01-10

    To compare the endocrine effects of 6 months of adjuvant treatment with letrozole + triptorelin or tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer within an ongoing phase 3 trial (Hormonal Adjuvant Treatment Bone Effects study). Prospectively collected hormonal data were available for 81 premenopausal women, of whom 30 were assigned to receive tamoxifen + triptorelin and 51 were assigned letrozole + triptorelin +/- zoledronate. Serum 17-beta-estradiol (E2), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Delta4-androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, progesterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cortisol were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. For each hormone, 6-month values were compared between treatment groups by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney exact test. Median age was 44 years for both groups of patients. Letrozole + triptorelin (+/- zoledronate) induced a stronger suppression of median E2 serum levels (P = .0008), LH levels (P = .0005), and cortisol serum levels (P < .0001) compared with tamoxifen + triptorelin. Median FSH serum levels were suppressed in both groups, but such suppression was lower among patients receiving letrozole, who showed significantly higher median FSH serum levels (P < .0001). No significant differences were observed for testosterone, progesterone, ACTH, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone between the two groups of patients. Letrozole in combination with triptorelin induces a more intense estrogen suppression than tamoxifen + triptorelin in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer.

  7. Effect of biologic therapy on radiological progression in rheumatoid arthritis: what does it add to methotrexate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Graeme Jones, Erica Darian-Smith, Michael Kwok, Tania WinzenbergMenzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: There have been substantial advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in recent years. Traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs have been shown to have small effects on the progression of radiographic damage. This quantitative overview summarizes the evidence for biologic DMARDS and radiographic damage either alone or in combination with methotrexate. Two outcomes were used (standardized mean difference and odds of progression. A total of 21 trials were identified of which 18 had useable data. For biologic monotherapy, tocilizumab, adalimumab, and etanercept were significantly better than methotrexate, with tocilizumab ranking first in both outcomes while golimumab was ineffective in both outcomes. For a biologic in combination with methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone, most therapies studied (etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, certolizumab, tocilizumab, and rituximab were effective at slowing X-ray progression using either outcome, with infliximab ranking first in both outcomes. The exceptions to this were golimumab (no effect on standardized mean difference and abatacept (no effect on odds of progression. This effect was additional to methotrexate; thus, the overall benefit is moderate to large in magnitude, which is clearly of major clinical significance for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and supports the use of biologic DMARDs in those with a poor disease prognosis.Keywords: rheumatoid, trials, meta-analysis, radiographs, biologic, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, DMARDs

  8. Immunomodulatory and Physical Effects of Oil Composition in Vaccine Adjuvant Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B.; Baldwin, Susan L.; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Reed, Steven G.; Vedvick, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions have been used for years in some seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. However, concerns have been expressed regarding squalene source and potential biological activities. Little information is available regarding the immunomodulatory activity of squalene in comparison with other metabolizable oils in the context of oil-in-water emulsions formulated with vaccines. The present work describes the manufacture and physical characterization of emulsions composed of different classes of oils, including squalene, long chain triglycerides, a medium chain triglyceride, and a perfluorocarbon, all emulsified with egg phosphatidylcholine. Some differences were apparent among the non-squalene oils in terms of emulsion stability, including higher size polydispersity in the perfluorocarbon emulsion, more rapid visual instability at 60 °C for the long-chain triglyceride and perfluorocarbon emulsions, and an increased creaming rate in the medium-chain triglyceride emulsion at 60 °C as detected by laser scattering optical profiling. The biological activity of each of these emulsions was compared when formulated with either a recombinant malaria antigen or a split-virus inactivated influenza vaccine. Overall, vaccines containing the squalene emulsion elicited higher antibody titers and more abundant long-lived plasma cells than vaccines containing emulsions based on other oils. Since squalene-based emulsions show higher adjuvant potency compared to the other oils tested, non-squalene oils may be more suitable as carriers of amphiphilic or hydrophobic immunostimulatory molecules (such as TLR agonists) rather than as stand-alone adjuvants. PMID:21906648

  9. Protective effects of a blueberry extract in acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Maria-Eduardo; Oliveira, Mónica; Direito, Rosa; Rocha, João; Alves, Paula; Serra, Ana-Teresa; Duarte, Catarina; Bronze, Rosário; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Sepodes, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Here we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of a blueberry extract in the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and collagen-induced arthritis model, both in rats. Along with the chemical characterization of the phenolic content of the fruits and extract, the antioxidant potential of the extract, the cellular antioxidant activity and the effects over neutrophils' oxidative burst, were studied in order to provide a mechanistic insight for the anti-inflammatory effects observed. The extract significantly inhibited paw edema formation in an acute model the rat. Our results also demonstrate that the standardized extract had pharmacological activity when administered orally in the collagen-induced arthritis model in the rat and was able to significantly reduce the development of clinical signs of arthritis and the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, consequently improving articular function in treated animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Is a long-term high-intensity exercise program effective and safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Zuzana; Munneke, Marten; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Kroon, Herman M.; Jansen, Annemarie; Ronday, Karel H.; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Dijkmans, Ben A. C.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P. M.; Hazes, Johanna M. W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are insufficient data on the effects of long-term intensive exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We undertook this randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of a 2-year intensive exercise program (Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

  11. Is a long-term high-intensity exercise program effective and safe in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Z. de; Munneke, M.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Kroon, H.M.; Jansen, A.; Ronday, K.H.; Schaardenburg, D. van; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Breedveld, F.C.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Hazes, J.M.W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are insufficient data on the effects of long-term intensive exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We undertook this randomized, controlled, multicenter trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of a 2-year intensive exercise program (Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

  12. Effect of adjuvant acupuncture therapy on serum cytokines and neurotransmitters in patients with post-stroke depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Feng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant acupuncture therapy on serum cytokines and neurotransmitters in patients with post-stroke depression. Methods: Patients with poststroke depression who were treated in Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Yuyang District Yulin City between May 2014 and February 2017 were selected as the research subjects and divided into two groups by random number table, control group of patients received neurotrophy, rehabilitation exercise, antidepressant drugs and other symptomatic treatment, and the acupuncture group received auxiliary acupuncture treatment on the basis of symptomatic treatment. The serum levels of nerve cytokines, inflammatory cytokines and neurotransmitters were detected before treatment as well as 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment. Results: 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment, serum BDNF, NGF, IGF-1, FGF-2, NE, DA and 5-HT levels of both groups of patients were higher than those before treatment while HCY, IL- 1β, IL-2, sIL-2R, TNF-α levels were lower than those before treatment, and serum BDNF, NGF, IGF-1, FGF-2, NE, DA and 5-HT levels of acupuncture group were higher than those of control group while HCY, IL-1β, IL-2, sIL-2R, TNF-α levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant acupuncture therapy for post-stroke depression can increase the secretion of nerve cytokines, reduce the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and regulate the function of monoamine neurotransmitters.

  13. Definite vs adjuvant radiotherapy. Comparative effects on lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.T.; Amendola, B.E.; Diaz, R.; Lovett, E.J. III; Hammerschmidt, R.M.; Peterson, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The recent association of alterations in T-lymphocyte subpopulations and impaired cellular immunity prompted an investigation of the effects of radiotherapy (RT) on serial levels of lymphocyte subsets in 30 patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma. Percentage and absolute levels of T3, T4, T6, T8, T10, T11, and Leu 7 cells were measured before, during, and after RT at monthly intervals for six months and compared with levels in 40 normal subjects. Sixteen patients received curative and 14 postoperative adjuvant RT. Before treatment, mean subset levels were similar among the patient and normal groups except for elevated Leu 7 (natural killer) cells in patients with stage I and II disease. There were profound decreases in absolute levels of each subpopulation during and after RT. The percentage of T4 (helper/inducer) cells decreased, whereas that of T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) and Leu 7 cells tended to increase. Compared with normal values, the mean T4/T8 ratio decreased significantly by six months after RT, when absolute levels of the subsets had rebounded to pretreatment levels in the definitive RT group but remained profoundly decreased in the adjuvant group. The differing recovery patterns suggest that factors other than RT may contribute to persistent immunosuppression following RT

  14. Effects of acupuncture on rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meta-analysis indicated that a significant benefit of acupuncture compared with non-acupuncture on improving the symptoms of RA (pooled RR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.31, Z = 3.47, P = 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, 9 RCTs showed significant effects of acupuncture for response rate compared with western medicine ...

  15. Anti-angiogenic effect of triptolide in rheumatoid arthritis by targeting angiogenic cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangying Kong

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is characterized by a pre-vascular seriously inflammatory phase, followed by a vascular phase with high increase in vessel growth. Since angiogenesis has been considered as an essential event in perpetuating inflammatory and immune responses, as well as supporting pannus growth and development of RA, inhibition of angiogenesis has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. Triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has been extensively used in treatment of RA patients. It also acts as a small molecule inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis in several cancer types. However, it is unclear whether triptolide possesses an anti-angiogenic effect in RA. To address this problem, we constructed collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model using DA rats by the injection of bovine type II collagen. Then, CIA rats were treated with triptolide (11-45 µg/kg/day starting on the day 1 after first immunization. The arthritis scores (P<0.05 and the arthritis incidence (P<0.05 of inflamed joints were both significantly decreased in triptolide-treated CIA rats compared to vehicle CIA rats. More interestingly, doses of 11~45 µg/kg triptolide could markedly reduce the capillaries, small, medium and large vessel density in synovial membrane tissues of inflamed joints (all P<0.05. Moreover, triptolide inhibited matrigel-induced cell adhesion of HFLS-RA and HUVEC. It also disrupted tube formation of HUVEC on matrigel and suppressed the VEGF-induced chemotactic migration of HFLS-RA and HUVEC, respectively. Furthermore, triptolide significantly reduced the expression of angiogenic activators including TNF-α, IL-17, VEGF, VEGFR, Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie2, as well as suppressed the IL1-β-induced phosphorylated of ERK, p38 and JNK at protein levels. In conclusion, our data suggest for the first time that triptolide may possess anti-angiogenic effect in RA both in vivo and in vitro assay systems by downregulating the

  16. Effect of Combination Therapy on Joint Destruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, N.; Hubeck-Graudal, T.; Tarp, S.

    2014-01-01

    identified in a search of electronic archives of biomedical literature and included in a star-shaped network meta-analysis and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement protocol. Effects are reported as standardized mean differences (SMD......). The effects of data from 39 trials published in the period 1989-2012 were as follows: Double DMARD: -0.32 SMD (CI: -0.42, -0.22); triple DMARD: -0.46 SMD (CI: -0.60, -0.31); 1 DMARD plus TNFi: -0.30 SMD (CI: -0.36, -0.25); 1 DMARD plus abatacept: -0.20 SMD (CI: -0.33, -0.07); 1 DMARD plus tocilizumab: -0.......34 SMD (CI: -0.48, -0.20); 1 DMARD plus CD20i: -0.32 SMD (CI: -0.40, -0.24). The indirect comparisons showed similar effects between combination treatments apart from triple DMARD being significantly better than abatacept plus methotrexate (2 0.26 SMD (CI: -0.45, -0.07)) and TNFi plus methotrexate (-0...

  17. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Barut

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease of unknown aetiology in childhood and predominantly presents with peripheral arthritis. The disease is divided into several subgroups, according to demographic characteristics, clinical features, treatment modalities and disease prognosis. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is one of the most frequent disease subtypes, is characterized by recurrent fever and rash. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, common among young female patients, is usually accompanied by anti-nuclear antibodie positivity and anterior uveitis. Seropositive polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an analogue of adult rheumatoid arthritis, is seen in less than 10% of paediatric patients. Seronegative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, an entity more specific for childhood, appears with widespread large- and small-joint involvement. Enthesitis-related arthritis is a separate disease subtype, characterized by enthesitis and asymmetric lower-extremity arthritis. This disease subtype represents the childhood form of adult spondyloarthropathies, with human leukocyte antigen-B27 positivity and uveitis but commonly without axial skeleton involvement. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis is characterized by a psoriatic rash, accompanied by arthritis, nail pitting and dactylitis. Disease complications can vary from growth retardation and osteoporosis secondary to treatment and disease activity, to life-threatening macrophage activation syndrome with multi-organ insufficiency. With the advent of new therapeutics over the past 15 years, there has been a marked improvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis treatment and long-term outcome, without any sequelae. The treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients involves teamwork, including an experienced paediatric rheumatologist, an ophthalmologist, an orthopaedist, a paediatric psychiatrist and a physiotherapist. The primary goals

  18. Effectiveness of massage therapy as co-adjuvant treatment to exercise in osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Godoy, Virginia; Gallego Izquierdo, Tomás; Lázaro Navas, Irene; Pecos Martín, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of exercise therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee (KOA) is widely evidenced. The current study aims to compare the effectiveness of massage therapy as a co-adjuvant treatment for KOA. A blind, randomized controlled trial design was used. Eighteen women were randomly allocated to two different groups. Group A was treated with massage therapy and an exercise program, and Group B was treated with the exercise program alone. The intervention lasted for 6 weeks. Outcomes were assessed using a verbal analogue scale (VAS), the WOMAC index, and the Get-Up and Go test. Baseline, post-treatment, and 1- and 3- month follow-up data were collected. Values were considered statistically significant at a p massage therapy may lead to clinical improvement in patients with KOA. The use of massage therapy combined with exercise as a treatment for gonarthrosis does not seem to have any beneficial effects.

  19. Therapeutic effect of 99Tc - MDP observed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang Shibiao; Wu Yiwei; Su Chenghai; Zhang Wei; Dong Shenan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of 99 Tc - MDP in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Two hundred and eight patients with active RA have been treated using 99 Tc - MDP. The clinical manifestation and laboratory examination before and after treatment were observed. Results: The total effective rate of the 99 Tc - MDP was 86.1%. The effectiveness of relieving pain, diminishing swelling, increasing immune function etc was significant. It was most effective in improving morning stiffness, limitation of articulation function and decreasing ESR. Conclusion: The clinical effect of the 99 Tc - MDP is obvious. Application of the 99 Tc - MDP is safety, no significant adverse action and worth clinical using

  20. Methotrexate is an effective treatment for chronic uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foeldvari, Ivan; Wierk, Angela

    2005-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) associated uveitis, which is still one of the most common causes of visual impairment. A retrospective chart review of patients with the diagnosis of uveitis associated with JIA between July 1, 2002, and December 31, 2002. Four hundred sixty-seven patients with JIA were followed. Thirty-eight had uveitis: 31 associated with oligoarticular JIA and 7 with psoriatic JIA. Twenty-five of the 38 patients received MTX; in 23 patients uveitis was the indication for MTX therapy. In the MTX treated group 46/50 eyes had uveitis, the mean (range) age at onset of uveitis was 7.82 years (1.8-15.8), and the mean age at onset of arthritis was 7.25 years (1.25-15.7). MTX treatment was started an average of 11.4 months (0-72) after the onset of uveitis. The mean MTX dose was 15.6 mg/m2. Remission occurred after 4.25 months (1-12). Mean duration of remission was 10.3 months (3-27). The total duration of MTX therapy was 661 months and patients were in remission for 417/661 months. In 6 patients MTX was discontinued after 12 months of remission. Four patients were still in remission after 7.5 months (1-14). MTX seems to be an effective therapy for JIA associated uveitis.

  1. Massage therapy plus topical analgesic is more effective than massage alone for hand arthritis pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Solien-Wolfe, Lynda

    2014-07-01

    20 adults were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a massage therapy plus a topical analgesic application group. Both groups received a weekly massage from a therapist and were taught self-massage (same procedure) to be done by each participant once daily over a four-week period. The massage plus topical analgesic group as compared to the massage group had greater improvement in hand function as measured by a digital hand exerciser following the first session and across the four-week period. That group also had a greater increase in perceived grip strength and a greater decrease in hand pain, depressed mood and sleep disturbances over the four-week period. Massage therapy has been effective for several pain syndromes including migraine headaches (Lawle and Cameron, 2006)), lower back pain (Hsieh et al., 2004), fibromyalgia (Kalichman, 2010), neck and shoulder pain (Kong et al., 2013), carpal tunnel syndrome (Elliott and Burkett, 2013), and pain related to upper limb arthritis (Field et al., 2013). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether applying a topical analgesic following massage might be more effective than massage alone in treating pain associated with hand arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Arthritis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Arthritis Page Content Article Body Arthritis is an inflammation ... with antibiotics, even if arthritis develops. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has previously been ...

  3. Effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy in decreasing pain associated with opioid tolerance in adults undergoing orthopedic surgery: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Marsha; Bonanno, Laura; Kuhn, William

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to examine the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy versus opioid-based therapy alone in decreasing perioperative pain associated with opioid tolerance in adult patients, aged 18-70 years, undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures.The following question guides the systematic review: does the administration of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioid-based therapy, compared to opioid-based therapy alone, improve perioperative pain relief in opioid-tolerant adult patients undergoing orthopedic surgical procedures?

  4. Co-localization of a CD1d-binding glycolipid with a radiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccine in LN-resident DCs for a robust adjuvant effect

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D.; Miller, Jessica L.; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Ho, David D.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-01-01

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the present study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to a...

  5. Review Article: Fabricated Microparticles: An Innovative Method to Minimize the Side Effects of NSAIDs in Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan; Moin, Afrasim; Veerabhadrappa, Gangadharappa Hosahalli

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs. A trend in NSAID development has been to improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing the severity of GI side effects by altering dosage through modified release to optimize drug delivery. One such approach is the use of fabricated microparticles such as microcapsules and microspheres as carriers of drugs. Microparticles provide delivery of macromolecules and micromolecules via different routes and effectively control the release profile of such drugs. Microcapsules and microspheres are compatible with most natural and synthetic polymers and can be used for several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, nasal, intra-ocular, topical, and the like. Because of greater stability and multiple manufacturing techniques, microspheres and microcapsules are preferred as drug carriers over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Microparticles provide effective protection of the encapsulated agent against degradation by enzymatic activities, controlled and confined delivery of drugs from a few hours to months, and ingenious administration compared to alternative forms of controlled-release parenteral dosages, such as macro-sized implants. This comprehensive overview of fabricated microparticles describes microencapsulation technologies to produce microparticles for targeted therapy of arthritis and other

  6. Patient education in rheumatoid arthritis: the effectiveness of the ARC booklet and the mind map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D; Adebajo, A; Heslop, P; Hill, J; Firth, J; Bishop, P; Helliwell, P S

    2007-10-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a pictorial 'mind map' together with the Arthritis Research Campaign (ARC) booklet for imparting knowledge to participants with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, we wished to relate this to their reading ability. We studied 363 participants with RA. Reading ability was assessed using the REALM, and knowledge was assessed using the Knowledge Scale Questionnaire (KSQ). Information on educational attainment, disease state and levels of anxiety and depression was also collected. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the ARC booklet alone or the booklet and the mind map together. A significant minority (15%) of participants were functionally illiterate. There was a statistically significant increase in knowledge across both groups from baseline to reassessment after they were given the literature, but there was no difference in attainment between the groups. The more literate participants gained more knowledge regardless of the information they were given. They were also significantly less anxious and less depressed. The ARC booklet with or without the mind map was associated with a significant increase in knowledge. Poor readers had poor educational attainment and poor knowledge acquisition. The information on the mind map was not more accessible to them. Different educational strategies will be necessary to educate these patients.

  7. Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Erken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, sterile, non-suppurative and inflammatory arthropaty which has occured as a result of an infectious processes, mostly after gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract infections. Reiter syndrome is a frequent type of reactive arthritis. Both reactive arthritis and Reiter syndrome belong to the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, associated with HLA-B27 positivity and characterized by ongoing inflammation after an infectious episode. The classical triad of Reiter syndrome is defined as arthritis, conjuctivitis and urethritis and is seen only in one third of patients with Reiter syndrome. Recently, seronegative asymmetric arthritis and typical extraarticular involvement are thought to be adequate for the diagnosis. However, there is no established criteria for the diagnosis of reactive arthritis and the number of randomized and controlled studies about the therapy is not enough. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 283-299

  8. Psoriatic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 10 years, a number of well-controlled surveys of psoriatic patients selective for the presence of arthritis have been conducted. A Canadian group reported that of 100 patients admitted to the hospital for treatment of psoriasis, 32 had clinical or radiologic evidence of psoriatic arthritis, and 17 had both types of evidence. Eighty patients with radiologic evidence of spinal or sacroiliac involvement were asymptomatic, and seven had clinical evidence of peripheral arthritis but without radiologic evidence. The authors concluded that psoriatic arthritis is a common event in patients with severe psoriasis and that it is associated with more extensive skin disease than is found in patients without arthritis. The information gathered from these epidemiologic studies coupled with clinical, radiologic, and serologic characteristics have provided the basis for the current belief that psoriatic arthritis is indeed a distinct entity

  9. MINERAL WATERS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES, TIAGO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder affecting nearly 1% of adult population. First-line therapies include disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, but creno-balneotherapyis often prescribed in rheumatic disorders and RA is no exception. Objectives: To know the efficacy of creno-balneotherapy in RA. Methods: A Medline based search was made using MeSH terms “balneology” and “rheumatoid arthritis”. Articles concerning the use of mineral waters in RA treatment were included. Results: In RA, two traditional ways of employing mineral waters are commonly used: immersion and peliotherapy. Each owns their benefits to non-specific or hydrotherapeutic effects and specific or crenotherapeutic effects. Mineral waters must be regarded as an adjuvant therapy in quiescent, stable or non-progressive RA. Significant benefits have been accomplished with radonenriched and sulphurous waters. Isothermal or hyperthermal waters should be preferred. Conclusions: Although there is a global lack of evidence, mineral waters are a safe and effective therapy to be considered in RA.

  10. The effect of verapamil as an adjuvant agent with local anesthetic on sensory block level, hemodynamic and postoperative pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabaeizavareh, M.H.; Omranifard, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Coadministration of verapamil with local anesthetics could potentiate the sensory block of peripheral nerve, increase the duration of sensory nerve block and reduce postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine on level of sensory block, post-operative pain and analgesic consumption among patients undergone elective surgery in Isfahan. Methodology: In this prospective randomized interventional clinical double-blind study ASA physical status I or II male patients referred for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. They randomized in group A (20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 5 mg verapamil) and B(20 cc of 0.5% bupivacaine plus 2 cc normal saline). The sensory level block, postoperative pain, opioid consumption and vomiting and nausa and hemodynamic state was recorded and compared in two groups. Results: Sixty two patients were studied. Mean of the sensory level block 20 minutes after stating epidural anesthesia and immediately after surgery, postoperative pain score, opioid consumption and nausea and vomiting and fluid intake was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate changes was not significantly different in two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Verapamil as an adjuvant with bupivacaine could not significantly increase the level of sensory block and attenuate post-operative pain and analgesic consumption and hemodynamic condition of the patients. For more accurate results it is recommended to determine the effect of different dose of verapamil in larger sample size of the patients. Studying the effect of other Ca channel blockers would be favorable in this regard. (author)

  11. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Subchondral Bone Loss at Arthritis Onset Predicted Late Arthritis Severity in a Rat Arthritis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbon, Guillaume; Cleret, Damien; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Vico, Laurence; Marotte, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Synovitis is usually observed before loss of articular function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition to the synovium and according to the "Inside-Outside" theory, bone compartment is also involved in RA pathogenesis. Then, we investigated time dependent articular bone loss and prediction of early bone loss to late arthritis severity on the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model. Lewis female rats were longitudinally monitored from arthritis induction (day 0), with early (day 10) and late (day 17) steps. Trabecular and cortical microarchitecture parameters of four ankle bones were assessed by microcomputed tomography. Gene expression was determined at sacrifice. Arthritis occurred at day 10 in AIA rats. At this time, bone erosions were detected on four ankle bones, with cortical porosity increase (+67%) and trabecular alterations including bone volume fraction (BV/TV: -13%), and trabecular thickness decrease. Navicular bone assessment was the most reproducible and sensitive. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between bone alterations at day 10 and arthritis severity or bone loss at day 17, including predictability of day 10 BV/TV to day 17 articular index (R 2  = 0.76). Finally, gene expression at day 17 confirmed massive osteoclast activation and interestingly provided insights on strong activation of bone formation inhibitor markers at the joint level. In rat AIA, bone loss was already observed at synovitis onset and was predicted late arthritis severity. Our results reinforced the key role of subchondral bone in arthritis pathogenesis, in favour to the "Inside-Outside" theory. Mechanisms of bone loss in rat AIA involved resorption activation and formation inhibition changes. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1318-1325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy and cancer cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertino, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of chemotherapy as an adjuvant to surgery and/or radiotherapy is well founded in experimental tumor systems and appears to be effective in patients in some circumstances. It is clear from both clinical and experimental studies that (1) the dose is important, (2) the earlier chemotherapy is started after primary therapy the better, and (3) combination chemotherapy may be more effective than single-agent treatment. The better the estimation of risk of recurrence, the better the assessment of the risk-benefit ratio with adjuvant therapy. Salvage therapy as well as relative risk of recurrence are considerations in the choice of patients to be treated. Finally, some evidence is presented to indicate that alkylating agents may not be necessary in combination regimens for adjuvant therapy if effective antimetabolite combinations are available

  14. Mast cell activator compound 48/40 is not an effective adjuvant for UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Chen, Shengjie; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2017-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii, Tg) is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan causing different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans. Mast cells (MCs) play a role during T. gondii infection. Several studies suggest that MC activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) may be an effective vaccine adjuvant resulting in a potent and protective antigen-specific immune response against bacteria or virus infections. The present study was performed to determine whether C48/80 had adjuvant activity for ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated T. gondii vaccine to induce protective immune responses against T. gondii in mouse model. Kunming mice were divided into the following groups: naive mice, naive mice administrated with C48/80 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, mice infected by i.p. injection of 10 4 T. gondii RH strain alone (Tg group), mice infected with 10 4 RH tachyzoites plus C48/80 administration (Tg + C48/80), mice immunized with UV-Tg alone, and mice immunized with UV-Tg plus C48/80 administration (UV-Tg + C48/80). All the vaccinated mice were challenged with 10 4 tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain at the same time as the primary infection. The survival rates, liver histopathologies, liver parasite burdens, and mRNA expression levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the livers and spleens detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were compared among the aforementioned groups after primary infection or challenge infection. The results showed that, compared to the Tg group or Tg + C48/80 group, the UV-Tg + Tg group and UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group had significantly prolonged survival time, lower liver histopathological scores, decreased liver parasite burdens, and increased levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in the livers and spleens. There was no significant difference of survival time between the UV-Tg + Tg group and the UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group; however, the UV-Tg + C48/80 + Tg group showed higher parasite burden, more severe

  15. A potent adjuvant effect of a CD1d-binding NKT cell ligand in human immune system mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Kaneko, Izumi; Zhang, Min; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Yuda, Masao; Tsuji, Moriya

    2017-01-01

    A CD1d-binding invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell stimulatory glycolipid, namely 7DW8-5, is shown to enhance the efficacy of radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS)-based malaria vaccine in mice. In the current study, we aim to determine whether 7DW8-5 can display a potent adjuvant effect in human immune system (HIS) mice. HIS-A2/hCD1d mice, which possess both functional human iNKT cells and CD8+ T cells, were generated by the transduction of NSG mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 9 expressing genes that encode human CD1d molecules and HLA-A*0201, followed by the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. The magnitudes of human iNKT-cell response against 7DW8-5 and HLA-A*0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response against a human malaria antigen in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice were determined by using human CD1d tetramer and human HLA-A*0201 tetramer, respectively. We found that 7DW8-5 stimulates human iNKT cells in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice, as well as those derived from HIS-A2/hCD1d mice in vitro. We also found that 7DW8-5 significantly increases the level of a human malarial antigen-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice. Our study indicates that 7DW8-5 can display a potent adjuvant effect on RAS vaccine-induced anti-malarial immunity by augmenting malaria-specific human CD8+ T-cell response.

  16. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  17. Late effects of high-dose adjuvant chemotherapy on white and gray matter in breast cancer survivors: Converging results from multimodal magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Boogerd, Willem; Veltman, Dick J.; Caan, Matthan; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Lavini, Cristina; Linn, Sabine C.; Boven, Epie; van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2012-01-01

    The neural substrate underlying cognitive impairments after chemotherapy is largely unknown. Here, we investigated very late (>9 years) effects of adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy on brain white and gray matter in primary breast cancer survivors (n = 17) with multimodal magnetic resonance imaging

  18. THE COURSE OF GOUTY ARTHRITIS ACCORDING TO THE KHABAROVSK CITY RHEUMATOLOGY ROOMAND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GOUT SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faina Sergeyevna Zharskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The past decade is marked by a rise in the detection rates of gout. The paper gives data on its incidence, risk factors, the frequency of diagnostic errors, the specific features of the course of male gouty arthritis, and the effectiveness of Gout school activities

  19. Up-Regulation of the Inflammatory Response by Ovariectomy in Collagen-Induced Arthritis. Effects of Tin Protoporphyrin IX.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez, L.; Alcaraz, M.J.; Maicas Blasco, N.; Guede, D.; Caeiro, J.R.; Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den; Ferrandiz, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of ovariectomy on the inflammatory response and bone metabolism on CIA as a model of postmenopausal arthritis as well as the effects of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a heme oxygenase inhibitor. Ovariectomy in non-arthritic mice produced increased serum PGD(2) levels and

  20. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  1. Effects of evaporation pressure and antifoam concentration and the use of a flocculant and adjuvant on the quality of sugar honey and panela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Esperanza Prada Forero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of multi-effect evaporators on panela (unrefined whole cane sugar production process requires, besides the technological adjustment, to maintain product characteristics; this condition revealed the lack of knowledge of the effect of evaporation pressure on the quality of panela. In order to fill part of this gap, this study sought to determine the effect of both the concentration of antifoam and the use of a flocculant (Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth and an adjuvant (lime on the quality of sugar honey and panela, when evaporation is performed at different atmospheric pressures. In order to achieve this, the present study worked on two completely randomized experimental designs with four replications, a density of evaporation heat flow of 27.78 kW/m2 and juice from the CC85-46 variety. In the first design, two variables were studied: evaporation pressure and use of flocculant and adjuvant with a 4x2x2 factorial arrangement without antifoam. In the second design, variables evaporation pressure and quantity of antifoam with a 4x3 factorial arrangement without flocculant nor adjuvant were studied. The results show that the quality of the product deteriorates in pressurized systems (glucoside coefficient increases up to 200%, is not affected by the use of 50 μL of antifoam per liter of clarified juice and improved by the use of flocculant (turbidity is reduced by 55%. Solidification and hardness improve with the addition of the adjuvant, but this increased 48% color and 24% turbidity.

  2. Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application. PMID:23304232

  3. Effectiveness of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at tender points as adjuvant therapy for patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonario, F; Matsutani, L A; Yuan, S L K; Marques, A P

    2013-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome associated with sleep disorders, fatigue and psychological symptoms. Combinations therapies, such as electrotherapy and therapeutic exercises have been used in the clinical practice. To assess the efficacy of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) as an adjuvant therapy to aerobic and stretching exercises, for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Controlled clinical trial. Unit of rehabilitation of a public hospital. Twenty-eight women aged 52.4±7.5 years, with fibromyalgia. A visual analogue scale measured pain intensity; tender points pain threshold, by dolorimetry; and quality of life, by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. All subjects participated in an eight-week program consisting of aerobic exercises, followed by static stretching of muscle chains. In TENS group, high-frequency (150 Hz) was applied on bilateral tender points of trapezium and supraspinatus. TENS group had a greater pain reduction (mean change score=-2.0±2.9 cm) compared to Without TENS group (-0.7±3.7 cm). There was a difference between mean change scores of each group for pain threshold (right trapezium: 0.2±1 kg/cm² in TENS group and -0.2±1.2 kg/cm² in Without TENS group). In the evaluation of clinically important changes, patients receiving TENS had relevant improvement of pain, work performance, fatigue, stiffness, anxiety and depression compared to those not receiving TENS. It has suggested that high-frequency TENS as an adjuvant therapy is effective in relieving pain, anxiety, fatigue, stiffness, and in improving ability to work of patients with fibromyalgia. High-frequency TENS may be used as a short-term complementary treatment of fibromyalgia.

  4. Effect of adjuvant low-molecular-weight heparin therapy on placental hypoxia and cell apoptosis in puerperae with severe preeclampsia

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    Miao Zhou1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of adjuvant low-molecular-weight heparin therapy on placental hypoxia and cell apoptosis in puerperae with severe preeclampsia. Methods: A total of 94 puerperae with severe preeclampsia who received treatment and safely gave birth in our hospital between May 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the LMWH group who received low-molecular-weight heparin combined with conventional symptomatic treatment and the control group who received conventional symptomatic treatment. Before and after treatment, serum was collected respectively to determine the levels of placental hypoxia-related cytokines, and after delivery, the placentas were collected to detect oxidative stress indexes and cell apoptosis indexes. Results: After treatment, serum PLGF and PAPP-A levels of both groups were significantly higher than those before treatment while sFlt-1 and sEng levels were significantly lower than those before treatment, and after treatment, serum PLGF and PAPP-A levels of LMWH group were significantly higher than those of control group while sFlt-1 and sEng levels were significantly lower than those of control group; ROS and RNS levels as well as Fas, FasL, caspase-3 and caspase-8 protein expression in placenta tissue of LMWH group were significantly lower than those of control group while GPx-1, SOD-1 and Trx levels as well as Survivin, XIAP and Bcl-2 protein expression were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant low-molecular-weight heparin therapy can relieve the placental hypoxia, improve oxidative stress reaction and inhibit cell apoptosis in puerperae with severe preeclampsia.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Adjuvant Melatonin in Minimizing Oral Mucositis Complications in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Receiving Concurrent Chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onseng, Kittipong; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Khuayjarernpanishk, Thanut; Subongkot, Suphat; Priprem, Aroonsri; Hurst, Cameron; Johns, Jeffrey

    2017-12-01

    Oral mucositis is a major cause of pain and delayed cancer treatment leading to poor survival in head and neck cancer patients receiving concurrent chemoradiation. The study evaluated the effect of adjuvant melatonin on minimizing oral mucositis complications to reduce these treatment delays and interruptions. A randomized, double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ubon Ratchathani Cancer Hospital, Thailand. Thirty-nine head and neck cancer patients receiving concurrent chemoradiation (5 days/week of radiation plus chemotherapy three or six cycles). Patients were randomized to receive 20 mg melatonin gargle (or matched placebo) before each irradiation, and 20 mg melatonin capsules (or matched placebo) taken nightly during 7 weeks of concurrent chemoradiation. Endpoints were oral mucositis events (incidence and time to grade 3 mucositis or grade 2 xerostomia), pain medication consumption and quality of life (QOL). Melatonin group reported lower incidence of grade 3 oral mucositis (42% vs. 55%) and grade 2 xerostomia (20% vs. 21%); no statistical significance was detected. Melatonin regimen delayed onset of grade 3 mucositis (median 34 days vs. 50 days; p = 0.0318), allowing median time of 16 more patient visits before its onset and fewer interrupted treatments due to oral mucositis were reported (n = 1 vs. n = 5). There was no difference of grade 2 xerostomia (median 32 days vs. 50 days; p = 0.624). Morphine consumption was also reduced (median 57 mg vs. 0 mg; p = 0.0342), while QOL was comparable during the study period. Adjuvant melatonin delayed the onset of oral mucositis, which enables uninterrupted cancer treatment and reduced the amount of morphine used for pain treatment.

  6. Adjuvants are key factors for the development of future vaccines: Lessons from the Finlay Adjuvant platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver ePérez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective vaccines against neglected diseases, especially those associated with poverty and social deprivation, is urgently needed. Modern vaccine technologies and a better understanding of the immune response have provided scientists with the tools for rational and safer design of subunit vaccines. Often, however, subunit vaccines do not elicit strong immune responses, highlighting the need to incorporate better adjuvants; this step therefore becomes a key factor for vaccine development. In this review we outline some key features of modern vaccinology that are linked with the development of better adjuvants. In line with the increased desire to obtain novel adjuvants for future vaccines, the Finlay Adjuvant Platform offers a novel approach for the development of new and effective adjuvants. The Finlay Adjuvants (AFs, AFPL (proteoliposome and AFCo (cochleate, were initially designed for parenteral and mucosal applications, and constitute potent adjuvants for the induction of Th1 responses against several antigens. This review summarizes the status of the Finlay technology in producing promising adjuvants for unsolved-vaccine diseases including mucosal approaches and therapeutic vaccines. Ideas related to adjuvant classification, adjuvant selection, and their possible influence on innate recognition via multiple toll-like receptors are also discussed.

  7. Effect of exposure to radiation on the inflammatory process and its influence by diclofenac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Kenawy, S.; Khayyal, M.T.; Roushdy, H.; Saleh, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of radiation exposure on the inflammatory process was studied in rats using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and adjuvant-induced arthritis tests. Irradiation (0.5,1 and 2 Grays) resulted in a significant augmentation of the tissue response to carrageenan and the early phase of adjuvant-induced arthritis, but suppressed the late phase. Diclofenac(1-5 mg kg -1 ) effectively reduced the exaggerated inflammatory response in irradiated animals in both the carrageenan paw oedema and adjuvant-induced arthritis tests. The drug also had a prophylactic value in guarding against the induction of radiation damage. The inflammatory responses produced by irradiation and the benefits obtained by drug treatment may be related to changes in tissue prostaglandin levels and/or changes in the immune system. (author)

  8. Physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, H.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of physical exercise during chemotherapy. In chapter two the study design, rationale and methods of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Study (PACES) are described. Chapter three presents the effects of the randomized controlled trial evaluating a

  9. Differences in effectiveness of the active living every day program for older adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Nina R; Allen, Kelli D; Devellis, Brenda M; Devellis, Robert F; Lewis, Megan A; Callahan, Leigh F

    2013-10-01

    The authors explored whether demographic and psychosocial variables predicted differences in physical activity for participants with arthritis in a trial of Active Living Every Day (ALED). Participants (N = 280) from 17 community sites were randomized into ALED or usual care. The authors assessed participant demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms at baseline and physical activity frequency at 20-wk follow-up. They conducted linear regression with interaction terms (Baseline Characteristic × Randomization Group). Being female (p ≤ .05), less depressed (p ≤ .05), or younger (p ≤ .10) was associated with more frequent posttest physical activity for ALED participants than for those with usual care. Higher education was associated with more physical activity for both ALED and usual-care groups. ALED was particularly effective for female, younger, and less depressed participants. Further research should determine whether modifications could produce better outcomes in other subgroups.

  10. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary

    2002-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  11. Weather conditions may worsen symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis patients: the possible effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasolo, Lydia; Tobías, Aurelio; Leon, Leticia; Carmona, Loreto; Fernandez-Rueda, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Jover, Juan Angel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complain that weather conditions aggravate their symptoms. We investigated the short-term effects of weather conditions on worsening of RA and determined possible seasonal fluctuations. We conducted a case-crossover study in Madrid, Spain. Daily cases of RA flares were collected from the emergency room of a tertiary level hospital between 2004 and 2007. 245 RA patients who visited the emergency room 306 times due to RA related complaints as the main diagnostic reason were included in the study. Patients from 50 to 65 years old were 16% more likely to present a flare with lower mean temperatures. Our results support the belief that weather influences rheumatic pain in middle aged patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Personalized treatment of women with early breast cancer: a risk-group specific cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy accounting for companion prognostic tests OncotypeDX and Adjuvant!Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Beate; Rochau, Ursula; Kurzthaler, Christina; Hubalek, Michael; Miksad, Rebecca; Sroczynski, Gaby; Paulden, Mike; Bundo, Marvin; Stenehjem, David; Brixner, Diana; Krahn, Murray; Siebert, Uwe

    2017-10-16

    Due to high survival rates and the relatively small benefit of adjuvant therapy, the application of personalized medicine (PM) through risk stratification is particularly beneficial in early breast cancer (BC) to avoid unnecessary harms from treatment. The new 21-gene assay (OncotypeDX, ODX) is a promising prognostic score for risk stratification that can be applied in conjunction with Adjuvant!Online (AO) to guide personalized chemotherapy decisions for early BC patients. Our goal was to evaluate risk-group specific cost effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy for women with early stage BC in Austria based on AO and ODX risk stratification. A previously validated discrete event simulation model was applied to a hypothetical cohort of 50-year-old women over a lifetime horizon. We simulated twelve risk groups derived from the joint application of ODX and AO and included respective additional costs. The primary outcomes of interest were life-years gained, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs and incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER). The robustness of results and decisions derived were tested in sensitivity analyses. A cross-country comparison of results was performed. Chemotherapy is dominated (i.e., less effective and more costly) for patients with 1) low ODX risk independent of AO classification; and 2) low AO risk and intermediate ODX risk. For patients with an intermediate or high AO risk and an intermediate or high ODX risk, the ICER is below 15,000 EUR/QALY (potentially cost effective depending on the willingness-to-pay). Applying the AO risk classification alone would miss risk groups where chemotherapy is dominated and thus should not be considered. These results are sensitive to changes in the probabilities of distant recurrence but not to changes in the costs of chemotherapy or the ODX test. Based on our modeling study, chemotherapy is effective and cost effective for Austrian patients with an intermediate or high AO risk and an intermediate or high

  13. The effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the management of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qubaeissy, Khamis Y; Fatoye, Francis A; Goodwin, Peter C; Yohannes, Abebaw M

    2013-03-01

    Hydrotherapy is frequently indicated for the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); nevertheless, there has been inadequate appraisal of its effectiveness. The potential benefits of hydrotherapy for patients with RA are to improve and/or maintain functional ability and quality of life. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrotherapy in the management of patients with RA. AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science were searched between 1988 and May 2011. Keywords used were rheumatoid arthritis, hydrotherapy, aquatic physiotherapy, aqua therapy and water therapy. Searches were supplemented with hand searches of references of selected articles. Randomized controlled trials were assessed for their methodological quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. This scale ranks the methodological quality of a study scoring 7 out of 10 as 'high quality', 5-6 as 'moderate quality' and less than 4 as 'poor quality'. Initially, 197 studies were identified. Six studies met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. The average methodological quality for all studies was 6.8 using the PEDro scale. Most of the studies reported favourable outcomes for a hydrotherapy intervention compared with no treatment or other interventions for patients with RA. Improvement was particularly noted in reducing pain, joint tenderness, mood and tension symptoms, and increasing grip strength and patient satisfaction with hydrotherapy treatment in the short term. There is some evidence to suggest that hydrotherapy has a positive role in reducing pain and improving the health status of patients with RA compared with no or other interventions in the short term. However, the long-term benefit is unknown. Further studies are needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Effect of Organic and Bio Fertilizers on Maize (Zea mays, and HydroMax Adjuvants Application on Optimizing of Nicosulfuron Herbicide Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim Mamnoie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of adjuvant on nicosulfuron herbicide efficacy improvement in maize weed control under organic fertilizers application, field study was conducted during 2013- 2014 at research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of treatments with 16 treatments and three replications. Factors in this experiment were application of organic fertilizers (cow manure and vermicompost and bio fertilizer mycorrhiza, and a plot without fertilizer as control, nicosulfuron dose at 40, and 80 g a.i ha-1 (Cruz®,4% SC with and without the adjuvant of HydroMax™. Common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L., and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L were the dominant weeds in the experimental fields. Black nightshade and common purslane had the highest relative density 20 and 45 days after spraying (DAS. Results showed that application of hydromax adjuvant increased herbicide efficiency, significantly. However dry weight of common purslane, black nightshade and redroot pigweed decreased 84, 71, 86 and 71, 79, 100 %, when nicosulfuron applied at reduced dose (40 g a.i. ha-1 with adjuvant 20 and 45 DAS, respectively. On the other hand, seed yield and dry weight of maize increased 49 and 60 % respectively, when nicosulfuron applied at 40 g a.i. ha-1 with Hydromax pulse cow manure. 

  15. Clonidine used as a perineural adjuvant to ropivacaine, does not prolong the duration of sensory block when controlling for systemic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Hessel; Jaeger, Pia; Sonne, Tobias Laier

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB) by a perip......BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB......) by a peripheral mechanism, compared to ropivacaine alone when controlling for systemic effects. METHODS: We conducted a paired, blinded, randomized trial in healthy volunteers. Participants received bilateral ACBs containing 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml clonidine 150μg/ml in one leg and 20 ml ropivacaine 0.......5% + 1 ml saline in the other leg. The primary outcome measure was duration of sensory block assessed by temperature sensation (alcohol swab). Secondary outcome measures were duration of sensory block assessed by: pinprick, maximum pain during tonic heat stimulation, warmth detection threshold and heat...

  16. The effect of an educational intervention, based on clinical simulation, on the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ávila, Daniel G; Ruiz, Álvaro J; Gil, Fabián; Mora, Sergio A; Tobar, Carlos; Gutiérrez, Juan M; Rosselli, Diego

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational tool for general physicians, based on rheumatological clinical simulation, for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. A randomized clinical study was carried out, in which the physician research subjects were assigned to one of two groups: the experimental group (educational intervention for rheumatoid arthritis with clinical simulation) or the control group (educational intervention for the basic aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis). Four weeks after the educational intervention, the members of both groups completed an examination that included four clinical cases with real patients, two clinical cases with two clinical simulation models and six virtual clinical cases. In this examination, the participants noted clinical findings, established a diagnosis and defined the complementary tests they would request, if necessary, to corroborate their diagnosis. A total of 160 doctors participated (80 in the active educational intervention for rheumatoid arthritis and 80 in the control group), of whom 89 were women (56%). The mean age was 35 (standard deviation 7.7) years. Success was defined as a physician correctly diagnosing at least 10 of the 12 cases presented. A significant difference of 81.3% (95% confidence interval 72-90%; p educational intervention based on clinical simulation to improve the diagnostic approach to rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. The results open a new horizon in the teaching of rheumatology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The Effects of Aromatherapy Massage and Reflexology on Pain and Fatigue in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok Metin, Zehra; Ozdemir, Leyla

    2016-04-01

    Nonpharmacologic interventions for symptom management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are underinvestigated. Limited data suggest that aromatherapy massage and reflexology may help to reduce pain and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the effects of aromatherapy massage and reflexology on pain and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study sample was randomly assigned to either an aromatherapy massage (n = 17), reflexology (n = 17) or the control group (n = 17). Aromatherapy massage was applied to both knees of subjects in the first intervention group for 30 minutes. Reflexology was administered to both feet of subjects in the second intervention group for 40 minutes during weekly home visits. Control group subjects received no intervention. Fifty-one subjects with rheumatoid arthritis were recruited from a university hospital rheumatology clinic in Turkey between July 2014 and January 2015 for this randomized controlled trial. Data were collected by personal information form, DAS28 index, Visual Analog Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale. Pain and fatigue scores were measured at baseline and within an hour after each intervention for 6 weeks. Pain and fatigue scores significantly decreased in the aromatherapy massage and reflexology groups compared with the control group (p aromatherapy massage (week 1 vs week 2 for pain, week 1 vs week 4 for fatigue) (p Aromatherapy massage and reflexology are simple and effective nonpharmacologic nursing interventions that can be used to help manage pain and fatigue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pulmonary toxicity and adjuvant effect of di-(2-exylhexyl phthalate in ovalbumin-immunized BALB/c mice.

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    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease, which is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, variable airflow obstruction and inflammation in the airways. The majority of asthma is allergic asthma, which is a disease caused by type I hypersensitivity mediated by IgE. Exposures to a number of environmental chemicals are suspected to lead to asthma, one such pollutant is di-(2-ethylheyl phthalate (DEHP. DEHP is a manufactured chemical that is commonly added in plastic products to make them flexible. Epidemiological studies have revealed a positive association between DEHP exposure and asthma prevalence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study was aimed to determine the underlying role of DEHP exposure in airway reactivity, especially when combined with allergen exposure. The biomarkers include pulmonary histopathology, airway hyperresponsiveness (lung function, IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils. Healthy balb/c mice were randomly divided into eight exposure groups (n = 8 each: (1 saline control, (2 30 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (3 300 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (4 3000 µg/(kg•d DEHP, and (5 ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized group, (6 OVA-combined with 30 µg/(kg•d DEHP, (7 OVA-combined with 300 µg/(kg•d DEHP, and (8 OVA-combined with 3000 µg/(kg•d DEHP. Experimental tests were conducted after 52-day DEHP exposure and subsequently one week of challenge with aerosolized OVA. The principal findings include: (1 Strong postive associations exist between OVA-combined DEHP exposure and serum total IgE (T-IgE, as well as histological findings. These positive associations show a dose-dependent low dose sensitive effect of DEHP. (2 IL-4, eosinophil recruitment and lung function are also indicators for adjuvant effect of DEHP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that except the significant changes of immunological and inflammatory biomarkers (T-IgE, IL-4, IFN-γ and eosinophils, the pulmonary histological (histopathological

  19. Adjuvants and Their Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Foumani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants are chemicals, microbial components, or mammalian proteins that enhance the immune response to vaccine antigens. Reducing vaccine-related adverse effects and inducing specific types of immunity has led to the development of numerous new adjuvants. Adjuvants in experimental and commercial vaccines include aluminum salts (alum, oil emulsions, saponins, immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs, liposomes, microparticles, nonionic block copolymers, derivatized polysaccharides, cytokines, and a wide variety of bacterial derivatives. The mechanisms of action of these diverse compounds are different. Factors influencing the selection of an adjuvant include animal species, specific pathogen, vaccine antigen, route of immunization, and type of immunity needed. In this paper we review the current adjuvant types, structure and mechanism of action and their application in the design and production of animal and human vaccines to provide a source for students and researchers in related fields .

  20. Effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on cosmetic outcome and late normal-tissue reactions after breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Joergen; Overgaard, Jens; Overgaard, Marie

    2007-01-01

    .0 (2.0-12.5) and 9.6 (3.3-27.7) in premenopausal and postmenopausal patients, respectively. To circumvent the strong interaction between tamoxifen treatment and axillary irradiation, a subsequent analysis omitting axillary treatment from the multivariate regression showed a significant effect of both tamoxifen and CMF on the occurrence of breast fibrosis with relative risks of 5.3 (CI 1.8-15.8) and 4.4 (1.8-10.3), respectively. Adjuvant systemic treatment with CMF given sequentially to radiotherapy independently predicted an adverse cosmetic outcome as well as increased skin telangiectasia after breast conserving treatment. Due to a strong interaction between tamoxifen administration and radiation to the regional lymph nodes, the effect of tamoxifen on the development of fibrosis could not be fully discerned in this study. Axillary irradiation increased the incidence of moderate to severe breast fibrosis in both premenopausal and postmenopausal patients

  1. [Effects of grain-sized moxibustion from 7 am to 9 am on circadian rhythm of inflammatory factor IL-6 in rats with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenbin; Liu, Xuguang; Qin, Yong; Zhou, Haiyan; Yang, Xin

    2016-04-01

    To explore the rhythm regulatory mechanism of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the process of moxibustion for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 144 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group, a moxibustion group, a sham operation group, an operation group, an operation+moxibustion group, 24 rats in each one. Each group was divided into 4 time points (0:00 am, 6:00' am, 12:00 am, 6:00 pm), 6 rats in each time point. The Light-Dark 12 : 12 was given in all rats for light-dark cycle. Except the blank group, rats in the remaining groups were treated with intracutaneous injection of freund's complete adjuvant at right-side foot to establish the model of RA. After the model establishment, bilateral adrenal, glands were removed in the operation group and operation + moxibustion group, while those in the sham operation group were not removed with identical operation procedure. Rats in the moxibustion group and operation + moxibustion group were treated with grain-sized moxibustion from 7:00 am to 9:00 am at "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) once everyday, 6 times were taken as one session and 3 sessions were required tatclly, while rats in the remaining groups received identical fixation without moxibustion. The general health state and foot volume of rats were measured before model establishment, after establishment and after treatment. After treatment, rats were sacrificed at each time point to collect the blood sample and measure the content of IL-6 by using enzymne-immunoassay method. Compared with the blank group, the foot swelling in the model group was obviously increased (Pcircadian rhythm (Pcircadian. rhythm (Pcircadian rhythm (P circadian rhythm in RA rats; with the complete hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, moxibustion is likely to regulate the circadian rhythm of IL-6 to play an important role of anti-inflammatory effect in RA rats.

  2. Bismuth adjuvant ameliorates adverse effects of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma and malignant lymphoma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Boye; Penkowa, Milena

    2017-01-01

    show for the first time that bismuth significantly reduces grade 2 stomatitis, febrile neutropenia and infections caused by melphalan in multiple myeloma, where adverse effects also were significantly linked to gender. In lymphoma patients, bismuth significantly reduces diarrhoea relative to placebo......PURPOSE: High-dose chemotherapy prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) leads to adverse effects including mucositis, neutropenia and bacteremia. To reduce the toxicity, we treated myeloma and lymphoma patients with peroral bismuth as an adjuvant to chemotherapy to convey...

  3. Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Arthritis is often used to refer to any ... primary immunodeficiency syndrome March 11, 2013 Arthritis and Rheumatic Disease News Research Brief | January 9, 2017 Tofacitinib Shows ...

  4. Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; van Brussel, M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Net, J.; Kuis, W.; Helders, P. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise therapy is considered an important component of the treatment of arthritis. The efficacy of exercise therapy has been reviewed in adults with rheumatoid arthritis but not in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess the effects of exercise therapy on functional ability,

  5. Collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevaart, Lisette; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.; Tak, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice is an animal model for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can be induced in DBA/1 and C57BL/6 mice using different protocols. The CIA model can be used to unravel mechanisms involved in the development of arthritis and is frequently used to study the effect of new

  6. Colocalization of a CD1d-Binding Glycolipid with a Radiation-Attenuated Sporozoite Vaccine in Lymph Node-Resident Dendritic Cells for a Robust Adjuvant Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D; Miller, Jessica L; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N; Porcelli, Steven A; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H I; Ho, David D; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-09-15

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant NK T cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the current study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to as irradiated P. yoelii sporozoites (IrPySpz). 7DW8-5 had a superb adjuvant effect only when the glycolipid and IrPySpz were conjointly administered i.m. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of distinctly different biodistribution patterns of αGalCer and 7DW8-5 on their respective adjuvant activities. Although both glycolipids induce a similar cytokine response in sera of mice injected i.v., after i.m. injection, αGalCer induces a systemic cytokine response, whereas 7DW8-5 is locally trapped by CD1d expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Moreover, the i.m. coadministration of 7DW8-5 with IrPySpz results in the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and the activation and maturation of DCs. These events cause the potent adjuvant effect of 7DW8-5, resulting in the enhancement of the CD8(+) T cell response induced by IrPySpz and, ultimately, improved protection against malaria. Our study is the first to show that the colocalization of a CD1d-binding invariant NK T cell-stimulatory glycolipid and a vaccine, like radiation-attenuated sporozoites, in dLN-resident DCs upon i.m. conjoint administration governs the potency of the adjuvant effect of the glycolipid. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of the multidrug herbomineral formulation in male Wistar rats against rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal S Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological and inflammatory mechanisms, which may play a role in a number of disorders like rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Ancient ayurvedic physicians had developed certain dietary and therapeutic measures to arrest or prevent these disorders. Objective: Rheuma off gold (RG is a herbomineral formulation recommended by ayurvedic medical practitioners for treatment of RA. This study was carried out to lend scientific evidence to the efficacy claim for RG in the management of RA in folklore medicine. Materials and Methods: Arthritis was induced by complete Freund′s adjuvant. Treatment with formulation 100 mg/kg and dexamethasone 2 mg/kg was given to rats intragastrically once a day from day 1 to day 21 and after which estimation of physical, biochemical, and hematological parameters were carried out. Results: Treatment of formulation to adjuvant induced arthritic animal showed statistically significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in physical parameters like arthritic index, paw edema, paw thickness as well as reduction of inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein, serum rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The treatment also produced statistically significant ( P < 0.05 increase in hemoglobin percent and improvement in splenomegaly and thymus index. In the histopathological examination, ameliorative effect of formulation was observed in hyperplasia of synovium, pannus formation, and destruction of the joint space. Conclusion: The results obtained in experiments indicated that the formulation significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced arthritis which was comparable to dexamethasone and had preferable anti-inflammatory effect without significant side effect. Thus, the formulation may be a potential preventive or therapeutic candidate for the treatment of chronic inflammation and arthritis.

  8. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Vargas-Valencia, Juan; García-García, Erika Gabriela; Munciño-Ortega, Emilio; Galindo-Suárez, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis in patients with previous unresponse to immune selective anti-inflammatory derivatives failure. a pharmacoeconomic model based on decision analysis to assess the clinical outcome after giving etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or tocilizumab to treat moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis was employed. Effectiveness of medications was assessed with improvement rates of 20 % or 70 % of the parameters established by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 20 and ACR 70). the model showed that etanercept had the most effective therapeutic response rate: 79.7 % for ACR 20 and 31.4 % for ACR 70, compared with the response to other treatments. Also, etanercept had the lowest cost ($149,629.10 per patient) and had the most cost-effective average ($187,740.40 for clinical success for ACR 20 and $476,525.80 for clinical success for ACR 70) than the other biologic therapies. we demonstrated that treatment with etanercept is more effective and less expensive compared to the other drugs, thus making it more efficient therapeutic option both in terms of means and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Adjuvant effect of Gantrez®AN nanoparticles during oral vaccination of piglets against F4+enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Katrien; Melkebeek, Vesna; Vesna, Melkebeek; Cox, Eric; Eric, Cox; Remon, Jean Paul; Paul, Remon Jean; Vervaet, Chris; Chris, Vervaet

    2011-02-15

    In this study, the adjuvanticity of methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride (Gantrez(®)AN) nanoparticles (NP) was investigated in an oral immunisation experiment of pigs against F4+enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4+ETEC). In addition, Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA)-coating of the nanoparticles was tested for enterocyte-targeting. Pigs were either vaccinated with F4 fimbriae, F4 encapsulated in Gantrez(®)AN NP, F4 encapsulated in Gantrez(®)AN NP coated with WGA or F4 fimbriae mixed with empty Gantrez(®)AN NP. Only vaccination with the combination of F4 mixed with empty Gantrez(®)AN NP improved protection against F4+ETEC infection. In addition, vaccination with this formulation also resulted in an F4-specific serum antibody response prior to F4+ETEC challenge. Encapsulation of F4 in Gantrez(®)AN NP only raised the serum antibody response after F4+ETEC challenge compared to soluble F4, but did not improve protection, whereas WGA-coating almost completely abolished the serum antibody response. These data indicate that nanoparticle effects after F4 encapsulation were of lesser importance for the adjuvant effect of Gantrez(®)AN NP, contrarily to the reactivity of the Gantrez(®)AN polymer used to prepare the nanoparticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electroacupuncture Confers Antinociceptive Effects via Inhibition of Glutamate Transporter Downregulation in Complete Freund's Adjuvant-Injected Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha-Neui Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When we evaluated changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and two glutamate transporter (GTs by immunohistochemistry, expression of GFAP showed a significant increase in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-injected rats; however, this expression was strongly inhibited by electroacupuncture (EA stimulation. Robust downregulation of glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1 was observed in CFA-injected rats; however, EA stimulation resulted in recovery of this expression. Double-labeling staining showed co-localization of a large proportion of GLAST or GLT-1 with GFAP. Using Western blot, we confirmed protein expression of two GTs, but no differences in the mRNA content of these GTs were observed. Because EA treatment resulted in strong inhibition of CFA-induced proteasome activities, we examined the question of whether thermal sensitivities and GTs expression could be regulated by proteasome inhibitor MG132. CFA-injected rats co-treated with EA and MG132 showed a significantly longer thermal sensitivity, compared with CFA-injected rats with or without MG132. Both EA and MG132 blocked CFA-induced GLAST and GLT-1 downregulation within the spinal cord. These results provide evidence for involvement of GLAST and GLT-1 in response to activation of spinal astrocytes in an EA antinociceptive effect. Antinociceptive effect of EA may be induced via proteasome-mediated regulation of spinal GTs.

  11. Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: Comparison with celecoxib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Hebatallah A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Arab, Hany H., E-mail: hany.arab@pharma.cu.edu.eg [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt); Abdelsalam, Rania M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo 11562 (Egypt)

    2014-09-01

    Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21 days starting 1 h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50 mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib. - Highlights: • Chrysin and celecoxib alleviated testicular suppression in adjuvant arthritis. • They attenuated histopathological damage and preserved spermatogenesis

  12. Co-localization of a CD1d-binding glycolipid with a radiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccine in LN-resident DCs for a robust adjuvant effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Kawamura, Akira; Andrews, Chasity D.; Miller, Jessica L.; Wu, Douglass; Tsao, Tiffany; Zhang, Min; Oren, Deena; Padte, Neal N.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Ho, David D.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2015-01-01

    A CD1d-binding glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), activates invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and acts as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying nearly 100-fold stronger CD1d binding affinity. In the present study, 7DW8-5 was found to exert a more potent adjuvant effect than αGalCer for a vaccine based on radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) of a rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii, also referred to as irradiated P. yoelii sporozoites (IrPySpz). 7DW8-5 had a superb adjuvant effect only when the glycolipid and IrPySpz were conjointly administered intramuscularly (i.m.). Therefore, we evaluated the impact of distinctly different biodistribution patterns of αGalCer and 7DW8-5 on their respective adjuvant activities. While both glycolipids induce a similar cytokine response in sera of mice injected intravenously, after i.m. injection, αGalCer induces a systemic cytokine response, whereas 7DW8-5 is locally trapped by CD1d expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) in draining lymph nodes (dLNs). Moreover, the i.m. co-administration of 7DW8-5 with IrPySpz results in the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and the activation and maturation of DCs. These events cause the potent adjuvant effect of 7DW8-5, resulting in the enhancement of the CD8+ T-cell response induced by IrPySpz, and, ultimately, improved protection against malaria. Our study is the first to show that the co-localization of a CD1d-binding iNKT-cell stimulatory glycolipid and a vaccine, like RAS, in dLN-resident DCs upon i.m. conjoin administration governs the potency of the adjuvant effect of the glycolipid. PMID:26254338

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arthritis Program CDC-RFA-DP18-1803 NOFO FAQs Attachment 1 Attachment 2 Key Public Health Messages Policy Resources Partners ... mood and the ability to move. Classes take place at local Ys, parks, and community centers. These ...

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 70. Garneau E. Rheumatoid arthritis. In: ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1125-1128. June RR, Moreland LW. Rheumatoid ...

  15. Effect of postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization on postoperative survival of patients with liver cancer and related influencing factors for prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XING Zhixiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect of postoperative adjuvant transarterial chemoembolization (TACE on the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, as well as influencing factors for prognosis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 215 HCC patients who were admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2007 to December 2012. According to whether TACE was given after hepatectomy, these patients were divided into single group with 95 patients and combination group with 120 patients. A comparative analysis was performed for the two groups. The patients in the single group were given hepatectomy alone, and those in the combination group were given hepatectomy followed by TACE at one month after surgery. General status, treatment condition, and related clinical indices were recorded for both groups, and the two groups were compared in terms of the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates and disease-free survival rates after surgery. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for comparison of survival rates between groups, and univariate analysis and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to investigate the influencing factors for prognosis after hepatectomy. ResultsIn the combination group, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 96.5%, 67.0%, and 51.0%, respectively, with a median survival time of 51 months; in the single group, the 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 84.0%,49.5%, and 36.5%, respectively, with a median survival time of 39 months; there was a significant difference in survival rates between the two groups (χ2=5.540, P=0.018. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year disease-free survival rates were 91.7%, 62.5%, and 37.5%, respectively, in the combination group and 84.0%, 42.1%, and 26.3%, respectively, in the single

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of pre-seasonal Th1-adjuvant vaccine to Parietaria judaica in asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scichilone, Nicola; Minaldi, Chiara; Santagata, Roberta; Battaglia, Salvatore; Camarda, Gaetana; Bellia, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ultra-short course pre-seasonal allergy vaccine, containing appropriate allergoids with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), may be effective in treating allergic symptoms. Objective: To explore the timing of the immunological responses to the pre-seasonal allergy vaccine. Methods: Four subcutaneous injections of the active product (Pollinex Quattro) were administered to 20 Parietaria-sensitive intermittent asthmatics (M/F: 12/8; age: 48 ± 10 years; FEV1% predicted: 108% ± 12%) during the 6 weeks prior to the start of the pollen season. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was collected immediately before the first and immediately after the last injections (t1 and t2), during the pollen season (t3) and after (t4) the pollen season. EBC was analyzed to determine the levels of pH and 8-isoprostane. Ten Parietaria-sensitive asthmatics served as the untreated control group at t1 and t2. Results: Measured pH levels were 7.64 ± 0.33 at t1, 7.67 ± 0.23 at t2, 7.72 ± 0.34 at t3, and 7.82 ± 0.34 at t4 (P = 0.049 vs baseline). 8-isoprostane levels were significantly lower than baseline at each visit (mean difference from baseline, for t2: −0.77 pg, P = 0.031; for t3: −0.92 pg, P = 0.010; for t4: −0.70 pg, P = 0.048). In the control group, pH levels were 7.73 ± 0.26 at baseline and did not change after 6 weeks (7.79 ± 0.25, P = 0.33). Similarly, the concentrations of 8-isoprostane in the control group were not different from those of the study group at baseline (P = 0.86), and the levels remained unchanged after 6 weeks (P = 0.58). Conclusion: These findings show that the ultra-short course of vaccine adjuvated with MPL acutely reduces the degree of airway inflammation, as expressed by markers of oxidative stress, and suggest that this reduction is maintained during and after the pollen season. PMID:21660177

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of pre-seasonal Th1-adjuvant vaccine to Parietaria judaica in asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scichilone N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Scichilone, Chiara Minaldi, Roberta Santagata, Salvatore Battaglia, Gaetana Camarda, Vincenzo Bellia Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (Di.Bi.M.I.S., Sezione di Pneumologia, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyBackground: The ultra-short course pre-seasonal allergy vaccine, containing appropriate allergoids with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL, may be effective in treating allergic symptoms. Objective: To explore the timing of the immunological responses to the pre-seasonal allergy vaccine.Methods: Four subcutaneous injections of the active product (Pollinex Quattro were administered to 20 Parietaria-sensitive intermittent asthmatics (M/F: 12/8; age: 48 ± 10 years; FEV1% predicted: 108% ± 12% during the 6 weeks prior to the start of the pollen season. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC was collected immediately before the first and immediately after the last injections (t1 and t2, during the pollen season (t3 and after (t4 the pollen season. EBC was analyzed to determine the levels of pH and 8-isoprostane. Ten Parietaria-sensitive asthmatics served as the untreated control group at t1 and t2.Results: Measured pH levels were 7.64 ± 0.33 at t1, 7.67 ± 0.23 at t2, 7.72 ± 0.34 at t3, and 7.82 ± 0.34 at t4 (P = 0.049 vs baseline. 8-isoprostane levels were significantly lower than baseline at each visit (mean difference from baseline, for t2: —0.77 pg, P = 0.031; for t3: —0.92 pg, P = 0.010; for t4: —0.70 pg, P = 0.048. In the control group, pH levels were 7.73 ± 0.26 at baseline and did not change after 6 weeks (7.79 ± 0.25, P = 0.33. Similarly, the concentrations of 8-isoprostane in the control group were not different from those of the study group at baseline (P = 0.86, and the levels remained unchanged after 6 weeks (P = 0.58.Conclusion: These findings show that the ultra-short course of vaccine adjuvated with MPL acutely reduces the degree of airway inflammation, as expressed by markers of

  18. The effects of compression gloves on hand symptoms and hand function in rheumatoid arthritis and hand osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Alison; Jones, Vivienne; Prior, Yeliz

    2016-03-01

    to evaluate the effects of compression gloves in adults with rheumatoid arthritis and hand osteoarthritis. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials identified from MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, PEDro, OT Seeker, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct and PubMed from their inceptions to January 2015. Methodological quality of identified trials was evaluated using the PEDro scale by three independent assessors. Effects were summarized descriptively. Four trials (n=8-24; total n=74), comparing night wear of full-length finger compression gloves with placebo gloves, were assessed. Three were of moderate (PEDro score 4-5) and one low (score 3) methodological quality. Effect sizes or standardized mean differences could not be calculated to compare trials due to poor data reporting. In rheumatoid arthritis, finger joint swelling was significantly reduced, but results for pain and stiffness were inconclusive and no differences in grip strength and dexterity were identified. One study reported similar effects in pain, stiffness and finger joint swelling from both compression and thermal placebo gloves. Only one study evaluated gloves in hand osteoarthritis (n=5) with no differences. All the trials identified were small with a high risk of Type I and II errors. Evidence for the effectiveness of compression gloves worn at night is inconclusive in rheumatoid arthritis and hand osteoarthritis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  20. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

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    Full Text Available ... is Happening to the Joints? Rheumatoid Arthritis: Gaining Control – Working with your Rheumatologist Rheumatoid Arthritis: Additional Conditions ... Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life Rehabilitation Management for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients ...

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

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    Full Text Available ... Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health- ... on this website. Copyright Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center © 2018 Patient Privacy Johns Hopkins Rheumatology

  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

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    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

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    Full Text Available ... Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life Rehabilitation Management for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Rehabilitation of Older Adult ...

  5. Effect of physiotherapy on arm functions of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Kruopienė, Joana

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the inflammatory disease of web, which causes progressive inflammation of joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is on the top according to the number of patients who become invalids. The growing number of invalids in Lithuania becomes not only medical problem, but social problem as well. Everything is done to quell the activity of pathological process, its progression and to return and maintain the functions of moving device of the body with the help of prophylaxis, therapy and...

  6. Effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Segal, Roanne J; Mackey, John R; Gelmon, Karen; Reid, Robert D; Friedenreich, Christine M; Ladha, Aliya B; Proulx, Caroline; Vallance, Jeffrey K H; Lane, Kirstin; Yasui, Yutaka; McKenzie, Donald C

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer chemotherapy may cause unfavorable changes in physical functioning, body composition, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life (QOL). We evaluated the relative merits of aerobic and resistance exercise in blunting these effects. We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial in Canada between 2003 and 2005 that randomly assigned 242 breast cancer patients initiating adjuvant chemotherapy to usual care (n = 82), supervised resistance exercise (n = 82), or supervised aerobic exercise (n = 78) for the duration of their chemotherapy (median, 17 weeks; 95% CI, 9 to 24 weeks). Our primary end point was cancer-specific QOL assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia scale. Secondary end points were fatigue, psychosocial functioning, physical fitness, body composition, chemotherapy completion rate, and lymphedema. The follow-up assessment rate for our primary end point was 92.1%, and adherence to the supervised exercise was 70.2%. Unadjusted and adjusted mixed-model analyses indicated that aerobic exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .015), aerobic fitness (P = .006), and percent body fat (adjusted P = .076). Resistance exercise was superior to usual care for improving self-esteem (P = .018), muscular strength (P exercise groups but did not reach statistical significance. Exercise did not cause lymphedema or adverse events. Neither aerobic nor resistance exercise significantly improved cancer-specific QOL in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but they did improve self-esteem, physical fitness, body composition, and chemotherapy completion rate without causing lymphedema or significant adverse events.

  7. Effect of Xerostomia on the Functional Capacity of Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins E Silva, Marília; Carvalho, Camila Nunes; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Duarte, Angela Luzia Pinto; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intensity of xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as the effects of these conditions on functional incapacity and disease activity. The study sample comprised 236 individuals of both sexes who had RA. All the individuals were submitted to clinical evaluation and unstimulated sialometry. Functional capacity was determined by using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), xerostomia was assessed using the Xerostomia Inventory, and disease activity was evaluated with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The effect of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was analyzed, and the sample was divided into 2 groups: RA (191 subjects) and RA/SS (45 subjects). The Xerostomia Inventory showed positive and significant correlation with fatigue (r = 0.243; p xerostomia (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.84-8.23, p Xerostomia demonstrated an adverse effect on quality of life of subjects with RA, being associated with a reduction in functional capacity. In this clinical setting, xerostomia can be monitored as a marker of worse clinical evolution.

  8. Evaluation of the safety and adjuvant effect of a detoxified listeriolysin O mutant on the humoral response to dengue virus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Flores, K G; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A L; Mellado-Sánchez, G; Ruiz-Ramos, R; Sánchez-Vargas, L A; Thomas-Dupont, P; Izaguirre-Hernández, I Y; Téllez-Sosa, J; Martínez-Barnetche, J; Wood, L; Paterson, Y; Cedillo-Barrón, L; López-Franco, O; Vivanco-Cid, H

    2017-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) has been proposed as a potential carrier or adjuvant molecule in the vaccination field. However, the cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of LLO are the major limitations for this purpose. Here, we have performed a preclinical safety evaluation and characterized a new potential adjuvant application for a non-cytolytic LLO mutant (dtLLO) to enhance and modulate the immune response against the envelope (E) protein from dengue virus. In addition, we have studied the adjuvant effects of dtLLO on human immune cells and the role of membrane cholesterol for the binding and proinflammatory property of the toxoid. Our in-vivo results in the murine model confirmed that dtLLO is a safer molecule than wild-type LLO (wtLLO), with a significantly increased survival rate for mice challenged with dtLLO compared with mice challenged with wtLLO (P < 0·001). Histopathological analysis showed non-toxic effects in key target organs such as brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lung after challenge with dtLLO. In vitro, dtLLO retained the capacity of binding to plasma membrane cholesterol on the surface of murine and human immune cells. Immunization of 6-8-week-old female BALB/c mice with a combination of dtLLO mixed with E protein elicited a robust specific humoral response with isotype diversification of immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a). Finally, we demonstrated that cholesterol and lipid raft integrity are required to induce a proinflammatory response by human cells. Taken together, these findings support a potential use of the dtLLO mutant as a safe and effective adjuvant molecule in vaccination. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  9. Experimental autoimmune glomerulonephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody. II. Effects of injecting heterologous, homologous, or autologous glomerular basement membranes and complete Freund's adjuvant into sheep.

    OpenAIRE

    Steblay, R. W.; Rudofsky, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of injecting human, rabbit, rat, or single-kidney homologous glomerular basement membrane (GBM) or autologous GBM, each in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into 15- to 18-month-old sheep are compared. All sheep receiving heterologous GBM and 3 of 6 sheep receiving homologous GBM had anti-GBM nephritis, but such sheep did not bind autoantibodies or have Goodpasturelike lesions in their lungs. Sheep given injections of human GBM had autoantibodies to antigenic determinants shared b...

  10. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiber, S.

    1993-08-01

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of {sup 3}H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs.

  11. Colonic healing: the effect of irradiation and chemotherapy - an experimental study, resembling adjuvant therapy for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiber, S.

    1993-08-01

    Adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal carcinoma is of major interest. Irradiation and chemotherapy are modalities used widely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative irradiation and postoperative intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil treatment on colonic healing. In rats preoperative irradiation of the lower abdominal region by 10 + 10 Gy four days apart caused inflammatory reaction in the colon as evaluated by histology and determination of myeloperoxidase activity. The inflammatory reaction reached its peek within a week of the second irradiation. When standard used colonic resections and anastomes were performed within the irradiate part of the colon the anastomotic healing was not affected during the first week after operation as judged by complications and breaking strength. A lower breaking strength and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity two months after operation may indicate late changes within the intestinal wall. Intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil in rat given immediately after colonic resection and repeated as daily injections caused a weight loss and marked reduction in breaking strength of the anastomosis as well as in the abdominal skin wound. A reduction in 5-fluorouracil concentration did not alter the negative wound healing effect of the chemotherapy. In a group of rats subjected to nutritional depletion, mimicking the weight curve of 5-fluorouracil treated animals, anastomotic breaking strength was not compromised to the same extent as when 5-fluorouracil was given. This indicated a direct toxic effect rather than an effect of reduced food intake caused by 5-FU treatment. Collagen synthesis and the formation of new tissue in the wound gap was reduced in 5-fluorouracil treated animals compared to controls as judged by in vivo incorporation of 3 H-proline in the anastomotic segment and determination of anastomotic breaking strength after removal of sutures. 108 refs

  12. Comparison of the therapeutic effects of thymoquinone and methotrexate on renal injury in pristane induced arthritis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, R.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effect of thymoquinone and methotrexate on blood urea and serum creatinine in arthritic rats. Study Design:Experimental, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, from March to August 2013. Methodology: Thirty two female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four equal groups (n=8); group A(healthy control), group B (positive control), group C (Thymoquinone treated) and group D (Methotrexate treated). Arthritis developed within two weeks after a single pristane injection. Total leukocyte count, blood urea and serum creatinine were taken at day 0, 15 and 30. While clinical score of inflammation was taken at day 0 and then on every alternate day. Results: Development of arthritis and renal involvement was accompanied by significant raise in total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation, blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to healthy control rats (group A) till day 15 (p < 0.001). From day 15 to day 30 both thymoquinone (group C) and methotrexate (group D) significantly lowered the total leukocyte count, clinical score of inflammation and improved blood urea and serum creatinine as compared to arthritic rats (group B) (p < 0.001). Methotrexate was found a bit more effective than thymoquinone. Conclusion: Evaluation of results supported the beneficial effects of thymoquinone in renal injury produced by rheumatoid arthritis. (author)

  13. Effects of the use of growth hormone in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bazuco Frittoli

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA often have impaired growth and short stature. There is evidence that the therapeutic use of growth hormone (GH is useful and safe in these patients. Objective: To analyze the effects of GH use in patients with JIA. Method: A systematic review of the literature over the last 18 years in Medline and Embase databases. The criteria were analyzed independently by the researchers. We used the following keywords: "growth hormone", "arthritis, juvenile", "arthritis, rheumatoid", "child" and "adolescent". Results: Among the 192 identified articles, 20 corresponded to the inclusion criteria. Seventeen longitudinal studies and 3 case reports were found. Most studies analyzed observed increased growth, muscle mass and bone mass using GH. Adverse effects observed were glucose intolerance, diabetes, bone deformities, osteonecrosis, reactivation of the disease and low final height. Conclusion: The majority of studies reported positive effects after the therapeutic use of GH, but some variability in response to treatment was observed. The combination of growth hormone with other drugs seems to be a good option.

  14. The "adjuvant effect" of the polymorphic B-G antigens of the chicken major histocompatibility complex analyzed using purified molecules incorporated in liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Eriksson, H; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    The polymorphic B-G region of the chicken major histocompatibility complex has previously been shown to mediate an "adjuvant effect" on the humoral response to other erythrocyte alloantigens. We demonstrate here that B-G molecules purified with monoclonal antibodies exert this adjuvant effect...... on the production of alloantibodies to chicken class I (B-F) molecules, when the two are in the same liposome. The adjuvant effect may in part be mediated by antibodies, since the antibody response to B-G molecules occurs much faster than the response to B-F molecules, and conditions in which antibodies to B......-G are present increase the speed of the response to B-F molecules. We also found that the presence of B-G molecules in separate liposomes results in a lack of response to B-F molecules. In the light of this and other data, we consider the possible roles for the polymorphic B-G molecules, particularly...

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

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    Full Text Available Appointments • Support Our Research Arthritis Information Disease Information Rheumatoid Arthritis Psoriatic Arthritis Ankylosing Spondylitis Osteoarthritis Gout Lyme Disease Osteoporosis News Rheumatoid Arthritis News ...

  16. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

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    Full Text Available ... Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life Rehabilitation Management for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Rehabilitation of Older Adult ...

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

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    Full Text Available ... Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life Rehabilitation Management for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Rehabilitation of Older Adult ...

  18. The effectiveness of home hand exercise programmes in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Alison; Prior, Yeliz

    2016-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) commonly reduces hand function. We systematically reviewed trials to investigate effects of home hand exercise programmes on hand symptoms and function in RA. We searched: Medline (1946-), AMED, CINAHL, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, OT Seeker, the Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science from inception to January 2016. Nineteen trials were evaluated. Only three were randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias (n = 665). Significant short-term improvements occurred in hand function, pain and grip strength, with long-term improvements in hand and upper limb function and pinch strength. Heterogeneity of outcome measures meant meta-analysis was not possible. Evaluation of low and moderate risk of bias trials indicated high-intensity home hand exercise programmes led to better short-term outcomes than low-intensity programmes. Such programmes are cost-effective. Further research is required to evaluate methods of helping people with RA maintain long-term home hand exercise. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A randomised trial of differentiated prednisolone treatment in active rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical benefits and skeletal side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Podenphant, J; Florescu, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study benefits and skeletal side effects of carefully monitored prednisolone treatment in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: One hundred and two patients with active rheumatoid arthritis were randomly allocated to treatment with disease modifying anti......-inflammatory drug (DMARD) alone or DMARD and prednisolone in a one year follow up study. Prednisolone was given in a dose regimen adapted to the disease activity of the individual patient. The mean dose was 6 mg and the mean cumulated dose was 2160 mg. Patients were followed up with disease activity parameters......, radiograph of the hands (Larsen score), and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, distal forearm and hand. At one year 26 patients had withdrawn from the investigation leaving 76 patients for evaluation. RESULTS: The results showed that disease activity in the prednisolone treated group was reduced...

  20. Clonidine used as a perineural adjuvant to ropivacaine, does not prolong the duration of sensory block when controlling for systemic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Hessel; Jaeger, Pia; Sonne, Tobias Laier

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine have been shown to prolong the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. The mechanism of action remains unclear. We hypothesized, that clonidine used as an adjuvant to ropivacaine extends the duration of an adductor canal block (ACB......) by a peripheral mechanism, compared to ropivacaine alone when controlling for systemic effects. METHODS: We conducted a paired, blinded, randomized trial in healthy volunteers. Participants received bilateral ACBs containing 20 ml ropivacaine 0.5% + 1 ml clonidine 150μg/ml in one leg and 20 ml ropivacaine 0...... pain detection threshold. RESULTS: We enrolled 21 volunteers and all completed the trial. There was no difference in duration of sensory block assessed with an alcohol swab: Mean duration in the leg receiving ropivacaine + clonidine was 19.4h (SD 2.7) compared to 19.3h (SD 2.4) in the leg receiving...

  1. Social media for arthritis-related comparative effectiveness and safety research and the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Chen, Lang; Higginbotham, Phillip; Nowell, W Benjamin; Gal-Levy, Ronit; Willig, James; Safford, Monika; Coe, Joseph; O'Hara, Kaitlin; Sa'adon, Roee

    2017-03-07

    Social media may complement traditional data sources to answer comparative effectiveness/safety questions after medication licensure. The Treato platform was used to analyze all publicly available social media data including Facebook, blogs, and discussion boards for posts mentioning inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid, psoriatic). Safety events were self-reported by patients and mapped to medical ontologies, resolving synonyms. Disease and symptom-related treatment indications were manually redacted. The units of analysis were unique terms in posts. Pre-specified conditions (e.g. herpes zoster (HZ)) were selected based upon safety signals from clinical trials and reported as pairwise odds ratios (ORs); drugs were compared with Fisher's exact test. Empirically identified events were analyzed using disproportionality analysis and reported as relative reporting ratios (RRRs). The accuracy of a natural language processing (NLP) classifier to identify cases of shingles associated with arthritis medications was assessed. As of October 2015, there were 785,656 arthritis-related posts. Posts were predominantly US posts (75%) from patient authors (87%) under 40 years of age (61%). For HZ posts (n = 1815), ORs were significantly increased with tofacitinib versus other rheumatoid arthritis therapies. ORs for mentions of perforated bowel (n = 13) were higher with tocilizumab versus other therapies. RRRs associated with tofacitinib were highest in conditions related to baldness and hair regrowth, infections and cancer. The NLP classifier had a positive predictive value of 91% to identify HZ. There was a threefold increase in posts following television direct-to-consumer advertisement (p = 0.04); posts expressing medication safety concerns were significantly more frequent than favorable posts. Social media is a challenging yet promising data source that may complement traditional approaches for comparative effectiveness research for new medications.

  2. Mechanisms of the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin in experimental peritonitis. VII. Hemoglobin does not inhibit clearance of Escherichia coli from the peritoneal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Barke, R.A.; Lee, J.T. Jr.; Condie, R.M.; Humphrey, E.W.; Simmons, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Hemoglobin has been shown to be a potent adjuvant in experimental Escherichia coli peritonitis, although a satisfactory mechanistic rationale is still obscure. Hemoglobin has been thought to impair intraperitoneal neutrophil function, delay clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by the normal absorptive mechanisms, or directly enhance bacterial growth. Using highly purified stroma-free hemoglobin (SFHgb), we have largely discounted any direct effect of hemoglobin on peritoneal white blood cell function. In the present study, we confirmed that uncontrolled proliferation of bacteria takes place in the presence of hemoglobin in the peritoneal cavity. Nonviable 5-iododeoxyuridine 125 I-labelled bacteria were then used to directly study peritoneal clearance kinetics, eliminating the problem of bacterial growth. SFHgb had no influence on the removal of intraperitoneal bacteria. The rate of bloodstream appearance of radiolabel was similar with or without intraperitoneal SFHgb. Thus, SFHgb does not prevent clearance of bacteria from the peritoneal cavity by interfering with normal host clearance mechanisms. SFHgb may act as a bacterial growth adjuvant, either by serving as a bacterial nutrient or by suitably modifying the environment so that extensive bacterial proliferation can occur. The latter hypothesis appears to be an area in which investigation concerning the adjuvant effect of hemoglobin may prove most fruitful

  3. Effectiveness and safety of tofacitinib in rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; Moura, Cristiano Soares de; Guerra, Steve Ferreira; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Bernatsky, Sasha

    2018-03-23

    Tofacitinib is the first oral Janus kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We compared the effectiveness and safety of tofacitinib, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi), and non-TNF biologics in patients with RA previously treated with methotrexate. We used MarketScan® databases (2011-2014) to study methotrexate-exposed patients with RA who were newly prescribed tofacitinib, DMARDs other than methotrexate, and biologics. The date of first prescription was defined as the cohort entry. The therapy was considered effective if all of the following criteria from a claims-based algorithm were achieved at the first year of follow-up: high adherence, no biologic or tofacitinib switch or addition, no DMARD switch or addition, no increase in dose or frequency of index drug, no more than one glucocorticoid joint injection, and no new/increased oral glucocorticoid dose. The safety outcome was serious infections requiring hospitalization. Non-TNF biologics comprised the reference group. We included 21,832 patients with RA, including 0.8% treated with tofacitinib, 24.7% treated with other DMARDs, 61.2% who had started therapy with TNFi, and 13.3% treated with non-TNF biologics. The rates of therapy effectiveness were 15.4% for tofacitinib, 11.1% for DMARDs, 18.6% for TNFi, and 19.8% for non-TNF biologics. In adjusted analyses, tofacitinib and non-TNF biologics appeared to have similar effectiveness rates, whereas DMARD initiators were less effective than non-TNF biologics. We could not clearly establish if tofacitinib was associated with a higher rate of serious infections. In patients with RA previously treated with methotrexate, our comparisons of tofacitinib with non-TNF biologics, though not definitive, did not demonstrate differences with respect to hospitalized infections or effectiveness.

  4. Effect of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Perfusion Chemotherapy in Combination with Intravenous Chemotherapy as Postoperative Adjuvant Therapy for Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhibing; Ma, Shenglin; Jing, Saisai; Deng, Qinghua; Zheng, Zhishuang; Wu, Kan; Li, Juan; Chen, Sumei; Tang, Rongjun; Li, Xiadong

    2014-06-01

    The aim is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and side effects of paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin intravenous chemotherapy in combination with cisplatin hyperthermic intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy (HIPEC) as postoperative adjuvant therapy for patients of locally advanced gastric cancer (GC) at high risk for recurrence after curative resection. Four GC patients who underwent radical gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were enrolled. All patients received paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 on day 1, 5-FU 500 mg/m2 on days 1-5, LV 200 mg/m2 on days 1-5 intravenous chemotherapy, cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 5, and HIPEC one month after surgery. It was repeated at 3 weeks intervals and at least two cycles administered. A total of 181 cycles of chemotherapy were administered (median, 4 cycles). The median disease free survival time of patients was 40.8 months. The median overall survival time was 48.0 months. The one-, two-, and three-year recurrence rates were 14.6%, 26.8%, and 46.3%, respectively. The main relapse patterns were remnant GC and metastases of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The morbidity of grade 3 and 4 toxicities of myelosuppression, nausea/ vomiting were less than 10%. The side effects of grade 1 and 2 of hematologic toxicity, nausea and vomiting, abnormal function of liver, kidney or cardiac, fatigue and neurotoxicity were well tolerated. Cisplatin HIPEC combined with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin intravenous chemotherapy regimen could improve the survival rate and decrease the postoperative recurrence of locally advanced GC.

  5. Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on the Rehabilitation and Quality of Life in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sang-Hoon

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of bee venom acupuncture(BVA on the rehabilitation and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis(RA patients Methods: Patients with RA were treated with the BVA therapy twice a week for 3 months. Tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, morning stiffness, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate(ESR, C-reactive protein(CRP, patient global assessment, physician global assessment, Korean health assessment questionnaire(KHAQ were estimated and analyzed before and after BVA therapy. Results: Tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, morning stiffness showed significant decrease after BVA therapy. But, as acute inflammatory reactants, ESR showed no significant difference and CRP showed significant increase after BVA therapy. Patient global assessment, physician global assessment, and KHAQ index showed significant improvement after BVA therapy. Conclusions: BVA therapy can improve rehabilitation and health-related quality of life in RA patients as well as clinical symptoms and signs. Further study is required in more population with large scale including acute inflammatory reaction of BVA therapy.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of sequenced treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with targeted immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jeroen P; Incerti, Devin; Mutebi, Alex; Peneva, Desi; MacEwan, Joanna P; Stolshek, Bradley; Kaur, Primal; Gharaibeh, Mahdi; Strand, Vibeke

    2017-07-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of treatment sequences of biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or Janus kinase/STAT pathway inhibitors (collectively referred to as bDMARDs) vs conventional DMARDs (cDMARDs) from the US societal perspective for treatment of patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with inadequate responses to cDMARDs. An individual patient simulation model was developed that assesses the impact of treatments on disease based on clinical trial data and real-world evidence. Treatment strategies included sequences starting with etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab, or abatacept. Each of these treatment strategies was compared with cDMARDs. Incremental cost, incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated for each treatment sequence relative to cDMARDs. The cost-effectiveness of each strategy was determined using a US willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $150,000/QALY. For the base-case scenario, bDMARD treatment sequences were associated with greater treatment benefit (i.e. more QALYs), lower lost productivity costs, and greater treatment-related costs than cDMARDs. The expected ICERs for bDMARD sequences ranged from ∼$126,000 to $140,000 per QALY gained, which is below the US-specific WTP. Alternative scenarios examining the effects of homogeneous patients, dose increases, increased costs of hospitalization for severely physically impaired patients, and a lower baseline Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) Disability Index score resulted in similar ICERs. bDMARD treatment sequences are cost-effective from a US societal perspective.

  7. [Contribution of leflunomide to the cost effectiveness of sequential DMARD therapy of rheumatoid arthritis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädlich, P K; Zeidler, H; Zink, A; Gromnica-Ihle, E; Schneider, M; Straub, C; Brecht, J G; Huppertz, E

    2004-02-01

    Since November 1999, leflunomide (LEF), an innovative disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), is available in Germany for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). LEF slows radiographic disease progression and improves functional capacity as well as healthrelated quality of life of RA patients. Resources for health care of the patients are limited in Germany as in all other countries. The purpose of the analysis therefore was to compare the cost effectiveness of the following alternatives: LEF in sequential monotherapy with other DMARDs versus sequential monotherapy of other DMARDs. The target variables of this cost-effectiveness comparison were additional direct costs per ACR20-response year (ACR20RY) gained and per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, respectively, each after three years of treatment. The cost-effectiveness comparison was carried out using a modeling study after secondary analysis of relevant data. Oral methotrexate (MTX), sulphasalazine (SSZ), antimalarials (CQ/HCQ), intramuscular gold (IMG), and azathioprine (AZA) were selected as "other" DMARDs representing the current status of sequential monotherapy. Based on health care regulation in Germany-Guidelines on the Prescription of Drugs amended by the Federal Commission of Medical Practitioners and Health Insurance Funds on 10 December 1999-LEF was exclusively considered second within a DMARD sequence. Direct costs were given by outpatient and inpatient treatment, long-term care, and rehabilitation treatment. Prices relate to the period of 1998 to 2001 and were converted to Euro (euro), according to the official exchange rate of 1 euro = 1.95583 DM (1 euro approximately 0.90 US dollars; 2001 values). The comparative cost-effectiveness analysis covered a treatment period of more than one year. To estimate the net present value of future costs and effectiveness, a discount rate of 5% per year was applied. In the case of DMARD-naïve patients with RA, the sequence MTX, LEF, SSZ, IMG, AZA

  8. Assessing the effectiveness of synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in psoriatic arthritis – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley GH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabrielle H Kingsley, David L Scott Rheumatology Unit, Kings College London, London, UK Background: Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis the primary manifestations of which are locomotor and skin disease. Although a number of guidelines have been published citing strategies for reducing disease progression, the evidence base for disease-modifying agents is unclear. This forms the focus of this systematic review. Methods: The systematic review was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses 2009 checklist. We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs that looked at the impact of interventions with disease-modifying agents, either synthetic drugs or biologics on musculoskeletal outcomes, notably American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders. Results were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1.6 (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK. Whilst our primary focus was on published trials, we also looked at new trials presented in abstract form in 2013–2014 that were not yet published to avoid omitting important and up-to-date information on developing treatments. Results: Our in-depth analysis included 28 trials overall enrolling 5,177 patients published between the 1980s and now as well as limited analysis of some studies in abstract form as described earlier. The most frequently available locomotor outcome measure was the American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders. The risk ratio for achieving an American College of Rheumatology 20 percent responders response was positive in favor of treatment (risk ratio 2.30; 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.96; however, there was evidence of considerable heterogeneity between trials. Overall randomized controlled trials of established synthetic disease-modifying agents were largely negative (methotrexate, ciclosporin and sulfasalazine though leflunomide showed a small positive effect. A new synthetic agent, apremilast, did show a

  9. Saponin-based adjuvants create a highly effective anti-tumor vaccine when combined with in situ tumor destruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Nierkens, S.; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Schrier, C.C.; Rijke, E.O.; Adema, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Today's most commonly used microbial vaccines are essentially composed of antigenic elements and a non-microbial adjuvant, and induce solid amounts of antibodies. Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce anti-tumor CTL-responses, which require cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic

  10. Late effects of adjuvant chemotherapy on cognitive function: a follow-up study in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S. B.; Muller, M. J.; Boogerd, W.; Rosenbrand, R. M.; van Rhijn, D.; Rodenhuis, S.; van Dam, F. S. A. M.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological examinations have shown an elevated risk for cognitive impairment 2 years after therapy in breast cancer patients randomized to receive adjuvant high-dose cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, carboplatin (CTC) chemotherapy compared with a non-treated control group of stage I

  11. The effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sangyong; Choi, SeokJoo; Choi, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Kwansub

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the pain and function of patients with degenerative knee arthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with degenerative knee arthritis were divided into a conservative physical therapy group (n=10) and an extracorporeal shock wave therapy group (n=10). Both groups received general conservative physical therapy, and the extracorporeal shock wave therapy was additionally treated with extracorporeal shock wave therapy after receiving conservative physical therapy. Both groups were treated three times a week over a four-week period. The visual analogue scale was used to evaluate pain in the knee joints of the subjects, and the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to evaluate the function of the subjects. [Results] The comparison of the visual analogue scale and Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores within each group before and after the treatment showed statistically significant declines in scores in both the conservative physical therapy group and extracorporeal shock wave therapy group. A group comparison after the treatment showed statistically significant differences in these scores in the extracorporeal shock wave therapy group and the conservative physical therapy group. [Conclusion] extracorporeal shock wave therapy may be a useful nonsurgical intervention for reducing the pain of patients with degenerative knee arthritis and improving these patients' function.

  12. Effective Respiratory CD8 T-Cell Immunity to Influenza Virus Induced by Intranasal Carbomer-Lecithin-Adjuvanted Non-replicating Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, David J.; Neldner, Brandon; Plisch, Erin H.; Rustom, Hani; Imai, Hirotaka; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Suresh, M.

    2016-01-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical for clearing many viral infections, and protective CTL memory can be induced by vaccination with attenuated viruses and vectors. Non-replicating vaccines are typically potentiated by the addition of adjuvants that enhance humoral responses, however few are capable of generating CTL responses. Adjuplex is a carbomer-lecithin-based adjuvant demonstrated to elicit robust humoral immunity to non-replicating antigens. We report that mice immunized with non-replicating Adjuplex-adjuvanted vaccines generated robust antigen-specific CTL responses. Vaccination by the subcutaneous or the intranasal route stimulated systemic and mucosal CTL memory respectively. However, only CTL memory induced by intranasal vaccination was protective against influenza viral challenge, and correlated with an enhancement of memory CTLs in the airways and CD103+ CD69+ CXCR3+ resident memory-like CTLs in the lungs. Mechanistically, Myd88-deficient mice mounted primary CTL responses to Adjuplex vaccines that were similar in magnitude to wild-type mice, but exhibited altered differentiation of effector cell subsets. Immune potentiating effects of Adjuplex entailed alterations in the frequency of antigen-presenting-cell subsets in vaccine draining lymph nodes, and in the lungs and airways following intranasal vaccination. Further, Adjuplex enhanced the ability of dendritic cells to promote antigen-induced proliferation of naïve CD8 T cells by modulating antigen uptake, its intracellular localization, and rate of processing. Taken together, we have identified an adjuvant that elicits both systemic and mucosal CTL memory to non-replicating antigens, and engenders protective CTL-based heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus in the respiratory tract. Further, findings presented in this manuscript have provided key insights into the mechanisms and factors that govern the induction and programming of systemic and protective memory CTLs in the

  13. Short-term Effect of Radical Hysterectomy with or without Adjuvant Radiation Therapy on Urodynamic Parameters in Patients with Uterine Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyu Oh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Lower urinary tract dysfunction is the most common complication after radical pelvic surgery. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of radical hysterectomy (RH on the storage function of the lower urinary tract and to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT on postoperative urodynamic parameters. Methods This was a retrospective review of preoperative and postoperative urodynamic variables, which were prospectively collected. All women from 2006 to 2008, who underwent RH for uterine cervical cancer with a stage of 1A to 2B with or without adjuvant RT were enrolled. All patients were divided into two groups: group 1, without RT, and group 2, with adjuvant RT. Urodynamic studies were performed before, 10 days after, and 6 months after RH. Results A total of 42 patients with a mean (±standard error age of 51.9 (±12.3 years were analyzed. There were no significant differences in age, body mass index or clinical stage between the two groups. On the 10th postoperative day, all parameters were decreased except postvoid residual volume. In comparison with group 2 (n=14, group 1 (n=28 showed a significant increase in bladder compliance. At 6 months postoperatively, bladder compliance in group 1 had increased four times or more compared with that on postoperative 10 days. However, it had increased only 2.5 times in group 2 at the same time point (P<0.001. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that adjuvant RT after RH might result in a deterioration of bladder compliance. It is highly suggested that practitioners pay attention to low bladder compliance, especially in patients who have adjuvant RT after RH.

  14. Effects of Therapeutic Exercises on Functional Capacities of Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Zadeh

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic and systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by symmetric joint involvement with progressive deformities. This leads to limitation of motion and reduction of activity daily living (ADL. Previous reports showed the beneficial effects of therapeutic exercises in these patients in the remission phase. Methods and Materials: A clinical trial as a self-control sequential control study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a range of motion (ROM exercise program in patients with RA, referring to Rheumatology Research Center between 1994-1995. ROM of the selected joints by Goniometer, and ADL by a questionnaire was assessed in all patients in 3 phases: when entering the program, after 6 weeks of observation, and then after another 6 weeks with the therapeutic exercises. The mean difference in these 2 period were compared by student paired t test. The analysis of differences between different subgroups (job, education, etc. was done by one way variance analysis. Results: Forty patients completed the program. The mean ADL increased from 0437±0.252 before exercise to 6.69±3.06 after exercise (P<0.001, and the mean scores of ROM increased from 0.278±0.28 to 8±3.57 (P<0.0001, both statistically significant. This was more pronounced in women and in those with ankle joints involvement. The type of disease onset and duration of the disease did not influence the effects of treatment. No increase in disease activity was seen. Conclusion: This study showed the effectiveness of our ROM exercises in increasing functional capacities of patients with RA in remission phase.

  15. Iron supply to soybean plants through the foliar application of IDHA/Fe3+: effect of plant nutritional status and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Ropero, Edgar; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Fe chelates are commonly used to overcome Fe deficiencies in crops, but most of them are scarcely biodegradable. Iminodisuccinic acid (IDHA) is a biodegradable chelating agent that is currently being evaluated as an alternative to EDTA. In this work, the efficacy of the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) to soybean chlorotic plants under controlled conditions was studied, testing the influence of the adjuvant used and of the plant nutritional status. When IDHA/Fe(3+) was applied to soybean plants with severe Fe chlorosis and the foliar sprays were the sole source of Fe, this chelate behaved similarly to the EDTA/Fe(3+) and the recovery of the plants was slight in both cases. The same chelates were tested when foliar sprays were an additional source of Fe for mildly chlorotic plants, which were also being supplied with low concentrations of Fe applied to the nutrient solution. Then, plant recovery was appreciable in all cases, and the IDHA/Fe(3+) was as effective as EDTA/Fe(3+). Among the adjuvants studied, a urea-based product was the only one that did not damage the leaf surface and that could improve the efficiency of IDHA/Fe(3+) up tp the level of EDTA/Fe(3+). Thus, it was concluded the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the non-biodegradable chelate EDTA/Fe(3+) when the appropriate adjuvant is used. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San; Schafer, Elizabeth; Burrage, Thomas G.; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Santos, Teresa de los; Hoeprich, Paul D.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co"2"+ affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni"2"+-chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. - Highlights: • 6xHis-tags in A_2_4 FMDV enable purification and biding to adjuvants via metal ions. • 6xHis A_2_4 FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine enhanced protective immunity against FMDV. • Surface exposed capsid tags allow distinction of infected from vaccinated animals.

  17. Novel 6xHis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Devendra K.; Segundo, Fayna Diaz-San [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, CANR, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Schafer, Elizabeth [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Burrage, Thomas G. [Department of Homeland Security, S & T, Targeted Advance Development, Virus, Cellular and Molecular Imaging Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Rodriguez, Luis L.; Santos, Teresa de los [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States); Hoeprich, Paul D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Rieder, Elizabeth, E-mail: Elizabeth.Rieder@ars.usda.gov [Foreign Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY 11944 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Here, we engineered two FMD viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the FMDV capsid. Both 6xHis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. The 6xHis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by Co{sup 2+} affinity columns. Electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xHis FMDVs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with Ni{sup 2+}-chelated nanolipoprotein and monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant (MPLA:NiNLP). Animals Immunized with the inactivated 6xHis-FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine acquired enhanced protective immunity against FMDV challenge compared to virions alone. Induction of anti-6xHis and anti-FMDV neutralizing antibodies in the immunized animals could be exploited in the differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals needed for the improvement of FMD control measures. The novel marker vaccine/nanolipid technology described here has broad applications for the development of distinctive and effective immune responses to other pathogens of importance. - Highlights: • 6xHis-tags in A{sub 24} FMDV enable purification and biding to adjuvants via metal ions. • 6xHis A{sub 24} FMDV:MPLA:NiNLP vaccine enhanced protective immunity against FMDV. • Surface exposed capsid tags allow distinction of infected from vaccinated animals.

  18. Co-localization of a CD1d-binding glycolipid with an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine for a potent adjuvant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Kawamura, Akira; Funakoshi, Ryota; Porcelli, Steven A; Tsuji, Moriya

    2017-05-31

    A CD1d-binding, invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT)-cell stimulatory glycolipid, α-Galactosylceramide (αGalCer), has been shown to act as an adjuvant. We previously identified a fluorinated phenyl ring-modified αGalCer analog, 7DW8-5, displaying a higher binding affinity for CD1d molecule and more potent adjuvant activity than αGalCer. In the present study, 7DW8-5 co-administered intramuscularly (i.m.) with a recombinant adenovirus expressing a Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (PyCSP), AdPyCS, has led to a co-localization of 7DW8-5 and a PyCSP in draining lymph nodes (dLNs), particularly in dendritic cells (DCs). This occurrence initiates a cascade of events, such as the recruitment of DCs to dLNs and their activation and maturation, and the enhancement of the ability of DCs to prime CD8+ T cells induced by AdPyCS and ultimately leading to a potent adjuvant effect and protection against malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The analgesic effect of clonidine as an adjuvant in dorsal penile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Dorsal penile nerve block (DPNB) is a commonly performed regional anesthetic technique for male circumcision. The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of the adjunction of clonidine to bupivacaine 0.5% in this block. Methods: It was a prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial including ...

  20. Cost–utility and cost-effectiveness of physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, Hanna; van Dongen, Johanna M.; van Harten, Wim H.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Huijsmans, Rosalie; Hellendoorn-van Vreeswijk, Jeannette A.J.H.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A home-based, low-intensity physical activity program (Onco-Move) and a supervised, moderate-to-high intensity, combined resistance and aerobic exercise program (OnTrack) have proven to be effective in maintaining physical fitness and reducing fatigue among breast cancer patients

  1. Reactive arthritis induced by bacterial vaginosis: Prevention with an effective treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Aminzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 42-year-old woman with reactive arthritis induced by bacterial vaginosis who presented with oligoarthritis with an additive form, arthralgia, and enthesitis. She hasn′t had a history of diarrhea or dysuria or vaginal secretion, or sexually transmitted infections (STIs. The laboratory tests were normal except for a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Her pelvic examination revealed homogeneous white grey and malodorous vaginal discharge on the vaginal wall and Pap smear and Gram-stained smear of vaginal swab was consistent with bacterial vaginosis. She responded to metronidazole therapy and her six-month follow up hasn′t shown recurrence of arthritis. As reactive arthritis (ReA is a paradigm of a rheumatic disease in which the initiating infectious cause is known, so early use of antimicrobial drugs may prevent the development of musculoskeletal symptoms which are triggered by infections.

  2. Effect of mitomycin c and 5-flurouracil adjuvant therapy on the outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi N; Hsia, Yen C; Lin, Shan C; Stamper, Robert L; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Mehta, Nitisha; Porco, Travis C; Naseri, Ayman; Han, Ying

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effect of mitomycin c and 5-flurouracil on treatment outcomes following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. Retrospective consecutive case series. Fifty patients who received Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation from 1999 to 2013 in the San Francisco Veterans Administration Hospital. The +INJECTION group received intraoperative mitomycin c followed by postoperative mitomycin c and/or 5-flurouracil, whereas the -INJECTION group did not. Primary outcome was treatment success at 1 year post-implantation. Intraocular pressure, hypertensive phase, and the number of glaucoma medications were also examined. Twenty-six patients/eyes in the +INJECTION group and 24 patients/eyes in the -INJECTION group were included. Treatment success was higher in the +INJECTION compared with the -INJECTION group (86 vs. 58%; P = 0.04). Intraocular pressure was lower in the +INJECTION compared with the -INJECTION group at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months (P ≪ 0.00001, P = 0.00003, 0.0008 and 0.024). Hypertensive phase occurred less often in the +INJECTION compared with the -INJECTION group (3.8 vs. 54%; P = 0.021). The +INJECTION group required fewer medications compared with the -INJECTION group (P = 0.02, 0.002, 0.003 and 0.008 at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months). Complication rates were comparable between groups (46.2 and 54.2%; P = 0.63). Adjuvant treatment with antifibrotics following Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation decreased the hypertensive phase and improved surgical outcomes without impacting complication rates at 1 year. This study postulates a role for antifibrotics in the postoperative management of Ahmed glaucoma valves. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammation: clinical findings and its effect on hepcidin mRNA expression in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Oliveira-Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoferremia observed during systemic inflammatory disorders is regulated by hepcidin. Hepcidin up-regulation is particularly important during acute inflammation, as it restricts the availability of iron, which is necessary for pathogenic microorganism growth before adaptive immunity occurs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression in horses using a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA model of inflammation. The expression of hepcidin mRNA in the liver was determined in healthy horses following two intramuscular injections of FCA at 0 h and 12 h. Plasma iron and fibrinogen concentrations were measured at multiple time points between 0 h and 240 h post-FCA injection (PI. Hepcidin mRNA expression was determined by RT-qPCR using liver biopsy samples performed at 0 h (control, 6 h and 18 h PI. The mean plasma fibrinogen level was significantly different from the control values only between 120 and 216 h PI. The mean plasma iron level was significantly lower than the control between 16 and 72 h PI, reaching the lowest levels at 30 h PI (33 % of the initial value, and returned to the reference value from 96 h PI to the end of the experiment. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased at 6 h PI and remained high at 18 h PI. The iron plasma concentration was an earlier indicator of inflammatory processes in horses when compared with fibrinogen and might be useful for the early detection of inflammation in the horse. FCA administration caused the rapid onset of hypoferremia, and this effect was likely the result of up-regulated hepatic hepcidin gene expression. This study emphasizes the importance of hepcidin and iron metabolism during inflammation in horses.

  4. Adjuvant single-fraction radiotherapy is safe and effective for intractable keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Changhoon; Wu, Honggyun; Chang, Hak; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of high-dose, single-fraction electron beam radiotherapy for therapy-resistant keloids. Before 2010, intractable keloids were treated at our institution with post-operative irradiation of 6-15 Gy in 3-5 fractionations. For convenience and cost effectiveness, we have changed our treatment protocol to high-dose single-fraction radiotherapy. A total of 12 patients with 16 keloid lesions were treated from January 2010 to January 2013 in our department. A 10-Gy dose of electron irradiation was given within 72 h of the surgical excision. The mean follow-up period was 20 months. Treatments were well tolerated, and there was no recurrence in any of the patients. Severe adverse effects were not observed. Surgical excision of the keloid, followed by immediate, single-fraction, high-dose radiotherapy, is both safe and effective in preventing recurrence of therapy-resistant keloids. (author)

  5. Gouty arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, C.R.; Nakayama, D.A.; Lightfoot, R.W. Jr.; Wortmann, R.L.; Carrera, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    A prospective analysis of 60 patients with gout was undertaken to evaluate the radiographic spectrum of gouty arthritis in patients treated in the era of hypouricemic therapy. Twenty-two of these patients were clinically tophaceous; 36 were considered to have radiographic findings diagnostic of gouty arthritis by strict radiographic criteria. Up to 24% of the patients denied symptoms in joints with radiographic changes of gout; 42% with no evidence of tophi on clinical examination had radiographic changes characteristic of gout. Radiographic assessment can be extremely helpful in the management of gout by documenting the degree and extent of bony involvement, particularly in patients with limited symptoms or without clinical tophi. (orig.)

  6. Effectiveness and safety of abatacept in moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortejoso-Fernández, Lucía; Romero-Jiménez, Maria Rosa; Pernía-López, María Sagrario; Montoro-Álvarez, María; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2012-01-01

    Abatacept was approved in our hospital by the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee for treatment of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adult patients with inadequate response or intolerance to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), including at least one anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF). The objectives of this study were to analyze compliance with our protocol and to evaluate effectiveness and safety of abatacept in our patients. We performed a descriptive longitudinal study of patients with RA treated with abatacept between August 2008 and May 2010 in our day care unit. We reviewed clinical records and recorded the following data: sex, age, weight, year of diagnosis, previous antirheumatic treatments and reasons for withdrawal of anti-TNFs, indication for abatacept, dose and date of administration, Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and adverse events. Effectiveness was evaluated using the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. We recruited 16 patients. Mean follow-up time was 10.4 (SD: 6.1) months. All patients had been previously treated with DMARDs, including at least one anti-TNF, and the mean dose of abatacept was 9.4 (SD: 1.4) mg/kg. During the first 6 months of treatment, 11/16 of patients experienced a decrease in their DAS28 value, but only 5/16 achieved a satisfactory response. Dyspnea was the most frequent adverse event (7/16), followed by fatigue and asthenia (6/16) and dry skin (5/16). The indication for abatacept in our hospital complied with the protocol approved by the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee. Only 5/16 of patients achieved a satisfactory response; however, it should be noted that these patients had moderate to severe RA that was refractory to other treatments. Adverse reactions were consistent with those described in the summary of product characteristics. Further studies with larger cohorts are needed to analyze the long-term safety and effectiveness profile in clinical practice.

  7. Metabolomic Elucidation of the Effects of Curcumin on Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Kyong Ahn

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and joint disability. Curcumin is known to be effective in ameliorating joint inflammation in RA. To obtain new insights into the effect of curcumin on primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS, N = 3, which are key effector cells in RA, we employed gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS-based metabolomics. Metabolomic profiling of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-stimulated and curcumin-treated FLS was performed using GC/TOF-MS in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 119 metabolites were identified. Metabolomic analysis revealed that metabolite profiles were clearly distinct between TNF-α-stimulated vs. the control group (not stimulated by TNF-α or curcumin. Treatment of FLS with curcumin showed that the metabolic perturbation by TNF-α could be reversed to that of the control group to a considerable extent. Curcumin-treated FLS had higher restoration of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by the prominent metabolic restoration of intermediates of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, compared with that observed in TNF-α-stimulated FLS. In particular, the abundance of glycine, citrulline, arachidonic acid, and saturated fatty acids in TNF-α-stimulated FLS was restored to the control level after treatment with curcumin, suggesting that the effect of curcumin on preventing joint inflammation may be elucidated with the levels of these metabolites. Our results suggest that GC/TOF-MS-based metabolomic investigation using FLS has the potential for discovering the mechanism of action of curcumin and new targets for therapeutic drugs in RA.

  8. Metabolomic Elucidation of the Effects of Curcumin on Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Kim, Sooah; Hwang, Jiwon; Kim, Jungyeon; Lee, You Sun; Koh, Eun-Mi; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Cha, Hoon-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by synovial inflammation and joint disability. Curcumin is known to be effective in ameliorating joint inflammation in RA. To obtain new insights into the effect of curcumin on primary fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS, N = 3), which are key effector cells in RA, we employed gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics. Metabolomic profiling of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated and curcumin-treated FLS was performed using GC/TOF-MS in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. A total of 119 metabolites were identified. Metabolomic analysis revealed that metabolite profiles were clearly distinct between TNF-α-stimulated vs. the control group (not stimulated by TNF-α or curcumin). Treatment of FLS with curcumin showed that the metabolic perturbation by TNF-α could be reversed to that of the control group to a considerable extent. Curcumin-treated FLS had higher restoration of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by the prominent metabolic restoration of intermediates of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, compared with that observed in TNF-α-stimulated FLS. In particular, the abundance of glycine, citrulline, arachidonic acid, and saturated fatty acids in TNF-α-stimulated FLS was restored to the control level after treatment with curcumin, suggesting that the effect of curcumin on preventing joint inflammation may be elucidated with the levels of these metabolites. Our results suggest that GC/TOF-MS-based metabolomic investigation using FLS has the potential for discovering the mechanism of action of curcumin and new targets for therapeutic drugs in RA.

  9. The effect of Astragalus as an adjuvant treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A (preliminary) meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huiping; Lu, Jun; He, Hairong; Zhang, Lu; Dong, Yalin; Yao, Hongping; Feng, Weiyi; Wang, Siwen

    2016-09-15

    Astragalus is a traditional Chinese medicine that is widely used for tonifying Qi (Qi mainly means life energy) to treat diabetes mellitus and its complications. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of Astragalus in adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to provide novel information to improve clinical decision-making. We conducted an exhaustive database search (PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), Wanfang data and SinoMed) of studies associated with "Astragalus" and "type 2 diabetes mellitus" until December 2015. Following quality assessment of study eligibility, the extracted data were statistically analyzed using STATA, ver. 12.0 (Stata Corp.). A total of 13 studies with 1054 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Two subgroups were identified, based on Astragalus dosing regimens: control group vs. Astragalus injection (AI); control group vs. Astragalus aqueous decoction (AAD). The pooled results showed that, in comparison with control group, Astragalus administration significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in both the AI group (WMD=-0.28, 95% CI=-0.46 to -0.10, P=0.002, I(2)=18.5%) and the AAD group (WMD=-0.83, 95% CI=-1.07 to -0.58, P=0.000, I(2)=0.0%); postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) was also significantly reduced in the AI group (WMD=-0.47, 95% CI=-0.77 to -0.17, P=0.002, I(2)=46.8%) and the AAD group (WMD=-1.19, 95% CI=-1.63 to -0.75, P=0.000, I(2)=49.3%). Fasting insulin (Fins) was significantly reduced only in the AAD treatment group (SMD=-0.33, 95% CI=-0.55 to -0.10, P=0.005, I(2)=1.0%) as was the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IRI) levels (SMD=-1.66, 95% CI=-3.24 to -0.09, P=0.038, I(2)=94.0%). Although AAD treatment significantly reduced levels of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (WMD=-1.77, 95% CI=-3.06 to -0.47, P=0.007, I(2)=90.8%), AI treatment failed to show significant efficacy (WMD=-0.28, 95% CI=-0.63 to 0

  10. The effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Daniel E; Kay, Jonathan; Wasko, Mary Chester; Keystone, Edward; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Deodhar, Atul; Murphy, Frederick T; Magnus, Jeanette H; Hsia, Elizabeth C; Hsu, Benjamin; Xu, Stephen; Rahman, Mahboob U; Doyle, Mittie K

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with RA, PsA or AS. Secondary analysis was performed on integrated data from five randomized controlled studies: three RA, one PsA and one AS (2303 patients total). Golimumab 50 or 100 mg was injected s.c. every 4 weeks with or without MTX. Control groups received placebo injections plus MTX or background therapy. Patients with haemoglobin levels below the age- and sex-specific normal ranges were considered to have anaemia. Ferritin levels were used to distinguish anaemia of mixed aetiology (≥ 15 and <60 ng/ml) and anaemia of inflammation (≥ 60 ng/ml). Changes from baseline to weeks 14 and 24 in haemoglobin level were compared between treatment groups using an analysis of variance on the van der Waerden normal scores. At baseline, 21% of RA patients, 9% of PsA patients and 15% of AS patients had anaemia. Of these, 24%, 57% and 25%, respectively, had anaemia of inflammation. The median increase from baseline to week 14 in the haemoglobin level of anaemic patients was 0.3 g/dl in the control group and 0.9 g/dl in the golimumab group (P < 0.001). Haemoglobin levels improved within the subgroups of patients with anaemia of mixed aetiology (control, 0.4 g/dl vs golimumab, 0.7 g/dl) (P = 0.305) and with anaemia of inflammation (0.2 vs 1.4 g/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, patients receiving golimumab treatment had significantly improved haemoglobin levels, particularly among patients with anaemia of inflammation.

  11. Radio-adjuvant effects of ginsan on murine breast carcinoma xenografted model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Ji Young; Son, Hyeog Jin; Kim, Hyung Doo; Han, Young Soo; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In a number of studies, polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, ginsan has been demonstrated to be a potent promising biological response modifier (BRM), including proliferation of lymphocyte, generation of lymphokine activated killer cells, and production of several cytokines. Macrophages are the first line of defense to infections or pathogens in host innate immunity. In addition, it plays a prominent role as a professional antigen presenting cells to trigger cellular immunity. In the light of that, the current study was designed to evaluate whether ginsan exhibits anti-tumor effect as well as synergistic function with chemo- or radio-therapy.

  12. Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery - a comparative effectiveness research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefanie; Niyazi, Maximilian; Niemoeller, Olivier M; Li, Minglun; Roeder, Falk; Eckel, Renate; Schubert-Fritschle, Gabriele; Scheithauer, Heike R; Harbeck, Nadia; Engel, Jutta; Belka, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective outcome study was to validate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in breast conserving therapy (BCT) and to evaluate possible causes for omission of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS) in a non-trial population. Data were provided by the population-based Munich Cancer Registry. The study included epidemiological data of 30.811 patients diagnosed with breast cancer from 1998 to 2012. The effect of omitting radiotherapy was analysed using Kaplan-Meier-estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression. Variables predicting omission of radiotherapy were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Use of postoperative radiotherapy after BCS was associated with significant improvements in local control and survival. 10-year loco-regional recurrence-free-survival was 90.8% with postoperative radiotherapy vs. 77.6% with surgery alone (pstudy shows a decrease in local control and a survival disadvantage if postoperative radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery is omitted in an unselected cohort of primary breast cancer patients. Due to its epidemiological nature, it cannot answer the question in whom postoperative radiotherapy can be safely omitted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Models of human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma tissue: Steps toward an effective adjuvant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölsken, Annett; Buslei, Rolf

    2017-05-01

    Even though ACP is a benign tumor, treatment is challenging because of the tumor's eloquent location. Today, with the exception of surgical intervention and irradiation, further treatment options are limited. However, ongoing molecular research in this field provides insights into the pathways involved in ACP pathogenesis and reveal a plethora of druggable targets. In the next step, appropriate models are essential to identify the most suitable and effective substances for clinical practice. Primary cell cultures in low passages provide a proper and rapid tool for initial drug potency testing. The patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model accommodates ACP complexity in that it shows respect to the preserved architecture and similar histological appearance to human tumors and therefore provides the most appropriate means for analyzing pharmacological efficacy. Nevertheless, further research is needed to understand in more detail the biological background of ACP pathogenesis, which provides the identification of the best targets in the hierarchy of signaling cascades. ACP models are also important for the continuous testing of new targeting drugs, to establish precision medicine. © 2017 International Society of Neuropathology.

  14. Randomized controlled study on the effect of adjuvant immunotherapy with OK-432 on malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Mori, Kazuo; Moriyama, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Keisei; Moroki, Jiro.

    1985-01-01

    During periods from January, 1981 to December, 1983, 51 patients (31 malignant astrocytomas, 17 glioblastomas, and others 3) were treated with radiochemotherapy using Nimustine hydrochloride, ACNU (group B) and radiochemoimmunotherapy with Picibanil, OK-432 (group A) by randomized controlled study. Group A consisted of 24 patients and group B of 27 patients. The differences in the background of the two groups were not statistically significant. Survival curves of both groups were shown by the Kaplan-Meier method. The postoperative survival rate at 1 year and 2 years were 70 % and 30 %, respectively, equal in both groups, and the differences between groups A and B were not statistically significant by the Cox-Mantel test. The side effects by group B therapy were most prominent in the bone marrow, and severe leukopenia occurred. However, group A therapy suppressed leukopenia after 2 months. Immunological parameters, such as purified protein derivative skin reaction test did not change, but streptococcal Su-polysaccharide skin reaction test became positive after group A therapy. (author)

  15. An update on safety and immunogenicity of vaccines containing emulsion-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christopher B; Haensler, Jean

    2013-07-01

    With the exception of alum, emulsion-based vaccine adjuvants have been administered to far more people than any other adjuvant, especially since the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The number of clinical safety and immunogenicity evaluations of vaccines containing emulsion adjuvants has correspondingly mushroomed. In this review, the authors introduce emulsion adjuvant composition and history before detailing the most recent findings from clinical and postmarketing data regarding the effects of emulsion adjuvants on vaccine immunogenicity and safety, with emphasis on the most widely distributed emulsion adjuvants, MF59® and AS03. The authors also present a summary of other emulsion adjuvants in clinical development and indicate promising avenues for future emulsion-based adjuvant development. Overall, emulsion adjuvants have demonstrated potent adjuvant activity across a number of disease indications along with acceptable safety profiles.

  16. Thumb Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Thumb Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields ...

  17. Reproductive hormone analyses and effects of adjuvant zoledronic acid in early breast cancer – An AZURE (BIG 01/04 sub-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Wilson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adjuvant bisphosphonates have been shown to improve disease outcomes in early breast cancer in women who are postmenopausal at the start of treatment. We explored the influence of pretreatment serum levels of reproductive hormones in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis from a subset of patients included in the AZURE trial to investigate their impact on disease recurrence and whether reproductive hormone measurements are of value in selecting patients for treatment with adjuvant zoledronic acid.Patients and methods; The AZURE trial is an academic, multi-centre, international phase III trial that randomised patients to standard adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy and/or endocrine therapy±intravenous zoledronic acid, 4 mg for 5 years. Serum from 865 patients taken at randomisation was stored at −80 °C prior to central batch analysis for inhibin A, oestradiol and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. We assessed the clinical value of pretreatment hormone levels for predicting invasive disease free survival (IDFS, skeletal recurrence and distant recurrence and response to treatment with zoledronic acid. Results: Oestradiol in the postmenopausal range (26 IU/l was associated with a longer time to bone as first recurrence (HR 0.66 95%CI: 0.41–1.04 p=0.072 compared to an FSH ≤26 IU/l. When all 3 hormone levels were within the assay specified postmenopausal range, a trend to improved IDFS was seen with addition of zoledronic acid in biochemically postmenopausal women only (postmenopausal HR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.54–1.22, non-postmenopausal HR=0.99; 95%CI: 0.69–1.39 with risk reductions that mirrored the results of the main AZURE study, although the interaction between menopausal status and treatment effect was not statistically significant (p=0.47. Conclusion: Oestradiol and FSH may influence the pattern of disease recurrence with postmenopausal levels possibly creating a less conducive environment for the

  18. Strong combined gene-environment effects in anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Garred, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of shared epitope (SE) susceptibility genes, alone and in combination with tobacco smoking and other environmental risk factors, for risk of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) defined by the presence or absence of serum antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs)....

  19. Weather effects in rheumatoid arthritis: from controversy to concensus. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patberg, Wiebe R.; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate the evidence for the widespread view that signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are influenced, or even caused, by the weather. METHODS: A literature search from 1985 to April 2003 was performed using the PubMed database of the US National Library of

  20. Weather effects in rheumatoid arthritis : From controversy to consensus. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patberg, WR; Rasker, JJ

    Objective. To review and evaluate the evidence for the widespread view that signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are influenced, or even caused, by the weather. Methods. A literature search from 1985 to April 2003 was performed using the PubMed database of the US National Library of

  1. Effect of Rheumatoid Arthritis on Longterm Sickness Absence in 1994-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Mandrup; Hetland, Merete Lund; Pedersen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. By linkage of national registries, we investigated the risk of longterm sickness absence (LTSA) ≥ 3 weeks in a large cohort of Danish patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and non-patients. The study aimed to (1) estimate the risk of LTSA for patients with RA compared with the general...

  2. Effects of Libby amphibole asbestos exposure on two rat models of rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological data suggests that occupational exposure to the amphibole-containing vermiculite in Libby, MT was associated with increased risk for developing autoimmune diseases and had an odds ratio of 3.23 for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our goal was to determine wh...

  3. The Additive Inflammatory In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of IL-7 and TSLP in Arthritis Underscore the Therapeutic Rationale for Dual Blockade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten R Hillen

    Full Text Available The cytokines interleukin (IL-7 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP signal through the IL-7R subunit and play proinflammatory roles in experimental arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We evaluated the effect of inhibition of IL-7R- and TSLPR-signalling as well as simultaneous inhibition of IL-7R- and TSLPR-signalling in murine experimental arthritis. In addition, the effects of IL-7 and TSLP in human RA dendritic cell (DC/T-cell co-cultures were studied.Arthritis was induced with proteoglycan in wildtype mice (WT and in mice deficient for the TSLP receptor subunit (TSLPR-/-. Both mice genotypes were treated with anti-IL-7R or phosphate buffered saline. Arthritis severity was assessed and local and circulating cytokines were measured. Autologous CD1c-positive DCs and CD4 T-cells were isolated from peripheral blood of RA patients and were co-cultured in the presence of IL-7, TSLP or both and proliferation and cytokine production were assessed.Arthritis severity and immunopathology were decreased in WT mice treated with anti-IL-7R, in TSLPR-/- mice, and the most robustly in TSLPR-/- mice treated with anti-IL-7R. This was associated with strongly decreased levels of IL-17, IL-6 and CD40L. In human DC/T-cell co-cultures, TSLP and IL-7 additively increased T-cell proliferation and production of Th17-associated cytokines, chemokines and tissue destruction factors.TSLP and IL-7 have an additive effect on the production of Th17-cytokines in a human in vitro model, and enhance arthritis in mice linked with enhanced inflammation and immunopathology. As both cytokines signal via the IL-7R, these data urge for IL-7R-targeting to prevent the activity of both cytokines in RA.

  4. The Effectiveness of Aquatic Exercises in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Çakır

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic destructive inflammatory disorder. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of balneotherapy and aquatherapy in the treatment of RA patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 59 patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria for RA were included this study. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 (n=20 received balneotherapy, group 2 (n=20 received an aquatic exercise program and group 3 (n=19 was accepted as control group. These programs were applied five times a week, over three weeks (15 sessions. Patients were evaluated for clinical and laboratory parameters. Clinical parameters included pain,duration of morning stiffness, number of swollen and tender joints, disease activity score (DAS28, Modified health assessment questionnaire (mHAQ, physician’s and patient’s global assessment and hand grip strength. Laboratory evaluation included erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR and C-reactive protein (CRP. The assessment parameters were measured before, at the end of and after 3 months of the therapy. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54±10.7 (25-75 years and the mean disease duration was 122.3±98.1 (1-424 months. In aquatic exercise group we observed an improvement in DAS28 scores (p0.05. Conclusion: This study shows that aquatic exercise program is beneficial in the management of DAS28, pain, HAQ parameters and should be taken in to consideration in planning exercise therapy for RA patients. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2014;20: 10-5

  5. The effects of arctigenin on human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongbin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Xiaosong; Gao, Yunlong; Du, Jun; Chen, Shuo

    2015-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLSs) play an important role in the initiation and progression of RA, which are resistant to apoptosis and proliferate in an anchorage-independent manner. The effects of arctigenin on the proliferation and apoptosis of RAFLSs were explored. Arctigenin (0-160 µM) was used to treat RAFLSs for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide assay and annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the changes in apoptosis-related genes. Arctigenin decreased cell viability by 23, 30, and 38% at the dose of 10, 20, and 30 µM, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of arctignein on RAFLSs was about 38 µM. Moreover, 9, 15, and 21% of RAFLSs are induced apoptosis by 10, 20, and 30 µM of arctigenin. The apoptotic response was due to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, coupled with the release of cytochrome C into cytoplasm, the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and down-regulation of antiapoptotic protein, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). The activation of mitochondrial pathway in arctigenin-treated RAFLSs induced the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Additionally, arctigenin inhibited the nuclear translocation of p65, decreased the degradation of inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα), and attenuated the phosphorylation of Akt. Our results reveal that arctigenin inhibits cell proliferation and induces mitochondrial apoptosis of RAFLSs, which is associated with the modulation of NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways.

  6. Effects of Biologic Agents in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Amyloidosis Treated with Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takeshi; Tanabe, Naohito; Nozawa, Yukiko; Sato, Hiroe; Nakatsue, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Wada, Yoko; Saeki, Takako; Nakano, Masaaki; Narita, Ichiei

    Objective Our objective was to examine the safety and effects of therapy with biologics on the prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis on hemodialysis (HD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of reactive AA amyloidosis participated in the study. The survival was calculated from the date of HD initiation until the time of death, or up to end of June 2015 for the patients who were still alive. HD initiation was according to the program of HD initiation for systemic amyloidosis patients associated with RA. Results Ten patients had been treated with biologics before HD initiation for a mean of 28.2 months (biologic group), while 18 had not (non-biologic group). HD was initiated in patients with similar characteristics except for the tender joint count, swollen joint count, and disease activity score (DAS)28-C-reactive protein (CRP). History of biologics showed that etanercept was frequently used for 8 patients as the first biologic. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate according to a Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.939) and or associated risk of death in an age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model (p=0.758) between both groups. Infections were significantly more frequent causes of death in the biologic group than in the non-biologic group (p=0.021). However, treatment with biologics improved the DAS28-CRP score (p=0.004). Conclusion Under the limited conditions of AA amyloidosis treated with HD, the use of biologics might affect infection and thus may not improve the prognosis. Strict infection control is necessary for the use of biologics with HD to improve the prognosis.

  7. Health Professionals' Perceptions of the Effects of Exercise on Joint Health in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Serena; Law, Rebecca-Jane; Jones, Jeremy G; Markland, David A; Maddison, Peter J; Thom, Jeanette M

    2017-09-01

    Although exercise is an important factor in the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), research indicates that patients perceive that health professionals (HPs) are uncertain about the place of exercise in treatment and its relationship with joint damage. The present study investigated the perceptions of HPs regarding the effects of exercise on joint health in RA patients. A questionnaire investigating perceptions of exercise and joint health was distributed via professional networks and websites. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to analyse questionnaire data and develop a focus group interview guide. Focus groups were conducted with multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) of rheumatology HPs and analysed using framework analysis. A total of 137 rheumatology HPs (95 female; 27-65 years of age) completed questionnaires. CFA showed that a four-factor model provided a marginally acceptable fit. Analysis of four focus groups (n = 24; 19 female; 30-60 years of age) identified five themes relating to HPs' perceptions of exercise and joint health in RA patients: 'Exercise is beneficial', 'Concerns about damage to joints', 'Patients have barriers to exercise', 'HP knowledge differs' and 'Patients may think service delivery is vague'. HPs were highly aware of the benefits and importance of exercise for RA patients. However, to remove the patient perception that HPs lack certainty and clarity regarding exercise it is important to ensure: (i) consistent promotion of exercise across the whole MDT; (ii) clear provision of information regarding rest, joint protection and exercise; (iii) HP education to ensure consistent, accurate knowledge, and understanding of the potential for conflicting advice when promoting exercise as part of an MDT. Copy © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Primary therapist model for patients referred for rheumatoid arthritis rehabilitation: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda C; Maetzel, Andreas; Davis, Aileen M; Lineker, Sydney C; Bombardier, Claire; Coyte, Peter C

    2006-06-15

    To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICE) of services from a primary therapist compared with traditional physical therapists and/or occupational therapists for managing rheumatoid arthritis (RA), from the societal perspective. Patients with RA were randomly assigned to the primary therapist model (PTM) or traditional treatment model (TTM) for approximately 6 weeks of rehabilitation treatment. Health outcomes were expressed in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), measured with the EuroQol instrument at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. Direct and indirect costs, including visits to health professionals, use of investigative tests, hospital visits, use of medications, purchases of adaptive aids, and productivity losses incurred by patients and their caregivers, were collected monthly. Of 144 consenting patients, 111 remained in the study after the baseline assessment: 63 PTM (87.3% women, mean age 54.2 years, disease duration 10.6 years) and 48 TTM (79.2% women, mean age 56.8 years, disease duration 13.2 years). From a societal perspective, PTM generated higher QALYs (mean +/- SD 0.068 +/- 0.22) and resulted in a higher mean cost ($6,848 Canadian, interquartile range [IQR] $1,984-$9,320) compared with TTM (mean +/- SD QALY -0.017 +/- 0.24; mean costs $6,266, IQR $1,938-$10,194) in 6 months, although differences were not statistically significant. The estimated ICE ratio was $13,700 per QALY gained (95% nonparametric confidence interval -$73,500, $230,000). The PTM has potential to be an alternative to traditional physical/occupational therapy, although it is premature to recommend widespread use of this model in other regions. Further research should focus on strategies to reduce costs of the model and assess the long-term economic consequences in managing RA and other rheumatologic conditions.

  9. Comparative effectiveness research (CER): a summary of AHRQ's CER on therapies for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderda, Gary M; Balfe, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the U.S. government has designated funding of several large-scale initiatives for comparative effectiveness research (CER) in health care. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 apportioned more than $1 billion to support CER programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). CER is generally defined as the undertaking of original research or systematic reviews of published literature in order to compare the benefits and risks of different approaches to preventing, diagnosing, or treating diseases. These approaches may include diagnostic tests, medications, medical devices, and surgeries. The overall goals of CER are to support informed health care decisions by patients, clinicians, payers, and policy makers and to apply its evidence to ultimately improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of health care. To (a) provide managed care professionals with general definitions of CER, specifically as it is administered by AHRQ; (b) discuss the importance of CER to clinical and managed care pharmacists; and (c) summarize key methods and findings from AHRQ's 2007 comparative effectiveness review on therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As supported by AHRQ, CER is conducted in order to synthesize comprehensive evidence on the comparative benefits and harms of treatment interventions. The findings from comparative effectiveness reviews can thus contribute to informing therapeutic strategies and treatment decisions. In 2007, a multitude of RA treatment options and studies motivated AHRQ to commission a systematic comparative effectiveness review. Conducted by investigators at the RTI-University of North Carolina Evidence-Based Practice Center, the review included comparisons of synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic agents, synthetic DMARDs versus biologic agents, and various

  10. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen; Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Hof, Holger; Klassen, Oliver; Habermann, Nina; Beckhove, Philipp; Debus, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of ... Hopkins Rheumatology Arthritis Center Lupus Center Lyme Disease Clinical Research Center Myositis Center Scleroderma Center Sjogren’s Syndrome ...

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... She is a critical member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health- ...

  13. A vegan diet free of gluten improves the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: the effects on arthritis correlate with a reduction in antibodies to food antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafström, I; Ringertz, B; Spångberg, A; von Zweigbergk, L; Brannemark, S; Nylander, I; Rönnelid, J; Laasonen, L; Klareskog, L

    2001-10-01

    Whether food intake can modify the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an issue of continued scientific and public interest. However, data from controlled clinical trials are sparse. We thus decided to study the clinical effects of a vegan diet free of gluten in RA and to quantify the levels of antibodies to key food antigens not present in the vegan diet. Sixty-six patients with active RA were randomized to either a vegan diet free of gluten (38 patients) or a well-balanced non-vegan diet (28 patients) for 1 yr. All patients were instructed and followed-up in the same manner. They were analysed at baseline and after 3, 6 and 12 months, according to the response criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). Furthermore, levels of antibodies against gliadin and beta-lactoglobulin were assessed and radiographs of the hands and feet were performed. Twenty-two patients in the vegan group and 25 patients in the non-vegan diet group completed 9 months or more on the diet regimens. Of these diet completers, 40.5% (nine patients) in the vegan group fulfilled the ACR20 improvement criteria compared with 4% (one patient) in the non-vegan group. Corresponding figures for the intention to treat populations were 34.3 and 3.8%, respectively. The immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels against gliadin and beta-lactoglobulin decreased in the responder subgroup in the vegan diet-treated patients, but not in the other analysed groups. No retardation of radiological destruction was apparent in any of the groups. The data provide evidence that dietary modification may be of clinical benefit for certain RA patients, and that this benefit may be related to a reduction in immunoreactivity to food antigens eliminated by the change in diet.

  14. Adjuvant effects of recombinant giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) IL-18 on the canine distemper disease vaccine in mice

    OpenAIRE

    YAN, Yue; NIU, Lili; DENG, Jiabo; WANG, Qiang; YU, Jianqiu; ZHANG, Yizheng; WANG, Jianxi; CHEN, Jiao; WEI, Changhe; TAN, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus known to cause morbidity and mortality in a broad range of animals. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially captive ones, are susceptible to natural infection with CDV. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a powerful adjuvant molecule that can enhance the development of antigen-specific immunity and vaccine efficacy. In this study, a giant panda IL-18 gene eukaryotic expression plasmid (pcAmIL-18) was constructed. Female BALB/c mice were muscular...

  15. No serious late cardiac effects after adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in premenopausal women with early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Anita; Bendahl, Pear-Ola; Cwikiel, Magdalena; Eskilsson, Jan; Thapper, Kerstin Leofvander; Pahlm, Olle

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess cardiac mortality, coronary artery disease, myocardial dysfunction, and valvular heart disease in women younger than 65 years of age, at least 10 years after adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety women (45-64 years old) with Stage II breast cancer without relapse, included in the South Sweden Breast Cancer Trial (premenopausal arm), with or without adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy ± cyclophosphamide were examined with myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography/Doppler, 10-17 years after radiotherapy. Thirty-four patients had been irradiated for left-sided tumors, 33 for right-sided tumors, and 23 patients had not been treated with radiotherapy. The radiotherapy (conventional roentgen, electron beams, and high-energy photon beams combined, in each patient) included the chest wall and the regional lymph nodes, with a specified target dose of 38-48 Gy, administered in daily fractions of 1.9-2.4 Gy, 5 days/week. Results: No cardiac deaths were found among the original 275 patients randomized to adjuvant therapy. In the 90 patients examined, abnormal findings were recorded for ECG (14 patients), exercise test (5 patients), myocardial scintigraphy (6 patients), thickening of valve cusps (14 patients), and mild valvular regurgitation (20 patients). All patients had normal systolic function. Diastolic dysfunction was observed in 6 patients (abnormal relaxation in 4 patients and restrictive filling abnormality in 2 patients). Although no significant differences were found between the 3 study groups, there was a tendency to more abnormal findings after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Women younger than 50 years of age at the time of adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy in early breast cancer, had no serious cardiac sequelae 13 years (median) later, despite partly old-fashioned radiation techniques

  16. Preventive effects of CTLA4Ig-overexpressing adipose tissue--derived mesenchymal stromal cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Wha; Yun, Tae Won; Song, Ji Woo; Lee, Minjae; Yang, Jehoon; Choi, Kyu-Sil

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disorder. In this study, we first compared the therapeutic effects of syngeneic and xenogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells on a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model. Second, we investigated the synergistic preventive effects of CTLA4Ig and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) as a therapeutic substance. Arthritis was induced in all groups except for the normal, saline (N) group, using chicken type II collagen (CII). Animals were divided into C (control, saline), H (hASCs), M (mASCs) and N groups (experiment I) and C, H, CT (CTLA4Ig-overexpressing human ASC [CTLA4Ig-hASCs]) and N groups (experiment II), according to transplanted material. Approximately 2 × 10(6) ASCs or 150 μL of saline was intravenously administered on days 24, 27, 30 and 34, and all animals were killed on days 42 to 44 after CII immunization. Anti-mouse CII autoantibodies were significantly lower in the H, M and CT groups than in the C group. Cartilage damage severity score and C-telopeptide of type II collagen were significantly lower in the CT group than in the C group. The serum levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in the H, M and CT groups than in the C group. The serum levels of keratinocyte chemoattractant were significantly lower in the CT group than the C group. There were similar effects of ASCs on the decrease of anti-mouse CII autoantibody levels between syngeneic and xenogeneic transplantations, and CTLA4Ig-hASCs showed synergistic preventive effects compared with non-transduced hASCs. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The cost-effectiveness of biologics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana T Joensuu

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations provide information to aid the optimal utilization of limited healthcare resources. Costs of biologics for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA are remarkably high, which makes these agents an important target for economic evaluations. This systematic review aims to identify existing studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biologics for RA, assess their quality and report their results systematically.A literature search covering Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, ACP Journal club and Web of Science was performed in March 2013. The cost-utility analyses (CUAs of one or more available biological drugs for the treatment of RA in adults were included. Two independent investigators systematically collected information and assessed the quality of the studies. To enable the comparison of the results, all costs were converted to 2013 euro.Of the 4890 references found in the literature search, 41 CUAs were included in the current systematic review. While considering only direct costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi ranged from 39,000 to 1,273,000 €/quality adjusted life year (QALY gained in comparison to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs in cDMARD naïve patients. Among patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs, biologics were associated with ICERs ranging from 12,000 to 708,000 €/QALY. Rituximab was found to be the most cost-effective alternative compared to other biologics among the patients with an insufficient response to TNFi.When 35,000 €/QALY is considered as a threshold for the ICER, TNFis do not seem to be cost-effective among cDMARD naïve patients and patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs. With thresholds of 50,000 to 100,000 €/QALY biologics might be cost-effective among patients with an inadequate response to cDMARDs. Standardization of multiattribute utility instruments and a validated standard conversion method

  18. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN GRANULOCYTIC COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR IN TREATMENT OF GRANULOCYTOPENIA DEVELOPED DURING IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Alexeeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of patients with severe clinical course of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA is difficult problem. During the last years genetically engineered biological drugs are used equally with traditional immunosuppressive agents in treatment of severe forms of juvenile arthritis. High effectiveness of these drugs can be accompanied with development of unfavorable effects, for example, febrile neutropenia. The article presents results of a study of effectiveness and safety of recombinant human granulocytic colony-stimulating factor — filgrastim (Leucostim — in treatment of granulocytopenia developed during immunosuppressive therapy in 16 patients with JRA. It was shown that administration of filgrastim arrests leucopenia in 100% of patients and granulocytopenia — in 93% of patients in 24 hours after first injection. High effectiveness of drug was combined with good tolerability and safety.Key words: children, treatment, granulocytopenia, filgrastim, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(4:94-100

  19. Arthritis in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Arthritis in America Time to Take Action! Language: English ( ... by about 40% by being physically active. Problem Arthritis is common and a growing health threat. Arthritis ...

  20. What Is Juvenile Arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Juvenile Arthritis Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Juvenile Arthritis Juvenile arthritis is the term used to describe ...

  1. Juvenil idiopatisk arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis...

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of secukinumab for the treatment of active psoriatic arthritis: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeree, Ron; Chiva-Razavi, Sima; Gunda, Praveen; Graham, Christopher N; Miles, LaStella; Nikoglou, Efthalia; Jugl, Steffen M; Gladman, Dafna D

    2018-02-01

    The study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes interleukin (IL)-17A, vs currently licensed biologic treatments in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from a Canadian healthcare system perspective. A decision analytic semi-Markov model evaluated the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab 150 mg and 300 mg compared to subcutaneous biologics adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, and ustekinumab, and intravenous biologics infliximab and infliximab biosimilar in biologic-naive and biologic-experienced patients over a lifetime horizon. The response to treatments was evaluated after 12 weeks by PsA Response Criteria (PsARC) response rates. Non-responders or patients discontinuing initial-line of biologic treatment were allowed to switch to subsequent-line biologics. Model input parameters (Psoriasis Area Severity Index [PASI], Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ], withdrawal rates, costs, and resource use) were collected from clinical trials, published literature, and other Canadian sources. Benefits were expressed as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). An annual discount rate of 5% was applied to costs and benefits. The robustness of the study findings were evaluated via sensitivity analyses. Biologic-naive patients treated with secukinumab achieved the highest number of QALYs (8.54) at the lowest cost (CAD 925,387) over a lifetime horizon vs all comparators. Secukinumab dominated all treatments, except for infliximab and its biosimilar, which achieved minimally more QALYs (8.58). However, infliximab and its biosimilar incurred more costs than secukinumab (infliximab: CAD 1,015,437; infliximab biosimilar: CAD 941,004), resulting in higher cost-effectiveness estimates relative to secukinumab. In the biologic-experienced population, secukinumab dominated all treatments as it generated more QALYs (8.89) at lower costs (CAD 954,692). Deterministic sensitivity analyses

  3. Arthritis self-management education programs: a meta-analysis of the effect on pain and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsi, Asra; LaValley, Michael P; Wang, Philip S; Avorn, Jerry; Solomon, Daniel H

    2003-08-01

    Some reports suggest that education programs help arthritis patients better manage their symptoms and improve function. This review of the published literature was undertaken to assess the effect of such programs on pain and disability. Medline and HealthSTAR were searched for the period 1964-1998. The references of each article were then hand-searched for further publications. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if the intervention contained a self-management education component, a concurrent control group was included, and pain and/or disability were assessed as end points. Two authors reviewed each study. The methodologic attributes and efficacy of the interventions were assessed using a standardized abstraction tool, and the magnitude of the results was converted to a common measure, the effect size. Summary effect sizes were calculated separately for pain and disability. The search strategy yielded 35 studies, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. The mean age of study participants was 61 years, and 69% were female. On average, 19% of patients did not complete followup (range 0-53%). The summary effect size was 0.12 for pain (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.00, 0.24) and 0.07 for disability (95% CI 0.00, 0.15). Funnel plots indicated no significant evidence of bias toward the publication of studies with findings that showed reductions in pain or disability. The summary effect sizes suggest that arthritis self-management education programs result in small reductions in pain and disability.

  4. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  5. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  6. Endogenous and Exogenous Natural Adjuvants for Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhassani, Azam; Talebi, Somayeh; Anvar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objective & Background: Various adjuvants are usually co-injected with an antigen for stimulation of effective immune responses. Adjuvants are able to elicit innate immune responses at the injection site. Depending on the activated type of innate responses, adjuvants can modify the quality and quantity of adaptive immune responses. Their mechanisms of action in vaccine development include: a) enhancement of the total antibody titers; b) reduction of the antigen dose; c) induction of potent cell-mediated immunity; d) increase in the speed and duration of the protective response; e) stimulation of mucosal immunity; and f) cross-protection. Up to now, different exogenous adjuvants have been identified to boost immune responses including inorganic compounds, mineral oil, bacterial products, non-bacterial organics, detergents or Quil A, plant saponins, Freund's complete or incomplete adjuvants, and delivery systems. However, some immune responses can be generated in the absence of the exogenous adjuvants. Indeed, endogenous adjuvants released from the cells were known as the danger signals and immunogenic compounds. Several main endogenous adjuvants contain cytokines, chemokines, alarmins, dendritic cells (DCs), toll like receptor (TLR) ligands or agonists, and antibodies. In this review, the immune activities of the natural adjuvants especially endogenous adjuvants and their mechanisms of action are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. The inter-observer variability of breast density scoring between mammography technologists and breast radiologists and its effect on the rate of adjuvant ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Roei D; Savir, Avital; Gheorghiu, David; Weinstein, Yuliana; Abadi-Korek, Ifat; Shabshin, Nogah

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the inter-observer variability of mammographic breast density scoring (BDS) between technologists and radiologists and evaluates the effect of technologist patient referral on the load of adjuvant ultrasounds. In this IRB approved study, a retrospective analysis of 503 prospectively acquired, random mammograms was performed between January and March 2014. Each mammogram was evaluated for BDS independently and blindly by both the performing technologist and the interpreting radiologist. Statistical calculation of the Spearman correlation coefficient and weighted kappa were obtained to evaluate the inter-observer variability between technologists and radiologists and to examine whether it relates to the technologist's seniority or women's age. The effect on the load of adjuvant ultrasounds was evaluated. 10 mammography technologists and 7 breast radiologists participated in this study. BDS agreement levels between technologists and radiologists were in the fair to moderate range (kappa values: 0.3-0.45, Spearman coefficient values: 0.59-0.65). The technologists markedly over-graded the density compared to the radiologists in all the subsets evaluated. Comparison between low and high-density groups demonstrated a similar trend of over-grading by technologists, who graded 51% of the women as having dense breasts (scores 3-4) compared to 27% of the women graded as such by the radiologists. This trend of over grading breast density by technologists was unrelated to the women's age or to the technologists' seniority. Mammography technologists over-grade breast density. Technologists' referral to an adjuvant ultrasound leads to redundant ultrasound studies, unnecessary breast biopsies, costs and increased patient anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The psychological impact of arthritis: the effects of illness perception and coping.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zyrianova, Y

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Coping and illness perception are considered to be important contributors in the relationship between physical and psychological factors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationship of coping and illness perception on physical and psychological factors in RA using a structural model. METHODS: We assessed coping, illness perception, depression, anxiety, pain, arthritis-related disability and perceived social support in 68 adults with RA. RESULTS: Greater pain was detected in patients with increased scores on passive coping scale, greater severity of physical disability and increased depression and anxiety. Illness perception was found to be a mediator in the relationship between physical disability and passive coping on one hand and depression, anxiety and pain on the other. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesised structural model has proven to be a useful paradigm for understanding the associations between multiple factors in RA presentation: clinical, emotional, personal and cognitive.

  9. THE EFFECT OF GOLIMUMAB ON ARTERIAL STIFFNESS IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Knyazeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effect of golimumab (GLM on arterial stiffness in patients with different clinical and immunological subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Material and methods. Examinations were made in 48 patients with RA meeting the 1987 ACR/2010 EULAR classification criteria. The investigators visualized carotid arteries with determination of local vessel wall stiffness and studied regional arterial stiffness with assessment of contour pulse wave analysis before and 52 weeks after initiation of therapy.Results and discussion. Young and middle-aged RA patients without any concomitant cardiovascular diseases were found to have subclinical great artery involvement that was characterized by increases in intima-media thickness (IMT and stiffness index β of the common carotid artery (CCA; by rises in peripheral augmentation index (AIp, stiffness index (SI, and reflection index (RI, the intensity of a change in which was associated with high DAS28 and seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (antiCCP antibodies. GLM treatment in patients with RA was accompanied by a statistically significant decrease in DAS28 and a reduction in CCA IMT and local (carotid stiffness of the vascular bed. More significant correction of the investigated parameters was achieved in patients with the seronegative subtype of the disease; in this group of patients, CCA IMT decreased by 29% by the end of observation (p=0.01, CCA SI β reduced by an average of 28.7% (p=0.0001. At 52 weeks after GLM therapy initiation, contour pulse wave analysis indicated that this subgroup of patients was observed to have decreases in AIp, SI, and RI to the control level; in RA seropositive for RF and/or anti-CCP, they reduced by an average of 1.8 (p=0.0001, 1.2 (p=0.005 and 1.6 (p=0.001 times, respectively.Conclusion. Along with high anti-inflammatory activity, GLM therapy in patients with RA has a vasoprotective effect on the walls of large

  10. Effects of 6 months of abatacept treatment on aortic stiffness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sylvain Mathieu,1,2 Marion Couderc,1,2 Baptiste Glace,1,2 Bruno Pereira,2,3 Anne Tournadre,1,2 Jean-Jacques Dubost,1,2 Martin Soubrier1,21Department of Rheumatology, Gabriel-Montpied Hospital, 2Faculty of Medicine, University Clermont 1, 3Délégation de la Recherche Clinique, Gabriel-Montpied Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceBackground: Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the increased cardiac risk observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Effective control of inflammation and disease activity may be of benefit in reducing cardiovascular risk in RA patients.Objective: Our study was conducted in patients with active RA to investigate the effects of 24-week abatacept treatment on aortic stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV.Results: The study included 21 patients, of whom 17 were females, with a mean age of 65.2±13.7 years. Ten patients had positive rheumatoid factors, 16 positive anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and 19 presented an erosive form of RA. Sixteen patients were nonresponders to anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha treatments. After 6 months of abatacept treatment, there was a significant increase in PWV levels (9.8±2.9 versus 8.5±3.9 m/second; P=0.02. A nonsignificant increase in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed. There was also a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, which led to a nonsignificant decrease in atherogenic index. The improvement in disease activity was significant, and there was a decrease of systemic inflammatory parameters, but without reaching statistical significancy. Changes in PWV were significantly correlated with changes in Disease Activity Score on 28 joints based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.46; P=0.035 and in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=-0.38; P=0.046. No correlation was observed with changes in C-reactive protein and in other parameters of lipid profile or in steroid dose.Conclusion: The

  11. Immunological effects of adalimumab in rheumatoid arthritis: Results of a Russian national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Evgenyevich Karateev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduction in immunological parameters during therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA can yield new data on the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action and be of great practical importance since this allows judgment of the depth of impact on the immunological process and therefore may be regarded as one of the components of improvement and remission. Objective: to study the effect of the tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-а inhibitor adalimumab (ADA on a number of key immunological parameters in RA. Subjects and methods. The study included 100 patients (11 men and 89 women diagnosed with RA from 5 research centers. The patients were observed to have high RA activity: at baseline, DAS28 6.22+0.84 scores; C-reactive protein (CRP 37.1+34.7 mg/l. The mean number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used by a patient in the history was 2.1. During 24-week treatment, the patients took ADA in a subcutaneous dose of 40 mg every 2 weeks both alone and in combination with DMARDs. The time course of changes in the serum levels of CRP, IGM rheumatoid factor (RF and in the concentration of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 2 (anti-CCP2 antibodies was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA using the Axis-Shield Diagnostics commercial kits (United Kingdom. The levels of TNF-a, interleukin (IL 6, 12, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3 were measured in pg/ml by EIA using the Bender MedSystems commercial kits (USA according to the manufacturer's directions. Results. During ADA therapy, there was a rapid reduction in the level of CRP from 34.3 to 11.317.2 mg/l following 2 weeks (p<0.001, which thereafter remained low (11.9 mg/l, with some fluctuations, until week 24 of the study. There was a significant reduction in blood RF levels from 169.24 to 111.97 at 24 weeks (p<0.001. After 12 weeks of ADA treatment, there was virtually a two-fold decrease in IL-6 content from 8.87 to 4.87 pg/ml and later on to 4.03 pg/ml at week 24 (p>0,05. The mean levels of anti-CCP2

  12. The effect of tofacitinib on pneumococcal and influenza vaccine responses in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthrop, Kevin L; Silverfield, Joel; Racewicz, Arthur; Neal, Jeffrey; Lee, Eun Bong; Hrycaj, Pawel; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Soma, Koshika; Mebus, Charles; Wilkinson, Bethanie; Hodge, Jennifer; Fan, Haiyun; Wang, Tao; Bingham, Clifton O

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate tofacitinib's effect upon pneumococcal and influenza vaccine immunogenicity. We conducted two studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23) and the 2011-2012 trivalent influenza vaccine. In study A, tofacitinib-naive patients were randomised to tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily or placebo, stratified by background methotrexate and vaccinated 4 weeks later. In study B, patients already receiving tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (with or without methotrexate) were randomised into two groups: those continuing ('continuous') or interrupting ('withdrawn') tofacitinib for 2 weeks, and then vaccinated 1 week after randomisation. In both studies, titres were measured 35 days after vaccination. Primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving a satisfactory response to pneumococcus (twofold or more titre increase against six or more of 12 pneumococcal serotypes) and influenza (fourfold or more titre increase against two or more of three influenza antigens). In study A (N=200), fewer tofacitinib patients (45.1%) developed satisfactory pneumococcal responses versus placebo (68.4%), and pneumococcal titres were lower with tofacitinib (particularly with methotrexate). Similar proportions of tofacitinib-treated and placebo-treated patients developed satisfactory influenza responses (56.9% and 62.2%, respectively), although fewer tofacitinib patients (76.5%) developed protective influenza titres (≥1:40 in two or more of three antigens) versus placebo (91.8%). In study B (N=183), similar proportions of continuous and withdrawn patients had satisfactory responses to PPSV-23 (75.0% and 84.6%, respectively) and influenza (66.3% and 63.7%, respectively). Among patients starting tofacitinib, diminished responsiveness to PPSV-23, but not influenza, was observed, particularly in those taking concomitant methotrexate. Among existing tofacitinib users, temporary drug discontinuation had limited

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheumatoid arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, ... know. Arthritis Foundation. http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/rheumatoid-arthritis/articles/lung-disease-rheumatoid-arthritis.php. Accessed ...

  14. Obinutuzumab is Effective in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Rheumatoid Arthritis After Rituximab Failure: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lachowiez, Curtis; Deodhar, Atul; Kozin, Eliana; Spurgeon, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 68 Final Diagnosis: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Symptoms: Arthritis Medication: ? Clinical Procedure: ? Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia affecting older adults. As such, many of these patients suffer from co-existing disease states, and the provider must take these comorbidities into account when determining a treatment regimen. The widespread use of monoclonal an...

  15. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    collaboration with Concordia Pharmaceuticals Inc., FTS was developed into and oral drug, Salirasib®. The drug has been already tested in the clinic for the...animal model for RA − imply that FTS attenuates disease manifestation, as assessed by: clinical scores; MRI imaging; histopathology; and serum levels...inflammation/damage and the immune response, as follows: arthritis clinical scores; MRI scans, micro-CT; histopathology examination by a blinded pathologist

  16. Studying the Immunomodulatory Effects of Small Molecule Ras-Inhibitors in Animal Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    dependent cancers. Thus, in collaboration with Concordia Pharmaceuticals Inc., FTS was developed into and oral drug, Salirasib®. The drug has been already...AIA) rat model − a classical animal model for RA − imply that FTS attenuates disease manifestation, as assessed by: clinical scores; MRI imaging...be used to assess joint inflammation/damage and the immune response, as follows: arthritis clinical scores; MRI scans, micro-CT; histopathology

  17. Evaluation of clinical and cytogenetic parameters in rheumatoid arthritis patients for effective diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandirasekar, R; Kumar, B Lakshman; Jayakumar, R; Uthayakumar, V; Jacob, Raichel; Sasikala, K

    2015-01-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis is the commonest inflammatory joint disease, affecting nearly 1% of the adult population worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have become increasingly important. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the relationships between hematological, biochemical, immunological and cytogenetic parameters in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy normal controls. The study group comprised of 126 RA patients and equal number of healthy normal control subjects. The blood was collected and analyzed for biochemical, immunological, enzymatic and cytogenetic parameters. Results of the present study indicated that 20% of RA patient's hematological, 31% of biochemical and 70% immunological parameters had a significant difference from the controls and reference range. The RF and anti-CCP antibody levels were also positive in 70% of RA patients. A significant increase in minor chromosomal abnormalities was also observed in patients as compared to controls. The knowledge about autoimmune diseases is very low among the South Indian population. The present study has thus helped in understanding the RA disease in a better way based on a pattern of various clinical markers of the disease condition which might help in planning therapeutic intervention strategies and create awareness about the disease management among RA patients of the population studied. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Non-pharmacological treatment effects on psychosomatic and immune regulatory mechanisms in patients with rheumatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharikova I.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative analysis of the influence of the methods of the lateral ophthalmotilapia and low-intensity magnetic therapy on the Central and peripheral nervous system and the immune status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and methods: a comparative analysis of the impact of the 44 patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 18 to 65 years, of which 19 patients (43.2 percent — 1 group received low-frequency low-intensity magnetic therapy and 25 patients (56.8 per cent — group 2, the lateral ophthalmotilapia. Results. In group 1 significantly improved memory both short-term (from 69.2±9.0 to 81,7±12,7, p=0.003, and the reminiscence relating to medium-term characteristics of memory (57,3±22 to 79,0±14,5; p=0.004. In patients of the 2nd group in the course of treatment was observed more pronounced dynamics of improvement of parameters of higher nervous activity, namely short-term memory (79,4±17 to 88,2±12, p=0.003and reminiscences of memory (from 69.4±27 to 82.4±19,5, p=0,0016. Conclusion. Lateral ophthalmotilapia and low-frequency magnetotherapy for help expand the list of rehabilitation programs in rheumatoid arthritis, the disease having dual autoimmune and psychosomatic genesis.

  19. B Lymphocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Effects of Anti-TNF-α Agents on B Lymphocytes: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Ozlem; Diaz, Alain; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Frasca, Daniela

    2018-05-22

    The aim of this article was to review published research related to B lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease, the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors on B lymphocytes, the risk for infection, and responses to vaccines. A PubMed search was conducted to review recent advances related to B lymphocytes and the effects of anti-TNF-α on B lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. B lymphocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we summarize the major mechanisms by which B lymphocytes play a pathologic role in the development and propagation of the disease, as B lymphocytes are recruited to the synovial fluid, where they contribute to local inflammation through the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, micro-RNAs) and present antigens to T cells. We discuss the effects of TNF-α, either direct or indirect, on B lymphocytes expressing receptors for this cytokine. We also show that total B-cell numbers have been reported to be reduced in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus healthy controls, but are significantly increased up to normal levels in patients undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy. As for B-cell subsets, controversial results have been reported, with studies showing decreased frequencies of total memory B cells (and memory subsets) and others showing no differences in patients versus healthy controls. Studies investigating the effects of anti-TNF-α therapy have also given controversial results, with therapy found to increase (or not) the frequency of memory B lymphocytes, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus healthy controls. Those highly variable results could have been due to differences in patient characteristics and limited numbers of subjects. Finally, we summarize the effects of blocking TNF-α with anti-TNF-α agents on possible infections that patients with rheumatoid arthritis may contract, as well as on

  20. Comparison of Efficacy and Side Effects of Oral Baclofen Versus Tizanidine Therapy with Adjuvant Botulinum Toxin Type A in Children With Cerebral Palsy and Spastic Equinus Foot Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Alper I; Aksoy, Sefika N; Demiryürek, Abdullah T

    2016-02-01

    This retrospective study aimed to compare the therapeutic response, including side effects, for oral baclofen versus oral tizanidine therapy with adjuvant botulinum toxin type A in a group of 64 pediatric patients diagnosed with static encephalopathy and spastic equinus foot deformity. Following botulinum toxin A treatment, clinical improvement led to the gradual reduction of baclofen or tizanidine dosing to one-third of the former dose. Gross Motor Functional Measure and Caregiver Health Questionnaire scores were markedly elevated post-botulinum toxin A treatment, with scores for the tizanidine (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 74.45 ± 3.72; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 72.43 ± 4.29) group significantly higher than for the baclofen group (Gross Motor Functional Measure: 68.23 ± 2.66; Caregiver Health Questionnaire: 67.53 ± 2.67, P botulinum toxin A and a low dose of tizanidine in treating children with cerebral palsy appears to be more effective and has fewer side effects versus baclofen with adjuvant botulinum toxin A. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Inactivated Eyedrop Influenza Vaccine Adjuvanted with Poly(I:C Is Safe and Effective for Inducing Protective Systemic and Mucosal Immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Do Kim

    Full Text Available The eye route has been evaluated as an efficient vaccine delivery routes. However, in order to induce sufficient antibody production with inactivated vaccine, testing of the safety and efficacy of the use of inactivated antigen plus adjuvant is needed. Here, we assessed various types of adjuvants in eyedrop as an anti-influenza serum and mucosal Ab production-enhancer in BALB/c mice. Among the adjuvants, poly (I:C showed as much enhancement in antigen-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody production as cholera toxin (CT after vaccinations with trivalent hemagglutinin-subunits or split H1N1 vaccine antigen in mice. Vaccination with split H1N1 eyedrop vaccine antigen plus poly(I:C showed a similar or slightly lower efficacy in inducing antibody production than intranasal vaccination; the eyedrop vaccine-induced immunity was enough to protect mice from lethal homologous influenza A/California/04/09 (H1N1 virus challenge. Additionally, ocular inoculation with poly(I:C plus vaccine antigen generated no signs of inflammation within 24 hours: no increases in the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines nor in the infiltration of mononuclear cells to administration sites. In contrast, CT administration induced increased expression of IL-6 cytokine mRNA and mononuclear cell infiltration in the conjunctiva within 24 hours of vaccination. Moreover, inoculated visualizing materials by eyedrop did not contaminate the surface of the olfactory bulb in mice; meanwhile, intranasally administered materials defiled the surface of the brain. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the use of eyedrop inactivated influenza vaccine plus poly(I:C is a safe and effective mucosal vaccine strategy for inducing protective anti-influenza immunity.

  2. Adjuvant trastuzumab with chemotherapy is effective in women with small, node-negative, HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Heather L; Mahoney, Kathleen M; Morris, Patrick G; Patil, Sujata; Jacks, Lindsay M; Howard, Jane; Norton, Larry; Hudis, Clifford A

    2011-12-15

    Several large, randomized trials established the benefits of adjuvant trastuzumab with chemotherapy. However, the benefit for women with small, node-negative HER2-positive (HER2+) disease is unknown, as these patients were largely excluded from these trials. Therefore, a retrospective, single-institution, sequential cohort study of women with small, node-negative, HER2+ breast cancer who did or did not receive adjuvant trastuzumab was conducted. Women with ≤ 2 cm, node-negative, HER2+ (immunohistochemistry 3+ or fluorescence in situ hybridization ≥ 2) breast cancer were identified through an institutional database. A "no-trastuzumab" cohort of 106 trastuzumab-untreated women diagnosed between January 1, 2002 and May 14, 2004 and a "trastuzumab" cohort of 155 trastuzumab-treated women diagnosed between May 16, 2005 and December 31, 2008 were described. Survival and recurrence outcomes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier methods. The cohorts were similar in age, median tumor size, histology, hormone receptor status, hormone therapy, and locoregional therapy. Chemotherapy was administered in 66% and 100% of the "no trastuzumab" and "trastuzumab" cohorts, respectively. The median recurrence-free and survival follow-up was: 6.5 years (0.7-8.5) and 6.8 years (0.7-8.5), respectively, for the "no trastuzumab" cohort and 3.0 years (0.5-5.2) and 3.0 years (0.6-5.2), respectively, for the "trastuzumab" cohort. The 3-year locoregional invasive recurrence-free, distant recurrence-free, invasive disease-free, and overall survival were 92% versus 98% (P = .0137), 95% versus 100% (P = .0072), 82% versus 97% (P < .0001), and 97% versus 99% (P = .18) for the "no trastuzumab" and "trastuzumab" cohorts, respectively. Women with small, node-negative, HER2+ primary breast cancers likely derive significant benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab with chemotherapy. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  3. Effect of bupivacaine and adjuvant drugs for regional anesthesia on nerve tissue oximetry and nerve blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesmann T

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Wiesmann,1 Stefan Müller,1,2 Hans-Helge Müller,3 Hinnerk Wulf,1 Thorsten Steinfeldt1,4 1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Marburg, Philipps University, Marburg, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Giessen, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, 3Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Philipps University, Marburg, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Diakoniekrankenhaus Schwäbisch Hall, Schwäbisch Hall, Germany Background: Nerve blood flow has a critical role in acute and chronic pathologies in peripheral nerves. Influences of local anesthetics and adjuvants on tissue perfusion and oxygenation are deemed as relevant factors for nerve damage after peripheral regional anesthesia. The link between low tissue perfusion due to local anesthetics and resulting tissue oxygenation is unclear.Methods: Combined tissue spectrophotometry and laser-Doppler flowmetry were used to assess nerve blood flow in 40 surgically exposed median nerves in pigs, as well as nerve tissue oximetry for 60 min. After baseline measurements, test solutions saline (S, bupivacaine (Bupi, bupivacaine with epinephrine (BupiEpi, and bupivacaine with clonidine (BupiCloni were applied topically.Results: Bupivacaine resulted in significant decrease in nerve blood flow, as well as tissue oximetry values, compared with saline control. Addition of epinephrine resulted in a rapid, but nonsignificant, reduction of nerve blood flow and extensive lowering of tissue oximetry levels. The use of clonidine resulted in a reduction of nerve blood flow, comparable to bupivacaine alone (relative blood flow at T60 min compared with baseline, S: 0.86 (0.67–1.18, median (25th–75th percentile; Bupi: 0.33 (0.25–0.60; BupiCloni: 0.43 (0.38–0.63; and BupiEpi: 0.41(0.30–0.54. The use of adjuvants did not result in any relevant impairment of tissue oximetry

  4. Overview of Vaccine Adjuvants: Introduction, History, and Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ruchi R; Hassett, Kimberly J; Brito, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    Adjuvants are included in sub-unit or recombinant vaccines to enhance the potency of poorly immunogenic antigens. Adjuvant discovery is as complex as it is a multidiscplinary intersection of formulation science, immunology, toxicology, and biology. Adjuvants such as alum, which have been in use for the past 90 years, have illustrated that adjuvant research is a methodical process. As science advances, new analytical tools are developed which allows us to delve deeper into the various mechanisms that generates a potent immune response. Additionally, these new techniques help the field learn about our existing vaccines and what makes them safe, and effective, allowing us to leverage that in the next generation of vaccines. Our goal in this chapter is to define the concept, need, and mechanism of adjuvants in the vaccine field while describing its history, present use, and future prospects. More details on individual adjuvants and their formulation, development, mechanism, and use will be covered in depth in the next chapters.

  5. Folate, homocysteine, and cobalamin status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate, and the effect of low dose folic acid supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, Nete; Ellingsen, Torkell; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of methotrexate (MTX) treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on folate metabolism, and to determine the effect of low dose folic acid on toxicity, efficacy, and folate status. METHODS: A 52-week prospective study of 81 patients with RA treated with MTX and self...

  6. Effect of (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 2-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoate (ITE), a newly developed anti-inflammatory drug, on type II collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tao; Cao, Ying-Lin; Xu, Bei-Bei; Zhou, Xiao-Mian

    2004-06-01

    The effect of (3,5,6-trimethylpyrazin-2-yl)methyl 2-[4-(2-methylpropyl)phenyl]propanoate (ITE) on type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis in mice was studied. Mice were immunized twice with CII, ITE being given orally once a day for 40 d after the 1st immunization. Clinical assessment showed that ITE had no effect on the day of onset of arthritis but did lowered the incidence rate of arthritis and the arthritis score. And ITE had a marked suppressive effect on the mouse hind paw edema induced by CII. ITE suppressed the delayed-type mouse ear skin reaction to CII but had no effect on the level of serum anti-CII antibodies. These results suggest that ITE inhibits the development of CII-induced arthritis in mice by suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII.

  7. Effect of the adjuvant milrinone therapy on cardiac function, myocardial remodeling and RAAS system activity in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of the adjuvant milrinone therapy on cardiac function, myocardial remodeling and RAAS system activity in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: A total of 110 patients with chronic heart failure who were treated in the hospital between January 2015 and January 2017 were divided into control group (n=55 and observation group (n=55 by random number table method. Control group received conventional therapy for chronic heart failure, and the observation group received milrinone on the basis of conventional therapy. The differences in ultrasound cardiac function and myocardial remodeling index levels as well as serum RAAS index contents were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, the differences in ultrasound cardiac function and myocardial remodeling index levels as well as serum RAAS index contents were not statistically significant between the two groups. After treatment, CO and SV levels of both groups of patients were significantly higher than those before treatment while LADd, LVEDd, LVPWT, IVST and LVMI levels as well as serum PRA, AngⅡ and ALD contents were significantly lower than those before treatment, and CO and SV levels of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group while LADd, LVEDd, LVPWT, IVST and LVMI levels as well as serum PRA, AngⅡ and ALD contents were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusion: Adjuvant milrinone therapy can effectively enhance the cardiac function, inhibit the myocardial remodeling and decrease the RAAS system activity in patients with chronic heart failure.

  8. Pain Treatment in Arthritis-Related Pain: Beyond NSAIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, Mart A F J; Pergolizzi Jr., Joseph V.; Mellinghoff, Hans-Ulrich; Merchante, Ignacio Morón; Nalamachu, Srinivas; O'Brien, Joanne; Perrot, Serge; Raffa, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Managing pain from chronic conditions, such as, but not limited to, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, requires the clinician to balance the need for effective analgesia against safety risks associated with analgesic agents. Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pain is incompletely

  9. Adjuvant effects of recombinant giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) IL-18 on the canine distemper disease vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yue; Niu, Lili; Deng, Jiabo; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Jianqiu; Zhang, Yizheng; Wang, Jianxi; Chen, Jiao; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus known to cause morbidity and mortality in a broad range of animals. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially captive ones, are susceptible to natural infection with CDV. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a powerful adjuvant molecule that can enhance the development of antigen-specific immunity and vaccine efficacy. In this study, a giant panda IL-18 gene eukaryotic expression plasmid (pcAmIL-18) was constructed. Female BALB/c mice were muscularly inoculated with the plasmids pcAmIL-18, pcDNA3.1 and PBS, respectively. They were subsequently injected with an attenuated CDV vaccine for dogs, and the induced humoral and cellular responses were evaluated. The results showed that pcAmIL-18 remarkably improved the level of specific antibody, IFN-γ and IL-2 in mice sera, the T lymphocyte proliferation index and the percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. These data indicated that pcAmIL-18 is a potential adjuvant that promotes specific immunity.

  10. A novel non-toxic combined CTA1-DD and ISCOMS adjuvant vector for effective mucosal immunization against influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Dubravka Grdic; Helgeby, Anja; Schön, Karin; Nygren, Caroline; El-Bakkouri, Karim; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier; Lövgren, Karin Bengtsson; Nyström, Ida; Lycke, Nils Y

    2011-05-23

    Here we demonstrate that by using non-toxic fractions of saponin combined with CTA1-DD we can achieve a safe and above all highly efficacious mucosal adjuvant vector. We optimized the construction, tested the requirements for function and evaluated proof-of-concept in an influenza A virus challenge model. We demonstrated that the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS vector provided 100% protection against mortality and greatly reduced morbidity in the mouse model. The immunogenicity of the vector was superior to other vaccine formulations using the ISCOM or CTA1-DD adjuvants alone. The versatility of the vector was best exemplified by the many options to insert, incorporate or admix vaccine antigens with the vector. Furthermore, the CTA1-3M2e-DD/ISCOMS could be kept 1 year at 4°C or as a freeze-dried powder without affecting immunogenicity or adjuvanticity of the vector. Strong serum IgG and mucosal IgA responses were elicited and CD4 T cell responses were greatly enhanced after intranasal administration of the combined vector. Together these findings hold promise for the combined vector as a mucosal vaccine against influenza virus infections including pandemic influenza. The CTA1-DD/ISCOMS technology represents a breakthrough in mucosal vaccine vector design which successfully combines immunomodulation and targeting in a safe and stable particulate formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DESCRIPTION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CILOSTAZOL AND ASPIRIN AS ADJUVANT OF DIABETIC FOOT WAGNER GRADE II AND III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandji Winata Nurikhwan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Inflammation in patients with diabetic foot will activate platelets and cause aggregation and lead to stasis of blood flow. This inflammation is caused by infection of the diabetic foot. Management of diabetic foot infections in patients is the use of antibiotics. However, the presence of vascularization disorders causing antibiotic delivery to the site of infection to be disrupted so that the process of eradication of infection would be inhibited. One of inflamation markers on patient with diabetic foot is increasing of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESRs.The general objective of this study was to determine the efficacy difference between cilostazol and aspirin as an adjuvant to accelerate tissue healing of diabetic foot care Wagner Grade II – III based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This study is a descriptive study using the double-blind and randomized pretest-posttest design. A total of 14 samples is obtained by consecutive sampling. The results showed that four patients given cilostazol showed a 35% reduction in ESR and ten patients were given aspirin showed a 35% reduction in ESR. It can be concluded giving cilostazol and aspirin as adjuvant diabetic foot Wagner II and III showed a decrease in ESR.

  12. Effect of botanical immunomodulators on human CYP3A4 inhibition: implications for concurrent use as adjuvants in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dada; Gautam, Manish; Gairola, Sunil; Jadhav, Suresh; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-03-01

    Many botanical immunomodulators are used as adjuvants along with cancer chemotherapy. However, information on the impact of concurrent administration of such botanicals on pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy agents is inadequate. This study investigates inhibitory activities of 3 popular botanical adjuvants: ASPARAGUS RACEMOSU: (root aqueous extract; ARE), WITHANIA SOMNIFER: (root aqueous extract; WSE), and TINOSPORA CORDIFOLI: (stem aqueous extract, TCE) on human CYP3A4 isoenzyme, responsible for metabolism of several chemotherapy agents. . Testosterone 6-β hydroxylation was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography as an indicator of CYP3A4 catalytic activities. Ketoconazole (positive control) and extracts were studied at their in vivo-relevant concentrations. TCE showed mild inhibition while no significant inhibitory activities were observed in WSE and ARE. TCE was further fractionated to obtain polar and nonpolar fractions. The nonpolar fraction showed significant CYP3A4 inhibition with IC50 13.06 ± 1.38 µg/mL. Major constituents of nonpolar fraction were identified using HPLC-DAD-MS profiling as berberine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine, which showed IC50 values as 6.25 ± 0.30, 15.18 ± 1.59, and 15.53 ± 1.89 µg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that constituents of TCE extract especially protoberberine alkaloids have the potential to interact with cancer chemotherapy agents that are metabolized by CYP3A4 in vivo.

  13. Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Nansen, Anneline; Usher, Pernille A.

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed-typ...

  14. Adjuvant and salvage therapy following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: effect of combined transient androgen deprivation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eulau, Stephen M.; Tate, David J.; Cox, Richard S.; Bagshaw, Malcolm A.; Hancock, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant and salvage irradiation have been shown to improve local control after radical prostatectomy for prostatic cancer in patients with high risk pathologic features, rising PSA, or evidence of local failure. Transient androgen deprivation combined with primary irradiation has resulted in improved local control and biochemical disease free survival in patients with locally advanced, unresected, prostate cancer. This retrospective study evaluates whether transient androgen blockade improves the outcome from post-prostatectomy irradiation given as either adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods: From August, 1985 to December, 1995, 105 patients were treated with radiotherapy to the prostatic fossa following radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate. No patient had clinically or radiographically evident distant disease. Median follow-up was 4.6 years from the date of surgery and 3.2 years from completion of radiotherapy. Findings at prostatectomy included capsular penetration in 38 patients, seminal vesicle involvement in 42 patients, lymph node involvement in 15 patients, and positive surgical margins in 70 patients. Treatment was administered as adjuvant therapy for high risk pathologic features in 39 patients, for persistent or rising PSA in 52 patients, or for clinically evident local recurrence in 14 patients. Of the 105 patients, 32 received combined androgen deprivation/radiotherapy and 73 received radiotherapy alone. Both groups received 60-70 Gy in 2 Gy daily fractions to the prostatic fossa. Selected patients with poor prognostic features received pelvic irradiation to a median dose of 50 Gy. Androgen deprivation typically consisted of Lupron and Flutamide for 4 to 6 months before, during, and in selected cases, after irradiation. No patients received maintenance androgen deprivation or underwent orchiectomy. Tumor stage, lymph node status, Gleason sum, and indications for treatment did not differ significantly between the two groups

  15. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life Rehabilitation Management for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Rehabilitation of Older Adult Patients with Arthritis Complementary ...

  16. The beneficial effect of total glucosides of paeony on psoriatic arthritis links to circulating Tregs and Th1 cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi Na; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Ding Xian; Xu, Li Qin; Fang, Hong; Wu, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Total glycosides of peony (TGP) is a natural immuno-modulatory drug extracted from traditional Chinese herb peony. It has been approved by State Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, data of TGP effect on psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is still scarce. In this study, 19 patients with PsA received 12-week treatment of TGP, and clinical efficacy in joint manifestations was evaluated by DAS28 at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Peripheral percentages of Tregs, Th1, Th2 and NK cells were analyzed, and serum Th1-type cytokines (IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α), Th2-type cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) as well as pro-inflammatory factors (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) were concomitantly examined. Six patients (32%) exhibited ≥25% decrease of DAS28 (responders). Interestingly, all responders displayed a continuous decrease in Treg and Th1 numbers during TGP treatment, concomitant with significant decreases in Th1-type cytokine levels. Serum IL-6 also showed a significant decline in responders. Non-responders lacked these sequential alterations. Thus, TGP merits further consideration as a promising therapeutic option for PsA. The result indicated that recovery of Tregs and Th1 may serve as prognostic markers to assess responsiveness to TGP treatment in PsA. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effects of RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-Y. Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses antigout, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperuricemic properties based on the traditional conceptions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PRP15 in rat gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU crystals. In the present study, we found that treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg in rats with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals significantly attenuated the knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and the elevated expressions of nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65 in synovial tissues were significantly inhibited, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA result showed that MSU-induced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in synovial fluid were reduced by treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg. We conclude that RPP15 may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and its activity of antigout may be partially related to inhibiting TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and NF-κB p65 expression in the synovial tissues.

  18. The adjuvant effect of metformin and N-acetylcysteine to clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Ahmed M; Elsawah, Heba; Abdelhafez, Aly; Bakry, Ahmed; Mostafa, Walaa Ai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the adjuvant effect of metformin and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to clomiphene citrate (CC) in induction of ovulation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients. 120 women with PCOS were randomly divided into three equal groups: group I received CC only, group II received CC plus NAC and group III received CC plus metformin. There was a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding average number of ovulatory follicles >18 mm (2.25 versus 1.75 and 1.89, respectively), but no significant difference between the three study groups regarding number of intermediate follicles 14-18 mm (4, 10 and 4, respectively). There was no significant difference between the three study groups regarding occurrence and laterality of ovulation, pregnancy rate per cycle but a significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding pregnancy rate per patient (20% versus 10% and 10%, respectively, p value 0.05). There was a highly statistically significant difference between group II and other two groups regarding peak endometrial thickness (7.3 ± 1.1 versus 5.4 ± 0.6 and 5.3 ± 0.6, respectively). NAC as an adjuvant to CC for induction of ovulation improves ovulation and pregnancy rates in PCOS patients with beneficial impacts on endometrial thickness.

  19. The effect of adjuvants on the immune response induced by a DBL4e-ID4 VAR2CSA based Plasmodium falciparum vaccine against placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, V V; Salanti, A; Joergensen, L M

    2012-01-01

    720, Alhydrogel(®) and CAF01. Antibodies induced against DBL4¿-ID4 in combination with these adjuvants inhibited parasite binding to CSA from 82% to 99%. Although, different epitope recognition patterns were obtained for the different formulations, all adjuvant combinations induced strong Th1 and Th2......¿-ID4 to induce binding-inhibitory antibodies when formulated with adjuvants approved for human use. We have characterized the immune response of DBL4¿-ID4 in combination with Freund's complete and incomplete adjuvant and with three adjuvants currently being used in clinical trials: Montanide(®) ISA...... type responses, resulting in IgG with similar binding strength, with to the DBL4¿-ID4 antigen. These results demonstrate that the DBL4¿-ID4 antigen is highly immunogenic and that binding inhibitory antibodies are induced when formulated with any of the tested adjuvants....

  20. The roles of MR imaging in monitoring therapeutic effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis: preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Mi Jin; Suh, Jin Suck; Lee, Soo Kon; Lee, Ji Soo; Cho, Jae Hyun

    1996-01-01

    It is difficult to determine objectively therapeutic response in rheumatoid arthritis. This study was carried out in order to assess the feasibility of MR imaging to determine disease status following antirheumatoid medication. Eight patients with rheumatoid arthritis underwent MR studies before treatment and approximately one year after the beginning of antirheumatoid medication. Coronal images were obtained, using a T1- and T2-weighted spin echo(n=8), contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image(n=8) and dynamic contrast-enhanced image(n=4). Bone erosions, synovial hypertrophy and bone marrow enhancement in pre-and post-medication studies were compared. On dynamic study, enhancement ratio(E) of pannus was measured(E=SNR at 30sec/ SNR at precontrast). Changes of MRI findings and enhancement ratio between pre- and post-medication were compared with disease status as assessed by clinical index. In three patients, improvement of bone marrow edema and synovial hypertrophy was noted, and in addition, there was no evidence of newly developed bone erosion. In two of these patients, complete remission was noted on the basis of the ARA criteria. In another three patients, despite improvement of bone marrow edema and synovial hypertrophy and improved clinical parameters including morning stiffness and ESR, discrete and newly developed bone erosions were noted. In one patient with a poor response to antirheumatoid medication, aggravation of bone marrow edema and synovial hypertrophy was seen, but no definite change in bone erosions was noted. In the remaining one patient, no remarkable changes were seen in bone marrow edema, synovial hypertrophy or bone erosion. Clinically this patient showed no morning stiffness or elevated ESR. The enhancement ratio of pannus decreased in all 4 cases, especially where there were complete remission. Synovial extent, bone marrow enhancement, bone erosions and enhancement ratio of pannus may be good parameters for monitoring disease activity in the

  1. The roles of MR imaging in monitoring therapeutic effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis: preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi Jin; Suh, Jin Suck; Lee, Soo Kon; Lee, Ji Soo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Hyun [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    It is difficult to determine objectively therapeutic response in rheumatoid arthritis. This study was carried out in order to assess the feasibility of MR imaging to determine disease status following antirheumatoid medication. Eight patients with rheumatoid arthritis underwent MR studies before treatment and approximately one year after the beginning of antirheumatoid medication. Coronal images were obtained, using a T1- and T2-weighted spin echo(n=8), contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image(n=8) and dynamic contrast-enhanced image(n=4). Bone erosions, synovial hypertrophy and bone marrow enhancement in pre-and post-medication studies were compared. On dynamic study, enhancement ratio(E) of pannus was measured(E=SNR at 30sec/ SNR at precontrast). Changes of MRI findings and enhancement ratio between pre- and post-medication were compared with disease status as assessed by clinical index. In three patients, improvement of bone marrow edema and synovial hypertrophy was noted, and in addition, there was no evidence of newly developed bone erosion. In two of these patients, complete remission was noted on the basis of the ARA criteria. In another three patients, despite improvement of bone marrow edema and synovial hypertrophy and improved clinical parameters including morning stiffness and ESR, discrete and newly developed bone erosions were noted. In one patient with a poor response to antirheumatoid medication, aggravation of bone marrow edema and synovial hypertrophy was seen, but no definite change in bone erosions was noted. In the remaining one patient, no remarkable changes were seen in bone marrow edema, synovial hypertrophy or bone erosion. Clinically this patient showed no morning stiffness or elevated ESR. The enhancement ratio of pannus decreased in all 4 cases, especially where there were complete remission. Synovial extent, bone marrow enhancement, bone erosions and enhancement ratio of pannus may be good parameters for monitoring disease activity in the

  2. Betahistine attenuates murine collagen-induced arthritis by suppressing both inflammatory and Th17 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kuo-Tung; Chao, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lim, Yun-Ping; Chen, Yi-Ming; Li, Yi-Rong; Yang, Deng-Ho; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of betahistine dihydrochloride (betahistine) in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. CIA was induced in DBA/1 male mice by primary immunization with 100μl of emulsion containing 2mg/ml chicken type II collagen (CII) mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in an 1:1 ratio, and booster immunization with 100μl of emulsion containing 2mg/ml CII mixed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) in an 1:1 ratio. Immunization was performed subcutaneously at the base of the tail. After being boosted on day 21, betahistine (1 and 5mg/kg) was orally administered daily for 2weeks. The severity of CIA was determined by arthritic scores and assessment of histopathological joint destruction. Expression of cytokines in the paw and anti-CII antibodies in the serum was evaluated by ELISA. The proliferative response against CII in the lymph node cells was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation assay. The frequencies of different CII specific CD4(+) T cell subsets in the lymph node were determined by flow-cytometric analysis. Betahistine treatment attenuated the severity of arthritis and reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-23 and IL-17A, in the paw tissues of CIA mice. Lymph node cells from betahistine-treated mice showed a decrease in proliferation, as well as a lower frequency of Th17 cells. In vitro, betahistine suppressed CD4(+) T cell differentiation into Th17 cells. These results indicate that betahistine is effective in suppressing both inflammatory and Th17 responses in mouse CIA and that it may have therapeutic value as an adjunct treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis on the acute phase reactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Pllana, Ejup; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of acute phase reactants in the 60 treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the applied treatment: group I (n = 30) was treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine, and group II (n = 30) with methotrexate. The results of our study shows that there is a statistically significant reduction in the value of acute phase reactants and clinical parameters after treatment in both investigated groups of patients, and also a significant statistical difference between the first and second group of treated patients.

  4. Blood cell gene expression profiling in rheumatoid arthritis. Discriminative genes and effect of rheumatoid factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovin, Lone Frier; Rieneck, Klaus; Workman, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    To study the pathogenic importance of the rheumatoid factor (RF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to identify genes differentially expressed in patients and healthy individuals, total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from eight RF-positive and six RF-negative RA...... patients, and seven healthy controls. Gene expression of about 10,000 genes were examined using oligonucleotide-based DNA chip microarrays. The analyses showed no significant differences in PBMC expression patterns from RF-positive and RF-negative patients. However, comparisons of gene expression patterns...

  5. Adjuvant effects and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant 'sarsaparilla' (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    1998-10-01

    The adjuvant effect and antiserum potentiation of a compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid were explored in the present investigation. This compound, isolated and purified from the Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus R. Br, possessed antisnake venom activity. Rabbits immunized with Vipera russellii venom in the presence and absence of the compound along with Freund's complete adjuvant, produced a precipitating band in immunogel diffusion and immunogel electrophoresis. The venom neutralizing capacity of this antiserum showed positive adjuvant effects as evident by the higher neutralization capacity (lethal and hemorrhage) when compared with the antiserum raised with venom alone. The pure compound potentiated the lethal action neutralization of venom by commercial equine polyvalent snake venom antiserum in experimental models. These observations raised the possibility of the use of chemical antagonists (from herbs) against snake bite, which may provide a better protection in presence of antiserum, especially in the rural parts of India.

  6. The Effects of Written Emotional Disclosure and Coping Skills Training in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Mark A.; Keefe, Francis J.; Mosley-Williams, Angelia; Rice, John R.; McKee, Daphne; Waters, Sandra J.; Partridge, R. Ty; Carty, Jennifer N.; Coltri, Ainoa M.; Kalaj, Anita; Cohen, Jay L.; Neely, Lynn C.; Pahssen, Jennifer K.; Connelly, Mark A.; Bouaziz, Yelena B.; Riordan, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Two psychological interventions for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cognitive-behavioral coping skills training (CST) and written emotional disclosure (WED). These approaches have developed independently, and their combination may be more effective than either one alone. Furthermore, most studies of each intervention have methodological limitations, and each needs further testing. Method We randomized 264 adults with RA in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of two writing conditions (WED vs. control writing) followed by one of two training conditions (CST vs. arthritis education control training). Patient-reported pain and functioning, blinded evaluations of disease activity and walking speed, and an inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein) were assessed at baseline and 1-, 4-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results Completion of each intervention was high (> 90% of patients), and attrition was low (10.2% at 12-month follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling of treatment effects over the follow-up period, and ANCOVAs at each assessment point, found no interactions between writing and training; however, both interventions had main effects on outcomes, with small effect sizes. Compared to control training, CST decreased pain and psychological symptoms through 12 months. The effects of WED were mixed: compared with control writing, WED reduced disease activity and physical disability at 1 month only, but WED had more pain than control writing on one of two measures at 4 and 12 months. Conclusions The combination of WED and CST does not improve outcomes, perhaps because each intervention has unique effects at different time points. CST improves health status in RA and is recommended for patients, whereas WED has limited benefits and needs strengthening or better targeting to appropriate patients. PMID:24865870

  7. The negative effect of decreasing the level of activity in coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis: An increase in psychological distress and disease impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Näring, G.W.B.; Pad Bosch, P. van 't; Putte, L.B.A. van de

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of coping with pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on subsequent changes in psychological distress and disease impact. A sample of 109 randomly selected RA patients was asked to participate in a longitudinal study. Patients were measured at

  8. Social Support as a Moderator of Functional Disability's Effect on Depressive Feelings in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis : A Four-Year Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benka, Jozef; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Calfova, Anna; Macejova, Zelmira; Lazurova, Ivica; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Objective: To examine associations of depressive feelings with disease-related variables and explore the moderating effect of social support on depressive feelings in individuals with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) prospectively over 4 years. Method: Data were collected annually over 4 years. The

  9. Short term effectiveness and experiences of a peer guided web-based self-management intervention for young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Ammerlaan (Judy); H. van Os-Medendorp (Harmieke); de Boer-Nijhof, N. (Nienke); Scholtus, L. (Lieske); A.A. Kruize (Aike); P.A. van Pelt (Philomine); B.J. Prakken (Berent); J.W.J. Bijlsma (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A web-based self-management intervention guided by peer-trainers was developed to support young adults' self-management in coping with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). To investigate its effectiveness, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. In addition, the

  10. Effectiveness of a group-based intervention to change medication beliefs and improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Ende, C.H. van den; Lankveld, W.G. van; Broeder, A.A. den; Hoogen, F.H. van den; Mosselaar, B. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Bemt, B.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of a group-based intervention on the balance between necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and on medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Non-adherent RA patients using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi hydroalcoholic extract on neutrophil migration in zymosan-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Elaine Cruz; Correa, Luana Barbosa; Pádua, Tatiana de Almeida; Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Mazzei, José Luiz; Heringer, Alan Patrick; Bizarro, Carlos Alberto; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Henriques, Maria G

    2015-12-04

    Schinus terebinthifolius is a species of plant from the Anacardiaceae family, which can be found in different regions of Brazil. Schinus is popularly known as aroeirinha, aroeira-vermelha, or Brazilian pepper. In folk medicine, S. terebinthifolius is used for several disorders, including inflammatory conditions, skin wounds, mucosal membrane ulcers, respiratory problems, gout, tumors, diarrhea and arthritis. According to chemical analyses, gallic acid, methyl gallate and pentagalloylglucose are the main components of hydroalcoholic extracts from S. terebinthifolius leaves. In the present study, we demonstrated the ability of a hydroalcoholic extract to inhibit cell migration in arthritis and investigated the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The anti-inflammatory effect of S. terebinthifolius hydroalcoholic leaf extract (ST-70) was investigated in a zymosan-induced experimental model of inflammation. Male Swiss and C57Bl/6 mice received zymosan (100 µg/cavity) via intra-thoracic (i.t.) or intra-articular (i.a.) injection after oral pre-treatment with ST-70. The direct action of ST-70 on neutrophils was evaluated via chemotaxis. ST-70 exhibited a dose-dependent effect in the pleurisy model. The median effective dose (ED50) was 100mg/kg, which inhibited 70% of neutrophil accumulation when compared with the control group. ST-70 reduced joint diameter and neutrophil influx for synovial tissues at 6h and 24h in zymosan-induced arthritis. Additionally, ST-70 inhibited synovial interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1/KC) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α production at 6h and CXCL1/KC and IL-1β production at 24h. The direct activity of ST-70 on neutrophils was observed via the impairment of CXCL1/KC-induced chemotaxis in neutrophils. Oral administration of ST-70 did not induce gastric damage. Daily administration for twenty days did not kill any animals. In contrast, similar administrations of diclofenac induced gastric damage and killed

  12. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  13. Effect of adjuvant systemic treatment on cosmetic outcome and late normal-tissue reactions after breast conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Overgaard, Jens; Overgaard, Marie

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether adjuvant treatment with CMF or tamoxifen predisposes to an unfavorable cosmetic outcome or increased breast morbidity after radiotherapy in breast conservation. Data from 266 patients who entered a randomized breast conservation trial (DBCG-82TM protocol) was analyzed......-risk patients: premenopausal patients (n = 67) received eight cycles of CMF intravenously (600/40/600 mg per m(2)) every fourth week; postmenopausal patients (n = 27) received 30 mg of tamoxifen daily for one year. Clinical assessments included cosmetic outcome, breast fibrosis, skin telangiectasia....... In premenopausal patients, systemic treatment with CMF independently predicted a fair/poor cosmetic outcome, RR = 2.2 (95% CI 1.2-4.2), as well as increased skin telangiectasia, RR = 3.3 (1.4-8.2). There was no impact of tamoxifen treatment on cosmetic outcome in postmenopausal patients (p = 0.32). However...

  14. Psoriatic arthritis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ferrer, A; Laiz-Alonso, A

    2014-12-01

    Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis and clinical aspects of the disease justify the present review. Studies have identified common inflammatory pathways related to the innate immune response, such as the IL-12/IL-23 axis, along with numerous genes that affect susceptibility to both diseases and influence phenotypic development. Interest has grown in biomarkers that can be used for early diagnosis or prognosis or to predict joint destruction and the response to treatment. Recent reports describe important differences between the effects of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologics on the process of new bone formation. Other issues that have been discussed include the need for reliable screening methods, particularly for early detection of oligoarticular arthritis, and for protocols to guide referral to specialists, especially in newly created multidisciplinary practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of incorporating cholesterol into DDA:TDB liposomal adjuvants on bilayer properties, biodistribution, and immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Randip; Henriksen-Lacey, Malou; Wilkhu, Jitinder; Devitt, Andrew; Christensen, Dennis; Perrie, Yvonne

    2014-01-06

    Cholesterol is an abundant component of mammalian cell membranes and has been extensively studied as an artificial membrane stabilizer in a wide range of phospholipid liposome systems. In this study, the aim was to investigate the role of cholesterol in cationic liposomal adjuvant system based on dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) which has been shown as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines against a wide range of diseases. Packaging of cholesterol within DDA:TDB liposomes was investigated using differential scanning calorimetery and surface pressure-area isotherms of lipid monolayers; incorporation of cholesterol into liposomal membranes promoted the formation of a liquid-condensed monolayer and removed the main phase transition temperature of the system, resulting in an increased bilayer fluidity and reduced antigen retention in vitro. In vivo biodistribution studies found that this increase in membrane fluidity did not alter deposition of liposomes and antigen at the site of injection. In terms of immune responses, early (12 days after immunization) IgG responses were reduced by inclusion of cholesterol; thereafter there were no differences in antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b) responses promoted by DDA:TDB liposomes with and without cholesterol. However, significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were induced by DDA:TDB liposomes, and liposome uptake by macrophages in vitro was also shown to be higher for DDA:TDB liposomes compared to their cholesterol-containing counterparts, suggesting that small changes in bilayer mechanics can impact both cellular interactions and immune responses.

  16. Iside effects of salicylates (ACK, corticosteroids and imunomodulators on the gastroduodenal mucosa - medication used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine pathological -ulcero-erosive changes in the gastroduodenal mucosa (erosions, ulcers, ulcers, ulcer complications, subepithelial hemorrhage, etc. resulting from the adverse effects of salicylates /ACK/ corticosteroid, imunoodulatora which was prescribed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The test was performed on 50 patients diagnosed with RA who were on the two-year continuous therapy. When respondents were done gastroscopy and pathological macroscopic changes resulting from the gastroduodenal mucosa as a result of adverse effects of administered drugs verified. After two years of preparations ACK controlled therapy, corticosteroids, imunomodula- sector on mucosa gastroduodenal erosions were found in 81.5% of patients, gastric ulcer in 33%, duodenal ulcer with 18.5% of patients and bleeding in 44.4%.

  17. Effects of rheumatoid arthritis on household chores and leisure-time activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Mauri; Tuominen, Sini; Pirilä, Laura; Tuominen, Risto

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine household chores and leisure-time activities most affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to evaluate the perceived impact on performing these activities. Also, our aim was to estimate the required and received assistance for household chores. In an interview study via telephone, 124 patients with moderate-to-severe RA, visiting a tertiary-level dermatological clinic, listed spontaneously without predefined list the household chores and leisure-time activities that they considered were particularly affected by the RA. Ability to perform household chores and leisure-time activities were asked. The need for outside assistance with household chores and help received were also determined. Rheumatoid arthritis affected wide range of everyday household activities, with tasks related to cleaning of the house mentioned most often. Eleven of the categories out of 16 were similar to those included in the HAQ index. The majority of the patients (84.6 %) reported disadvantage in performing household chores because of RA. More than half of the patients (55.7 %) received assistance with household chores, women significantly more often than men (69.0 vs. 26.3 %, p Leisure-time activities listed by respondents as affected by RA were mostly related to sport. The majority of patients (77.2 %) had either reduced or completely given up at least one leisure-time activity. When estimating the total burden of the disease, the impact on both household chores and leisure-time activities should be taken into account.

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Happening to the Joints? Rheumatoid Arthritis: Gaining Control – Working with your Rheumatologist Rheumatoid Arthritis: Additional Conditions ... for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of Opioids in Arthritis Management How to Give ...

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression ...

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Play Rheumatoid Arthritis: Symptoms and Diagnosis Rheumatoid Arthritis: What is Happening to the Joints? Rheumatoid Arthritis: Gaining Control – Working with your Rheumatologist Rheumatoid Arthritis: Additional Conditions ...

  1. Exercise therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a Cochrane Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; van Brussel, M.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; van der Net, J.; Kuis, W.; Helders, P. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise therapy is considered an important component of the treatment of arthritis. The efficacy of exercise therapy has been reviewed in adults with rheumatoid arthritis but not in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). To assess the effects of exercise therapy on functional ability,

  2. Intra-articular vs. systemic administration of etanercept in antigen-induced arthritis in the temporomandibular point. Part I: histological effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyengaard Jens R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporomandibular joint (TMJ arthritis in children causes alterations in craniomandibular growth. This abnormal growth may be prevented by an early anti-inflammatory intervention. We have previously shown that intra-articular (IA corticosteroid reduces TMJ inflammation, but causes concurrent mandibular growth inhibition in young rabbits. Blockage of TNF-α has already proven its efficacy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis not responding to standard therapy. In this paper we evaluate the effect of IA etanercept compared to subcutaneous etanercept in antigen-induced TMJ-arthritis in rabbits on histological changes using histomorphometry and stereology. This article presents the data and discussion on the anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and IA etanercept. In Part II the data on the effects of systemic and IA etanercept on facial growth are presented. Methods Forty-two rabbits (10 weeks old pre-sensitized with ovalbumin and locally induced inflammation in the temporomandibular joints were divided into three groups: a placebo group receiving IA saline injections in both joints one week after arthritis induction (n = 14, an IA etanercept group receiving 0.1 mg/kg etanercept per joint one week after arthritis induction (n = 14 and a systemic etanercept group receiving 0.8 mg/kg etanercept weekly throughout the 12-week study (n = 14. Arthritis was maintained by giving four inductions three weeks apart. Additional IA saline or etanercept injections were also given one week after the re-inductions. Histomorphometric and unbiased stereological methods (optical fractionator were used to assess and estimate the inflammation in the joints. Results The histomorphometry showed synovial proliferation in all groups. The plasma cell count obtained by the optical fractionator was significantly reduced when treating with systemic etanercept but not with IA etanercept. Semi-quantitative assessments of synovial proliferation and

  3. The adjuvant potential of synthetic alkylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Gil, Danay; del Campo, Judith; Bracho, Gustavo; Valdés, Yolanda; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Alkylglycerols (AGs) have shown immune stimulant and adjuvant activity in many studies, but natural sources are not so accessible and their extraction from them is very complicated. Therefore, a group of chemists at IFAL have synthesized AG analogs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adjuvant potential of different synthetic AGs. A mix of ovoalbumin (Ova) and AGs increase anti-Ova IgG antibodies production in sera of immunized mice. The predominant subclass was IgG1 although higher levels of IgG2a were observed as the carbon chain length of AGs increased. AGs also induced the production of IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) in the U937 human histiocyte and J774 mouse macrophage cell lines, respectively. These results indicate that synthetic AGs are effective adjuvants for the standardized antigen, Ova.

  4. Anti-arthritic effects of magnolol in human interleukin 1β-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and in a rat arthritis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Horng Wang

    Full Text Available Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS play an important role in the pathologic processes of destructive arthritis by producing a number of catabolic cytokines and metalloproteinases (MMPs. The expression of these mediators is controlled at the transcriptional level. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of magnolol (5,5'-Diallyl-biphenyl-2,2'-diol, the major bioactive component of the bark of Magnolia officinalis, by examining its inhibitory effects on inflammatory mediator secretion and the NF-κB and AP-1 activation pathways and to investigate its therapeutic effects on the development of arthritis in a rat model. The in vitro anti-arthritic activity of magnolol was tested on interleukin (IL-1β-stimulated FLS by measuring levels of IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E(2, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs by ELISA and RT-PCR. Further studies on how magnolol inhibits IL-1β-stimulated cytokine expression were performed using Western blots, reporter gene assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and confocal microscope analysis. The in vivo anti-arthritic effects of magnolol were evaluated in a Mycobacterium butyricum-induced arthritis model in rats. Magnolol markedly inhibited IL-1β (10 ng/mL-induced cytokine expression in a concentration-dependent manner (2.5-25 µg/mL. In clarifying the mechanisms involved, magnolol was found to inhibit the IL-1β-induced activation of the IKK/IκB/NF-κB and MAPKs pathways by suppressing the nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of both transcription factors. In the animal model, magnolol (100 mg/kg significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced serum cytokine levels. Our results demonstrate that magnolol inhibits the development of arthritis, suggesting that it might provide a new therapeutic approach to inflammatory arthritis diseases.

  5. Effect of Electromyographic Biofeedback Training on Pain, Quadriceps Muscle Strength, and Functional Ability in Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed Ahmed Mahmoud; Aly, Sobhy M; El-Shamy, Shamekh M

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback training on pain, quadriceps strength, and functional ability in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). This is a randomized controlled study; 36 children (11 boys and 25 girls) with polyarticular JRA, with ages ranging from 8 to 13 years, were selected and assigned randomly, using computer-generated random numbers, into 2 groups. The control group (n = 18) received the conventional physical therapy program, whereas the study group (n = 18) received the same program as the control group in addition to EMG biofeedback-guided isometric exercises for 3 days a week for 12 weeks. Pain, peak torque of quadriceps strength, and functional ability were evaluated before, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 12 weeks of the treatment program. By 6 weeks, significant differences were observed in the study group (P biofeedback may be a useful intervention modality to reduce pain, improve quadriceps strength, and functional performance in JRA.

  6. A GC-MS Based Metabonomics Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Interventional Effects of the Simiaowan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Guo, Xuejun; Xie, Jiabin; Hou, Zhiguo; Li, Yubo

    2015-12-01

    Simiaowan (SMW) is a famous Chinese prescription widely used in clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study is to determine novel biomarkers to increase the current understanding of RA mechanisms, as well as the underlying therapeutic mechanism of SMW, in RA-model rats. Plasma extracts from control, RA model, and SMW-treated rats were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An orthogonal partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was created to detect metabolites that were expressed in significantly different amounts between the RA model and the control rats and investigate the therapeutic effect of SMW. Metabonomics may prove to be a valuable tool for determining the efficacy of complex traditional prescriptions.

  7. A GC-MS Based Metabonomics Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Interventional Effects of the Simiaowan in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuming Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simiaowan (SMW is a famous Chinese prescription widely used in clinical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The aim of the present study is to determine novel biomarkers to increase the current understanding of RA mechanisms, as well as the underlying therapeutic mechanism of SMW, in RA-model rats. Plasma extracts from control, RA model, and SMW-treated rats were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. An orthogonal partial least-square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA model was created to detect metabolites that were expressed in significantly different amounts between the RA model and the control rats and investigate the therapeutic effect of SMW. Metabonomics may prove to be a valuable tool for determining the efficacy of complex traditional prescriptions.

  8. Randomised controlled trial examining the effect of exercise in people with rheumatoid arthritis taking anti-TNFα therapy medication.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reid, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the medical management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over the past decade with the introduction of biologic therapies, including anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα