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Sample records for adjuvant alternating electric

  1. Alternative solutions for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstle, K.

    1976-01-01

    Ten illustrations - mainly comparitive ones - dealing with the possibilities of an economical energy conversion, in particular electricity generation, in the FRG are explained and commented upon. (UA) [de

  2. Efficient alternatives for electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Barnes, R.W.

    1987-11-01

    This analysis of industrial electric motors describes the current motor stock, its energy use and operating characteristics, and innovations that could change current use patterns. It provides calculations characterizing the economic attractiveness of several existing and potential options. One attractive option given particular attention is the adjustable-speed drive which can replace throttles or valves for many pumping operations. A major conclusion is that, throughout industry, options that are both energy-saving and economically attractive appear to penetrate markets more slowly than would be socially optimal. The final section examines characteristics of industry that may contribute to slow market penetration. 29 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Erythrocytes in alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morariu, V.V.; Chifu, A.; Simplaceanu, T.; Frangopol, P.T.

    1983-02-01

    The elastic and inelastic deformation of erythrocytes induced by alternating fields and the suggestion that moderate field intensities (1.2 kV/cm) when continuously applied can cause lysis by a different mechanism compared to the action of short intense field pulses is presented. The different experimental conditions can be used to approach various properties of the membrane such as those related to the dielectric polarization of the membrane or to the interfacial polarization, leading to the inelastic deformation of the cells. (authors)

  4. Chitosan and Sodium Alginate Combinations Are Alternative, Efficient, and Safe Natural Adjuvant Systems for Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelAllah, Nourhan H.; Boseila, Abeer A.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infections represent major public health problem and are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Current alum-adjuvanted HBV vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. However, the vaccine has some limitations including poor response in some vaccinee and being a frost-sensitive suspension. The goal of our study was to use an alternative natural adjuvant system strongly immunogenic allowing for a reduction in dose and cost. We tested HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) adjuvanted with chitosan (Ch) and sodium alginate (S), both natural adjuvants, either alone or combined with alum in mouse model. Mice groups were immunized subcutaneously with HBsAg adjuvanted with Ch or S, or triple adjuvant formula with alum (Al), Ch, and S, or double formulations with AlCh or AlS. These were compared to control groups immunized with current vaccine formula or unadjuvanted HBsAg. We evaluated the rate of seroconversion, serum HBsAg antibody, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels. The results showed that the solution formula with Ch or S exhibited comparable immunogenic responses to Al-adjuvanted suspension. The AlChS gave significantly higher immunogenic response compared to controls. Collectively, our results indicated that Ch and S are effective HBV adjuvants offering natural alternatives, potentially reducing dose. PMID:27493674

  5. Chitosan and Sodium Alginate Combinations Are Alternative, Efficient, and Safe Natural Adjuvant Systems for Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan H. AbdelAllah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B viral (HBV infections represent major public health problem and are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Current alum-adjuvanted HBV vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. However, the vaccine has some limitations including poor response in some vaccinee and being a frost-sensitive suspension. The goal of our study was to use an alternative natural adjuvant system strongly immunogenic allowing for a reduction in dose and cost. We tested HBV surface antigen (HBsAg adjuvanted with chitosan (Ch and sodium alginate (S, both natural adjuvants, either alone or combined with alum in mouse model. Mice groups were immunized subcutaneously with HBsAg adjuvanted with Ch or S, or triple adjuvant formula with alum (Al, Ch, and S, or double formulations with AlCh or AlS. These were compared to control groups immunized with current vaccine formula or unadjuvanted HBsAg. We evaluated the rate of seroconversion, serum HBsAg antibody, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels. The results showed that the solution formula with Ch or S exhibited comparable immunogenic responses to Al-adjuvanted suspension. The AlChS gave significantly higher immunogenic response compared to controls. Collectively, our results indicated that Ch and S are effective HBV adjuvants offering natural alternatives, potentially reducing dose.

  6. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant differentially activates the three complement pathways with major involvement of the alternative pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güven, Esin; Duus, Karen; Laursen, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Al(OH)3 is the most common adjuvant in human vaccines, but its mode of action remains poorly understood. Complement involvement in the adjuvant properties of Al(OH)3 has been suggested in several reports together with a depot effect. It is here confirmed that Al(OH)3 treatment of serum depletes c...

  7. Case Study: Transportation Initiative Incorporates Alternative Fuels and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center in North Chicago, Illinois, reduced greenhouse gases by incorporating electric vehicles and alternative fuels into fleet operations. Lovell FHCC increased its electric fleet by 200 in one year.

  8. Analgesia adjuvante e alternativa Analgesia adyuvante y alternativa Adjuvant and alternative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2006-10-01

    álgicos actúan a través de la vía espinal de control de la compuerta de Melzack y Wall y/o a través de la transducción de la señal en los sistemas de neurotransmisión y neuromodulación central relacionados con la analgesia, relajamiento y el humor: peptidérgico, monaminérgico, gabaérgico, colinérgico y canabinoide. La Analgesia Adyuvante Complementaria es habitualmente utilizada en los tratamientos fisiátricos, ortopédicos, reumatológicos, obstétricos y con acupuntura. La Analgesia Alternativa Complementaria puede potenciar los métodos analgésicos convencionales, la exposición al del sol del alba, luz y colores bajo la luz artificial, el tiempo (T - anestésicos generales más potentes por la noche, opioides por la mañana y anestésicos locales a la tarde, dieta, buen humor y la risa, espiritualidad, religión, meditación, musicoterapia, hipnosis y efecto placebo. CONCLUSIONES: Si el dolor agudo es un mecanismo de defensa, el dolor crónico es un estado patológico desagradable relacionado con la depresión endógena y con una baja calidad de vida. Es importante establecer relaciones interdisciplinarias entre la Medicina adyuvante y alternativa en las terapias analgésicas y antiinflamatorias clásicas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although acute and chronic pain are usually controlled with pharmacological interventions, 14 complementary methods of adjuvant and alternative analgesia (AAA may reduce the abusive prescription of analgesics and the side effects that eventually compromise the patient's physiological status. CONTENTS: The action of every analgesic mechanism is through the spinal gate of Melzack and Wall and/or through signal transduction in the central neurotransmission and neuromodulation systems related to analgesia, relaxation, and mood: peptidergic, monoaminergic, gabaergic, cholinergic, and cannabinoid. Complementary adjuvant analgesia is normally used in physiatric, orthopedic, rheumatologic, and obstetric treatments and acupuncture. It can

  9. Mutagenic Potential of Alternating Current Electric Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    1997-01-01

    .... EMF can be subdivided into either electric fields (E-field) or magnetic fields (B-field). Our research used a reverse mutagenesis bacteriophage T4D model to quantitatively study the effects of E-fields on a molecular genetic level...

  10. Electricity: Today's Technologies, Tomorrow's Alternatives. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA.

    This book traces the relatively new role of electricity in our energy history, discusses old and new ways of producing it (and related environmental issues), and closes with an agenda of technology-related issues that await decisions. Topics are presented in nine chapters. Chapters focus on (1) energy use; (2) energy demand; (3) energy supply; (4)…

  11. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [School of Biosystem and Biomedical Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun, E-mail: shong21@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr [Department of Bio-convergence Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-703 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Eui Kwan [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  12. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields

  13. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation therapy: An adjuvant pain controlling modality in TMD patients - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shanavas

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The observed data suggest that TENS therapy can be used as an adjuvant modality in the management of pain associated with TMDs. This study justifies the use of TENS therapy in the management of TMD.

  14. Electricity storage. The problematic of alternative energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    After having evoked the increasing share of renewable energies in electricity production in Europe and the associated investments, the author outlines the main problems associated with renewable energy: their intermittency, and the fact that they are submitted to quick and important variations which must be managed by the grid. He also evokes economic and financial problems (high taxes in Germany and in France, mandatory purchase mechanisms leading to absurd situations and having consequences on the electricity market). The author discusses the issue of energy storage: storage is expensive and its cost will increase that of the produced energy. However, storage can be interesting if its cost is covered by the income generated by the provided services. Some solutions already exist: pumped-storage power station (PSPS), remotely controlled electric-storage water heaters. The author presents and comments the services which storage can provide: smoothing, spare energy supply, and supply quality. He outlines the importance of a technical-economic analysis for the choice of the best storage solution, but also the need to change the business model

  15. Do online prognostication tools represent a valid alternative to genomic profiling in the context of adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hage Chehade, Hiba; Wazir, Umar; Mokbel, Kinan; Kasem, Abdul; Mokbel, Kefah

    2018-01-01

    Decision-making regarding adjuvant chemotherapy has been based on clinical and pathological features. However, such decisions are seldom consistent. Web-based predictive models have been developed using data from cancer registries to help determine the need for adjuvant therapy. More recently, with the recognition of the heterogenous nature of breast cancer, genomic assays have been developed to aid in the therapeutic decision-making. We have carried out a comprehensive literature review regarding online prognostication tools and genomic assays to assess whether online tools could be used as valid alternatives to genomic profiling in decision-making regarding adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer. Breast cancer has been recently recognized as a heterogenous disease based on variations in molecular characteristics. Online tools are valuable in guiding adjuvant treatment, especially in resource constrained countries. However, in the era of personalized therapy, molecular profiling appears to be superior in predicting clinical outcome and guiding therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activities of electric utilities in alternative energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.B. da; Reis Neto, J.L. dos

    1990-01-01

    Since oil crisis, in 1973 and 1979, some electrical utilities in Brazil begun investments in alternative projects for example production of electrolytic hydrogen, peats with energetics goals, steam from electric boiler, and methanol from wood gasification. With oil substitution goals, these projects have not success actually, after attenuated the crisis. However, the results acquired is experience for the development of the brazilian energy patterns. (author)

  17. Alternative electrical transmission systems and their environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    A general description is provided of electrical transmission systems as an aid in determining their environmental impacts. Alternating current, direct current, overhead systems, underground systems, and water crossings are treated. The cost, performance, reliability, safety, and environmental impact of these systems are compared.

  18. Alternatives to Mineral Oil Adjuvants in Vaccines Against Aeromonas salmonicida subs. salmonicida in Rainbow Trout Offer Reductions in Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Christensen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse reactions seen from the use of mineral oil adjuvants in salmonid fish, the effects of two alternative adjuvants were assessed, focusing on the induction of adverse effects as well as protection. Using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss...... changes, as well as protection against experimental infection with A. salmonicida. While adverse effects were not eliminated, reductions in microscopic and macroscopic adverse effects, in particular, were seen for both the nucleotide- and liposome-based vaccine formulations. Furthermore, the induced...

  19. Locational electricity capacity markets: Alternatives to restore the missing signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Amparo D.; Fraser, Hamish

    2007-03-15

    In the absence of a properly functioning electricity demand side, well-designed capacity payment mechanisms hold more promise for signaling the value of capacity than non-CPM alternatives. Locational CPMs that rely on market-based principles, such as forward capacity auctions, are superior to cost-based payments directed to specific must-run generators, as CPMs at least provide a meaningful price signal about the economic value of resources to potential investors. (author)

  20. Alternative current source based Schottky contact with additional electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, R. K.; Aslanova, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    Additional electric field (AEF) in the Schottky contacts (SC) that covered the peripheral contact region wide and the complete contact region narrow (as TMBS diode) SC. Under the influence of AEF is a redistribution of free electrons produced at certain temperatures of the semiconductor, and is formed the space charge region (SCR). As a result of the superposition of the electric fields SCR and AEF occurs the resulting electric field (REF). The REF is distributed along a straight line perpendicular to the contact surface, so that its intensity (and potential) has a minimum value on the metal surface and the maximum value at a great distance from the metal surface deep into the SCR. Under the influence of AEF as a sided force the metal becomes negative pole and semiconductor - positive pole, therefore, SC with AEF becomes an alternative current source (ACS). The Ni-nSi SC with different diameters (20-1000 μm) under the influence of the AEF as sided force have become ACS with electromotive force in the order of 0.1-1.0 mV, which are generated the electric current in the range of 10-9-10-7 A, flowing through the external resistance 1000 Ohm.

  1. Electrical stimulation using kilohertz-frequency alternating current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alex R

    2009-02-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation using kilohertz-frequency alternating current (AC) became popular in the 1950s with the introduction of "interferential currents," promoted as a means of producing depth-efficient stimulation of nerve and muscle. Later, "Russian current" was adopted as a means of muscle strengthening. This article reviews some clinically relevant, laboratory-based studies that offer an insight into the mechanism of action of kilohertz-frequency AC. It provides some answers to the question: "What are the optimal stimulus parameters for eliciting forceful, yet comfortable, electrically induced muscle contractions?" It is concluded that the stimulation parameters commonly used clinically (Russian and interferential currents) are suboptimal for achieving their stated goals and that greater benefit would be obtained using short-duration (2-4 millisecond), rectangular bursts of kilohertz-frequency AC with a frequency chosen to maximize the desired outcome.

  2. Evaluation of electrical power alternatives for the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    This study evaluates the concept of implementation of large-scale energy conservation to reduce end-use demand for electrical energy as an alternative to the need for continued construction of new power plants to meet projected energy requirements for the Pacific Northwest. In particular, the numerical accuracy, economic feasibility, and institutional impact of a conservation-oriented scenario developed by the Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., is assessed, relative to the energy forecast prepared by the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Commission. The results of this study are presented in four detailed sections following an introductory and summary section: Reconstruction and Numerical Evaluation of Alternative Scenario; Economic Analysis; Institutional Impact; and Impact of New National Energy Policy.

  3. NERGY GENERATING TILE, AS ALTERNATIVE LOW-POWER SOURCE OF ELECTRIC ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gnatov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of existing developments such as the alternative power sources transforming different types of energy into electric energy is carried out. The technical solution for the installation of energy-generating plates, which converts the kinetic energy from pressure into electric and accumulates it for further use is suggested. The principle of action of energy-generating tiles as an alternative and decentralized source of electric energy is discussed in detail and described.

  4. Block-Module Electric Machines of Alternating Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabora, I.

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with electric machines having active zone based on uniform elements. It presents data on disk-type asynchronous electric motors with short-circuited rotors, where active elements are made by integrated technique that forms modular elements. Photolithography, spraying, stamping of windings, pressing of core and combined methods are utilized as the basic technological approaches of production. The constructions and features of operation for new electric machine - compatible electric machines-transformers are considered. Induction motors are intended for operation in hermetic plants with extreme conditions surrounding gas, steam-to-gas and liquid environment at a high temperature (to several hundred of degrees).

  5. Alternatives to electrical cogeneration: The direct application of steam engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Although small to medium sized industrial facilities are aware of electrical cogeneration, often they are too small for it to be economically justifiable. The direct application of steam turbine power to equipment formerly powered by electric motors, can allow them to use steam capacity to reduce electrical demand and consumption, bypassing cogeneration. Cogeneration converts the heat energy of steam into circular mechanical motion and then converts the circular mechanical motion into electricity. Each conversion entails a loss of energy due to friction and other conversion losses. A substantial amount of the generated electricity is then converted back into circular motion with electric motors, again incurring energy losses. Directly applying the mechanical motion of turbines eliminates both the motion-to-electricity (generator) and the electricity-to-motion (motor) conversion losses. Excess steam capacity during the summer is not unusual for facilities that use steam to provide winter heating. Similarly, most of these facilities experience a large electrical demand peak during the cooling season due to the electricity needed to operate centrifugal chillers. Steam capacity via a turbine to power the chillers can allow the boilers to operate at a higher loading while reducing electrical consumption and demand precisely those periods when demand reduction is most needed. In facilities where the steam generating capacity is sufficient, air compressors provide an appropriate year-round application for turbine power. This paper is the result of an on-going project by the Energy Division, State of North Carolina, Department of Economic and Community Development, in conjunction with the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The objective of this project is to educate the operating engineers and managers of small to medium sized manufacturing facilities on the technical application and economic justification of steam turbine power

  6. Distributed Electrical Power Generation: Summary of Alternative Available Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    .... While distributed generation (DG) technologies offer many of the benefits of alternative, efficient energy sources, few DG systems can currently be commercially purchased "off the shelf", and complicated codes and standards deter potential users...

  7. Displacement efficiency of alternative energy and trans-provincial imported electricity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2017-02-17

    China has invested heavily on alternative energy, but the effectiveness of such energy sources at substituting the dominant coal-fired generation remains unknown. Here we analyse the displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity by alternative energy, primarily hydropower, and by trans-provincial imported electricity in China between 1995 and 2014 using two-way fixed-effects panel regression models. Nationwide, each unit of alternative energy displaces nearly one-quarter of a unit of fossil-fuel-generated electricity, while each unit of imported electricity (regardless of the generation source) displaces ∼0.3 unit of fossil-fuel electricity generated locally. Results from the six regional grids indicate that significant displacement of fossil-fuel-generated electricity occurs once the share of alternative energy in the electricity supply mix exceeds ∼10%, which is accompanied by 10-50% rebound in the consumption of fossil-fuel-generated electricity. These findings indicate the need for a policy that integrates carbon taxation, alternative energy and energy efficiency to facilitate China's transition towards a low-carbon economy.

  8. The research on spatial load forecasting model and method of electricity energy alternative based on cloud theory in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Honglian; Li, Juan; Hu, Zhiyun; Li, Qingbo; Liu, Zifa; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The research on electrical energy alternative mainly focus on alternative energy potential, expanding strategy and benefit analysis due to lack of historical data. This paper presents the total spatial load forecasting model in distribution network based on the proposed electrical energy alternative development coefficient which is generated by electricity energy objective issued by governments. To deal with fuzzy and uncertain in load forecasting for electric boiler and heater, the cloud theory and the regularity in the process of electrical energy alternative popularization are used. The component of electrical alternative spatial load forecasting is presented in sequence. The proposed method is verified in a typical case.

  9. Electric market models, competitive model and alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedillo, O.

    2007-01-01

    Almost ten years after the liberalization of the Spanish electric system, its market design has remained basically unchanged. Therefore, it is reasonable to consider whether the current model continues to be adequate or whether it should be changed. However, although the current model is far from the absolute optimum, it is suited to the current state of the Spanish system. Only some improvements, such as the reform of the capacity guarantee payment can be undertaken immediately. It will only be possible to undertake other improvements as distribution companies cover all of their electricity needs in forward contracts acquired through a competitive process. (Author)

  10. Research Capabilities Directed to all Electric Engineering Teachers, from an Alternative Energy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ordóñez Navea

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to contemplate research capabilities directed to all electric engineering teachers from an alternative energy model intro the explanation of a semiconductor in the National Training Program in Electricity. Some authors, such as. Vidal (2016, Atencio (2014 y Camilo (2012 point out to technological applications with semiconductor electrical devices. In this way; a diagnostic phase is presented, held on this field research as a descriptive type about: a how to identify the necessities of alternative energies, and b The research competences in the alternatives energies of researcher from a solar cell model, to boost and innovate the academic praxis and technologic ingenuity. Themselves was applied a survey for a group of 15 teachers in the National Program of Formation in electricity to diagnose the deficiencies in the research area of alternatives energies. The process of data analysis was carried out through descriptive statistic. Later the conclusions are presented the need to generate strategies for stimulate and propose exploration of alternatives energies to the development of research competences directed to the teachers of electrical engineering for develop the research competences in the enforcement of the teachers exercise for the electric engineering, from an alternative energy model and boost the technologic research in the renewal energies field.

  11. The actual role of alternative energies in electricity supply in Brazil in the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado Junior, Fernando Amaral Almeida; Simoes, Nivaldo Silveira

    1993-01-01

    Starting in the seventies, deep changes have occurred in the electric sector, and alternative energy sources appeared as an option to hydraulic power. Presently, the effective contribution of alternative sources such as solar energy, cogeneration and energy conservation will not be predominant in the short run. Nevertheless, the study of these technologies is fundamental for the utilities' strategies. 4 refs., 5 figs

  12. High Power Alternator Test Unit (ATU) Electrical System Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur; Hervol, David

    2007-01-01

    The Alternator Test Unit (ATU) in the Lunar Power System Facility (LPSF) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH was used to simulate the operating conditions and evaluate the performance of the ATU and it s interaction with various LPSF components in accordance with the JIMO AC Power System Requirements. The testing was carried out at the breadboard development level. Results of these tests will be used for the development and validation of analytical models for performance and lifetime prediction.

  13. Characterization of Alternative Hybrid Solar Thermal Electric Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Hybrid power towers offer a number of advantages over solar-only power tower systems for early commercial deployment of the technology. These advantages include enhanced modularity, reduced financial and technical risks, and lower energy costs. With the changes in the domestic and world markets for bulk power, hybrid power towers are likely to have the best opportunities for power projects. This paper discusses issues that are likely to be important to the deployment of hybrid power towers in the near future. A large number of alternative designs are possible, and it is likely that there is no single approach that can be considered best or optimal for all project opportunities. The preferred design will depend on the application, as well as the unique objectives and perspectives of the person evaluating the design

  14. An alternative methodology for the analysis of electrical resistivity data from a soil gas study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Sara; Rosqvist, Hakan; Svensson, Mats; Dahlin, Torleif; Leroux, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method for the analysis of resistivity data. The methodology was developed during a study to evaluate if electrical resistivity can be used as a tool for analysing subsurface gas dynamics and gas emissions from landfills. The main assumption of this study was that variations in time of resistivity data correspond to variations in the relative amount of gas and water in the soil pores. Field measurements of electrical resistivity, static chamb...

  15. Impact of Alternative Rate Structures on Distributed Solar Customer Electricity Bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Electric utilities are increasingly proposing changes to residential rate structures, in order to address concerns about their inability to recover fixed system costs from customers with grid connected distributed generation. The most common proposals have been to increase fixed charges, set minimum bills or instigate residential demand charges. This presentation provides results of an analysis to explore how these rate design alternatives impact electricity bills for PV and non-PV customers.

  16. Peculiarities of gadolinium molybdate change-over using alternating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.N.; Zlokazov, M.V.; Prokolov, A.L.; Tikhomirova, N.A.; Shuvalov, L.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kristallografii)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental investigation into processes of total repolarization of a gadolinium molybdate monocrystal Gd(MoO 4 ) 3 -GMO following alternating electric effects is conduced. The process of total change-over of the GMO monocrystal with a capillar layer of weak-conductive liquid deposited on its polar surfaces at application of alternating stationary electric field is shown to proceed through sidewise traverse of the single plane domain boundary of one and the same crystallographical orientation (110) in the coordinate system of monodomain state being changed-over

  17. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an Alternative Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, R.C.; Mott, L.; Beers, J.R.; Lash, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    An Alternative Scenario for the electric energy future of the Pacific Northwest is presented. The Scenario includes an analysis of each major end use of electricity in the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. This approach affords the most direct means of projecting the likely long-term growth in consumption and the opportunities for increasing the efficiency with which electricity is used in each instance. The total demand for electricity by these end uses then provides a basis for determining whether additional central station generation is required to 1995. A projection of total demand for electricity depends on the combination of many independent variables and assumptions. Thus, the approach is a resilient one; no single assumption or set of linked assumptions dominates the analysis. End-use analysis allows policymakers to visualize the benefits of alternative programs, and to make comparison with the findings of other studies. It differs from the traditional load forecasts for the Pacific Northwest, which until recently were based largely on straightforward extrapolations of historical trends in the growth of electrical demand. The Scenario addresses the supply potential of alternative energy sources. Data are compiled for 1975, 1985, and 1995 in each end-use sector.

  18. Using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, D.A.; Isaev, R.I.; Makhkamdzhanov, V.M.; Mansurov, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) in June 1997. As an alternative source the combined solar-wind power plant on the basis of solar cells battery and wind-generator is proposed. The efficiency of proposed system is considered. (A.A.D.)

  19. Combining fluidized activated carbon with weak alternating electric fields for disinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racyte, J.; Sharabati, J.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, A.H.; Yntema, D.R.; Mayer, M.J.J.; Bruning, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents fluidized bed electrodes as a new device for disinfection. In the fluidized bed electrodes system, granular activated carbon particles were suspended, and an alternating radio frequency electric field was applied over the suspended bed. Proof-of-principle studies with the

  20. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-Ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-05-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices.

  1. Internal combustion engine to electric vehicle. Four alternative techniques; Del motor de combustion internal al vehiculo electrico. Cuatro alternativas tecnicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alaez, R.; Barneto, M.; Gil, C.; Longas, J. C.; Lucea, J.; Ullibarri, M.; Bilbao, J.; Camino, V.; Intxaurburu, G.

    2010-07-01

    Auto makers are now developing alternatives to internal combustion engines. The present paper provides an analysis of four alternative vehicles: electric hybrids, full electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen vehicles. The paper focuses on the adoption dynamics for alternative vehicles. The spatial implications of this process for the organization of the value chain and the auto makers alliances linked to the alternatives development are also considered. (Author) 14 refs.

  2. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives on electric utility systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselka, T.D.; Portante, E.C.; Koritarov, V.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum estimates the effects of alternative contractual commitments that may be initiated by the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. It also studies hydropower operational restrictions at the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects in combination with these alternatives. Power marketing and hydropower operational effects are estimated in support of Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Electricity production and capacity expansion for utility systems that will be directly affected by alternatives specified in the EIS are simulated. Cost estimates are presented by utility type and for various activities such as capacity expansion, generation, long-term firm purchases and sales, fixed operation and maintenance expenses, and spot market activities. Operational changes at hydropower facilities are also investigated

  3. Beyond free electricity: the costs of electric cooking in poor households and a market-friendly alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.; Alfstad, T. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Energy Research Centre; Victor, D.G.; Elias, R.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Program on Energy and Sustainable Development; Gaunt, T. [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2006-11-15

    The South African government is introducing a poverty-reduction policy that will supply households with a monthly 50 kWh free basic electricity (FBE) subsidy. We show that FBE distorts the energy choices of poor households by encouraging them to cook with electricity, whereas alternatives such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) can deliver a similar cooking service at a much lower cost to society. An alternative energy scheme, such as providing households with clean energy credits equivalent in value to the FBE's cost, could deliver additional energy services worth at least 6% of total household welfare (and probably much more) at no additional public cost; those benefits are so large that they would cover the entire cost of LPG fuel needed to implement the scheme. The analysis is extremely sensitive to the coincidence of electric cooking with peak power demand on the South African grid and to assumptions regarding how South Africa will meet its looming shortfall in peak power capacity. One danger of FBE is that actual peak coincidence and the costs of supplying peak power could be much less favorable than we assume, and such uncertainties expose the South African power system to potentially very high costs of service. (author)

  4. Alternative inactivated poliovirus vaccines adjuvanted with Quillaja brasiliensis or Quil-a saponins are equally effective in inducing specific immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Costa

    Full Text Available Inactivated polio vaccines (IPV have an important role at the final stages of poliomyelitis eradication programs, reducing the risks associated with the use of attenuated polio vaccine (OPV. An affordable option to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and reduce costs of IPV may be the use of an effective and renewable adjuvant. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of aqueous extract (AE and saponin fraction QB-90 from Quillaja brasiliensis using poliovirus antigen as model were analyzed and compared to a preparation adjuvanted with Quil-A, a well-known saponin-based commercial adjuvant. Experimental vaccines were prepared with viral antigen plus saline (control, Quil-A (50 µg, AE (400 µg or QB-90 (50 µg. Sera from inoculated mice were collected at days 0, 28, 42 and 56 post-inoculation of the first dose of vaccine. Serum levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly enhanced by AE, QB-90 and Quil-A compared to control group on day 56. The magnitude of enhancement was statistically equivalent for QB-90 and Quil-A. The cellular response was evaluated through DTH and analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA levels using in vitro reestimulated splenocytes. Results indicated that AE and QB-90 were capable of stimulating the generation of Th1 cells against the administered antigen to the same extent as Quil-A. Mucosal immune response was enhanced by the vaccine adjuvanted with QB-90 as demonstrated by increases of specific IgA titers in bile, feces and vaginal washings, yielding comparable or higher titers than Quil-A. The results obtained indicate that saponins from Q. brasiliensis are potent adjuvants of specific cellular and humoral immune responses and represent a viable option to Quil-A.

  5. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  6. Effect of decreasing electrical resistance in Characeae cell membranes caused by the flow of alternating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Śpiewla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of the techniques of external electrodes and microelectrodes, it was found that evanescent flow of an alternating current through plasmalemma of Characeae cells neutralises oscillatory change in their electrical resistance and reversibly diminishes its value. This effect is particularly significant in the case of "high resistance cells", but it weakens with increasing temperature. The value of the estimated activation energy indicates that, after flow of the alternating current through the membrane, a rapid increase in the conductivity may be caused by an increase in conductivity of potassium channels. This result seems to support the hypothesis of electroconformational feedback.

  7. Hydro and geothermal electricity as an alternative for industrial petroleum consumption in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendis, M.; Park, W.; Sabadell, A.; Talib, A.

    1982-04-01

    This report assesses the potential for substitution of electricity for petroleum in the industrial/agro-industrial sector of Costa Rica. The study includes a preliminary estimate of the process energy needs in this sector, a survey of the principal petroleum consuming industries in Costa Rica, an assessment of the electrical technologies appropriate for substitution, and an analysis of the cost trade offs of alternative fuels and technologies. The report summarizes the total substitution potential both by technical feasibility and by cost effectiveness under varying fuel price scenarios and identifies major institutional constraints to the introduction of electric based technologies. Recommendations to the Government of Costa Rica are presented. The key to the success of a Costa Rican program for substitution of electricity for petroleum in industry rests in energy pricing policy. The report shows that if Costa Rica Bunker C prices are increased to compare equitably with Caribbean Bunker C prices, and increase at 3 percent per annum relative to a special industrial electricity rate structure, the entire substitution program, including both industrial and national electric investment, would be cost effective. The definition of these pricing structures and their potential impacts need to be assessed in depth.

  8. Motile Responses of Cochlear Outer Hair Cells Stimulated with an Alternating Electrical Field

    OpenAIRE

    Kitani, Rei; Kakehata, Seiji; Kalinec, Federico

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the motile responses of guinea pig OHCs, stimulated at frequencies varying from 50 Hz to 4 kHz, using high-definition, high-speed video recording and fully automatic image analysis software. Cells stimulated in continuous, burst and sweeping modes with an external alternating electrical field showed robust fast and slow motility, which were dependent on frequency, mode and intensity of stimulation. In response to continuous stimul...

  9. Choosing an electrical energy future for the Pacific Northwest: an alternative scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beers, J.R.; Cavanagh, R.C.; Lash, T.R.; Mott, L.

    1980-05-19

    A strategy is presented for averting the short-term energy supply uncertainties that undermine prospects for stable economic development in the Pacific Northwest. This strategy is based on: an analysis of the present electric power consumption by various end-use sectors; comparison of incentives to promote energy conservation and lower demand growth; analysis of alternatives to current dependency on hydro power; and a study of the cost of planning and implementing future power supply programs. (LCL)

  10. Alternating current electric field effects on neural stem cell viability and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marvi A; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2010-01-01

    Methods utilizing stem cells hold tremendous promise for tissue engineering applications; however, many issues must be worked out before these therapies can be routinely applied. Utilization of external cues for preimplantation expansion and differentiation offers a potentially viable approach to the use of stem cells in tissue engineering. The studies reported here focus on the response of murine neural stem cells encapsulated in alginate hydrogel beads to alternating current electric fields. Cell viability and differentiation was studied as a function of electric field magnitude and frequency. We applied fields of frequency (0.1-10) Hz, and found a marked peak in neural stem cell viability under oscillatory electric fields with a frequency of 1 Hz. We also found an enhanced propensity for astrocyte differentiation over neuronal differentiation in the 1 Hz cultures, as compared to the other field frequencies we studied. Published 2010 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  11. Assessment of side effects induced by injection of different adjuvant/antigen combinations in rabbits and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Koedam, M.A.; Wester, P.W.; Baumans, V.; Claassen, E.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the side effects induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA) and alternative adjuvants combined with different antigens. Rabbits and mice were injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly (rabbits) and intraperitoneally (mice) with different adjuvants (FA, Specol, RIBI, TiterMax,

  12. Electricity supply from thermal power plants and alternative sources at the Adriatic coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Croatian coastline with its numerous islands offers the most appropriate region in the whole of Croatia for the realisation of energy supply from alternative sources as a substitute for the electricity supplied from coal-driven thermal power plants, not only from the point of view of energy but also financial results. Investment costs of a 100 MW thermal power plant served for the estimation of results which would be achieved with the introduction of alternative sources (the sun, small hydro power plants and biomass) as well as for the rationalisation of consumption and savings of the existing energy sources. The alternative programmes can be conducted partially and the investments financed from savings. However, without a systematic solution for the whole country no significant results can be expected. (author)

  13. Experimental Study of Entropy Production in Cells under Alternating Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang-Jiang; Luo, Liao-Fu

    2012-08-01

    We put forward a new method for measuring the entropy production in the living cell. It involves heating the sample by alternating the electric field and recording the outward heat flow. The entropy production in a normal cell MCF10A and a cancerous cell MDA-MB-231 were measured and compared. The results show that the method is effective for the entropy measurement of a living organism. The scaled electro-induced entropy production rate (SEEP) of MDA-MB-231 monotonically increases with the electric field strength at 5-40 V/cm. While that of MCF10A changes non-monotonically and there exists a peak at 5-30 V/cm. The electro-induced entropy production ratio (EEPR) is smaller than 1 in a large range of field strengths, from 5 to 25 V/cm, which reveals that under 5-25 V/cm electric field exposure, the direction of the entropy flow may be changed from normal tissue to cancerous cells. We present a facile and effective strategy for experimentally investigating the thermodynamic properties of the cell and give a deeper insight into the physical difference between normal and cancerous cells under electric field exposure.

  14. The Dynamics of Oblate Drop Between Heterogeneous Plates Under Alternating Electric Field. Non-uniform Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashina, M. A.; Alabuzhev, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics of the incompressible fluid drop under the non-uniform electric field are considered. The drop is bounded axially by two parallel solid planes and the case of heterogeneous plates is investigated. The external electric field acts as an external force that causes motion of the contact line. We assume that the electric current is alternative current and the AC filed amplitude is a spatially non-uniform function. In equilibrium, the drop has the form of a circular cylinder. The equilibrium contact angle is 0.5 π. In order to describe this contact line motion the modified Hocking boundary condition is applied: the velocity of the contact line is proportional to the deviation of the contact angle and the speed of the fast relaxation processes, which frequency is proportional to twice the frequency of the electric field. The Hocking parameter depends on the polar angle, i.e. the coefficient of the interaction between the plate and the fluid (the contact line) is a function of the plane coordinates. This function is expanded in a series of the Laplace operator eigenfunctions.

  15. A water system model for exploring electric energy alternatives in southeastern US basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-López, F; Yates, D

    2013-01-01

    Electric power generation often involves the use of water for power plant cooling and steam generation, which typically involves the release of cooling water to nearby rivers and lakes. The resulting thermal pollution may negatively impact the ecosystems of these water bodies. Water resource systems models enable the examination of the implications of alternative electric generation on regional water resources. This letter documents the development, calibration, and validation of a climate-driven water resource systems model of the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint, the Alabama–Coosa–Tallapoosa, and the Tombigbee River basins in the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, in the southeastern US. The model represents different water users, including power plants, agricultural water users, and municipal users. The model takes into account local population, per-capita use estimates, and changes in population growth. The water resources planning model was calibrated and validated against the observed, managed flows through the river systems of the three basins. Flow calibration was performed on land cover, water capacity, and hydraulic conductivity of soil horizons; river water temperature calibration was performed on channel width and slope properties. Goodness-of-fit statistics indicate that under 1980–2010 levels of water use, the model robustly represents major features of monthly average streamflow and water temperatures. The application of this integrated electricity generation–water resources planning model can be used to explore alternative electric generation and water implications. The implementation of this model is explored in the companion paper of this focus issue (Yates et al 2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 035042). (letter)

  16. A magnetic storage system for electric energy in an alternating current network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therond, P.G.; Joly, I.

    1996-01-01

    An electric energy magnetic storage system is proposed, aimed at smoothing the transients induced by short power cutoffs in alternating current power networks such as medium voltage (20 kV) networks. It includes a coupling transformer, coupled to the network, and an inverter connected to a storage coil; a superconductive switch circuit is used for allowing a temporary power supply to the network, from the coil and the inverter, in case of a cutoff transient. The system is more especially designed for pressurized water pumping in nuclear plants

  17. Lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers. Ten case studies of implemented programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)

  18. Control of the dielectric microrods rotation in liquid by alternating current electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yukun; Li, Bin; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2014-05-01

    Microfluidics is a promising system for the manipulation of micro-nano particles and fluids. In this platform, alternating current (AC) electric field is usual an effective tool for the general particles control. However, traditional work paid more attention on the regular spherical particles with no obvious distinction when rotating, resulting in imprecise rotation speed calculation. In essence, non-spherical especially biocompatible particles are not only important for biology application but also significant for obtaining accurate rotating results. Hence, in this paper, SU-8, one of the most biocompatible materials was selected as the manipulation object. AC electric field is employed to rotate SU-8 microrods, in order to obtain a controllable rotation angle for both the accurate experimental results and biosensor applications. Firstly, Clausius-Mossotti(CM) factors frequency spectra with different surface conductance and medium conductivities are presented, thereby the theoretical formula is carried out, including both the torque and rotation velocity expressions of SU-8 microrods. Moreover, simulations for the electric field distribution are developed, indicating the rotating direction. Secondly, the quadrupole electrodes are used to generate rotating electric field, and the electrorotation of SU-8 microrods in different medium is carried out, showing that the particles rotate in the opposite direction of the electric field, meanwhile, the peak frequency increases with the conductivity increases. Finally, the experimental results are discussed and compared with theoretical analysis, and the comparison result shows that they have a good agreement. This work proposes an effective and controllable method to rotate microrods, showing extend application potentials in microelectronics and biosensors.

  19. The smart alternative : securing and strengthening our nation's vulnerable electric grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahigian, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    This article explained the concept of the next generation of electrical power grids known as the Smart Grid, which allows the possibility to either reallocate electricity during times of crisis or peak demand or prevent power disruptions through proactive diagnosis. The author examined the security, economic and environmental benefits of implementing the Smart Grid during a time of rising energy prices and desire for energy independence. The Smart Grid uses advanced communications and information technologies to create a modern transmission and distribution network that facilitates the integration of alternative energy sources such as wind and solar power, as well as energy-efficient technologies such as plug-in hybrid vehicles. The author emphasized that implementing the Smart Grid grid is also vital to strengthening America's resilience and security since a more robust energy infrastructure will ensure the reliable flow of electricity in the event of a crisis. In addition to promoting energy efficiency, the Smart Grid offers economic benefits, such as reducing the billions of dollars lost each year by American businesses on power outages. A Smart Grid could also open lucrative new markets for smart technologies. 2 figs

  20. Flow instability in laminar jet flames driven by alternating current electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Gyeong Taek

    2016-10-13

    The effect of electric fields on the instability of laminar nonpremixed jet flames was investigated experimentally by applying the alternating current (AC) to a jet nozzle. We aimed to elucidate the origin of the occurrence of twin-lifted jet flames in laminar jet flow configurations, which occurred when AC electric fields were applied. The results indicated that a twin-lifted jet flame originated from cold jet instability, caused by interactions between negative ions in the jet flow via electron attachment as O +e→O when AC electric fields were applied. This was confirmed by conducting systematic, parametric experiment, which included changing gaseous component in jets and applying different polarity of direct current (DC) to the nozzle. Using two deflection plates installed in parallel with the jet stream, we found that only negative DC on the nozzle could charge oxygen molecules negatively. Meanwhile, the cold jet instability occurred only for oxygen-containing jets. A shedding frequency of jet stream due to AC driven instability showed a good correlation with applied AC frequency exhibiting a frequency doubling. However, for the applied AC frequencies over 80Hz, the jet did not respond to the AC, indicating an existence of a minimum flow induction time in a dynamic response of negative ions to external AC fields. Detailed regime of the instability in terms of jet velocity, AC voltage and frequency was presented and discussed. Hypothesized mechanism to explain the instability was also proposed.

  1. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  2. Motile responses of cochlear outer hair cells stimulated with an alternating electrical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitani, Rei; Kakehata, Seiji; Kalinec, Federico

    2011-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the motile responses of guinea pig OHCs, stimulated at frequencies varying from 50 Hz to 4 kHz, using high-definition, high-speed video recording and fully automatic image analysis software. Cells stimulated in continuous, burst and sweeping modes with an external alternating electrical field showed robust fast and slow motility, which were dependent on frequency, mode and intensity of stimulation. In response to continuous stimulation, electromotile amplitude ranged from 0.3% to 3.2% of total cell length, whereas cell length usually decreased in amounts varying from 0.1% to 4.3%. Electromotile amplitude in OHCs stimulated with square wave's sweeps was near constant up to 200 Hz, progressively decreased between 200 Hz and 2 kHz, and then remained constant up to 4 kHz. In continuous and burst modes electromotility followed cycle-by-cycle the electrical stimulus, but it required 1-2 s to fully develop and reach maximal amplitude. Instead, slow cell length changes started about 0.6 s after the beginning and continuously developed up to 3 s after the end of electrical stimulation. Incubation of OHCs with 10 mM salicylate affected electromotility but not slow motility, whereas incubation with 3 mM gadolinium affected both. Thus, combination of external electrical stimulation, high-speed video recording and advanced image analysis software provides information about OHC motile responses at acoustic frequencies with an unprecedented detail, opening new areas of research in the field of OHC mechanics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ionization and acoustical instability of a low temperature magnetized plasma in a combined (direct and alternating) electrical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andropov, V.G.; Sinkevich, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the ionization front which moves through a gas along a magnetic field in a combined electrical field, which lies in the plane of the front, may be unstable, as a result of the development of an ionization instability in the plasma behind the front. The criterion of instability of the ionization front does not greatly differ from the criterion of instability of an infinite plasma. The ionization front in the magnetic field is stable only in an electrical field of circular polarization or in a combined field in which the direct and alternating electrical fields are orthogonal and the Joule heat liberation from them is equal. The generation of sound is possible in a magnetized plasma in an alternating electrical field orthogonal to a magnetic due to the parametric acoustical instability at the frequency of the external electrical field. 8 refs

  4. Alternating current electrical stimulation enhanced chemotherapy: a novel strategy to bypass multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janigro, Damir; Perju, Catalin; Fazio, Vincent; Hallene, Kerri; Dini, Gabriele; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Cucullo, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various anti-cancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that low intensity very low frequency electrical stimulation by alternating current (AC) reduces the proliferation of different tumor cell lines by a mechanism affecting potassium channels while at intermediate frequencies interfere with cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell division. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that permeability of several MDR1 over-expressing tumor cell lines to the chemotherapic agent doxorubicin is enhanced by low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation. We grew human and rodent cells (C6, HT-1080, H-1299, SKOV-3 and PC-3) which over-expressed MDR1 in 24-well Petri dishes equipped with an array of stainless steel electrodes connected to a computer via a programmable I/O board. We used a dedicated program to generate and monitor the electrical stimulation protocol. Parallel cultures were exposed for 3 hours to increasing concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 μM) of doxorubicin following stimulation to 50 Hz AC (7.5 μA) or MDR1 inhibitor XR9576. Cell viability was assessed by determination of adenylate kinase (AK) release. The relationship between MDR1 expression and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin as well as the cellular distribution of MDR1 was investigated by computerized image analysis immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. By the use of a variety of tumor cell lines, we show that low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. This effect was due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Immunohistochemical, Western blot and fluorescence analysis revealed

  5. Carbohydrate-based vaccine adjuvants - discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Qiu, Liying; Wang, Xiaoli; Zou, Xiaopeng; Lu, Mengji; Yin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The addition of a suitable adjuvant to a vaccine can generate significant effective adaptive immune responses. There is an urgent need for the development of novel po7tent and safe adjuvants for human vaccines. Carbohydrate molecules are promising adjuvants for human vaccines due to their high biocompatibility and good tolerability in vivo. The present review covers a few promising carbohydrate-based adjuvants, lipopolysaccharide, trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate, QS-21 and inulin as examples, which have been extensively studied in human vaccines in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. The authors discuss the current status, applications and strategies of development of each adjuvant and different adjuvant formulation systems. This information gives insight regarding the exciting prospect in the field of carbohydrate-based adjuvant research. Carbohydrate-based adjuvants are promising candidates as an alternative to the Alum salts for human vaccines development. Furthermore, combining two or more adjuvants in one formulation is one of the effective strategies in adjuvant development. However, further research efforts are needed to study and develop novel adjuvants systems, which can be more stable, potent and safe. The development of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry can improve the study of carbohydrate-based adjuvants.

  6. An Alternative for All-Electric Ships Applications: The Synchronous Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ch. Proimadis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-phase synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM is presented as a possible alternative in all-electric ship applications. The basic features of this motor with regard to the other types of motors are shown. The structure of the motor and specifically the structure of its rotor are analyzed, while the basic operating principles are presented and references on commonly used control strategies are made. In this paper, a demonstration of a reluctance motor fed by a voltage source inverter (VSI takes place. To demonstrate the operation of the motor fed by a VSI, an example using a scalar control method is implemented, where harmonic injection PWM (HIPWM is used to drive the VSI. Experimental results on a commercially available motor are shown, focusing on the harmonic content of the current.

  7. Electric dipole moment planning with a resurrected BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron electron analog ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Richard M.; Talman, John D.

    2015-07-01

    There has been much recent interest in directly measuring the electric dipole moments (EDM) of the proton and the electron, because of their possible importance in the present day observed matter/antimatter imbalance in the Universe. Such a measurement will require storing a polarized beam of "frozen spin" particles, 15 MeV electrons or 230 MeV protons, in an all-electric storage ring. Only one such relativistic electric accelerator has ever been built—the 10 MeV "electron analog" ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1954; it can also be referred to as the "AGS analog" ring to make clear it was a prototype for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) proton ring under construction at that time at BNL. (Its purpose was to investigate nonlinear resonances as well as passage through "transition" with the newly invented alternating gradient proton ring design.) By chance this electron ring, long since dismantled and its engineering drawings disappeared, would have been appropriate both for measuring the electron EDM and to serve as an inexpensive prototype for the arguably more promising, but 10 times more expensive, proton EDM measurement. Today it is cheaper yet to "resurrect" the electron analog ring by simulating its performance computationally. This is one purpose for the present paper. Most existing accelerator simulation codes cannot be used for this purpose because they implicitly assume magnetic bending. The new ual/eteapot code, described in detail in an accompanying paper, has been developed for modeling storage ring performance, including spin evolution, in electric rings. Illustrating its use, comparing its predictions with the old observations, and describing new expectations concerning spin evolution and code performance, are other goals of the paper. To set up some of these calculations has required a kind of "archeological physics" to reconstitute the detailed electron analog lattice design from a 1991 retrospective report by Plotkin as well

  8. Electric dipole moment planning with a resurrected BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron electron analog ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Talman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been much recent interest in directly measuring the electric dipole moments (EDM of the proton and the electron, because of their possible importance in the present day observed matter/antimatter imbalance in the Universe. Such a measurement will require storing a polarized beam of “frozen spin” particles, 15 MeV electrons or 230 MeV protons, in an all-electric storage ring. Only one such relativistic electric accelerator has ever been built—the 10 MeV “electron analog” ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1954; it can also be referred to as the “AGS analog” ring to make clear it was a prototype for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS proton ring under construction at that time at BNL. (Its purpose was to investigate nonlinear resonances as well as passage through “transition” with the newly invented alternating gradient proton ring design. By chance this electron ring, long since dismantled and its engineering drawings disappeared, would have been appropriate both for measuring the electron EDM and to serve as an inexpensive prototype for the arguably more promising, but 10 times more expensive, proton EDM measurement. Today it is cheaper yet to “resurrect” the electron analog ring by simulating its performance computationally. This is one purpose for the present paper. Most existing accelerator simulation codes cannot be used for this purpose because they implicitly assume magnetic bending. The new ual/eteapot code, described in detail in an accompanying paper, has been developed for modeling storage ring performance, including spin evolution, in electric rings. Illustrating its use, comparing its predictions with the old observations, and describing new expectations concerning spin evolution and code performance, are other goals of the paper. To set up some of these calculations has required a kind of “archeological physics” to reconstitute the detailed electron analog lattice design from a

  9. Some applications of mirror-generated electric potentials to alternative fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Transient electrical potentials can be generated in plasmas by utilizing impulsive mirror-generated forces acting on the plasma electrons together with ion inertia to cause momentary charge imbalance. In the Mirrortron such potentials are generated by applying a rapidly rising (tens of nanoseconds) localized mirror field to the central region of a hot-electron plasma confined between static mirrors. Because of the loss-cone nature of the electron distribution the sudden appearance of the pulsed mirror tends to expel electrons, whereas the ion density remains nearly constant. The quasi-neutrality condition then operates to create an electrical potential the equipotential surfaces of which can be shown theoretically to be congruent with surfaces of constant B. An alternative way of generating transient potentials is to apply a pulse of high-power microwaves to a plasma residing on a magnetic field with a longitudinal gradient. This technique resembles one employed in the Pleiade experiments. At gigawatt power levels, such as those produced by a Free Electron Laser, the production of very high transient potentials is predicted. Fusion-relevant applications of these ideas include heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion, and the possibility of employing these techniques to enhance the longitudinal confinement of fusion plasmas in multiple-mirror systems. 23 refs., 3 figs

  10. Precise Patterning of Organic Single Crystals via Capillary-Assisted Alternating-Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yedong; Jie, Jiansheng; Sun, Yuning; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Zhang, Xiujuan; Dai, Gaole; Lee, Cheol Jin; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2017-07-01

    Owing to the extraordinary properties, organic micro/nanocrystals are important building blocks for future low-cost and high-performance organic electronic devices. However, integrated device application of the organic micro/nanocrystals is hampered by the difficulty in high-throughput, high-precision patterning of the micro/nanocrystals. In this study, the authors demonstrate, for the first time, a facile capillary-assisted alternating-electric field method for the large-scale assembling and patterning of both 0D and 1D organic crystals. These crystals can be precisely patterned at the photolithography defined holes/channels at the substrate with the yield up to 95% in 1 mm 2 . The mechanism of assembly kinetics is systematically studied by the electric field distribution simulation and experimental investigations. By using the strategy, various organic micro/nanocrystal patterns are obtained by simply altering the geometries of the photoresist patterns on substrates. Moreover, ultraviolet photodetectors based on the patterned Alq3 micro/nanocrystals exhibit visible-blind photoresponse with high sensitivity as well as excellent stability and reproducibility. This work paves the way toward high-integration, high-performance organic electronic, and optoelectronic devices from the organic micro/nanocrystals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Resource acquisition policy: Multiple account evaluation of electricity resource alternatives [and] resource acquisition strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro has been directed by the provincial government to develop evaluation procedures to rank electricity resource alternatives in terms of their social benefits and costs, and to acquire resources on the basis of need. The current state of development of social costing at BC Hydro is detailed along with its application to the multiple account evaluation of resources. In this evaluation, BC Hydro's corporate costs, customer cost, transfer payments to the province, direct costs incurred by provincial or regional governments or other Crown agences, direct environmental impact costs from air emissions and land/water use, community and social impact costs, and economic development impacts are taken into account. The BC Hydro resource acquisition strategy is also described as it was developed in response to provincial policy on electricity supply from independent power producers. This strategy includes a determination of need, a decision to acquire need-determined resources either by itself or from a private sector developer, and decisions to acquire resources in advance of need for reasons such as economic opportunity, long-term strategies, or load displacement. Background information is included on calculation of air emissions costs. An illustrative example is provided of the multiple account evaluation of several types of resource projects. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Concentrating solar thermal power as a viable alternative in China's electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung-Ling Chien, John; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Study of low-carbon and pollution renewable alternatives for China revealed that concentrating solar thermal (CST) electric power generation was underemphasized in China's renewable energy plan. The analysis shows the competitive viability of CST: (1) China has the key prerequisites to make CST power generation economical including high-quality insolation and appropriate land, (2) CST's proven history, scale, and dispatchability makes it a good utility-scale power option, especially in the economically underdeveloped Western regions, (3) while CST power is currently more expensive than coal-fired electricity on a nominal basis, when costs of externalities are accounted for, CST, at 11.4 US cents/kWh, can become 57% cheaper than scrubbed coal and 29% cheaper than nuclear power, (4) CST power continues dropping in cost due to economies of scale and technological improvements and can potentially realize a levelized electricity cost of around 4 cents/kWh within ten years, (5) it would significantly rise in competitiveness if and when China completes the extensive smart grid for connecting its solar-abundant western regions with the high-demand eastern regions, (6) CST has the potential to positively impact Western China's economy, but proper policy and deal structure must be in place to ensure that the local community shares the benefit. - Highlights: ► We analyze inclusion of concentrating solar thermal (CST) power in China. ► We find that CST needs emphasis in China's renewable energy plan. ► The analysis shows that CST is competitive with coal if externalities are considered. ► We recommend a policy that would develop CST power generation in western regions. ► This would be of significant benefit to Western China's economy and to China.

  13. Perioperative chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: overview and the unmet clinical need for alternative adjuvant therapy as studied in the MAGNOLIA trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombel, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Martinez-Pineiro, L.; Babjuk, M.; Korneyev, I.; Surcel, C.; Yakovlev, P.; Colombo, R.; Radziszewski, P.; Witjes, F.; Schipper, R.; Mulders, P.F.; Witjes, W.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The European Association of Urology Research Foundation has proposed that alternatives to perioperative chemotherapy should be evaluated. The MAGNOLIA study represents a unique opportunity to investigate the concept of immunotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  14. An alternative methodology for the analysis of electrical resistivity data from a soil gas study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Sara; Rosqvist, Hâkan; Svensson, Mats; Dahlin, Torleif; Leroux, Virginie

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method for the analysis of resistivity data. The methodology was developed during a study to evaluate if electrical resistivity can be used as a tool for analysing subsurface gas dynamics and gas emissions from landfills. The main assumption of this study was that variations in time of resistivity data correspond to variations in the relative amount of gas and water in the soil pores. Field measurements of electrical resistivity, static chamber gas flux and weather data were collected at a landfill in Helsingborg, Sweden. The resistivity survey arrangement consisted of nine lines each with 21 electrodes in an investigation area of 16 ×20 m. The ABEM Lund Imaging System provided vertical and horizontal resistivity profiles every second hour. The data were inverted in Res3Dinv using L1-norm-based optimization method with a standard least-squares formulation. Each horizontal soil layer was then represented as a linear interpolated raster model. Different areas underneath the gas flux measurement points were defined in the resistivity model of the uppermost soil layer, and the vertical extension of the zones could be followed at greater depths in deeper layer models. The average resistivity values of the defined areas were calculated and plotted on a time axis, to provide graphs of the variation in resistivity with time in a specific section of the ground. Residual variation of resistivity was calculated by subtracting the resistivity variations caused by the diurnal temperature variations from the measured resistivity data. The resulting residual resistivity graphs were compared with field data of soil moisture, precipitation, soil temperature and methane flux. The results of the study were qualitative, but promising indications of relationships between electrical resistivity and variations in the relative amount of gas and water in the soil pores were found. Even though more research and better data quality is

  15. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  16. Nuclear electricity and Canada's domestic response to the Kyoto Protocol: modeling the economics of alternative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanudia, A.; Loulou, R.; Morrison, R.; Pendergast, D.

    2001-03-01

    results demonstrate that nuclear electricity has a legitimate place in the analysis of options for Canada to meet its Kyoto commitment. A relatively modest (compared to fluctuations and changes in energy commodities) cost reduction leads to the model choosing nuclear over other competing technologies thus confirming basic competitiveness. Precluding the selection of nuclear energy in forward looking economic analyses may lead to underestimating its potential as a greenhouse gas reducing energy source for the future. We conclude that future modeling work, which is intended to help guide Canada's course with respect to greenhouse gas reductions should include nuclear technology - and any other relevant technology. The assumptions about nuclear plant capital costs and decision and construction times included in the original modeling were based on inferences from the history of nuclear development, from then current nuclear energy research, from recognition of the historical timelines and complexities of regulation and from observations of the public ambivalence concerning nuclear power. An alternative but perhaps more realistic and now more timely set of assumptions leads to interesting results, as we demonstrate in this study. (author)

  17. Distributed Energy Alternative to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Consolidated Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute; Kelly, John [Endurant Energy LLC

    2008-08-01

    The nation's power grid, specifically the New York region, faces burgeoning energy demand and suffers from congested corridors and aging equipment that cost New York consumers millions of dollars. Compounding the problem is high-density buildup in urban areas that limits available space to expand grid capacity. Coincidently, these urban areas are precisely where additional power is required. DER in this study refers to combined heat and power (CHP) technology, which simultaneously generates heat and electricity at or near the point where the energy will be consumed. There are multiple CHP options available that, combined with a portfolio of other building energy efficiency (EE) strategies, can help achieve a more efficient supply-demand balance than what the grid can currently provide. As an alternative to expanding grid capacity, CHP and EE strategies can be deployed in a flexible manner at virtually any point on the grid to relieve load. What's more, utilities and customers can install them in a variety of potentially profitable applications that are more environmentally friendly. Under the auspices of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory representing the Office of Electricity of the U.S. Department of Energy, Gas Technology Institute (GTI) conducted this study in cooperation with Consolidated Edison to help broaden the market penetration of EE and DER. This study provides realistic load models and identifies the impacts that EE and DER can have on the electrical distribution grid; specifically within the current economic and regulatory environment of a high load growth area of New York City called Hudson Yards in Midtown Manhattan. These models can be used to guide new policies that improve market penetration of appropriate CHP and EE technologies in new buildings. The following load modeling scenarios were investigated: (1) Baseline: All buildings are built per the Energy

  18. Elimination of aluminum adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Stanley L

    2002-05-31

    In vitro dissolution experiments although perhaps not at typical body concentrations and temperatures demonstrated that the alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids present in interstitial fluid (citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid) are capable of dissolving aluminum-containing adjuvants. Amorphous aluminum phosphate adjuvant dissolved more rapidly than crystalline aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Intramuscular administration in New Zealand White rabbits of aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants, which were labelled with 26Al, revealed that 26Al was present in the first blood sample (1 h) for both adjuvants. The area under the blood level curve for 28 days indicated that three times more aluminum was absorbed from aluminum phosphate adjuvant than aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. In vivo studies using 26Al-labelled adjuvants are relatively safe because accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can quantify quantities of 26Al as small as 10(-17) g. A similar study in humans would require a whole-body exposure of 0.7 microSv per year compared to the natural background exposure of 3000 microSv per year. The in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies indicate that aluminum-containing adjuvants which are administered intramuscularly are dissolved by alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids in interstitial fluid, absorbed into the blood, distributed to tissues, and eliminated in the urine.

  19. The effects of alternative electrical and mechanical stunning methods on hemorrhaging and meat quality of broiler breast and thigh muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, S.J.W.; Lambooij, E.; Veerkamp, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Five trials were conducted to determine the effects of various alternative stunning and restraining methods on the quality of chicken broiler meat. The stunning methods used were electrical whole-body and head-only stunning with different voltages (25 vs 100 V) and frequencies (50 vs 200 Hz), and

  20. Comparative health and safety assessment of alternative future electrical-generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The report is an analysis of health and safety risks of seven alternative electrical generation systems, all of which have potential for commercial availability in the post-2000 timeframe. The systems are compared on the basis of expected public and occupational deaths and lost workdays per year associated with 1000 MWe average unit generation. Risks and their uncertainties are estimated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The technologies include: the SPS; a low-Btu coal gasification system with an open-cycle gas turbine combined with a steam topping cycle (CG/CC); a light water fission reactor system without fuel reprocessing (LWR); a liquid metal fast breeder fission reactor system (LMFBR); a central station terrestrial photovoltaic system (CTPV); and a first generation fusion system with magnetic confinement. For comparison with the baseload technologies, risk from a decentralized roof-top photovoltaic system with 6 kWe peak capacity and battery storage (DTPV) was also evaluated

  1. The influence of future electricity mix alternatives on southwestern US water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, D; Meldrum, J; Averyt, K

    2013-01-01

    A climate driven, water resource systems model of the southwestern US was used to explore the implications of growth, extended drought, and climate warming on the allocation of water among competing uses. The analysis focused on the water benefits from alternative thermoelectric generation mixes, but included other uses, namely irrigated agriculture, municipal indoor and outdoor use, and environmental and inter-state compact requirements. The model, referred to as WEAP-SW, was developed on the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) platform, and is scenario-based and forward projecting from 2008 to 2050. The scenario includes a southwest population that grows from about 55 million to more than 100 million, a prolonged dry period, and a long-term warming trend of 2 ° C by mid-century. In addition, the scenario assumes that water allocation under shortage conditions would prioritize thermoelectric, environmental, and inter-state compacts by shorting first irrigated agriculture, then municipal demands. We show that while thermoelectric cooling water consumption is relatively small compared with other uses, the physical realities and the legal and institutional structures of water use in the region mean that relatively small differences in regional water use across different electricity mix scenarios correspond with more substantial impacts on individual basins and water use sectors. At a region-wide level, these choices influence the buffer against further water stress afforded the region through its generous storage capacity in reservoirs. (letter)

  2. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using electric and hybrid electric propulsion as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including : Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and : Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used. At presen...

  3. A dosimetric analysis of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as an alternative to adjuvant high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in early endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Bulent; Mundt, Arno J; Smith, Brett D; Mell, Loren K; Wang, Steve; Sutton, Harold; Roeske, John C

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the role of intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) as an alternative to high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in the treatment of the vagina in postoperative early endometrial cancer patients after surgery. Planning computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 patients previously treated with HDR were used in this study. In all cases, a dose of 700 cGy/fraction was prescribed at a distance of 0.5 cm from the cylinder surface. The same CT scans were then used in IMRT planning. In this paradigm, the vaginal cylinder represents a component of a hypothetical immobilization system that would be indexed to the linac treatment table. Our study showed that IMRT provided relatively lower rectal doses than HDR when treatment was prescribed at a distance of 0.5 cm away from the cylinder surface. Maximum rectal doses were lower with IMRT compared with HDR (average: 89.0% vs. 142.6%, respectively, p in IMRT plans compared with HDR plans with treatment prescribed either to the surface (average: 14.8% vs. 21.4%, respectively, p in conjunction with a suitable immobilization system, IMRT may provide an alternative to HDR brachytherapy in women with early endometrial cancer after hysterectomy. However, more studies are needed to evaluate the clinical merit of the IMRT in these patients.

  4. Utilization of the Flexibility Potential of Electric Vehicles - an Alternative to Distribution Grid Reinforcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Ager-Hanssen, Siri Bruskeland; Myhre, Siri Olimb

    2015-01-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a large share of global emissions. Electric vehicles have many environmental advantages compared to conventional petrol vehicles. Hence, if electric vehicles can replace petrol vehicles, the transportation sector's total emissions can be significantly reduced. In Norway, due to policy incentives, it is expected that the number of electric vehicles will increase considerably in the near future. Despite the great advantages of electric vehicles, large pe...

  5. Preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the Satellite Power System (SPS) and alternative electric energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, D. E.; Wolsko, T.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary comparative assessment of land use for the satellite power system (SPS), other solar technologies, and alternative electric energy technologies was conducted. The alternative technologies are coal gasification/combined-cycle, coal fluidized-bed combustion (FBC), light water reactor (LWR), liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), terrestrial photovoltaics (TPV), solar thermal electric (STE), and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). The major issues of a land use assessment are the quantity, purpose, duration, location, and costs of the required land use. The phased methodology described treats the first four issues, but not the costs. Several past efforts are comparative or single technology assessment are reviewed briefly. The current state of knowledge about land use is described for each technology. Conclusions are drawn regarding deficiencies in the data on comparative land use and needs for further research.

  6. Proposal and Development of a High Voltage Variable Frequency Alternating Current Power System for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadey, David J.; Taylor, Linda M.; Beach, Raymond F.

    2017-01-01

    The development of ultra-efficient commercial vehicles and the transition to low-carbon emission propulsion are seen as strategic thrust paths within NASA Aeronautics. A critical enabler to these paths comes in the form of hybrid electric propulsion systems. For megawatt-class systems, the best power system topology for these hybrid electric propulsion systems is debatable. Current proposals within NASA and the Aero community suggest using a combination of alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) for power generation, transmission, and distribution. This paper proposes an alternative to the current thought model through the use of a primarily high voltage AC power system, supported by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) Project. This system relies heavily on the use of doubly-fed induction machines (DFIMs), which provide high power densities, minimal power conversion, and variable speed operation. The paper presents background on the activity along with the system architecture, development status, and preliminary results.

  7. Effect of an external alternating electric field non-monochromaticity on parametric excitation of surface ion cyclotron X-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, V O; Puzyrkov, S Yu; Shpagina, V O; Shpagina, L O

    2012-01-01

    The application of an external alternating electric field in the range of ion cyclotron frequencies is a well-known method for the excitation of surface electromagnetic waves. The present paper is devoted to the development of a kinetic theory of parametric excitation of these eigenwaves propagating across an external steady magnetic field along the plasma boundary at the second harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency. Unlike previous papers on this subject, parametric excitation of surface ion cyclotron X-modes is studied here under the condition of non-monochromaticity of an external alternating electric field. Non-monochromaticity of the external alternating electric field is modeled by the superposition of two uniform and monochromatic electric fields with different amplitudes and frequencies. The nonlinear boundary condition is formulated for a tangential magnetic field of the studied surface waves. An infinite set of equations for the harmonics of a tangential electric field is solved using the approximation of the wave packet consisting of the main harmonic and two nearest satellite harmonics. Two different regimes of instability have been considered. If one of the applied generators has an operation frequency that is close to the ion cyclotron frequency, then changing the amplitude of the second generator allows one to enhance the growth rate of the parametric instability or to diminish it. But if the operation frequencies of the both generators are not close to the ion cyclotron frequency, then changing the amplitudes of their fields allows one to decrease the growth rate of the instability and even to suppress its development. The problem is studied both analytically and numerically.

  8. The effect of providing climate and health information on support for alternative electricity portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergi, Brian; Davis, Alex; Azevedo, Inês

    2018-02-01

    Support for addressing climate change and air pollution may depend on the type of information provided to the public. We conduct a discrete choice survey assessing preferences for combinations of electricity generation portfolios, electricity bills, and emissions reductions. We test how participants’ preferences change when emissions information is explicitly provided to them. We find that support for climate mitigation increases when mitigation is accompanied by improvements to air quality and human health. We estimate that an average respondent would accept an increase of 19%-27% in their electricity bill if shown information stating that either CO2 or SO2 emissions are reduced by 30%. Furthermore, an average respondent is willing to pay an increase of 30%-40% in electricity bills when shown information stating that both pollutants are reduced by 30% simultaneously. Our findings suggest that the type of emissions information provided to the public will affect their support for different electricity portfolios.

  9. Development and Performance of Alternative Electricity Sector Pathways Subject to Multiple Climate and Water Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S.; Macknick, J.; Sun, Y.; Corsi, F.; Fekete, B. M.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts on air temperatures and water availability have the potential to alter future electricity sector investment decisions as well as the reliability and performance of the power sector. Different electricity sector configurations are more or less vulnerable to climate-induced changes. For example, once-through cooled thermal facilities are the most cost-effective and efficient technologies under cooler and wetter conditions, but can be substantially affected by and vulnerable to warmer and drier conditions. Non-thermal renewable technologies, such as PV and wind, are essentially "drought-proof" but have other integration and reliability challenges. Prior efforts have explored the impacts of climate change on electric sector development for a limited set of climate and electricity scenarios. Here, we provide a comprehensive suite of scenarios that evaluate how different electricity sector pathways could be affected by a range of climate and water resource conditions. We use four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios under five global circulation models (GCM) as climate drivers to a Water Balance Model (WBM), to provide twenty separate future climate-water conditions. These climate-water conditions influence electricity sector development from present day to 2050 as determined using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) model. Four unique electricity sector pathways will be considered, including business-as-usual, carbon cap, high renewable energy technology costs, and coal reliance scenarios. The combination of climate-water and electricity sector pathway scenarios leads to 80 potential future cases resulting in different national and regional electricity infrastructure configurations. The vulnerability of these configurations in relation to climate change (including in-stream thermal pollution impacts and environmental regulations) is evaluated using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model, providing

  10. Adjuvants for anti-parasite vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomford, R

    1989-02-01

    To date the most successful human vaccines use attenuated living pathogens, but the advent of techniques in genetic engineering has meant that pure antigen can be provided in quantity. This has allowed the development of combined vaccines that use only the parasite antigens that convey protective immunity. However, isolated antigens lose immunogenicity so to regain potency, living attenuated carriers like Vaccinia or Salmonella can be used. To avoid the attendant drawbacks of carriers as immunopotentiating agents, adjuvants are under investigation as alternatives for use in vaccines against parasitic infections. In this review, Robert Bomford describes the adjuvants currently being examined for use in vaccines for both protozoan and helminth infections including Leishmania, malaria and Schistosoma. He also points out the drawbacks of using adjuvants and the dilemma of needing to stimulate cell'-mediated immunity while avoiding the immunopathological consequences of doing so.

  11. Optimizing an integrated waveguide modulator for sensitive low-frequency alternating-current electric-field sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawni, Musab A. M.; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.; Zain, Ahmad Rifqi Md; Tarawneh, Mou'ad A.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.

    2017-06-01

    The use of integrated waveguide modulators is a common technique in electric-field sensing. However, the distortion in the modulated signal caused by high half-voltage Vπ and the difficulty in obtaining low-frequency responses are challenging issues for the use of low-frequency alternating-current (AC) electric-field sensors. This study investigates the use of an optimized segmented slot waveguide as the core of a sensor to determine the sensor features that produce useful frequency responses and sensitivity. The segmented slot waveguide is optimized in terms of periodicity and segment width to produce low Vπ and electrical bandwidth before testing the sensor sensitivity. The results show that reducing the segment width achieves a low Vπ of 0.32 V and a very low electrical bandwidth of 4.3 kHz. Our study provides evidence of the feasibility of using a segmented slot waveguide as the primary element for highly sensitive, low-frequency AC electric-field sensors.

  12. Natural gas - an alternative. Swedish electric power from Norwegian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The report describes the possible substitution of electric power by natural gas on the heat source market and how gas can be used for power production. The cost of distribution and means of supply are presented. 1/3 of the electric power produced by nuclear power plants can be replaced by the middle of the nineties. Transport techniques for gas and its total volume as well as transport cost from Norwegian North Sea are discussed

  13. Integration of a nuclear power plant in electrical systems, alternative programs, optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of integration of a nuclear power plants in a electrical power system, to support the power demand of the system, and mainly also support the power demand at the critical period, I.E., peak demands, is analysed. The factors considered in this analysis are: the demand structure of the region, the availability of others power plants in the electrical net and the capacity factor. (author)

  14. Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2009-07-15

    Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

  15. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  16. Technical assessment of discarded tires gasification as alternative technology for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed. The combustion of producer gas derived from the gasification of TDF in an internal combustion engine driving a generator (ICE-G) appears as the more efficient route for electricity generation when compared with the efficiency obtained with the use of gas turbine (GT-G). A higher global efficiency, considering the electric and thermal generation efficiency can be expected with the use of TDF producer gas in GT-G, where is expected an overall efficiency of 77.49%. The assessment shows that is possible produces up to 7.67MJ and 10.62MJ of electric and thermal energy per kilogram of TDF gasified using an ICE-G and up to 6.06MJ and 13.03MJ of electric and thermal energy respectively per kilogram of gasified TDF using a GT-G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ERM immersion vaccination and adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were the commerc......Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were...

  18. Electricity demand and supply scenarios for Maharashtra (India) for 2030: An application of long range energy alternatives planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, Rajesh V.; Pohekar, Sanjay D.

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting of electricity demand has assumed a lot of importance to provide sustainable solutions to the electricity problems. LEAP has been used to forecast electricity demand for the target year 2030, for the state of Maharashtra (India). Holt’s exponential smoothing method has been used to arrive at suitable growth rates. Probable projections have been generated using uniform gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate and different values of elasticity of demands. Three scenarios have been generated which include Business as Usual (BAU), Energy Conservation (EC) and Renewable Energy (REN). Subsequent analysis on the basis of energy, environmental influence and cost has been done. In the target year 2030, the projected electricity demand for BAU and REN has increased by 107.3 per cent over the base year 2012 and EC electricity demand has grown by 54.3 per cent. The estimated values of green house gas (GHG) for BAU and EC, in the year 2030, are 245.2 per cent and 152.4 per cent more than the base year and for REN it is 46.2 per cent less. Sensitivity analysis has been performed to study the effect on the total cost of scenarios. Policy implications in view of the results obtained are also discussed. - Highlights: • Forecasted electricity scenarios by Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP). • Critically analyzed the demand and supply prior to 2012 for a period of six years. • Used Holt’s exponential smoothing method ARIMA (0,1,1) for finding growth rates. • Devised suitable LEAP model for the generated scenarios. • Discussed policy implications for the generated scenarios

  19. The effect of adding selective mixed culture of alternative electricity production based on tempe wastewater on tubular microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Elisabeth, Utami, Tania Surya; Arbianti, Rita; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria has long been known could produce electricity. MFC (Microbial Fuel Cell) is a technology that uses bacteria. MFC is potential as producer of alternative renewable energy through the conversion of waste by bacteria into electrical energy. However, this technology cannot reach the target value of the minimum voltage. This research is focused on reviewing the effect of the addition of gram positive and negative bacteria (selective mixed culture) contained in tempe wastewater as well as the optimal volume additions gram using a tubular single chamber membranless reactor. The result shows that the addition of selective mixed culture can increase voltage of MFC. Gram negative bacteria dominate tempe wastewater and has better ability to transfer electrons than gram-positive. The voltage increases with increasing amount of bacteria up to a certain maximum point. Addition of 1 mL gram-negative bacteria improve electrical output and provide the most optimal results of 0.0697 mW/m2 mV or 92.14% excalation against the initial control experiment with the average power density of 0.0702 mW1m2. Additions of most optimum variation also give good results on the use of industrial waste, with electrical voltage and power density high of 8.90 mV and 0.02 mW/m2.

  20. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  1. Improvement of the organizational and economic mechanism for managing the development of alternative sources of electricity at the territorial level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Ariadna; Krylova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the features of the structure and functioning of energy supply facilities for housing and communal services of municipalities with the identification and analysis of problems, substantiates the main directions of improving the organizational and economic mechanism for the development of alternative sources of electricity supply, taking into account modern innovative energy-efficient technologies. The choice of a rational option for electricity supply to settlements and the region is considered on the basis of an analysis of geographical, climatic and socio-economic conditions, as well as engineering and financial opportunities, the availability of trunk, interregional and other networks, the total installed capacity of regional power plants and a set of other technical and economic Characteristics inherent in the region and its municipalities.

  2. Current-induced alternating reversed dual-echo-steady-state for joint estimation of tissue relaxation and electrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Jaeseok

    2017-07-01

    To develop a current-induced, alternating reversed dual-echo-steady-state-based magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography for joint estimation of tissue relaxation and electrical properties. The proposed method reverses the readout gradient configuration of conventional, in which steady-state-free-precession (SSFP)-ECHO is produced earlier than SSFP-free-induction-decay (FID) while alternating current pulses are applied in between the two SSFPs to secure high sensitivity of SSFP-FID to injection current. Additionally, alternating reversed dual-echo-steady-state signals are modulated by employing variable flip angles over two orthogonal injections of current pulses. Ratiometric signal models are analytically constructed, from which T 1 , T 2 , and current-induced B z are jointly estimated by solving a nonlinear inverse problem for conductivity reconstruction. Numerical simulations and experimental studies are performed to investigate the feasibility of the proposed method in estimating relaxation parameters and conductivity. The proposed method, if compared with conventional magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, enables rapid data acquisition and simultaneous estimation of T 1 , T 2 , and current-induced B z , yielding a comparable level of signal-to-noise ratio in the parameter estimates while retaining a relative conductivity contrast. We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method in jointly estimating tissue relaxation parameters as well as conductivity distributions. It can be a promising, rapid imaging strategy for quantitative conductivity estimation. Magn Reson Med 78:107-120, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Electrical signature analysis applications for non-intrusive automotive alternator diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    Automotive alternators are designed to supply power for automobile engine ignition systems as well as charge the storage battery. This product is used in a large market where consumers are concerned with acoustic noise and vibration that comes from the unit. as well as overall quality and dependability. Alternators and generators in general are used in industries other than automotive, such as transportation and airline industries and in military applications. Their manufacturers are interested in pursuing state-of-the-art methods to achieve higher quality and reduced costs. Preliminary investigations of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques utilizing the inherent voltage signals of alternators have been performed with promising results. These techniques are based on time and frequency domain analyses of specially conditioned signals taken from several alternators under various test conditions. This paper discusses investigations that show correlations of the alternator output voltage to airborne noise production. In addition these signals provide insight into internal magnetic characteristics that relate to design and/or assembly problems.

  4. Long-term scenario alternatives and their implications: LEAP model application of Panama's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, Madeleine; Karney, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Panama recently enacted a new law, which aims to promote wind energy by mandating long term power purchase tenders. The implications of this new law lend some uncertainty to Panama's electricity development pathway. This paper quantitatively analyzes the current status of power generation in Panama, and explores various potential future scenarios and the associated impacts on the system marginal cost, global warming potential, and resource diversity index. To this end, this study applies the scenario development methodology developed by Schwartz in the context of the energy-economic modeling platform ‘Long-range Energy Alternative Planning’ (LEAP). Four scenarios are developed and analyzed. The Business as Usual scenario extrapolates the electricity generation trend that has been observed over the last decade; it is compared to three alternative scenarios which have more specific objectives. Scenario 1 encourages climate mitigation without incorporating new technologies in the generation mix, Scenario 2 maximizes resource diversity, and Scenario 3 minimizes global warming potential. For each scenario, the composition of the electricity generation profile, system marginal cost, global warming potential, and resource diversity is predicted quantitatively. These scenarios to not attempt to forecast likely developments, but rather illuminate the tradeoffs that different development pathways entail. - Highlights: • This paper models Panama's electricity sector using the LEAP model platform. • Four scenarios are developed and analyzed. • Impact analysis includes: system cost, global warming potential, resource diversity index. • Panama can achieve a sustainable grid with existing technologies and costs. • There is an tradeoff between the resource diversity and global warming potential

  5. Osteoblastic differentiation and stress response of human mesenchymal stem cells exposed to alternating current electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan David L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electric fields are integral to many biological events, from maintaining cellular homeostasis to embryonic development to healing. The application of electric fields offers substantial therapeutic potential, while optimal dosing regimens and the underlying mechanisms responsible for the positive clinical impact are poorly understood. Methods The purpose of this study was to track the differentiation profile and stress response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation during exposure to a 20 mV/cm, 60 kHz electric field. Morphological and biochemical changes were imaged using endogenous two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and quantitatively assessed through eccentricity calculations and extraction of the redox ratio from NADH, FAD and lipofuscin contributions. Real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR were used to track osteogenic differentiation markers, namely alkaline phosphatase (ALP and collagen type 1 (col1, and stress response markers, such as heat shock protein 27 (hsp27 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70. Comparisons of collagen deposition between the stimulated hMSCs and controls were examined through second harmonic generation (SHG imaging. Results Quantitative differences in cell morphology, as described through an eccentricity ratio, were found on days 2 and days 5 (p Conclusions Electrical stimulation is a useful tool to improve hMSC osteogenic differentiation, while heat shock proteins may reveal underlying mechanisms, and optical non-invasive imaging may be used to monitor the induced morphological and biochemical changes.

  6. Peak Shaving and Alternative Power: A Question of Economy, Quality of Life and Quality of Electricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David

    1999-01-01

    .... Fuel cells offer a variety of options for co-generation and power management. A prudent use of the by-products of electric generation from a fuel cell could increase efficiency of the plant and provide cost savings to the user...

  7. An empirical comparison of alternative schemes for combining electricity spot price forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotarski, Jakub; Raviv, Eran; Trück, Stefan; Weron, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    In this comprehensive empirical study we critically evaluate the use of forecast averaging in the context of electricity prices. We apply seven averaging and one selection scheme and perform a backtesting analysis on day-ahead electricity prices in three major European and US markets. Our findings support the additional benefit of combining forecasts of individual methods for deriving more accurate predictions, however, the performance is not uniform across the considered markets and periods. In particular, equally weighted pooling of forecasts emerges as a simple, yet powerful technique compared with other schemes that rely on estimated combination weights, but only when there is no individual predictor that consistently outperforms its competitors. Constrained least squares regression (CLS) offers a balance between robustness against such well performing individual methods and relatively accurate forecasts, on average better than those of the individual predictors. Finally, some popular forecast averaging schemes – like ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) – turn out to be unsuitable for predicting day-ahead electricity prices. - Highlights: • So far the most extensive study on combining forecasts for electricity spot prices • 12 stochastic models, 8 forecast combination schemes and 3 markets considered • Our findings support the additional benefit of combining forecasts for deriving more accurate predictions • Methods that allow for unconstrained weights, such as OLS averaging, should be avoided • We recommend a backtesting exercise to identify the preferred forecast averaging method for the data at hand

  8. Energy use and environmental impact of new alternative fuel mix in electricity generation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amin, A.Q.; Siwar, C.; Jaafar, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The Government of Malaysia introduced a five-fuel diversification strategy in 1999 to ensure security of energy supply. This strategy will continue until 2020 to reduce Malaysia's dependence on fossil fuels for generating electricity. This paper empirically explored the economic impact of electricity generation and scenario analysis that separately identifies impact on the environment of coal, fuel and hydro generating electricity technologies. It also evaluated emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide for the year 1991 and 2000 based on business as usual techniques and projection of those emissions based on business as usual and fuel mix strategy as specified in the fuel diversification strategy. The strategy in the electricity sector aims for a gradual change in fuel use from 74.9 per cent natural gas, 9.7 per cent coal, 10.4 per cent hydro, and 5 per cent petroleum in the year 2000 to 40 per cent natural gas, 30 per cent hydro, 29 per cent coal, and only 1 per cent petroleum by the year 2020. This paper presented the underlying model which is based on input-output techniques. The pollution emission levels from the fossil fuels were estimated. The study revealed that the fuel mix envisioned by the Fuel Diversification Strategy, designed to reduce Malaysia's dependence on fuel oil and increase its energy security would result in an increase in undesired emissions. 16 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Self-assembly of metal nanowires induced by alternating current electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Pablo; Arcenegui, Juan J.; Morgan, Hywel; Ramos, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We describe the reversible assembly of an aqueous suspension of metal nanowires into two different 2-dimensional stable configurations. The assembly is induced by an AC electric field of magnitude around 10 kV/m. It is known that single metal nanowires orientate parallel to the electric field for all values of applied frequency, according to two different mechanisms depending on the frequency. These different mechanisms also govern the mutual interaction between nanowires, which leads to directed-assembly into distinctive structures, the shape of which depends on the frequency of the applied field. We show that for frequencies higher than the typical frequency for charging the electrical double layer at the metal-electrolyte interface, dipole-dipole interaction leads to the formation of chains of nanowires. For lower frequencies, the nanowires form wavy bands perpendicular to the electric field direction. This behavior appears to be driven by the electroosmotic flow induced on the metal surface of the nanowires. Remarkably, no similar structures have been reported in previous studies of nanowires.

  10. The effect of an alternating electric field on a totally ionised plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglin, H.; Brin, A.; Ozias, Y.; Salmon, J.

    1960-01-01

    The equation giving the distribution function of the electrons in a steady-state, for a fully ionized plasma in an a.c. field, are provided from the Fokker-Planck equation. The electric conductivity is complex and depends on the frequency. (author) [fr

  11. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site

  12. Vaccines, adjuvants and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of SF6-alternative gas C5-PFK based on arc extinguishing performance and electric strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Wang, Chunlin; Sun, Hao; Rong, Mingzhe; Murphy, Anthony Bruce; Li, Tianwei; Zhong, Jianying; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Niu, Chunpin

    2017-09-01

    C5-PFK (C5-perfluoroketone, C5F10O) is under wide consideration as an environmentally-friendly alternative gas to SF6 in high-voltage applications, because of its superior insulation performance. The aim of this work is to study theoretically the arc extinguishing performance and electric strength of C5-PFK. The arc extinguishing performance of C5-PFK was evaluated by analyzing and comparing the thermophysical properties of C5-PFK, SF6, CF4, CO2 and N2 plasmas. It was difficult to obtain the species formed in C5-PFK plasmas because of the complex C5-PFK molecular decomposition process. In this work, the decomposition process of C5-PFK and the related species were analyzed by the bond energy analysis method. For the species for which parameters such as the partition function and the enthalpy of formation were not available, computational chemistry methods were used to obtain the required data. The collision integrals were calculated using the phenomenological potential model. Using these results, the local thermodynamic equilibrium composition at temperatures from 300 to 30 000 K at 1-10 atm of pure C5-PFK was calculated by the method of minimization of the Gibbs free energy, and the corresponding transport coefficients were calculated by Chapman-Enskog method. Through the comparison of the thermophysical properties, it was found that C5-PFK had similar characteristics to SF6, with large peaks in specific heat below 4500 K, indicating potentially good thermal interruption capability. However, the specific heat peak at 7000 K corresponding to CO decomposition may detract from the thermal interruption capability. Specific heat peaks at higher temperatures are associated with the breaking of double or triple bonds, and should be avoided if possible in the new alternative gases. The electric strength of C5-PFK was assessed using the molecular electrostatic potential, which can be accurately calculated or measured, and gives strong insights into important

  14. Alternatives of fish production in the thermal effluent of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, T.; Toribio Fuentes, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Feasibility of the utilization of the thermal effluent of a power plant for aquaculture, is analyzed. Different fish production alternatives are studied with particular attention to the growth stage. Thermal variation in the effluent discharge area is described and the possibility of its utilization for fish growth is evaluated on a theoretical approach. (author)

  15. An alternative gas sensor material: Synthesis and electrical characterization of SmCoO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Carlos Rafael; Delgado, Emilio; Santillan, Gloria; Martinez, Alma H.; Chavez-Chavez, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    Single-phase perovskite SmCoO 3 was prepared by a wet-chemical synthesis technique using metal-nitrates and citric acid; after its characterization by thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction, sintering at 900 deg. C in air, gave single phase and well crystallized powders. The powders were mixed with an organic solvent to prepare a slurry, which was deposited on alumina substrates as thick films, using the screen-printing technique. Electrical and gas sensing properties of sintered SmCoO 3 films were investigated in air, O 2 and CO 2 , the results show that sensitivity reached a maximum value at 420 deg. C, for both gases. Dynamic tests revealed a better behavior of SmCoO 3 in CO 2 than O 2 , due to a fast response and a larger electrical resistance change to this gas. X-ray diffraction made on powders after electrical characterization in gases, showed that perovskite-type structure was preserved

  16. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  17. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  18. Comparative health and safety assessment of the satellite power system and other electrical generation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The work reported here is an analysis of existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and six electrical generation systems: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a light water fission power system without fuel reprocessing; a liquid-metal, fast-breeder fission reactor; a centralized and decentralized, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system; and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation. Risks are estimated and uncertainties indicated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system

  19. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future. (author)

  20. What are the alternatives available to Hong Kong in structuring the electricity supply industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chi Tak

    2006-01-01

    The Hong Kong (HK) Government is conducting a review on the regulatory and market model of the electricity supply industry (ESI), in light of the expiry of the existing Scheme of Control Agreements with the vertical integrated utilities in 2008. Although the explicit agreements provided a stable regulatory environment to facilitate the past development of the electricity industry, it was found to become inadequate to deal with the increasing demand for economic efficiency and consumer protection. As such, there is an immediate opportunity to review the current situation and, if appropriate, consider changes to the regulatory and market structure of the ESI. The objective of this paper is to examine the desirable sector policy objectives in HK and consider different instruments and strategies to meet these objectives. The first part of the policy analysis suggests that a more balanced set of policy objectives should be pursued to elevate the priority of economic efficiency but recognizing the inherit limitations in local context. The latter part of the paper reviews the regulatory instruments for their applicability and acceptability in HK. They include rate-of-return regulation, performance-based regulation, competitive bidding and wholesale market competition. With the objective of keeping risks and uncertainties to a minimum, the paper devises strategies to pursue these instruments, allowing HK to improve its regulatory framework and at the same time prepare the industry for potential introduction of competition in the future

  1. An Alternative Cu-Based Bond Layer for Electric Arc Coating Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadragas, Carlos R.; Morales, E. V.; Muñoz, J. A.; Bott, I. S.; Lariot Sánchez, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    A Cu-Al alloy has been used as bond coat between a carbon steel substrate and a final coating deposit obtained by applying the twin wire electric arc spraying coating technique. The presence of a copper-based material in the composite system can change the overall temperature profile during deposition because copper exhibits a thermal conductivity several times higher than that of the normally recommended bond coat materials (such as nickel-aluminum alloys or nickel-chromium alloys). The microstructures of 420 and 304 stainless steels deposited by the electric arc spray process have been investigated, focusing attention on the deposit homogeneity, porosity, lamellar structure, and microhardness. The nature of the local temperature gradient during deposition can strongly influence the formation of the final coating deposit. This study presents a preliminary study, undertaken to investigate the changes in the temperature profile which occur when a Cu-Al alloy is used as bond coat, and the possible consequences of these changes on the microstructure and adhesion of the final coating deposit. The influence of the thickness of the bond layer on the top coating temperature has also been also evaluated.

  2. Comparative health and safety assessment of the satellite power system and other electrical generation alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The work reported here is an analysis of existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and six electrical generation systems: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a light water fission power system without fuel reprocessing; a liquid-metal, fast-breeder fission reactor; a centralized and decentralized, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system; and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation. Risks are estimated and uncertainties indicated for all phases of the energy production cycle, including fuel and raw material extraction and processing, direct and indirect component manufacture, on-site construction, and system operation and maintenance. Also discussed is the potential significance of related major health and safety issues that remain largely unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system.

  3. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration's power marketing alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation's irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration's Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western's wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western's power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western's Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage

  4. Fish protection at steam-electric power plants: alternative screening devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Since the enactment of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972, very few innovations have surfaced that advance the state of intake technology for fish protection at steam-electric power plants. After careful examination of basic hydrology, hydraulics, and ecology of the source water body is completed and after a suitable location for the intake is established, the design process reduces to the development of proper screening techniques and to the provision of a means of preventing resident and migratory species from entering the intake structure. As a result of this design process, three basic fish protection concepts have evolved: fish deterrence, fish collection and removal, and fish diversion. Intake screening devices that protect fish are discussed

  5. Evaluation of alternatives of exothermic methanization cycle for combined electricity and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.; Princova, H.

    1987-01-01

    The possibilities are discussed of using the ADAM-EVA system for remote heat supply from nuclear heat sources to district heating systems. Attention is devoted to the use of the exothermal methanization process (ADAM station) for the combined power and heat production, this making use of the existing hot water power distribution network. The basic parameter for the evaluation of the over-all efficiency of the combined power and heat production is the maximum methanization cycle temperature which depends on the life of the methanization catalyst. Upon temperature drop below 550 degC, the conversion process can only be secured by means of two-stage methanization, which leads to a simplification of the cycle and a reduction in investment cost. At a temperature lower than 500 degC, combined power and heat production cannot be implemented. On the contrary, a considerable amount of electric power supplied from outside the system would be needed for compression work. (Z.M.)

  6. Assessment of the once-through cooling alternative for central steam-electric generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddock, R.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1978-12-01

    The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from steam-electric power generation by means of once-through cooling systems was examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) were identified. The mixing and dilution characteristics of various discharge modes ranging from simple, shoreline surface discharges to long, submerged multiport diffusers were examined in terms of the results of prototype measurements, analytical model predictions, and physical model studies. General guidelines were produced that indicate, for a given plant capacity, a given type of receiving water body, and a given discharge mode, the likelihood that once-through cooling can be effected within the restrictions of typical thermal standards. In general, it was found that shoreline surface discharges would not be adequate for large power plants (greater than or equal to 500 MW) at estuarine and marine coastal sites, would be marginally adequate at lake sites, and would be acceptable only at river sites with large currents and river discharges. Submerged multiport diffusers were found to provide the greatest likelihood of meeting thermal standards in all receiving water environments

  7. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R.; Nordmann, T.

    2010-05-01

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  8. Electrically Elicited Muscle Torque: Comparison Between 2500-Hz Burst-Modulated Alternating Current and Monophasic Pulsed Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Wayne; Adams, Cheryl; Cyr, Shantelle; Hanscom, Brianna; Hill, Kevin; Lawson, Jeffrey; Ziegenbein, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Single-blind, block-randomization crossover design. To compare the knee extensor muscle torque production elicited with 2500-Hz burst-modulated alternating current (BMAC) and with a monophasic pulsed current (MPC) at the maximum tolerated stimulation intensity. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is often used for strengthening the quadriceps following knee surgery. Strength gains are dependent on muscle torque production, which is primarily limited by discomfort. Burst-modulated alternating current stimulation is a clinically popular waveform for NMES. Prior research has established that MPC with a relatively long pulse duration is effective for high muscle torque production. Participants in this study were 20 adults with no history of knee injury. A crossover design was used to randomize the order in which each participant's dominant or nondominant lower extremity received NMES and the waveform (MPC or BMAC) this limb received. Stimulation intensity was incrementally increased until participants reached their maximum tolerance. The torque produced was converted to a percentage of each participant's maximum volitional isometric contraction of the respective limb. A general linear model for a 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design was utilized to analyze the results. The mean ± SD electrically induced percent maximum volitional isometric contraction at maximal participant tolerance was 49.5% ± 19.6% for MPC and 29.8% ± 12.4% for BMAC. This difference was statistically significant (P = .002) after accounting for treatment order and limb, which had no effect on torque production. Neuromuscular stimulation using MPC may be more efficacious than using BMAC to achieve a high torque output in patients with quadriceps weakness.

  9. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ AC ) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher’s universal power law of solids. It revealed that σ AC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σ DC ), critical frequency (ω c ), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σ DC ) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  10. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-01

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are constrained to provide a rate of return. The

  11. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are

  12. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  13. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikam, Pravin N., E-mail: pravinya26@gmail.com; Deshpande, Vineeta D., E-mail: drdeshpandevd@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai-400019, Maharashtra (India)

    2016-05-06

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σ{sub AC}) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher’s universal power law of solids. It revealed that σ{sub AC} of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}), critical frequency (ω{sub c}), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σ{sub DC}) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  14. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AC power generation, its transmission and distribution. The well known observations made by Oersted that an electric current produces a magnetic field led a number of researchers to investigate whether the converse was true i.e. whether electric current can be produced from a magnetic field. Michael Faraday of England ...

  15. Use of small reactors as an alternative to supply electricity to Baja California Sur; Uso de reactores pequenos como alternativa de suministro de electricidad para Baja California Sur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, G.; Portes, E.; Ramirez, J. R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ortega, G., E-mail: gustavo.alonso@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Rio Rodano No. 14, 06500 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The state of Baja California Sur (Mexico) does not form part of the national interconnected electrical system of the country, reason why is local its electrical power supply; one of the alternatives to cover future demands is the use of gas-based combined cycles, which presents the additional problem of including a high price for gas transportation in its costs. In order to reduce total costs, including investment, fuels and operation and maintenance in the operation of the Baja California Sur state electricity system in the coming years, mainly due to the estimated natural gas cost order of $11.50 dollars per million BTU, a proposal is presented to reduce the costs of the electrical system by replacing the necessary combined cycles with the new Small Modular Reactor type nuclear reactors, this alternative is economically competitive. (Author)

  16. Economic critique of Nam Theun-Hinboun Hydropower Project and electricity development in Laos: proposal for an alternative path to development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.

    1996-01-01

    A proposed alternative to the development of a large-scale hydropower project in Laos was presented. The alternative is intended to help make electricity development sustainable over the long term and to benefit the citizens of Laos. The author carefully analyzed the Asian Development Bank report RRP: Laos 27325 of October 1994. He concluded that as presently constituted, the project is likely to fail as an investment and is likely to result in a significant net financial liability. Water resources are one of Laos' greatest assets and the future uses of Laotian rivers could be lost in order to achieve near-term electricity development. It was suggested that Laos should follow three key principles in the development of its electricity sector: maximize economic efficiency, ensure that the government acts as a regulator and not as an investor, and ensure the protection of property rights of citizens and investors. Relevant aspects of the experience with electricity development in Canada were also outlined

  17. Adjuvant therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinsky, P.

    2009-01-01

    Outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP) in high risk prostate cancer are suboptimal. Intensification of local therapy as well as early administration of systemic treatment adjuvant to RP is subject of clinical research. Results of randomised studies are presented. Improvement in overall survival has been reported in adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in pT3 (extracapsular extension and seminal vesicles invasion) or positive resection margin (R1) and in adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in pN+ disease. (author)

  18. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  19. in vivo evaluation of chitosan as an adjuvant in subcutaneous vaccine formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherließ, Regina; Buske, Simon; Young, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines utilising pure antigens instead of whole pathogens and alternative administration routes require the use of potent adjuvants and effective antigen delivery systems. Chitosan has been reported to act as both an adjuvant as well as a matrix for delivery systems. Chitosan is a natural produ...

  20. Lowering of sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds with burst duration using kilohertz-frequency alternating current electric stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alex R; Lucas-Toumbourou, Stacey

    2007-08-01

    To determine the optimum burst duration for discrimination between sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds using 50-Hz bursts of kilohertz-frequency sinusoidal alternating current (AC) applied transcutaneously to human subjects. A repeated-measures randomized controlled trial. A research laboratory. Twenty-six healthy young adults. Bursts of AC electric stimulation at frequencies of 1 and 4kHz. Burst durations ranged from 250micros (for 1 cycle of 4kHz AC, ie, a single biphasic pulse) to 20ms (continuous AC). We measured sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds at frequencies of 1 and 4kHz. We found that threshold voltages decreased to a minimum with increasing burst duration. The minimum threshold identified the "utilization time" over which summation of subthreshold stimuli occurs. Above the utilization time, thresholds increased. Estimated utilization times differed for sensory ( approximately 7ms), motor (>10ms), and pain-tolerance (>or=20ms). As a consequence, relative thresholds varied with burst duration. A maximum separation between sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds was found to occur with bursts in the range 1 to 4ms. Short-duration kilohertz-frequency AC bursts might have a more useful role in rehabilitation than either pulsed current or the long duration bursts that characterize Russian and interferential currents. Further clinical studies are needed.

  1. Alternating current electric fields of varying frequencies: effects on proliferation and differentiation of porcine neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji-Hey; McCullen, Seth D; Piedrahita, Jorge A; Loboa, Elizabeth G; Olby, Natasha J

    2013-10-01

    Application of sinusoidal electric fields (EFs) has been observed to affect cellular processes, including alignment, proliferation, and differentiation. In the present study, we applied low-frequency alternating current (AC) EFs to porcine neural progenitor cells (pNPCs) and investigated the effects on cell patterning, proliferation, and differentiation. pNPCs were grown directly on interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) localizing the EFs to a region accessible visually for fluorescence-based assays. Cultures of pNPCs were exposed to EFs (1 V/cm) of 1 Hz, 10 Hz, and 50 Hz for 3, 7, and 14 days and compared to control cultures. Immunocytochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of neural markers. pNPCs grew uniformly with no evidence of alignment to the EFs and no change in cell numbers when compared with controls. Nestin expression was shown in all groups at 3 and 7 days, but not at 14 days. NG2 expression was low in all groups. Co-expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and TUJ1 was significantly higher in the cultures exposed to 10- and 50-Hz EFs than the controls. In summary, sinusoidal AC EFs via IDEs did not alter the alignment and proliferation of pNPCs, but higher frequency stimulation appeared to delay differentiation into mature astrocytes.

  2. Application of low-frequency alternating current electric fields via interdigitated electrodes: effects on cellular viability, cytoplasmic calcium, and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullen, Seth D; McQuilling, John P; Grossfeld, Robert M; Lubischer, Jane L; Clarke, Laura I; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2010-12-01

    Electric stimulation is known to initiate signaling pathways and provides a technique to enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. There are a variety of in vitro stimulation devices to apply electric fields to such cells. Herein, we describe and highlight the use of interdigitated electrodes to characterize signaling pathways and the effect of electric fields on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The advantage of the interdigitated electrode configuration is that cells can be easily imaged during short-term (acute) stimulation, and this identical configuration can be utilized for long-term (chronic) studies. Acute exposure of hASCs to alternating current (AC) sinusoidal electric fields of 1 Hz induced a dose-dependent increase in cytoplasmic calcium in response to electric field magnitude, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. hASCs that were chronically exposed to AC electric field treatment of 1 V/cm (4 h/day for 14 days, cultured in the osteogenic differentiation medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerol phosphate) displayed a significant increase in mineral deposition relative to unstimulated controls. This is the first study to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal AC electric fields on hASCs and to demonstrate that acute and chronic electric field exposure can significantly increase intracellular calcium signaling and the deposition of accreted calcium under osteogenic stimulation, respectively.

  3. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which removes the heat produced In the core and the colis. I represents an Isolator which is a kind of. 'switch' used to isolate the station from the grid. Note the huge Insulators (marked I) that are used. The steel structures marked S support the conductors through insulators (courtesy: Kirloskar Electric Company, Bangalore).

  4. A Study Examining Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Power as an Alternative for the Rebuilding of the Iraqi Electrical Power Generation Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Curtis; Borja, Ralph; Phillips, Jeffery

    2005-01-01

    .... engineers' actions upon entering Iraq, the increased need for electrical power in Iraq, the costs of insurgent attacks on the electrical system, and security issues that need to be dealt with for the...

  5. Multivariate classification of animal communication signals: a simulation-based comparison of alternative signal processing procedures using electric fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, William G R; Davis, Justin K; Lovejoy, Nathan R; Pensky, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary studies of communication can benefit from classification procedures that allow individual animals to be assigned to groups (e.g. species) on the basis of high-dimension data representing their signals. Prior to classification, signals are usually transformed by a signal processing procedure into structural features. Applications of these signal processing procedures to animal communication have been largely restricted to the manual or semi-automated identification of landmark features from graphical representations of signals. Nonetheless, theory predicts that automated time-frequency-based digital signal processing (DSP) procedures can represent signals more efficiently (using fewer features) than can landmark procedures or frequency-based DSP - allowing more accurate classification. Moreover, DSP procedures are objective in that they require little previous knowledge of signal diversity, and are relatively free from potentially ungrounded assumptions of cross-taxon homology. Using a model data set of electric organ discharge waveforms from five sympatric species of the electric fish Gymnotus, we adopted an exhaustive simulation approach to investigate the classificatory performance of different signal processing procedures. We considered a landmark procedure, a frequency-based DSP procedure (the fast Fourier transform), and two kinds of time-frequency-based DSP procedures (a short-time Fourier transform, and several implementations of the discrete wavelet transform -DWT). The features derived from each of these signal processing procedures were then subjected to dimension reduction procedures to separate those features which permit the most effective discrimination among groups of signalers. We considered four alternative dimension reduction methods. Finally, each combination of reduced data was submitted to classification by linear discriminant analysis. Our results support theoretical predictions that time-frequency DSP procedures (especially DWT

  6. Psidium guajava leaves decrease arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava leaf extract is effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Psidium guajava leaves can be developed into an alternative anti-arthritis treatment.

  7. Combination of pulsed electric fields, mild heat and essential oils as an alternative to the ultrapasteurization of liquid whole egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Monfort, Silvia; Alvarez, Ignacio; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-10-17

    The production of microbiologically safe liquid whole egg (LWE) by industrial ultrapasteurization is restricted by the high thermal sensitivity of LWE components. This research proposes an alternative treatment based on the application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and mild heat, in the presence of natural essential oils (EOs) or their individual components (ICs). The obtained results indicate that the successive application of PEF (25kV/ and 100kJ/kg) followed by heat (60°C during 3.5') to LWE added with 200μL/L of lemon EO would reach 4log10cycles of inactivation of Salmonella Senftenberg 775W and Listeria monocytogenes, when any of these barriers acting alone inactivated less than 1.5log10cycles of either bacteria. Therefore, the synergism between lemon EO and the successive application of PEF and heat would provide a safety level similar to that of ultrapasteurization treatment for Salmonella Senftenberg 775W and L. monocytogenes, but at a lower temperature. To a lesser extent, synergism with the successive application of PEF and heat was also observed in the presence of 200μL/L of carvacrol, citral, (+)-limonene, or mandarin EO, reaching about 3.5log10cycles of inactivation in Salmonella Senftenberg and 3.0log10cycles in L. monocytogenes, respectively. A sensory test on LWE containing 200μL/L of each additive in the form of omelets and sponge cakes revealed that this concentration of mandarin EO, lemon EO, or (+)-limonene did not decrease the sensory acceptability of the LWE-containing products, and lemon EO and mandarin EO even increased the hedonic acceptability of sponge cakes. In conclusion, this process could be applied in the food industry to obtain microbiologically safe LWE, which could be used to produce egg-based products without decreasing (and even increasing) their sensory appeal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative approach for management of an electrical storm in Brugada syndrome:Importance of primary ablation within a narrow time window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Karim Talib, MD, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Placement of an implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD is the only powerful treatment modality for Brugada syndrome in patients presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF. For those whose first presentation is an electrical storm, pharmacologic therapy is typically used to control VF followed by ICD implantation. We report an alternative approach whereby, before ICD implantation, emergency catheter ablation of the VF-triggering premature ventricular contraction (PVC resulted in long-term VF-free survival. The results suggest that, because VF triggers appear in a narrow time window, ablation of the culprit PVCs that initiate VF before the index PVCs subside is a reasonable alternative approach.

  9. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Pascal Atta; N'guessan, Yao; Morin, Celine; Voirol, Anne Jaecker; Descombes, Georges

    2017-02-01

    The electricity in Côte d'Ivoire is mainly produced from fossil energy sources. This causes damages on environment due to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The aim of this paper is to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit in this LCA is defined as 1 kWh of electricity produced by the combustion of jatropha oil or jatropha biodiesel in the engine of a generator. Two scenarios, called short chain and long chain, were examined in this LCA. The results show that 0.132 kg CO2 equivalent is emitted for the scenario 1 with jatropha oil as an alternative fuel against 0.6376 kg CO2 equivalent for the scenario 2 with jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel. An 87 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in scenario 1 and a 37 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in the scenario 2, when compared with a Diesel fuel.

  10. Detecting dynamic responses of materials and devices under an alternating electric potential by phase-locked transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Kentaro; Konings, Stan; Aso, Ryotaro; Kamiuchi, Naoto; Kobayashi, Genki; Yoshida, Hideto; Takeda, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    An apparatus is developed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to acquire image and spectral data, such as TEM images, electron holograms, and electron energy loss spectra, synchronized with the measurement of the dynamic response of a specimen under an applied alternating current (AC) electric potential (voltage, denoted V AC ). From a V AC of frequency f, a shutter pulse signal is generated to open and close a pre-specimen shutter in a base TEM apparatus. A pulse is generated per V AC cycle from the targeted phase Φ to Φ +∆Φ with phase width ∆Φ (∆Φ electron beam; i.e., ∆Φ =2πfτ. Because of the high sensitivity of the TEM camera used in this study, the images and spectra that are acquired at the same target phase are integrated by means of stroboscopic illumination to obtain the final phase-locked images and spectra with sufficiently small S/N ratio. Phase-locked (strobe) images and/or spectra are obtained for model specimens of polycrystalline aluminum and an all-solid-state lithium ion battery (LIB). In the phase-locked TEM conditions, f ranges from 1Hz to about 40kHz and ∆Φ from 2π/80 to π. V AC ranges from 2mV to 1V depending on observation conditions. The quality of phase-locked strobe images can be improved markedly using a phase-locked strobe electron beam. Under specific conditions, the spatial resolution in images is better than 0.12nm, even though the spatial resolution generally depends on V AC , f, the base TEM, and the conductivity of the specimen. For the model specimens, it is shown that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry can be performed in a TEM apparatus, and could potentially be synchronized with phase-locked (strobe) imaging and spectroscopy. Severe electron irradiation damage is detected during phase-locked (strobe) electron holography of the model LIB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eletroestimulação muscular: alternativa de tratamento coadjuvante para pacientes com doença arterial obstrutiva periférica Muscle electrostimulation: alternative adjuvant treatment to patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Helena de Oliveira Medeiros

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A doença arterial periférica faz parte de um grupo de patologias vasculares que evolui de forma lenta e progressiva. A proposta deste artigo foi avaliar, por meio de revisão bibliográfica, os possíveis benefícios da eletroestimulação crônica como tratamento coadjuvante para pacientes arteriopatas. De acordo com a literatura analisada, concluímos que a eletroestimulação é capaz de provocar alterações importantes no perfil metabólico das fibras musculares, convertendo-as do tipo II para o tipo I, o que induz o crescimento capilar, a densidade capilar e o suprimento de oxigênio. Desta forma, este recurso terapêutico aumenta a capacidade aeróbica oxidativa e a resistência à fadiga dos músculos isquêmicos. Assim, a eletroestimulação é mais um recurso terapêutico capaz de melhorar a habilidade para caminhar destes pacientes, diminuindo gastos com cirurgias de revascularização e complicações maiores.Peripheral arterial disease is included in a group of vascular diseases whose evolution is slow and progressive. This article aimed at performing a literature review to evaluate the benefits of chronic electrostimulation as adjuvant treatment for arteriopathic patients. Based on the literature, we concluded that electrostimulation can generate important changes in the metabolic profile of muscle fibers, switching them from type II to type I, which leads to capillary increase, capillary density and suppression of oxygen. Therefore, this therapeutic resource increases aerobic oxidative capacity and ischemic muscle resistance to fatigue. Thus, electrostimulation is another therapeutic option able to improve these patients' walking ability, reducing expenses related to revascularization surgeries and major complications.

  12. How to define green adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bert; Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2012-08-01

    The concept 'green adjuvants' is difficult to define. This paper formulates an answer based on two approaches. Starting from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) definition for green chemistry, production-based and environmental-impact-based definitions for green adjuvants are proposed. According to the production-based approach, adjuvants are defined as green if they are manufactured using renewable raw materials as much as possible while making efficient use of energy, preferably renewable energy. According to the environmental impact approach, adjuvants are defined as green (1) if they have a low human and environmental impact, (2) if they do not increase active ingredient environmental mobility and/or toxicity to humans and non-target organisms, (3) if they do not increase the exposure to these active substances and (4) if they lower the impact of formulated pesticides by enhancing the performance of active ingredients, thus potentially lowering the required dosage of active ingredients. Based on both approaches, a tentative definition for 'green adjuvants' is given, and future research and legislation directions are set out. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Pseudo-Mannosylated DC-SIGN Ligands as Potential Adjuvants for HIV Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Berzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new and effective adjuvants may play a fundamental role in improving HIV vaccine efficacy. New classes of vaccine adjuvants activate innate immunity receptors, notably toll like receptors (TLRs. Adjuvants targeting the C-Type lectin receptor DC-SIGN may be alternative or complementary to adjuvants based on TRL activation. Herein we evaluate the ability of the glycomimetic DC-SIGN ligand Polyman 19 (PM 19 to modulate innate immune responses. Results showed that PM 19 alone, or in combination with TLR agonists, induces the expression of cytokines, β chemokines and co-stimulatory molecules that may, in turn, modulate adaptive immunity and exert anti-viral effects. These results indicate that the suitability of this compound as a vaccine adjuvant should be further evaluated.

  14. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation; Stromeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien - Wirtschaftliche alternative zu Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  16. Laminated wood as an alternative to wood poles : Engineered wood structures for electric utility and telecommunications industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisdorff, R. [Laminated Wood Systems Inc., Seward, NE (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In this PowerPoint presentation, the author discusses the major advantages of laminated structures, for both the electric and telecommunication industries. The advantages include economy, quick delivery, climbing and field modifications, dimensional uniformity and stability. A series of pictures was displayed which showed the manufacturing process. Laminated structures have a proven history. They were developed in Europe in 1890, and introduced to the United States in 1934. Framing members were introduced in the late 1940s, while poles were introduced in 1963, two years ahead of steel poles. Some of the electrical utility applications include: (1) distribution structures, (2) transmission structures such as single-pole, phase over phase switch structures, tangent structures, and H-Frame construction. The applications for the telecommunication industry consist of joint use structures, such as electric and telecommunication, lighting and telecommunication, overhead telephone and wireless; mono-pole applications; three-pole Bell Towers; and tree poles. Examples of each type were shown. figs.

  17. Solution pH change in non-uniform alternating current electric fields at frequencies above the electrode charging frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ran; Massa, Katherine; Wipf, David O; Minerick, Adrienne R

    2014-11-01

    AC Faradaic reactions have been reported as a mechanism inducing non-ideal phenomena such as flow reversal and cell deformation in electrokinetic microfluidic systems. Prior published work described experiments in parallel electrode arrays below the electrode charging frequency (fc ), the frequency for electrical double layer charging at the electrode. However, 2D spatially non-uniform AC electric fields are required for applications such as in plane AC electroosmosis, AC electrothermal pumps, and dielectrophoresis. Many microscale experimental applications utilize AC frequencies around or above fc . In this work, a pH sensitive fluorescein sodium salt dye was used to detect [H(+)] as an indicator of Faradaic reactions in aqueous solutions within non-uniform AC electric fields. Comparison experiments with (a) parallel (2D uniform fields) electrodes and (b) organic media were employed to deduce the electrode charging mechanism at 5 kHz (1.5fc ). Time dependency analysis illustrated that Faradaic reactions exist above the theoretically predicted electrode charging frequency. Spatial analysis showed [H(+)] varied spatially due to electric field non-uniformities and local pH changed at length scales greater than 50 μm away from the electrode surface. Thus, non-uniform AC fields yielded spatially varied pH gradients as a direct consequence of ion path length differences while uniform fields did not yield pH gradients; the latter is consistent with prior published data. Frequency dependence was examined from 5 kHz to 12 kHz at 5.5 Vpp potential, and voltage dependency was explored from 3.5 to 7.5 Vpp at 5 kHz. Results suggest that Faradaic reactions can still proceed within electrochemical systems in the absence of well-established electrical double layers. This work also illustrates that in microfluidic systems, spatial medium variations must be considered as a function of experiment time, initial medium conditions, electric signal potential, frequency, and

  18. Head-only followed by cardiac arrest electrical stunning is an effective alternative to head-only electrical stunning in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, K D; Badtram, G; Claus, J R; Grandin, T; Turpin, S; Weyker, R E; Voogd, E

    2011-05-01

    Many small slaughter facilities use head-only electrical stunning to render swine unconscious and insensible to pain before slaughter. Head-only electrical stunning is a reversible procedure that is optimally effective for approximately 15 s after stun completion. In many small North American slaughter plants, the authors have observed hoist speeds that are too slow to achieve a short enough stun-to-bleed interval to maintain insensibility through exsanguination. Unlike many European plants, there is no separate high-speed hoist for pigs and exsanguination on the floor is not condoned. As a result, a 2-stage stunning method was proposed where head-only stunning for 3 s was immediately followed by application of the same stunning wand to the cardiac region of the animal for 3 s while lying in lateral recumbancy. A paired-comparison study was conducted on 89 pigs in a small slaughter facility to compare the head-only method applied for 6 s with the head/heart method. The objective was to evaluate signs of return to sensibility, stun-to-bleed time, blood lactate concentration, muscle pH, drip loss, and fresh meat color to validate the head/heart electrical stunning method for small slaughter plants. Incidence of corneal reflex was not different (P > 0.05) between head/heart (93.8%) and head only (85%) stunning. Nose twitching was more common (P 0.05) between stunning methods (head only: 8.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L, head/heart: 7.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L). Stun-to-bleed time did not differ (P > 0.05; head only: 32 ± 1 s, head/heart: 33 ± 1 s). Mean time to loss of heartbeat with the head-only method was 121 ± 5 s. No heartbeat was observed with the head/heart method. Longissimus thoracis pH, color, and drip loss were not different (P > 0.05) between stunning methods. This study determined that the head/heart electrical stunning method reduces the incidence of signs of return to sensibility without significant effects on meat quality, plant operation speed, or blood lactate

  19. QS-21: a potent vaccine adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    QS-21 is an potent adjuvant derived from the bark of a Chilean tree, Quillaja saponaria. One of the advantages of this adjuvant is that it promotes a balanced humoral and cell-mediaed immune response and can be widely applicable to a variety of vaccines. This adjuvant has used for some veterinary va...

  20. Physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waart, H.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the effect of physical exercise during chemotherapy. In chapter two the study design, rationale and methods of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Study (PACES) are described. Chapter three presents the effects of the randomized controlled trial evaluating a

  1. Impact of alternative electrical stunning parameters on the ability of broilers to recover consciousness and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency (12-38V, =400Hz) DC or AC water bath stunners. In the European Union, however, broilers are required to be electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency (50-150V, 50-350Hz) AC. Low voltage stunned broil...

  2. A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about Electric Potential, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of electric potential and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…

  3. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  4. Measuring the length distribution of self-assembled lipid nanotubes by orientation control with a high-frequency alternating current electric field in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ken; Aoyagi, Masaru; Ishido, Tomomi; Ooie, Toshihiko; Frusawa, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Masumi; Shimizu, Toshimi; Ishikawa, Mitsuru

    2009-02-15

    The present work addresses the length distribution of self-assembled lipid nanotubes (LNTs) by controlling the orientation of the LNTs using an alternating current (ac) electric field in aqueous solutions. The effect of the ac field on the orientation and rotation of individual LNTs was examined to evaluate the optimum orientation frequency by visualizing the individual LNTs in real time. By using the high-frequency ac field, we have successfully measured the length distribution for two different types of LNTs and have quantitatively analyzed the maximum occurrences of the length distribution as well as the extension of the longer length region.

  5. Design study of a 15 kW free-piston Stirling engine-linear alternator for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochat, G. R.; Chen, H. S.; Bhate, S.; Marusak, T.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design of a free piston solar Stirling engine-linear alternator which can be designed and developed to meet the requirements of a near-term solar test bed engine with minimum risks was developed. The conceptual design was calculated to have an overall system efficiency of 38% and provide 15kW electric output. The free piston engine design incorporates features such as gas bearings, close clearance seals, and gas springs. This design is hermetically sealed to provide long life, reliability, and maintenance free operation. An implementation assessment study performed indicates that the free piston solar Stirling engine-linear alternator can be manufactured at a reasonable price cost (direct labor plus material) of $2,500 per engine in production quantities of 25,000 units per year. Opportunity for significant reduction of cost was also identified.

  6. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor.

  7. Characterization of alternative electric generation technologies for the SPS comparative assessment: volume 2, central-station technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program includes a comparative assessment. An early first step in the assessment process is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies. This document describes the cost and performance (i.e., technical and environmental) characteristics of six central station energy alternatives: (1) conventional coal-fired powerplant; (2) conventional light water reactor (LWR); (3) combined cycle powerplant with low-Btu gasifiers; (4) liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR); (5) photovoltaic system without storage; and (6) fusion reactor

  8. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    1999-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  9. A Review of the Responses of Two- and Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues to Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hronik-Tupaj, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The application of external biophysical signals is one approach to tissue engineering that is explored less often than more traditional additions of exogenous biochemical and chemical factors to direct cell and tissue outcomes. The study of bioelectromagnetism and the field of electrotherapeutics have evolved over the years, and we review biocompatible electric stimulation devices and their successful application to tissue growth. Specifically, information on capacitively coupled alternating current, inductively coupled alternating current, and direct current devices is described. Cell and tissue responses from the application of these devices, including two- and three-dimensional in vitro studies and in vivo studies, are reviewed with regard to cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, morphology, and migration and tissue function. The current understanding of cellular mechanisms related to electric stimulation is detailed. The advantages of electric stimulation are compared with those pf other techniques, and areas in which electric fields are used as an adjuvant therapy for healing and regeneration are discussed. PMID:22046979

  10. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  11. Usefulness of the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories as alternative adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with resectable stage II or III colorectal cancer: a KODK4 multicenter randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Koji; Hasegawa, Hirotoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ohishi, Takashi; Hisa, Akio; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and conferred protection against recurrence of preoperatively administered tegafur suppositories following the intravenous and oral administration of fluoropyrimidine in a multicenter randomized control trial. Patients with clinical T3/4 colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to receive the preoperative administration of tegafur suppositories (group A) or no preoperative treatment (group B). The primary end points were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The mean follow-up periods were 80.9 ± 31.0 months in group A and 64.5 ± 28.8 months in group B. The 5-year DFS rates were 89.3% in group A and 70.3% in group B (p = 0.045), whereas the 5-year OS rates were 91.4% in group A and 73.2% in group B (p = 0.051). Furthermore, a significant difference in the cumulative distant metastatic rate was observed (group A, 7.4% vs. group B, 23.4%; p = 0.03). However, no significant difference in the cumulative local recurrence rate was seen (group A, 4.6% vs. group B, 8.2%; p = 0.68). Despite a relatively small sample size, preoperative tegafur suppositories might protect recurrences and improve survival rates, mainly by preventing distant metastasis. These findings suggest the utility of tegafur suppositories as an alternative neoadjuvant treatment in modern chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Constitutive activation of alternative nuclear factor kappa B pathway in canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma contributes to tumor cell survival and is a target of new adjuvant therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, Davis M; Ito, Daisuke; Forster, Colleen L; Yoon, Una A; Breen, Matthew; Burns, Linda J; Bachanova, Veronika; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; O'Brien, Timothy D; Schmechel, Stephen C; Rizzardi, Anthony E; Modiano, Jaime F; Linden, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    Activation of the classical nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) pathway is a common molecular event observed in both human and canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Although the oncogenic potential of the alternative NFκB pathway (ANFκBP) has also been recently identified in DLBCL, its precise role in tumor pathogenesis and potential as a treatment target is understudied. We hypothesized that up-regulation of the ANFκBP plays an important role in the proliferation and survival of canine DLBCL cells, and we demonstrate that the ANFκBP is constitutively active in primary canine DLBCL samples and a cell line (CLBL1). We further demonstrate that a small interfering RNA inhibits the activation of the NFκB pathway and induces apoptosis in canine DLBCL cells. In conclusion, the ANFκBP facilitates survival of canine DLBCL cells, and thus, dogs with spontaneous DLBCL can provide a useful large animal model to study therapies targeting the ANFκBP.

  13. All printed transparent electrodes through an electrical switching mechanism: A convincing alternative to indium-tin-oxide, silver and vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Søndergaard, Roar; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Here we show polymer solar cells manufactured using only printing and coating of abundant materials directly on flexible plastic substrates or barrier foil using only roll-to-roll methods. Central to the development is a particular roll-to-roll compatible post-processing step that converts...... the pristine and non-functional multilayer-coated stack into a functional solar cell through formation of a charge selective interface, in situ, following a short electrical pulse with a high current density. After the fast post-processing step the device stack becomes active and all devices are functional...

  14. Accounting for adjuvant-induced artifacts in the characterization of vaccine formulations by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Virginie; Brunner, Livia; Barnier-Quer, Christophe; Blust, Molly; Collin, Nicolas; Carter, Lauren; Carter, Darrick; Rausch, Kelly M; Fox, Christopher B

    2017-04-01

    Several vaccine adjuvants comprise complex nano- or micro-particle formulations, such as oil-in-water emulsions. In order to characterize interactions and compatibility of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants with protein antigens in vaccines, effective protein characterization methods that can accommodate potential interference from high concentrations of lipid-based particles are needed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a standard protein characterization technique which is affected by the presence of adjuvants such as oil-in-water emulsions. In this article, we investigate variations in SDS-PAGE methods that result in a reduction of adjuvant-induced staining artifacts. We have investigated whether the SDS method or the adjuvant composition were the reason for these artifacts and succeeded in reducing the artifacts with a modified sample preparation and different staining procedures. The best results were obtained by using gold staining or silver staining instead of a Coomassie Blue staining procedure. Moreover, the replacement of the dilution buffer (20% SDS to disrupt emulsion) by alternative detergents such as Tween® 80 and Triton® X-100 removed adjuvant-induced streaking artifacts at the top of the gel. These methods may be useful for improving characterization approaches of antigen-adjuvant mixtures by SDS-PAGE.

  15. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ''best alternatives'': Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases

  16. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ``best alternatives``: Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases.

  17. COMPLEAT (Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies): A planning tool for publicly owned electric utilities. [Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies (Compleat)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    COMPLEAT takes its name, as an acronym, from Community-Oriented Model for Planning Least-Cost Energy Alternatives and Technologies. It is an electric utility planning model designed for use principally by publicly owned electric utilities and agencies serving such utilities. As a model, COMPLEAT is significantly more full-featured and complex than called out in APPA's original plan and proposal to DOE. The additional complexity grew out of a series of discussions early in the development schedule, in which it became clear to APPA staff and advisors that the simplicity characterizing the original plan, while highly desirable in terms of utility applications, was not achievable if practical utility problems were to be addressed. The project teams settled on Energy 20/20, an existing model developed by Dr. George Backus of Policy Assessment Associates, as the best candidate for the kinds of modifications and extensions that would be required. The remainder of the project effort was devoted to designing specific input data files, output files, and user screens and to writing and testing the compute programs that would properly implement the desired features around Energy 20/20 as a core program. This report presents in outline form, the features and user interface of COMPLEAT.

  18. The Weighted Peak Method in the Time Domain Compared With Alternative Methods for Assessing LF Electric and Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    Directive 2013/35/EU of the European Parliament and Council recommends the weighted peak method for assessing non-thermal effects of low frequency (LF) electric and magnetic fields. This article shows that this method is very practical and user friendly and is absolutely reliable to lead to correct results when applied in the time domain. The method can be used without limitations for any field profile and emulates the underlying physical and biological effects significantly better than all other presently known methods. For this reason, this method is described and recommended in many technical standards for assessing the non-thermal effects of electromagnetic fields and is recognized by the international scientific community. The disadvantages of competing methods are demonstrated. Some technical aspects of real measurement systems are also examined.

  19. Temporal evolution and alternation of mechanisms of electric-field-induced patterns at ultralow-frequency driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éber, Nándor; Palomares, Laura O; Salamon, Péter; Krekhov, Alexei; Buka, Ágnes

    2012-08-01

    The temporal evolution of patterns within the driving period of the ac voltage was studied in the 10-mHz-250-Hz frequency range. It was shown that the stationary electroconvection pattern of the conductive regime transforms into a flashing one at ultralow frequencies, existing only in narrow time windows within the period. Furthermore a transition between electroconvection and flexoelectric domains was detected which is repeating in each half period. The two patterns are well separated in time and in Fourier space. Simultaneous current measurements uncovered that the electric properties of the polyimide orienting layers influence the redistribution of the applied voltage. The experimental findings are in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions based on an extended standard model including flexoelectricity.

  20. Carbon black as an alternative cathode material for electrical energy recovery and transfer in a microbial battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqin; Guo, Kun; Shen, Dongsheng; Feng, Huajun; Wang, Meizhen; Zhou, Yuyang; Jia, Yufeng; Liang, Yuxiang; Zhou, Mengjiao

    2017-08-01

    Rather than the conventional concept of viewing conductive carbon black (CB) to be chemically inert in microbial electrochemical cells (MECs), here we confirmed the redox activity of CB for its feasibility as an electron sink in the microbial battery (MB). Acting as the cathode of a MB, the solid-state CB electrode showed the highest electron capacity equivalent of 18.58 ± 0.46 C/g for the unsintered one and the lowest capacity of 2.29 ± 0.48 C/g for the one sintered under 100% N 2 atmosphere. The capacity vibrations of CBs were strongly in coincidence with the abundances of C=O moiety caused by different pretreatments and it implied one plausible mechanism based on CB's surface functionality for its electron capturing. Once subjected to electron saturation, CB could be completely regenerated by different strategies in terms of electrochemical discharging or donating electrons to biologically-catalyzed nitrate reduction. Surface characterization also revealed that CB's regeneration fully depended on the reversible shift of C=O moiety, further confirming the functionality-based mechanism for CB's feasibility as the role of MB's cathode. Moreover, resilience tests demonstrated that CB cathode was robust for the multi-cycles charging-discharging operations. These results imply that CB is a promising alternative material for the solid-state cathode in MBs.

  1. Electric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Seong

    2006-02-01

    This book explains electric theory which is divided into four chapters. The first chapter includes electricity and material, electric field, capacitance, magnetic field and electromagnetic force, inductance. The second chapter mentions electronic circuit analysis, electric resistance,heating and power, chemical activity on current and battery with electrolysis. The third chapter deals with an alternating current circuit about the basics of an AC circuit, operating of resistance, inductance and capacitance, series circuit and parallel circuit of PLC, an alternating current circuit, Three-phase Alternating current, two terminal pair network and voltage and current of non-linearity circuit. The last explains transient phenomena of RC series circuit, RL series circuit, transient phenomena of an alternating current circuit and transient phenomena of RLC series circuit.

  2. Electric empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the economic and political aspects of Ontario Hydro, a provincial crown corporation. He also deals with nuclear safety of the CANDU reactors and the ecological effects of electric power supply. Alternate sources of energy are also mentioned

  3. MODEL OF AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM CHANNEL OF ALTERNATIVE CURRENT RUNNING ON A GENERALIZED UNBALANCED THREE-PHASE LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksej Gennad'evich Demchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to mathematical modeling of the channel of AC on-board power supply systems (PSS when running on static active-inductive load, connected on a "wye with neutral" and "delta". The mathematical model of aircraft synchronous generator, electricity distribution, three-phase static active-inductive load are considered. When making a mathematical description the author used the equations for the voltages of windings and flux linkages cir- cuits of the stator and rotor of the generator in a stationary system phase coordinates "ABC". When considering the mathe- matical model of the distribution system, the equations that took into account the drop of the voltages on the active and inductive resistance of the distribution system power wires were used. When considering the mathematical models of three- phase static loads connected on a "wye with neutral" and "delta", the equations that took into account the drop of the volt- ages on the active and inductive resistance loads were used. The matrix equations system of channel PSS AC when running on a generalized three-phase static active-inductive load was obtained. The three phase static loads scheme connected ac- cording to the "delta" scheme was converted to "wye" to simplify the solution of channel PSS AC circuit matrix equations system. The choice of the phase coordinates system "ABC" for the mathematical description of the generator, distribution system and the static load was made due to its advantage over the coordinate system "dq", because the equation written in phase coordinates are valid for symmetric and asymmetric modes of the generator, while the equations written in the coor- dinate system "dq" will be valid only for symmetric modes. As a result of joint solution of the generator equations, distribution system, three-phase static loads there were obtained the formulae for the generator stator winding phases, gen- erator phases currents, the voltage drops on the load

  4. Electrification of small rural properties in the Cangucu-Brazil city using alternative sources for electricity generation; Eletrificacao de pequenas propriedades rurais do municipio de Cangucu empregando fontes alternativas para a producao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecktheuer, Lucio Almeida [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia

    1998-12-31

    This paper aims at specifying and measuring the main alternative electrification system components, such as solar and eolic, which make use of the property`s energetical potential that, to a small extent, do not represent pollution sources to the environment. The results indicated that, the small rural properties of Cangucu country, which present a low daily electric energy consumption, these alternative systems are able to technically and economically supply electric energy and provide reasonable subsidies to electrification projects which can eventually be developed in the country. (author) 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. House dust extracts contain potent immunological adjuvants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukelman, C.J.; Dijk, H. van; Aerts, P.C.; Rademaker, P.M.; Berrens, L.; Willers, J.M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A crude aqueous extract of house dust and two house dust subfractions were tested for adjuvant activity in a sensitivity assay performed in mice. Evidence is presented that house dust contains at least two potent immunological adjuvants. One of these, present in both subfractions, was probably

  6. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Matthew N; Forrester, Douglas L; Smyth, Alan R

    2013-06-05

    treatment of lung infection in those with cystic fibrosis. The emergence of increasingly resistant bacteria makes the reliance on antibiotics alone challenging for cystic fibrosis teams. There is a need to explore alternative strategies, such as the use of adjuvant therapies. Further research is required to provide future therapeutic options.

  7. Control strategy minimizing the converter-alternating current motor losses: application to electric traction; Strategies de commande minimisant les pertes d'un ensemble convertisseur - machine alternative: application a la traction electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastiani, Ph.

    2001-02-01

    Improving the efficiency of the converter-alternating current motor system is a major task in electric traction. Global energy optimisation implies a specific approach at system scale. To reach this goal, we have chosen an algebraic method using sub-system models. To start with, a synchronous machine Park model is developed to take account magnetic saturation and iron losses. Then, an averaged model of the voltage inverter is used in order to obtain a simplified model of the losses to be implemented in our optimisation method. This is how the global model is built including losses in the synchronous machine along with the losses of the power converter. Experimental results are there to validate our approach. This study proposes a method based on algebraic formulation of the general laws to control torque. Algorithms take into account magnetic circuits saturation and power losses in both the machine and its converter. Here again, experimental results validate the algorithm on several test benches. Achieved efficiency improvement is important compared to existing usual control strategies. The proposed method can be generalised to other machine-converter systems. As a matter of fact we have extended our study to the induction machine. As a complement ti this study we have looked at the effects natural limitations of voltages and currents in the torque-speed plane. Therefore algebraic formulation of the torque-speed plane and optimisation strategies are proposed including those constraints. (author)

  8. Application of Quillaja saponaria extracts as oral adjuvants for plant-made vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Dwayne D; Rempel, Rachel; Pinkhasov, Julia; Walmsley, Amanda M

    2004-06-01

    Extracts from the Quillaja saponaria tree are known to provide immune potentiating responses and, hence, can be useful as adjuvants. Partial purification from the crude (food-grade) extract results in Quil A, which is contained in several veterinary vaccines. Further purification can provide concentrated saponin fractions such as QS-21, which is currently under investigation as a potential adjuvant for use in humans. Purified saponins have proven safe and effective when injected and have significantly enhanced the efficacy of some oral vaccines under clinical investigation. Toxicity of the food-grade extract from Quillaja saponaria has limited its use as a parenteral adjuvant; however, this toxicity seems to be abated when delivered orally. It is commonly used within the food and beverage industries and has no documented toxicity in humans at the present levels of consumption. Use of transgenic plants has been proposed as an alternative system for oral vaccine production and administration, and it is likely that an oral adjuvant will be required in most cases. Food-grade saponins have significant advantages for use with plant-made vaccines and are likely to provide a broad adjuvant effect due to the multiple saponin components. A review of the origin, production, biological activity, toxicity and use in the food industry is provided for Quillaja saponaria extract. Previous evaluation of this adjuvant in preclinical studies with plant made vaccines is discussed and a proposed level of experimental use in humans is provided.

  9. Adjuvant analgesics for spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rikke Vibeke

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence indicate that pain is insufficiently treated following surgical procedures. It is essential that pain treatment is effective with a minimum of side effects in order to promote postoperative rehabilitation. Multimodal analgesia is most likely an important strategy in reducing postoperative pain. Combinations of different analgesics with different mechanisms of action may have an additive analgesic effect with fewer side effects compared to using a single drug. However, there is still a pronounced lack of documentation for the effect and side effects of these multimodal analgesic regimes. More than 6,000 spine surgeries are performed annually in Denmark and spine surgery has been associated with high levels of pain compared to other surgical procedures. Therefore, we considered spine surgery to pose a group of well-defined surgical procedures and we used this model to investigate the efficacy of 3 adjuvant analgesics aiming to improve the multimodal approach in pain management.
 
In study I and II we hypothesized that preoperative IV dexamethasone 16 mg would reduce acute postoperative pain, opioid consumption and persistent pain after lumbar disk surgery. We found that dexamethasone significantly reduced acute pain during mobilization. The clinical relevance is however debatable and we could not demonstrate an opioid sparing effect. Further, we discovered significantly higher pain levels in the dexamethasone group compared to placebo 1 year postoperatively.
 
In study III we explored the effect of 500 mg of oral chlorzoxazone on acute postoperative pain and opioid consumption in patients with moderate to severe pain after spine surgery and found no effect of chlorzoxazone compared to placebo.
 
In study IV we hypothesized that intraoperative ketamine would reduce postoperative opioid consumption and persistent pain after spinal fusion surgery in chronic pain patients with opioid dependency. We found a significantly reduced opioid

  10. The effect of burst-duty-cycle parameters of medium-frequency alternating current on maximum electrically induced torque of the quadriceps femoris, discomfort, and tolerated current amplitude in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebano, Richard Eloin; Waszczuk, Silas; Corrêa, Juliana Barbosa

    2013-12-01

    Repeated-measures, within-subject crossover trial. The primary objective was to assess the effect of the burst-duty-cycle parameters of medium-frequency alternating current on the maximum electrically induced torque of the quadriceps femoris. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the amount of discomfort tolerated and the maximum current amplitude delivered for each electrical-stimulation condition. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation used for muscle strengthening can improve functional performance. However, the electrical-stimulation parameters to achieve optimal outcomes are still unknown. Previous studies have demonstrated that the characteristics of the burst duty cycle of medium-frequency alternating current influence torque-generation levels and perception of sensory discomfort. The maximum electrically induced torque was assessed with a medium-frequency alternating current, with a carrier frequency of 2500 Hz and a modulated frequency of 50 Hz. The current amplitude was gradually increased to the point of the participant's maximum tolerance level. The testing sequence for the 3 burst duty cycles (20%, 35%, and 50%) was performed in a randomized order. Electrical stimulation using a 20% burst duty cycle produced an electrically induced torque greater than the 35% (P = .01) and 50% (P<.01) burst duty cycles, with no difference between the 35% and 50% burst duty cycles (P = .46). There was no difference in the amount of sensory discomfort produced by the 3 durations of burst duty cycles (P = .34). There was also no difference between the 3 conditions for the maximum current amplitude tolerated (P = .62). The burst duty cycle of 20% of medium-frequency alternating current, compared to burst duty cycles of 35% and 50%, produced higher peak torque of the quadriceps femoris in professional soccer players. There was no difference in discomfort produced and current amplitude tolerated between the different burst-duty-cycle conditions.

  11. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  12. Safety of vaccine adjuvants: focus on autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Gould, Sarah; Tanir, Jennifer Y

    2015-03-24

    Questions have been recently raised regarding the safety of vaccine adjuvants, particularly in relation to autoimmunity or autoimmune disease(s)/disorder(s) (AID). The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed a scientific committee and convened a 2-day workshop, consisting of technical experts from around the world representing academia, government regulatory agencies, and industry, to investigate and openly discuss the issues around adjuvant safety in vaccines. The types of adjuvants considered included oil-in-water emulsions and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. The state of science around the use of animal models and biomarkers for the evaluation and prediction of AID were also discussed. Following extensive literature reviews by the HESI committee, and presentations by experts at the workshop, several key points were identified, including the value of animal models used to study autoimmunity and AID toward studying novel vaccine adjuvants; whether there is scientific evidence indicating an intrinsic risk of autoimmunity and AID with adjuvants, or a higher risk resulting from the mechanism of action; and if there is compelling clinical data linking adjuvants and AID. The tripartite group of experts concluded that there is no compelling evidence supporting the association of vaccine adjuvants with autoimmunity signals. Additionally, it is recommended that future research on the potential effects of vaccine adjuvants on AID should consider carefully the experimental design in animal models particularly if they are to be used in any risk assessment, as an improper design and model could result in misleading information. Finally, studies on the mechanistic aspects and potential biomarkers related to adjuvants and autoimmunity phenomena could be developed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Dense Layer of Bacteriophages Ordered in Alternating Electric Field and Immobilized by Surface Chemical Modification as Sensing Element for Bacteria Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Łukasz; Bielec, Krzysztof; Leśniewski, Adam; Łoś, Marcin; Paczesny, Jan; Hołyst, Robert

    2017-06-14

    Faster and more sensitive environmental monitoring should be developed to face the worldwide problem of bacterial infections. To remedy this issue, we demonstrate a bacteria-sensing element that utilizes dense and ordered layers of bacteriophages specific to the given bacteria strain. We combine (1) the chemical modification of a surface to increase the surface coverage of bacteriophages (2) with an alternating electric field to greatly increase the number of properly oriented bacteriophages at the surface. Usually, in sensing elements, a random orientation of bacteriophages results in steric hindrance, which results in no more than a few percent of all receptors being available. An increased number of properly ordered phages results in the optimal performance of phage receptors, manifesting in up to a 64-fold increase in sensitivity and a limit of detection as low as 100 CFU mL -1 . Our sensing elements can be applied for selective, sensitive, and fast (15 min) bacterial detection. A well-studied pair T4 bacteriophage-bacteria Escherichia coli, was used as a model; however, the method could be adapted to prepare bacteriophage-based sensors for detection of a variety of bacterial strains.

  14. Electroacupuncture Inhibits Inflammation Reaction by Upregulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Feng He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is emerging as an alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect of acupuncture has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Xuanzhong (GB39; and Shenshu (BL23 markedly decreased the paw swelling and the histologic scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue, and reduced the body weight loss in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. However, the electrical stimulation at nonacupoint did not produce any beneficial effects against the experimental arthritis. Most interestingly, the electroacupuncture treatment resulted in an enhanced immunostaining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, in the synovial tissue. Moreover, the VIP-immunostaining intensity was significantly negatively correlated with the scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue (r=−0.483, P=.0026. In conclusion, these findings suggest that electroacupuncture may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of RA, at least partially through the induction of VIP expression.

  15. Extended Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on findings from a recent clinical trial which showed that extending adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor can have important benefits for some women with early-stage cancer.

  16. Proteoliposome derived cochleate as novel adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Gustavo; Lastre, Miriam; del Campo, Judith; Zayas, Caridad; González, Domingo; Gil, Danay; Acevedo, Reinaldo; Taboada, Carlos; Solís, Rosa L; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Cochleate structures (CS) consist in a highly stable lipid structures that have been reported to be a good antigen delivery system. The incorporation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) from bacterial membranes into CS became in a promising approach to develop adjuvants, particularly mucosal adjuvants. Therefore, we prepare CS from proteoliposome (PL) obtained from Neisseria meningitidis B (PLCS) and evaluated it for its capability to stimulate the immune system as well as the adjuvant activity. The ability of PLCS to induce Thl polarization was also explored. The results and the easy capability for new antigen incorporation on CS support its use as adjuvant for immunization with a large variety of pathogen derived antigens and different routes of immunization.

  17. Adjuvant Bisphosphonates for Postmenopausal Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of a meta-analysis of randomized trials of bisphosphonates as adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage breast cancer that shows the drugs can reduce the rate of disease recurrence in bone.

  18. Novel Adjuvants and Immunomodulators for Veterinary Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Fang, Yongxiang; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants are crucial for efficacy of vaccines, especially subunit and recombinant vaccines. Rational vaccine design, including knowledge-based and molecularly defined adjuvants tailored for directing and potentiating specific types of host immune responses towards the antigens included...... in the vaccine is becoming a reality with our increased understanding of innate and adaptive immune activation. This will allow future vaccines to induce immune reactivity having adequate specificity as well as protective and recallable immune effector mechanisms in appropriate body compartments, including...

  19. Applications of nanomaterials as vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Wang, Rongfu; Nie, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are applied to amplify the recipient's specific immune responses against pathogen infection or malignancy. A new generation of adjuvants is being developed to meet the demands for more potent antigen-specific responses, specific types of immune responses, and a high margin of safety. Nanotechnology provides a multifunctional stage for the integration of desired adjuvant activities performed by the building blocks of tailor-designed nanoparticles. Using nanomaterials for antigen delivery can provide high bioavailability, sustained and controlled release profiles, and targeting and imaging properties resulting from manipulation of the nanomaterials’ physicochemical properties. Moreover, the inherent immune-regulating activity of particular nanomaterials can further promote and shape the cellular and humoral immune responses toward desired types. The combination of both the delivery function and immunomodulatory effect of nanomaterials as adjuvants is thought to largely benefit the immune outcomes of vaccination. In this review, we will address the current achievements of nanotechnology in the development of novel adjuvants. The potential mechanisms by which nanomaterials impact the immune responses to a vaccine and how physicochemical properties, including size, surface charge and surface modification, impact their resulting immunological outcomes will be discussed. This review aims to provide concentrated information to promote new insights for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants. PMID:25483497

  20. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Herrera, Ileana

    2002-01-01

    The main objetives of this work are to determine the tolerability of the adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy's treatment in Costa Rican patients in the Hospital San Juan de Dios, as well as to value the toxicity's level presented. A bibliographic review is realized to justify the use of this treatment's type and to determine the feasibility of its performance with the different services that are involved. The treatment's plan consisted on: after an undergoing of a gastrectomy, the patients were appointed to receive post-operative treatment combined of 5-F U plus leucovorin and radiation. The fluoracil was injected intravenous in continue infusion. The obtained results prove that the use of a lineal accelerator must be recommended as a standard treatment for this pathology by the region to treat and the complexity of the fields. The ganglion dissection performed with more frequency is inferior to one D 2, and the treatment with radiotherapy cobalt 60 and infusion al 5-F U is well tolerated with moderate-light toxicity and easily manageable [es

  1. Physical characterization and in silico modeling of inulin polymer conformation during vaccine adjuvant particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Thomas G; Rajapaksha, Harinda; Thilagam, Alagu; Qian, Gujie; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Cooper, Peter D; Gerson, Andrea; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-06-05

    This study combined physical data from synchrotron SAXS, FTIR and microscopy with in-silico molecular structure predictions and mathematical modeling to examine inulin adjuvant particle formation and structure. The results show that inulin polymer chains adopt swollen random coil in solution. As precipitation occurs from solution, interactions between the glucose end group of one chain and a fructose group of an adjacent chain help drive organized assembly, initially forming inulin ribbons with helical organization of the chains orthogonal to the long-axis of the ribbon. Subsequent aggregation of the ribbons results in the layered semicrystalline particles previously shown to act as potent vaccine adjuvants. γ-Inulin adjuvant particles consist of crystalline layers 8.5 nm thick comprising helically organized inulin chains orthogonal to the plane of the layer. These crystalline layers alternate with amorphous layers 2.4 nm thick, to give overall particle crystallinity of 78%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lowering of sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds with burst duration using kilohertz-frequency alternating current electric stimulation: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alex R; Chuen, Wendy Lee Hung

    2009-09-01

    To determine the optimum burst duration for discrimination between sensory, motor, and pain tolerance thresholds using 20-Hz bursts of kilohertz-frequency sinusoidal alternating current (AC) applied transcutaneously to human participants. A within-subject, repeated-measures trial. A research laboratory. Healthy young adults (N=20). Bursts of AC electric stimulation at frequencies of 1 and 4 kHz. The burst frequency was 20 Hz. Burst durations ranged from 250 microseconds (for 1 cycle of 4-kHz AC) and 1 millisecond (for 1 cycle of 1-kHz AC) to 50 milliseconds (continuous AC). Measurement of sensory, motor, and pain-tolerance thresholds. Thresholds decreased to a minimum with increasing burst duration. The minimum threshold identified the utilization time over which summation of subthreshold stimuli occurs. Utilization times were different for sensory (approximately 20 ms), motor (approximately 30 ms), and pain (>50 ms) and were much higher than found in a previous study that used a higher burst frequency (50 Hz). As with the previous study, relative thresholds were found to vary with burst duration. Despite the very different utilization times, maximum separation between sensory, motor, and pain thresholds was found to occur with bursts in the range of 1 to 4 milliseconds, the same range found in the previous study. Our conclusions concur with those reported previously and support the contention that short-duration kilohertz-frequency AC bursts (1-4 ms) have a more useful role in rehabilitation than the long-duration kilohertz-frequency bursts that characterize Russian and interferential currents.

  3. Impact of energy efficiency and alternative sources in the Brazilian electric matrix: scenarios 2005-2050; Impacto da eficiencia energetica e das fontes alternativas na matriz eletrica brasileira: cenarios 2005-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidel, Marco A.; Gimenes, Andre L.V.; Fujii, Ricardo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GEPEA/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Furtado, Marcelo [Greenpeace Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Part of a worldwide initiative championed by Greenpeace International and EREC - European Renewable Energy Council, a partnership between Greenpeace Brazil and GEPEA/USP were established for producing two national alternative energy scenarios, as a blueprint for how to meet forthcoming Brazilian energy needs in a sustainable way. Such scenarios, one reflecting the views of GEPEA/USP and another the perceptions by Greenpeace, were both based on a reference scenario strongly drawing from the 'Plano Decenal 2006-2015' and the 'Plano Nacional de Energia 2030', both by the Ministry of Mines and Energy. From the alternative scenarios one may see that is feasible to satisfy the increasing Brazilian demand through the integrated deployment of alternative resources, Natural Gas fueled thermal power plants and energy conservation measures. To develop the Brazilian electricity energy base in such terms, however, is mandatory to conduct further debate on energy planning issues, conservation measures and alternatives resources concerns included. (author)

  4. Selective use of adjuvant radiation therapy in resectable colorectal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.M.; Gunderson, L.L.; Welch, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Colorectal cancer recurs within the operative field in 10-20 per cent of patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. In certain subgroups, the recurrence rate is 20-50 per cent. There are some data to suggest either preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy as an adjuvant to potentially curative surgery can reduce the local operative failure rate. However, since radiation therapy has significant side effects, patient selection to maximize the therapeutic ratio is important. This report defines the criteria at the Massachusetts General Hospital for selection of patients with colorectal cancer for adjuvant radiation therapy, defines radiation therapy-surgery sequencing alternatives used, and describes techniques to reduce radiation side effects. Over a period of three and a half years, 196 patients received adjuvant radiation therapy: 51 patients received either moderate or low dose preoperative radiation therapy to rectal or rectosigmoid cancers, and 161 patients received postoperative radiation therapy to the pelvis or extrapelvic colonic tumor-lymph node beds. Some patients who received low-dose preoperative radiation therapy also received moderate-dose postoperative radiation therapy. We prefer moderate-dose postoperative radiation therapy as the approach most likely to decrease the local recurrence rate with minimal interference with surgical procedures and late small-bowel complications. Patients who received postoperative radiation therapy were those without distant metastases, whose primary tumor pathology revealed macroscopic or extensive microscopic transmural tumor penetration into extraperitoneal tissues. Careful case selection, multiple field techniques, the use of reperitonealization, omental flaps, and retroversion of the uterus into the pelvis were combined with postoperative small-bowel x-rays, bladder distention, and lateral portals to minimize radiation damage to normal structures

  5. Synthetic Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard; McDonald, David; Byrne, Scott

    2015-10-01

    Due to changes in glycosyltransferase expression during tumorigenesis, the glycoproteins of cancer cells often carry highly truncated carbohydrate chains compared to those on healthy cells. These glycans are known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and are prime targets for use in vaccines for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Herein, we review the state-of-the-art in targeting the immune system towards tumor-associated glycopeptide antigens via synthetic self adjuvanting vaccines, in which the antigenic and adjuvanting moieties of the vaccines are present in the same molecule. The majority of the self-adjuvanting glycopeptide cancer vaccines reported to date employ antigens from mucin 1, a protein which is highly over-expressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many forms of cancer. The adjuvants used in these vaccines predominantly include lipopeptide- or lipoamino acid-based TLR2 agonists, although studies investigating stimulation of TLR9 and TLR4 are also discussed. Most of these adjuvants are highly lipophilic, and, upon conjugation to antigenic peptides, provide amphiphilic vaccine molecules. The amphiphilic nature of these vaccine constructs can lead to the formation of higher-order structures by vaccines in solution, which are likely to be important for their efficacy in vivo.

  6. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  7. Mucosal and systemic adjuvant activity of alphavirus replicon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Joseph M.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Konopka, Jennifer L.; Collier, Martha L.; Richmond, Erin M. B.; Davis, Nancy L.; Staats, Herman F.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2006-03-01

    Vaccination represents the most effective control measure in the fight against infectious diseases. Local mucosal immune responses are critical for protection from, and resolution of, infection by numerous mucosal pathogens. Antigen processing across mucosal surfaces is the natural route by which mucosal immunity is generated, as peripheral antigen delivery typically fails to induce mucosal immune responses. However, we demonstrate in this article that mucosal immune responses are evident at multiple mucosal surfaces after parenteral delivery of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP). Moreover, coinoculation of null VRP (not expressing any transgene) with inactivated influenza virions, or ovalbumin, resulted in a significant increase in antigen-specific systemic IgG and fecal IgA antibodies, compared with antigen alone. Pretreatment of VRP with UV light largely abrogated this adjuvant effect. These results demonstrate that alphavirus replicon particles possess intrinsic systemic and mucosal adjuvant activity and suggest that VRP RNA replication is the trigger for this activity. We feel that these observations and the continued experimentation they stimulate will ultimately define the specific components of an alternative pathway for the induction of mucosal immunity, and if the activity is evident in humans, will enable new possibilities for safe and inexpensive subunit and inactivated vaccines. vaccine vector | Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus | viral immunology | RNA virus

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil as adjuvant in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Nilendu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is a life threatening autoimmune blistering disease of skin and mucous membranes. Advent of systemic steroids has greatly reduced the mortality rate. However, steroids and adjuvant immunosuppressive therapy are nowadays frequent contributory agents of morbidity and mortality of PV. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF has been reported to be an effective adjuvant to systemic steroids. It helps in increasing the immunosuppressive effect and minimizing the toxicities by steroid sparing effect. However, its efficacy in refractory cases of PV is not well documented. The lowest possible dose with satisfactory therapeutic efficacy and least side effects is known. We used MMF 1 g/day and systemic steroids in 3 Indian patients with pemphigus vulgaris who were resistant to systemic steroid monotherapy or combination treatment with azathioprine. In our experience, MMF offers an effective adjuvant with minimal side-effects in the treatment of resistant PV.

  9. Surgical adjuvant immunotherapy for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enker, W.E.; Jacobitz, J.L.; Craft, K.; Wissler, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred forty-four Wistar-Furth rats in 12 therapeutic groups have been studied in a long-term comparison of the effectiveness of nonspecific immunotherapy with MER (methanol extraction residue) vs active-specific immunotherapy with neuraminidase-modified tumor cells. Six months after surgical adjuvant immunotherapy a 100% improvement in survival was achieved with MER immunotherapy compared to untreated control animals. In addition, the use of MER enhanced the value of active-specific immunotherapy where both modalities were combined in sequence. The predicted value of MER-BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) for the immunotherapy of solid tumors was borne out by these results suggesting that present ongoing clinical trials of MER as adjuvant therapy for large bowel cancer should prove to be successful if properly controlled. The pattern of survival in these experiments suggests that surgical adjuvant immunotherapy is cytostatic rather than cytocidal, and implies the need for long-term, repeated immunizations.

  10. The adjuvant potential of synthetic alkylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Reinaldo; Gil, Danay; del Campo, Judith; Bracho, Gustavo; Valdés, Yolanda; Pérez, Oliver

    2006-04-12

    Alkylglycerols (AGs) have shown immune stimulant and adjuvant activity in many studies, but natural sources are not so accessible and their extraction from them is very complicated. Therefore, a group of chemists at IFAL have synthesized AG analogs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adjuvant potential of different synthetic AGs. A mix of ovoalbumin (Ova) and AGs increase anti-Ova IgG antibodies production in sera of immunized mice. The predominant subclass was IgG1 although higher levels of IgG2a were observed as the carbon chain length of AGs increased. AGs also induced the production of IL-12 and nitric oxide (NO) in the U937 human histiocyte and J774 mouse macrophage cell lines, respectively. These results indicate that synthetic AGs are effective adjuvants for the standardized antigen, Ova.

  11. Antibiotic Adjuvants: Rescuing Antibiotics from Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Gerard D

    2016-11-01

    Rooted in the mechanism of action of antibiotics and subject to bacterial evolution, antibiotic resistance is difficult and perhaps impossible to overcome. Nevertheless, strategies can be used to minimize the emergence and impact of resistance. Antibiotic adjuvants offer one such approach. These are compounds that have little or no antibiotic activity themselves but act to block resistance or otherwise enhance antibiotic action. Antibiotic adjuvants are therefore delivered in combination with antibiotics and can be divided into two groups: Class I agents that act on the pathogen, and Class II agents that act on the host. Adjuvants offer a means to both suppress the emergence of resistance and rescue the activity of existing drugs, offering an orthogonal strategy complimentary to new antibiotic discovery VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mixed adjuvant formulations reveal a new combination that elicit antibody response comparable to Freund's adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel P J Lai

    Full Text Available Adjuvant formulations capable of inducing high titer and high affinity antibody responses would provide a major advance in the development of vaccines to viral infections such as HIV-1. Although oil-in-water emulsions, such as Freund's adjuvant (FCA/FIA, are known to be potent, their toxicity and reactogenicity make them unacceptable for human use. Here, we explored different adjuvants and compared their ability to elicit antibody responses to FCA/FIA. Recombinant soluble trimeric HIV-1 gp140 antigen was formulated in different adjuvants, including FCA/FIA, Carbopol-971P, Carbopol-974P and the licensed adjuvant MF59, or combinations of MF59 and Carbopol. The antigen-adjuvant formulation was administered in a prime-boost regimen into rabbits, and elicitation of antigen binding and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs was evaluated. When used individually, only FCA/FIA elicited significantly higher titer of nAbs than the control group (gp140 in PBS (p<0.05. Sequential prime-boost immunizations with different adjuvants did not offer improvements over the use of FCA/FIA or MF59. Remarkably however, the concurrent use of the combination of Carbopol-971P and MF59 induced potent adjuvant activity with significantly higher titer nAbs than FCA/FIA (p<0.05. This combination was not associated with any obvious local or systemic adverse effects. Antibody competition indicated that the majority of the neutralizing activities were directed to the CD4 binding site (CD4bs. Increased antibody titers to the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER and gp120 V3 were detected when the more potent adjuvants were used. These data reveal that the combination of Carbopol-971P and MF59 is unusually potent for eliciting nAbs to a variety of HIV-1 nAb epitopes.

  13. Electric engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byeong Won; Eom, Sang Ho

    1999-03-01

    It is divided into nine chapters, which includes electricity theory such as structure of material and current, nature of electricity, static, magnetic force and magnetic attraction, attraction of current and a storage battery, electric circuit on a direct current circuit, single phase circuit and 3-phase current circuit electricity machine like DC generator, DC motor, alternator, electric transformer, single-phase induction motor, 3-phase induction motor, synchronous motor, synchro electric machine, semiconductor such as diode, transistor, FET, UJT, silicon symmetrical switch, electronic circuit like smoothing circuit and Bistable MV. circuit, automatic control, measurement of electricity, electric application and safety.

  14. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S., California and Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation at national and individual state level in U.S has been developed. The model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints (CO2 emissions. Economic policy analysis experiments are carried out to determine the consequences of switching the sources of electricity generation under two scenarios: in first scenario, a switch from coal to renewable sources is made for 10% of electricity generation; in the second scenario, the switch is made for 10% of electricity generation from coal to coal with clean coal technology by employing CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS. The cost of electricity generation from various non-renewable and renewable sources is different and is taken into account in the model. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted. The model is applied to the states of California and Illinois, and at national level.

  15. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  16. Adjuvanted vaccines: Aspects of immunosafety and modes of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalst, S.

    2017-01-01

    New developments in vaccine design shift towards safe, though sometimes less immunogenic, subunit and synthetic antigens. Therefore, the majority of current vaccines require adjuvants to increase immunogenicity. Most adjuvants available were developed empirically and their mode of action is only

  17. Assessment of the adjuvant activity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles in recombinant Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigen vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Gomes Virginio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjuvant potential of two mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, SBa-15 and SBa-16, was assessed in combination with a recombinant HSP70 surface polypeptide domain from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP. The recombinant antigen (HSP70212-600, previously shown as immunogenic in formulation with classic adjuvants, was used to immunize BALB/c mice in combination with SBa-15 or SBa-16 MSNs, and the effects obtained with these formulations were compared to those obtained with alum, the adjuvant traditionally used in anti-PEP bacterins. The HSP70212-600 + SBa-15 vaccine elicited a strong humoral immune response, with high serum total IgG levels, comparable to those obtained using HSP70212-600 + alum. The HSP70212-600 + SBa-16 vaccine elicited a moderate humoral immune response, with lower levels of total IgG. The cellular immune response was assessed by the detection of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 in splenocyte culture supernatants. The HSP70212-600 + SBa-15 vaccine increased IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 levels, while no stimulation was detected with the HSP70212-600 + SBa-16 vaccine. The HSP70212-600 + SBa-15 vaccine induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type response, with an additional IL-10 mediated anti-inflammatory effect, both of relevance for an anti-PEP vaccine. Alum adjuvant controls stimulated an unspecific cellular immune response, with similar levels of cytokines detected in mice immunized either with HSP70212-600 + alum or with the adjuvant alone. The better humoral and cellular immune responses elicited in mice indicated that SBa-15 has adjuvant potential, and can be considered as an alternative to the use of alum in veterinary vaccines. The use of SBa-15 with HSP70212-600 is also promising as a potential anti-PEP subunit vaccine formulation.

  18. Quantum omega Bridge MI 6010Q as an alternative to CCC in the development of the Czech Primary Quantum Standard of electrical

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrobok, P.; Svoboda, Pavel

    -, č. 5 (2008), s. 44-46 ISSN 0033-2089 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum Hall effect * electrical resistance standard * cryogenic current comparator * dc. resistance bridge Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Communication: Influence of external static and alternating electric fields on water from long-time non-equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, Zdenek; English, Niall J.

    2017-07-01

    The response of water to externally applied electric fields is of central relevance in the modern world, where many extraneous electric fields are ubiquitous. Historically, the application of external fields in non-equilibrium molecular dynamics has been restricted, by and large, to relatively inexpensive, more or less sophisticated, empirical models. Here, we report long-time non-equilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics in both static and oscillating (time-dependent) external electric fields, therefore opening up a new vista in rigorous studies of electric-field effects on dynamical systems with the full arsenal of electronic-structure methods. In so doing, we apply this to liquid water with state-of-the-art non-local treatment of dispersion, and we compute a range of field effects on structural and dynamical properties, such as diffusivities and hydrogen-bond kinetics.

  20. National measures fostering alternative vehicles: electric, natural gas, liquefied oil gas vehicles; Dispositions nationales en faveur des vehicules alternatifs: vehicules electriques, au gaz naturel (GNv) et au gaz de petrole liquefie (GPLc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-07

    This document, issued by the French Ministry of Economy, Finances and Industry, presents national measures fostering alternative vehicles, i.e., electric, natural gas and liquefied oil gas vehicles. Financial supports for studies aiming at optimizing the fleet and choosing the alternative vehicles as well as for purchasing vehicles both by counter procedure and for demonstration programmes are provided. Amount of subsidies, conditions of obtaining and categories of addressees are indicated. The document contains also two relating studies. The first one is titled 'the policy of developing alternative vehicles'. The following four items are addressed: - the present frame favouring the alternative vehicles; - the electric vehicles; - natural gas fuelled vehicles (GNV); - liquefied oil gas fuelled vehicles (GPLc). Although non-polluting the electric vehicles are not tempting because of their rather limited range (80 Km at a battery charging). So far only around 3,000 vehicles were sold. Fifty GNV buses were ordered by RATP and the figure raised at 70 in 1998 and 1999. The GPLc fleet amounts up to 70,000 vehicles and by the end of 2000 it is foreseen to reach the level of 300,000 vehicles. The second study addresses to the issue of natural gas for vehicles. It presents: - its advantages; - its peculiarities; - the action of public authorities; -the current state and trends of GNV vehicles. In a joint effort public authorities and partners of this option are aiming at a fleet of 2500 light service vehicles and 300 bus for urban transport by the end of 1999.

  1. A study of electrical field caused by transmission lines in alternate current; Estudo do campo eletrico provocado por linhas de transmissao em corrente alternada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braz, Celso Pereira; Jardini, Jose Antonio

    1995-12-31

    There are many different methods to calculate the electric field, from simple expressions to tri dimensional computer calculus. The aim this paper is to compare a conventional method, based on Maxwell`s equations and another that uses the finite elements in two dimensions (FLUX2D). A preliminary analysis on the effect of the electric field on people who are near the transmission line (on ground) was carried out, as well as the phenomena caused on the conductor surface. Two programs were used to simulate the electric field in the transmission line. With the conventional program the electric field sensibility was verified in relation to some transmission lines parameters, such as the profile of the electric field on the ground and on the conductor surface. With the FLUX2D the ground and the surface conductor profiles were also checked. Part of the transmission line sustaining tower for the electric field calculus on the conductor was verified and simulated too. Whenever possible a comparison between the two programs was also performed. (author) 8 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Trends in adjuvant development for vaccines: DAMPs and PAMPs as potential new adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, E N; Carvalho, E; Oliveira, M L S; Raw, I; Ho, P L

    2011-06-01

    Aluminum salts have been widely used in vaccine formulations and, after their introduction more than 80 years ago, only few vaccine formulations using new adjuvants were developed in the last two decades. Recent advances in the understanding of how innate mechanisms influence the adaptive immunity opened up the possibility for the development of new adjuvants in a more rational design. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent advances in this field regarding the attempts to determine the molecular basis and the general mechanisms underlying the development of new adjuvants, with particular emphasis on the activation of receptors of innate immune recognition. One can anticipate that the use of these novel adjuvants will also provide a window of opportunities for the development of new vaccines.

  3. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  4. Adjuvant Biological Therapies in Chronic Leg Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Burgos-Alonso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current biological treatments for non-healing wounds aim to address the common deviations in healing mechanisms, mainly inflammation, inadequate angiogenesis and reduced synthesis of extracellular matrix. In this context, regenerative medicine strategies, i.e., platelet rich plasmas and mesenchymal stromal cell products, may form part of adjuvant interventions in an integral patient management. We synthesized the clinical experience on ulcer management using these two categories of biological adjuvants. The results of ten controlled trials that are included in this systematic review favor the use of mesenchymal stromal cell based-adjuvants for impaired wound healing, but the number and quality of studies is moderate-low and are complicated by the diversity of biological products. Regarding platelet-derived products, 18 controlled studies investigated their efficacy in chronic wounds in the lower limb, but the heterogeneity of products and protocols hinders clinically meaningful quantitative synthesis. Most patients were diabetic, emphasizing an unmet medical need in this condition. Overall, there is not sufficient evidence to inform routine care, and further clinical research is necessary to realize the full potential of adjuvant regenerative medicine strategies in the management of chronic leg ulcers.

  5. Azithromycin as an adjuvant therapy in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Vaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available There are data about the immunomodulatory properties of some macrolides in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP as an alternative to corticosteroids in mild disease or as adjuvant to standard therapy.A sixty-year-old female, with a controlled intrinsic asthma, presented with COP and recurrent respiratory exacerbations despite corticosteroid and immunossupressant therapy. Azithromycin (500 mg, on alternate days as an adjuvant to steroids was then started, with clinical and functional improvement and regression of lung infiltrates. Withdrawal of steroids was possible in one year, without evidence of relapse in the next six months. Azithromycin was maintained (three times per week with no documentation of adverse side effects.This clinical case reinforces the potential role of macrolides anti-inflammatory properties in COP as corticosteroids adjuvant therapy. Resumo: Existem dados na literatura sobre o uso das propriedades imunomoduladoras de alguns macrólidos no tratamento da pneumonia organizativa criptogénica (COP como alternativa aos corticoesteróides na doença ligeira ou como adjuvantes da terapêutica padrão.Os autores descrevem o caso de uma mulher de 60 anos de idade, com asma intrínseca controlada, que apresentou uma COP e exacerbações respiratórias de repetição, apesar da corticoterapia e terapêutica imunossupressora instituídas. Após início de azitromicina (500 mg, dias alternados, como adjuvante da corticoterapia, verificou-se melhoria clínica e funcional e regressão dos infiltrados pulmonares. A suspensão dos corticoesteróides foi possível no período de um ano, sem evidência de recidiva nos seis meses seguintes. A azitromicina foi mantida (3 vezes/semana sem documentação de efeitos laterais adversos.Este caso clínico reforça o potencial papel das propriedades anti-inflamatórias dos macrólidos na COP, como terapêutica adjuvante dos corticoesteróides. Keywords: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, Macrolides

  6. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  7. Predicting the response of localised oesophageal cancer to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Gillham, Charles M; Reynolds, John; Hollywood, Donal

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A complete pathological response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation for oesophageal cancer is associated with favourable survival. However, such a benefit is seen in the minority. If one could identify, at diagnosis, those patients who were unlikely to respond unnecessary toxicity could be avoided and alternative treatment can be considered. The aim of this review was to highlight predictive markers currently assessed and evaluate their clinical utility. Methods A systematic ...

  8. Adjuvant mitotane treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzolo, Massimo; Angeli, Alberto; Fassnacht, Martin; Daffara, Fulvia; Tauchmanova, Libuse; Conton, Pier Antonio; Rossetto, Ruth; Buci, Lisa; Sperone, Paola; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Bollito, Enrico; Papotti, Mauro; Saeger, Wolfgang; Hahner, Stefanie; Koschker, Ann-Cathrin; Arvat, Emanuela; Ambrosi, Bruno; Loli, Paola; Lombardi, Gaetano; Mannelli, Massimo; Bruzzi, Paolo; Mantero, Franco; Allolio, Bruno; Dogliotti, Luigi; Berruti, Alfredo

    2007-06-07

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare neoplasm characterized by a high risk of recurrence after radical resection. Whether the use of mitotane is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment has been controversial. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant mitotane in prolonging recurrence-free survival. We performed a retrospective analysis involving 177 patients with adrenocortical cancer who had undergone radical surgery at 8 centers in Italy and 47 centers in Germany between 1985 and 2005. Adjuvant mitotane was administered to 47 Italian patients after radical surgery (mitotane group), whereas 55 Italian patients and 75 German patients (control groups 1 and 2, respectively) did not receive adjuvant treatment after surgery. Baseline features in the mitotane group and the control group from Italy were similar; the German patients were significantly older (P=0.03) and had more stage I or II adrenocortical carcinomas (P=0.02) than did patients in the mitotane group. Recurrence-free survival was significantly prolonged in the mitotane group, as compared with the two control groups (median recurrence-free survival, 42 months, as compared with 10 months in control group 1 and 25 months in control group 2). Hazard ratios for recurrence were 2.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77 to 4.78; P<0.001) and 1.97 (95% CI, 1.21 to 3.20; P=0.005), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that mitotane treatment had a significant advantage for recurrence-free survival. Adverse events associated with mitotane were mainly of grade 1 or 2, but temporary dose reduction was needed in 13% of patients. Adjuvant mitotane may prolong recurrence-free survival in patients with radically resected adrenocortical carcinoma. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.

  9. The strategies of development of electricity and natural gas providers in France. High gross prices, tariff maintenance...: how do alternate operators come through?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing key figures of the electricity and natural gas markets, at assessing the actual degree of opening to competition of these French markets, at comparing the position and offers of providers, at identifying the best commercial and marketing practices, and at assessing the impact of the GDF Suez merge and of the arrival of E.ON and Enel in France. A first volume addresses the strategic perspectives for electricity and natural gas providers on the French market: current status and perspectives of the French markets of electricity and natural gas, strategic orientations of operators, scenarios of reconfiguration of French markets of electricity and natural gas by 2012. The second volume proposes a deep analysis of position and perspectives of 22 electricity and natural gas providers: Alterna, Atel Energie, Direct Energie, Distrigaz, EDF, Electrabel, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel, Enercoop, E.ON, Endesa, Gas Natural, Gaz de France, Gazprom, Gaz Electricite de Grenoble, HEWenergies, Poweo, Soregies, Tegaz, Usine d'Electricite de Metz, Vialis

  10. Gas-heating alternatives to the residential electric heat pump. Gas Appliance Technology Center 1987 program. Topical report for Work Area 1.1, October 1989-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.

    1990-05-01

    The characteristics of electric heat pumps are described. Options are defined and assessed for utilizing gas heating in conjunction with existing residential electric heat pumps. These options include gas heat introduced into the refrigeration circuit, a flue gas-heated tube bank in the air supply duct, and a hot-water-to-air coil in the supply duct. Economics are presented for conversion of a residence's total space and water heating from electric to gas in New York City and Atlanta. Potential marketing strategies are discussed, and potential gas sales volumes from conversions are estimated. The study concludes that the use of gas water heating coupled with a hydronic coil in the supply ductwork from the air handler is the most advantageous option for the gas industry

  11. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  12. Electrical Stimulation of the Upper Limb in Stroke: Stimulation of the Extensors of the Hand vs. Alternate Stimulation of Flexors and Extensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, J.R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Lankhorst, G.J.; Zilvold, G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether there is a difference in functional improvement in the affected arm of chronic stroke patients when comparing two methods of electrical stimulation. Design: Explanatory trial in which 30 chronic stroke patients with impaired arm function were randomly allocated to

  13. Energy resource alternatives competition. Progress report for the period February 1, 1975--December 31, 1975. [Space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity for homes, farms, and light industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, D.J.; Osowski, D.M.; Radtke, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    This progress report describes the objectives and results of the intercollegiate Energy Resource Alternatives competition. The one-year program concluded in August 1975, with a final testing program of forty student-built alternative energy projects at the Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The goal of the competition was to design and build prototype hardware which could provide space heating and cooling, hot water, and electricity at a level appropriate to the needs of homes, farms, and light industry. The hardware projects were powered by such nonconventional energy sources as solar energy, wind, biologically produced gas, coal, and ocean waves. The competition rules emphasized design innovation, economic feasibility, practicality, and marketability. (auth)

  14. The adjuvant mechanism of cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Karen Smith; Agger, Else Marie; Foged, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Cationic liposomes are being used increasingly as efficient adjuvants for subunit vaccines but their precise mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we investigated the adjuvant mechanism of cationic liposomes based on the synthetic amphiphile dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA). The liposomes...... concentrations. This efficient adsorption onto the liposomes led to an enhanced uptake of OVA by BM-DCs as assessed by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence laser-scanning microscopy. This was an active process, which was arrested at 4 degrees and by an inhibitor of actin-dependent endocytosis, cytochalasin D....... In vivo studies confirmed the observed effect because adsorption of OVA onto DDA liposomes enhanced the uptake of the antigen by peritoneal exudate cells after intraperitoneal injection. The liposomes targeted antigen preferentially to antigen-presenting cells because we only observed a minimal uptake...

  15. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  16. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project alternative energy sources: solar, eolic, shale, ocean, hydrogen, organic wastes, peat and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Several aspects of solar, eolic and ocean energy and shale, peat lignite, hydrogen and organic waste in Brazil are described, including reserves, potential, technology economy and environment. Based in data and information presented in this report, the necessity of a more detailed survey with the potential of alternative energy sources in Brazil, emphasizing the more promiser regions is also mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  17. DNA Vaccine Electroporation and Molecular Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Suschak and Schmaljohn DNA Vaccine Electroporation and Molecular Adjuvants 1 Abstract To date, there is no protective vaccine for Ebola virus...infection. Safety concerns have prevented the use of live-attenuated vaccines , and forced researchers to examine new vaccine formulations. DNA... vaccination is an attractive method for inducing protective immunity to a variety of pathogens, but the low immunogenicity seen in larger animals and

  18. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  19. Inflammatory responses following intramuscular and subcutaneous immunization with aluminum-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Yasuyo; Maeda, Mika; Kawashima, Hisashi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2014-06-05

    Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines are administered through an intramuscular injection (IM) in the US and EU, however, a subcutaneous injection (SC) has been recommended in Japan because of serious muscle contracture previously reported following multiple IMs of antibiotics. Newly introduced adjuvanted vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, have been recommended through IM. In the present study, currently available vaccines were evaluated through IM in mice. Aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines induced inflammatory nodules at the injection site, which expanded into the intra-muscular space without any muscle degeneration or necrosis, whereas non-adjuvanted vaccines did not. These nodules consisted of polymorph nuclear neutrophils with some eosinophils within the initial 48h, then monocytes/macrophages 1 month later. Inflammatory nodules were observed 6 months after IM, had decreased in size, and were absorbed 12 months after IM, which was earlier than that after SC. Cytokine production was examined in the injected muscular tissues and AS04 adjuvanted HPV induced higher IL-1β, IL-6, KC, MIP-1, and G-CSF levels in muscle tissues than any other vaccine, but similar serum cytokine profiles were observed to those induced by the other vaccines. Currently available vaccines did not induce muscular degeneration or fibrotic scar as observed with muscle contracture caused by multiple IMs of antibiotics in the past. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  1. Postoperative adjuvant therapy of colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheithauer, W.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluating the results of controlled clinical trials, an attempt has been made to summarize the current status of adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. Several different adjuvant treatment approaches including immunotherapy, postoperative fibrinolysis, anticoagulation, pre- and postoperative radiotherapy when used as a single modality, have not resulted in any long-term survival benefit. Rather in contrast to previous experiences, recent prospective randomized trials have provided evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of colon and rectal cancer. Whereas its definitive role in the former disease remains somewhat controversial, for rectal cancer, it seems clear that combined modality therapy including polychemotherapy with or without radiation prolongs the disease-free interval, lowers the local recurrence rate, and may improve survival compared to surgery alone. Questions which remain to be answered by future clinical trials are related to the optimal duration and sequence of combined modality, to the role of different radiation sensitizers, and in both colon and rectal cancer, to the choice of the most effective systemtic chemotherapeutic drugs. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Impact of adjuvant chemotherapy for gliomatosis cerebri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Doo-Sik; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Lee, Jung-Il; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Won Seog; Kwon, Ki-Hoon; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is characterized by a diffuse infiltration of tumor cells throughout CNS, however, few details are available about the chemotherapeutic effect on GC. The aim of this study was to investigate its clinical course and to determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC. Between Jan. 1999 and Dec. 2004, 37 GC patients were diagnosed by biopsy and treated with radiotherapy in a single institution. To determine the efficacy of chemotherapy for GC, we retrospectively reviewed their clinical courses. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups, those with and without receiving post-radiotherapy adjuvant chemotherapy such as temozolomide or nitrosourea-based chemotherapy. Nineteen patients with adjuvant chemotherapy were assigned to the chemotreatment group and 18 with radiotherapy alone were assigned to the control group. Mean survival for chemotreatment group and control group were 24.2 and 13.1 months, respectively (p = 0.045). Time to progression for these groups were 16.0 and 6.0 months, respectively (p = 0.007). Overall review of the clinical course of patients with GC provided that early appearance of new contrast-enhancing lesions within 6 months from the initial diagnosis and higher histological grade were closely associated with poor survival (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008). Adjuvant chemotherapy following radiotherapy could prolong the survival in patients with GC. In addition, newly developed contrast-enhanced lesions on the follow-up MR images indicate the progression of GC

  3. Liposomal adjuvant development for leishmaniasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarizadeh, Anis; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Badiee, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that ranges in severity from skin lesions to fatality. Since long-lasting protection is induced upon recovery from cutaneous leishmaniasis, development of an effective vaccine is promising. However, there is no vaccine for use in humans yet. It seems limited efficacy in leishmaniasis vaccines is due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant or delivery system. Hence, the use of particulate adjuvants such as liposomes for effective delivery to the antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a valuable strategy to enhance leishmaniasis vaccine efficacy. The extraordinary versatility of liposomes because of their unique amphiphilic and biphasic nature allows for using antigens or immunostimulators within the core, on the surface or within the bilayer, and modulates both the magnitude and the T-helper bias of the immune response. In this review article, we attempt to summarize the role of liposomal adjuvants in the development of Leishmania vaccines and describe the main physicochemical properties of liposomes like phospholipid composition, surface charge, and particle size during formulation design. We also suggest potentially useful formulation strategies in order for future experiments to have a chance to succeed as liposomal vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 10: Liquid-metal MHD systems. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    Electric Power Plant costs and efficiencies are presented for two basic liquid-metal cycles corresponding to 922 and 1089 K (1200 and 1500 F) for a commercial applications using direct coal firing. Sixteen plant designs are considered for which major component equipment were sized and costed. The design basis for each major component is discussed. Also described is the overall systems computer model that was developed to analyze the thermodynamics of the various cycle configurations that were considered.

  5. Gas and electricity providers. Offensive of alternate providers, launching of green offers, price-based conquest: which perspectives for the market and the competitive game by 2019?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-02-01

    As the end of regulated tariffs for industries and local communities resulted in a total new deal on the electric power and gas providing market, notably with newcomers who decided to cut prices, this study aims at identifying actual perspectives for the power and gas markets by 2019, and actual levers of action for providers to gain market shares. After a synthesis and a proposal of some strategic conclusions, the report proposes an analysis of the activity and of its perspectives: determining factors, overview of the activity until 2016 (power and gas provisions in France, production and consumption prices for gas and for electric power, regulated tariffs), and provisional scenario by 2019 regarding electricity and gas provisions in France. A second part analyses the external environment through a discussion of external drivers and brakes, and an analysis of demand. The third part reports an analysis of the competitive landscape (market shares per strategic groups, in power providing and in gas providing, and switch rate between residential and non-residential customers). The last part addresses development axes and proposes a discussion of offensive conquest strategies, a discussion of actor positioning on green energies, a discussion of supply adaptation and targeting depending on customers with an analysis of three specific segments (mobility, data centres, and self-consumption), and a discussion of the diversification of services

  6. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  7. Adjuvant chemo- and hormonal therapy in locally advanced breast cancer: a randomized clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaake-Koning, C.; van der Linden, E.H.; Hart, G.; Engelsman, E.

    1985-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1980, 118 breast cancer patients with locally advanced disease, T3B-4, any N, M0 or T1-3, tumor positive axillary apex biopsy, were randomized to one of three arms: I: radiotherapy (RT) to the breast and adjacent lymph node areas; II: RT followed by 12 cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5 fluorouracil (CMF) and tamoxifen during the chemotherapy period; III: 2 cycles of adriamycin and vincristine (AV), alternated with 2 cycles of CMF, then RT, followed by another 4 cycles of AV, alternated with 4 CMF; tamoxifen during the entire treatment period. The median follow-up period was 5 1/2 years. The adjuvant chemo- and hormonal therapy did not improve the overall survival; the 5-year survival was 37% for all three treatment arms. There was no statistically significant difference in RFS between the three modalities, nor when arm I was compared to arm II and III together. LR was not statistically different over the three treatment arms. In 18 of the 24 patients with LR, distant metastases appeared within a few months from the local recurrence. The menopausal status did not influence the treatment results. Dose reduction in more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy was accompanied by better results. In conclusion: adjuvant chemo- and hormonal therapy did not improve RFS and overall survival. These findings do not support the routine use of adjuvant chemo- and endocrine therapy for inoperable breast cancer

  8. Parenteral adjuvant potential of recombinant B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pouey da Cunha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB is a potent mucosal immune adjuvant. However, there is little information about LTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant. OBJECTIVES We aimed at evaluating and better understanding rLTB's potential as a parenteral adjuvant using the fused R1 repeat of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97 adhesin as an antigen to characterise the humoral immune response induced by this construct and comparing it to that generated when aluminium hydroxide is used as adjuvant instead. METHODS BALB/c mice were immunised intraperitoneally with either rLTBR1 or recombinant R1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. The levels of systemic anti-rR1 antibodies (total Ig, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgA were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The ratio of IgG1 and IgG2a was used to characterise a Th1, Th2, or mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. FINDINGS Western blot confirmed rR1, either alone or fused to LTB, remained antigenic; anti-cholera toxin ELISA confirmed that LTB retained its activity when expressed in a heterologous system. Mice immunised with the rLTBR1 fusion protein produced approximately twice as much anti-rR1 immunoglobulins as mice vaccinated with rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. Animals vaccinated with either rLTBR1 or rR1 adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide presented a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. We speculate this might be a result of rR1 immune modulation rather than adjuvant modulation. Mice immunised with rLTBR1 produced approximately 1.5-fold more serum IgA than animals immunised with rR1 and aluminium hydroxide. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that rLTB is a more powerful parenteral adjuvant than aluminium hydroxide when administered intraperitoneally as it induced higher antibody titres. Therefore, we recommend that rLTB be considered an alternative adjuvant, even if different administration routes are employed.

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 8: Open-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency and design analysis of electric power plants employing magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. Q.

    1976-01-01

    Electric power plant costs and efficiencies are presented for three basic open-cycle MHD systems: (1) direct coal fired system, (2) a system with a separately fired air heater, and (3) a system burning low-Btu gas from an integrated gasifier. Power plant designs were developed corresponding to the basic cases with variation of major parameters for which major system components were sized and costed. Flow diagrams describing each design are presented. A discussion of the limitations of each design is made within the framework of the assumptions made.

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: Is it needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinis, Kristijonas; Thornton, Michael; Montazeri, Amir; Rooney, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy has become a standard treatment of advanced rectal cancer in the West. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery alone have been well established. However, controversy surrounds the use adjuvant chemotherapy in patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy, despite it being recommended by a number of international guidelines. Results of recent multicentre randomised control trials showed no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy in terms of survival and rates of distant metastases. However, concerns exist regarding the quality of the studies including inadequate staging modalities, out-dated chemotherapeutic regimens and surgical approaches and small sample sizes. It has become evident that not all the patients respond to adjuvant chemotherapy and more personalised approach should be employed when considering the benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. The present review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the current evidence-base and suggests improvements for future studies. PMID:26677436

  11. Evaluation of different adjuvants formulations for bluetongue vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Ludmila Branco; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Fialho, Sílvia Ligório; Viott, Aline de Marco; Guedes, Roberto Maurício Carvalho; Silva-Cunha, Armando

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the adjuvant potential of W/O/W multiple emulsions and microemulsions, comparing them with traditional aluminum hydroxide and oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants against bluetongue vaccine (BTV). Local inflammatory reactions were assessed in rabbits by measuring the temperature of the animals and the skin thickness at the site of application. Antibodies titers were determined by serum-neutralization test. Histological analyses of lesions at the site of adjuvants applicatio...

  12. Economic feasibility of hydrogen enrichment for reducing NOx emissions from landfill gas power generation alternatives: A comparison of the levelized cost of electricity with present strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornbluth, Kurt; Greenwood, Jason; Jordan, Eddie; McCaffrey, Zach; Erickson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Based on recent research showing that hydrogen enrichment can lower NO x emissions from landfill gas combustion below future NO x emission control standards imposed by both federal and California state regulations, an investigation was performed to compare the levelized cost of electricity of this technology with other options. In this cost study, a lean-burn reciprocating engine with no after-treatment was the baseline case to compare six other landfill gas-to-energy projects. These cases include a lean burn engine with selective catalytic reduction after treatment, a lean-burn microturbine, and four variations on an ultra-lean-burn engine utilizing hydrogen enrichment with each case using a different method of hydrogen production. Only hydrogen enrichment with an in-stream autothermal fuel reformer was shown to be potentially cost-competitive with current strategies for reaching the NO x reduction target in IC engines. - Highlights: ► Levelized cost of electricity for hydrogen enriched combustion was compared. ► Various ultra-lean-burn engines and microturbines with hydrogen were analyzed. ► Combustion with an autothermal fuel reformer was potentially cost-competitive.

  13. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 12: Fuel cells. [energy conversion efficiency of, for use in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, C. J.; Ruka, R. J.; Isenberg, A. O.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric assessment of four fuel cell power systems -- based on phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, molten carbonate, and stabilized zirconia -- has shown that the most important parameters for electricity-cost reduction and/or efficiency improvement standpoints are fuel cell useful life and power density, use of a waste-heat recovery system, and fuel type. Typical capital costs, overall energy efficiencies (based on the heating value of the coal used to produce the power plant fuel), and electricity costs are: phosphoric acid $350-450/kWe, 24-29%, and 11.7 to 13.9 mills/MJ (42 to 50 mills/kWh); alkaline $450-700/kWe, 26-31%, and 12.8 to 16.9 mills/MJ (46 to 61 mills/kWh); molten carbonate $480-650/kWe, 32-46%, and 10.6 to 19.4 mills/MJ (38 to 70 mills/kWh), stabilized zirconia $420-950/kWe, 26-53%, and 9.7 to 16.9 mills/MJ (35 to 61 mills/kWh). Three types of fuel cell power plants -- solid electrolytic with steam bottoming, molten carbonate with steam bottoming, and solid electrolyte with an integrated coal gasifier -- are recommended for further study.

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 9: Closed-cycle MHD. [energy conversion efficiency of electric power plants using magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    A closed-cycle MHD system for an electric power plant was studied. It consists of 3 interlocking loops, an external heating loop, a closed-cycle cesium seeded argon nonequilibrium ionization MHD loop, and a steam bottomer. A MHD duct maximum temperature of 2366 K (3800 F), a pressure of 0.939 MPa (9.27 atm) and a Mach number of 0.9 are found to give a topping cycle efficiency of 59.3%; however when combined with an integrated gasifier and optimistic steam bottomer the coal to bus bar efficiency drops to 45.5%. A 1978 K (3100 F) cycle has an efficiency of 55.1% and a power plant efficiency of 42.2%. The high cost of the external heating loop components results in a cost of electricity of 21.41 mills/MJ (77.07 mills/kWh) for the high temperature system and 19.0 mills/MJ (68.5 mills/kWh) for the lower temperature system. It is, therefore, thought that this cycle may be more applicable to internally heated systems such as some futuristic high temperature gas cooled reactor.

  15. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  16. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation—Session 2 (Plenary II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    On the 15–17th May 2013, the Fourth International Conference on Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation was organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, and gathered stakeholders from academics and from the industry to discuss several challenges, advances and promises in the field of vaccine adjuvants. Plenary session 2 of the meeting was composed of four different presentations covering: (1) the recent set-up of an adjuvant technology transfer and training platform in Switzerland, (2) the proposition to revisit existing paradigms of modern vaccinology, (3) the properties of polyethyleneimine as potential new vaccine adjuvant, and (4) the progresses in the design of HIV vaccine candidates able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. PMID:23966098

  17. Towards an understanding of the adjuvant action of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrack, Philippa; McKee, Amy S.; Munks, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of vaccines depends on the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the antigen. Of these adjuvants, the ones that contain aluminium, which were first discovered empirically in 1926, are currently the most widely used. However, a detailed understanding of their mechanism of action has only started to be revealed. In this Timeline article, we briefly describe the initial discovery of aluminium adjuvants and discuss historically important advances. We also summarize recent progress in the field and discuss their implications and the remaining questions on how these adjuvants work. PMID:19247370

  18. Fire protection electrical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Min

    2000-03-15

    This book concentrates of electricity with current, voltage, power, ohms law, access of resistance, electrolytic analysis and battery, static on frictional electricity and electrostatic induction, coulomb's law, Gauss's law, condenser and capacity, magmatism on magnetic field and magnetic line of force, magnetic circuit, electromagnetic force, electromotive current, basic alternating current circuit, circuit network analysis, three-phase current, non-sinusoidal alternating current, transient phenomena, semiconductor, electric measurement on measurement over resistance, power, power rate and circuit tester, automatic control on introduction, term, classification, foundation of sequence control, logic circuit and basic logic circuit and electric equipment.

  19. New perspectives for natural triterpene glycosides as potential adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth; Wagner, Hildebert

    2017-11-07

    triterpenoids with corticosteroids synergistically inhibited the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in rats. The search for new alternative adjuvants in vaccines in comparison with the aluminium salts inducing only a Th2-type immune response resulted in the discovery of the promising purified fraction QS-21 from Quillaja saponaria, which has been used in the development of a variety of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. Over 120 clinical trials for around 20 vaccine indications in infectious diseases, cancer, degenerative disorders have been reported involving more than 50,000 patients. This review summarized the successfull in vitro and in vivo studies showing that this combination approach of triterpene glycosides co-adminitered with anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drug may provide an exciting road for further developments in the treatment of some cancers, parasitic and inflammatory diseases and in the rational design of vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. From a clinical point of view, the potential benefit of QS-21, a promising triterpene glycoside from Quillaja saponaria has been highlighted in several vaccine clinical trials with a favorable ratio efficacy/toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 11: Advanced steam systems. [energy conversion efficiency for electric power plants using steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made of three types of advanced steam power plants that use coal in order to have a comparison of the cost of electricity produced by them a wide range of primary performance variables. Increasing the temperature and pressure of the steam above current industry levels resulted in increased energy costs because the cost of capital increased more than the fuel cost decreased. While the three plant types produced comparable energy cost levels, the pressurized fluidized bed boiler plant produced the lowest energy cost by the small margin of 0.69 mills/MJ (2.5 mills/kWh). It is recommended that this plant be designed in greater detail to determine its cost and performance more accurately than was possible in a broad parametric study and to ascertain problem areas which will require development effort. Also considered are pollution control measures such as scrubbers and separates for particulate emissions from stack gases.

  1. Computational simulation and lean thinking as tools of process management: an assessment of different alternatives to increase capacity in a manufacturing company of aluminum electrical cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Augusto Amarante de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the production chain of a manufacturing company of aluminum electrical conductors is analyzed, in order to select the best strategy for increasing its production capacity. The company´s production systems and flows are highly complex and have high variability in their production flows. A quantitative modeling methodology was proposed to simulate those systems, and to analyze them in a simpler manner. The simulation model considered two different strategies related to production increase: “Lean Thinking” and Machinery/Equipment Purchase. From the current context and the results obtained from the simulation study, it was possible to conclude that the best scenario for increasing production capacity for the company was using the Lean Thinking strategy on the critical processes.The gains in capacity are higher and the implementing costs involved are lower than the ones observed in the other strategy considered.

  2. Personalized cancer vaccines: adjuvants are important, too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2018-04-11

    Therapeutic cancer vaccines have shown limited clinical efficacy so far. Nevertheless, in the meantime, our understanding of immune cell function and the interactions of immune cells with growing tumors has advanced considerably. We are now in a position to invest this knowledge into the design of more powerful vaccines and therapy combinations aimed at increasing immunogenicity and decreasing tumor-induced immunosuppression. This review focuses essentially on peptide-based human vaccines. We will discuss two aspects that are critical for increasing their intrinsic immunogenicity: the selection of the antigen(s) to be targeted, and the as yet unmet need for strong adjuvants.

  3. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  4. Alternative methodology for the margin determination of voltage stability in electrical power systems. Economical and technical impacts; Metodologia alternativa para a determinacao da margem de estabilidade de tensao em sistemas eletricos de potencia - impactos tecnicos e economicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Anderson Neves [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: anderson@cemig.com.br

    2001-07-01

    This article presents an alternative methodology of voltage stability determination of Electrical Power System (EPS), focusing technical and economical aspects. In this direction, it presents relative aspects to mathematical modelling to analyse the phenomenon and also the influence from the most important dynamics to be taken into consideration. It is inquired the participation of generators in the rearrangement of the adopted active power in the current criteria of margin determination. A real system is analyzed, under this aspect, indicating significant variations in the calculated values for the margins, resulting in improper investments of significant values. The proposed methodology by this article seeks to contribute to minimize such mistakes, this is done by means of focusing the long duration dynamics of generators, what constitutes an important progress in relation to the researches about them.

  5. Safety assessment of adjuvanted vaccines: Methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Fernanda Tavares; Di Pasquale, Alberta; Yarzabal, Juan P; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvants mainly interact with the innate immune response and are used to enhance the quantity and quality of the downstream adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens. Establishing the safety of a new adjuvant-antigen combination is achieved through rigorous evaluation that begins in the laboratory, and that continues throughout the vaccine life-cycle. The strategy for the evaluation of safety pre-licensure is guided by the disease profile, vaccine indication, and target population, and it is also influenced by available regulatory guidelines. In order to allow meaningful interpretation of clinical data, clinical program methodology should be optimized and standardized, making best use of all available data sources. Post-licensure safety activities are directed by field experience accumulated pre- and post-licensure clinical trial data and spontaneous adverse event reports. Continued evolution of safety evaluation processes that keep pace with advances in vaccine technology and updated communication of the benefit-risk profile is necessary to maintain public confidence in vaccines. PMID:26029975

  6. Adjuvant Bidirectional Chemotherapy Using an Intraperitoneal Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Sugarbaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoreductive surgery (CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC have been established as treatment options for patients with peritoneal metastases or peritoneal mesothelioma. However, this novel treatment strategy remains associated with a large percentage of local-regional treatment failures. These treatment failures are attributed to the inadequacy of HIPEC to maintain a surgical complete response. Management strategies to supplement CRS and HIPEC are indicated. A simplified approach to the intraoperative placement of an intraperitoneal port for adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy (ABC was devised. Four different chemotherapy treatment plans were utilized depending upon the primary site of the malignancy. Thirty-one consecutive patients with an intraoperative placement of the intraperitoneal port were available for study. The incidence of adverse events that caused an early discontinuation of the bidirectional chemotherapy occurred in 75% of the 8 patients who had an incomplete cytoreduction and in 0% of patients who had a complete cytoreduction. All of the patients who had complete cytoreduction completed at least 5 of the scheduled 6 bidirectional chemotherapy treatments. Adjuvant bidirectional chemotherapy is possible following a major cytoreductive surgical procedure using a simplified method of intraoperative intraperitoneal port placement.

  7. Safety assessment of adjuvanted vaccines: Methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Di Pasquale, Alberta; Yarzabal, Juan P; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvants mainly interact with the innate immune response and are used to enhance the quantity and quality of the downstream adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens. Establishing the safety of a new adjuvant-antigen combination is achieved through rigorous evaluation that begins in the laboratory, and that continues throughout the vaccine life-cycle. The strategy for the evaluation of safety pre-licensure is guided by the disease profile, vaccine indication, and target population, and it is also influenced by available regulatory guidelines. In order to allow meaningful interpretation of clinical data, clinical program methodology should be optimized and standardized, making best use of all available data sources. Post-licensure safety activities are directed by field experience accumulated pre- and post-licensure clinical trial data and spontaneous adverse event reports. Continued evolution of safety evaluation processes that keep pace with advances in vaccine technology and updated communication of the benefit-risk profile is necessary to maintain public confidence in vaccines.

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  9. Vaccine Adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Alberta; Preiss, Scott; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The concept of stimulating the body’s immune response is the basis underlying vaccination. Vaccines act by initiating the innate immune response and activating antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing a protective adaptive immune response to a pathogen antigen. Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified antigens that have insufficient immunostimulatory capabilities, and have been used in human vaccines for more than 90 years. While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit. Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable. Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects. Activated effectors (such as APCs) then move to draining lymph nodes where they direct the type, magnitude and quality of the adaptive immune response. Thus, the right match of antigens and adjuvants can potentiate downstream adaptive immune responses, enabling the development of new efficacious vaccines. Many infectious diseases of worldwide significance are not currently preventable by vaccination. Adjuvants are the most advanced new technology in the search for new vaccines against challenging pathogens and for vulnerable populations that respond poorly to traditional vaccines. PMID:26343190

  10. Protein antigen adsorption to the DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamborg, Mette; Jorgensen, Lene; Bojsen, Anders Riber

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the nature of adjuvant-antigen interactions is important for the future design of efficient and safe subunit vaccines, but remains an analytical challenge. We studied the interactions between three model protein antigens and the clinically tested cationic liposomal adjuvant composed...

  11. Assessment of efficacy and safety of various adjuvant formulations with a total soluble extract of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aucouturier J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a re-emerging zoonosis in several countries and pig, is the main species responsible for its transmission to human. Vaccination of swine could be an alternative to prevent the risk of human contamination. In order to develop an efficient and safe inactivate vaccine, the choice of the adjuvant is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop and select potent and safe adjuvants by screening them in an experimental model with a crude soluble antigen from L1 muscular larvae (ML of Trichinella spiralis (Ts. The efficacy was checked by the quantification of specific antibody levels. Specific and non-specific IgE antibody levels were also assessed. Safety was checked by the assessment of the local reaction at the injection site.Various Montanide® ISA adjuvant formulations including water in oil, oil in water and multiphasic emulsions, but also nanoparticles or microbeads were tested. The results clearly showed differences between the antibody responses induced by the adjuvants and demonstrated the necessity to use an adjuvant to obtain a specific IgG (IgG1or lgG2a response directed against the total soluble extract of Ts. All the formulations enhanced the humoral immune response. The origin of the oil contained in the emulsions played an important role on the efficacy. Indeed emulsions based on mineral oils were more efficient than those based on metabolisable oils. However it was linked with stronger local reactions. Multiphasic and oil in water emulsions but also nanoparticles failed to induce 1gG2a antibody levels. Microbeads and water in oil formulations based on mineral oils were more efficient. This experimentation allowed then the selection of several adjuvants which efficacy will be further Investigated by a challenge test and an analysis of the cellular populations involved in the mechanism of the immune response.

  12. Predicting the response of localised oesophageal cancer to neo-adjuvant chemoradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds John

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete pathological response to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiation for oesophageal cancer is associated with favourable survival. However, such a benefit is seen in the minority. If one could identify, at diagnosis, those patients who were unlikely to respond unnecessary toxicity could be avoided and alternative treatment can be considered. The aim of this review was to highlight predictive markers currently assessed and evaluate their clinical utility. Methods A systematic search of Pubmed and Google Scholar was performed using the following keywords; "neo-adjuvant", "oesophageal", "trimodality", "chemotherapy", "radiotherapy", "chemoradiation" and "predict". The original manuscripts were sourced for further articles of relevance. Results Conventional indices including tumour stage and grade seem unable to predict histological response. Immuno-histochemical markers have been extensively studied, but none has made its way into routine clinical practice. Global gene expression from fresh pre-treatment tissue using cDNA microarray has only recently been assessed, but shows considerable promise. Molecular imaging using FDG-PET seems to be able to predict response after neo-adjuvant chemoradiation has finished, but there is a paucity of data when such imaging is performed earlier. Conclusion Currently there are no clinically useful predictors of response based on standard pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry. Genomics, proteomics and molecular imaging may hold promise.

  13. Adjuvant Therapy for Revision Rhinoplasty of Contracted Nose Using Polydeoxyribonucleotide and Invasive Bipolar Radiofrequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Ahn, MD, PhD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Most cases of severely contracted nose require revision rhinoplasty and septoplasty, wherein preoperative and/or intraoperative expansion of nasal soft tissue is necessary for tension-free revision surgery. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pre- and postoperative adjuvant therapy using polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN and invasive, pulsed-type, bipolar, alternating current radiofrequency (RF for revision surgery of a contracted nose. In total, 30 patients were treated with 16 sessions (8 preoperative sessions and 8 postoperative sessions of intralesional injection of PDRN and invasive RF treatment using microneedle electrodes at 1-week intervals. One week after the final combined pretreatment using PDRN and invasive bipolar RF, the skin of contracted noses was sufficiently softened, and nasal skin mobility was notably improved in all the patients. During revision rhinoplasty and septoplasty, the contracted nasal skin in each patient was adequately released for proper covering of the nasal tip without tension. Postoperatively, 8 sessions of adjuvant therapy elicited marked clinical improvements in persistent nasal tip dimpling and contracture, septal deviation, and warping from the incomplete recovery of nasal contracture after revision surgery. In conclusion, our pre- and postoperative adjuvant therapies using PDRN and invasive bipolar RF remarkably improved the therapeutic outcomes of revision rhinoplasty and septoplasty for contracted skin of the nose without major side effects.

  14. Role of phyto-stabilised silver nanoparticles in suppressing adjuvant induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Aparna; Vasanthi, C; Gopal, V; Chellathai, Darling

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of silver nanoparticles synthesised using Piper nigrum extract and to further establish its mechanism of action in a rat model of adjuvant induced arthritis (AA). Adjuvant arthritis was induced by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1mL) into the left hind paw of 36 albino Wistar rats (n=6). Silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum extract (25 and 50mg/kg). Commercial silver nanoparticles (50mg/kg) and methotrexate (0.1mg/kg) were administered by intraperitoneal route from day 11 to day 22 on alternate days. It was found that treatment with silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum (S-AgNPs) significantly reduced the paw edema and alleviated the histopathological changes of cell infiltration, synovial hyperplasia, bone and cartilage destruction. Furthermore, the phytostabilised silver nanoparticles (S-AgNPs) inhibited the protein expression of NF-kβ p65 and TNF-α as evidenced by immunohistochemistry analysis. Our current findings suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilised with Piper nigrum extract (S-AgNPs) have potent anti-arthritic activity which is mediated by inhibition of TNF-α and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines that are secreted in response to activated transcription factors of NF-kβ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of different adjuvants formulations for bluetongue vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Branco Macedo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the adjuvant potential of W/O/W multiple emulsions and microemulsions, comparing them with traditional aluminum hydroxide and oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants against bluetongue vaccine (BTV. Local inflammatory reactions were assessed in rabbits by measuring the temperature of the animals and the skin thickness at the site of application. Antibodies titers were determined by serum-neutralization test. Histological analyses of lesions at the site of adjuvants application were done. Results showed that multiple emulsion and microemulsion maintained their stability even in the presence of complex components and presented adequate characteristics for subcutaneous administration. They were able to induce immune response against BTV, but it was smaller than the traditional adjuvants. Despite microemulsion adjuvant showed lower antibodies titre, it was easier to prepare more stable at 4°C and it was the only one that did not induce any local reaction.

  16. Immune adjuvant activity of the olive, soybean and corn oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Marinho da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, a large amount of substances has been used as immune adjuvant. The immune adjuvant effect of olive, soybean and corn oils in Swiss mice immunized with ovalbumin (OVA plus aluminum hydroxide or emulsified in Marcol, soybean, olive or corn oils was evaluated through the OVA-specific antibodies determined by ELISA and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis. In this work the comparison of the intensity of the immune response was established by the Bayesian analysis. The adjuvant effect of the vegetable oils was shown to be more effective than aluminium hydroxide. Regarding to OVA-specific IgE synthesis, olive oil had the slowest adjuvant effect of the three vegetable oils. Accordingly, olive oil was the most convenient among the vegetable oils to be used as immune adjuvant, since it stimulated a higher production of OVA-specific Ig and lower levels of anti-OVA IgE.

  17. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO in the Web Ontology Language (OWL format.

  18. Mechanism of immunopotentiation and safety of aluminum adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm eHogenEsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-containing adjuvants are widely used in preventive vaccines against infectious diseases and in preparations for allergy immunotherapy. The mechanism by which they enhance the immune response remains poorly understood. Aluminum adjuvants selectively stimulate a Th2 immune response upon injection of mice and a mixed response in human beings. They support activation of CD8 T cells, but these cells do not undergo terminal differentiation to cytotoxic T cells. Adsorption of antigens to aluminum adjuvants enhances the immune response by facilitating phagocytosis and slowing the diffusion of antigens from the injection site which allows time for inflammatory cells to accumulate. The adsorptive strength is important as high affinity interactions interfere with the immune response. Adsorption can also affect the physical and chemical stability of antigens. Aluminum adjuvants activate dendritic cells via direct and indirect mechanisms. Phagocytosis of aluminum adjuvants followed by disruption of the phagolysosome activates NLRP3-inflammasomes resulting in the release of active IL-1β and IL-18. Aluminum adjuvants also activate dendritic cells by binding to membrane lipid rafts. Injection of aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines causes the release of uric acid, DNA and ATP from damaged cells which in turn activate dendritic cells. The use of aluminum adjuvant is limited by weak stimulation of cell-mediated immunity. This can be enhanced by addition of other immunomodulatory molecules. Adsorption of these molecules is determined by the same mechanisms that control adsorption of antigens and can affect the efficacy of such combination adjuvants. The widespread use of aluminum adjuvants can be attributed in part to the excellent safety record based on a 70-year history of use. They cause local inflammation at the injection site, but also reduce the severity of systemic and local reactions by binding biologically active molecules in vaccines.

  19. Electric bus systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Pure electric buses (EBs) offer an alternative fuel for the nations transit bus systems. To : evaluate EBs in a transit setting, this project investigated the five electric bus fleet of the : StarMetro transit system of the city of Tallahassee, FL...

  20. Optimizing adjuvants for intradermal delivery of MenC glycoconjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadei, Agnese; Balocchi, Cristiana; Romano, Maria R; Panza, Luigi; Adamo, Roberto; Berti, Francesco; O'Hagan, Derek T; Gallorini, Simona; Baudner, Barbara C

    2017-07-13

    Intradermal vaccine delivery is a promising alternative to the conventional intramuscular route. The skin layer is immunologically supported by a densely network of antigen presenting cells, while the skeletal muscle is loaded with a relatively sparse population of APCs. Nevertheless, the vaccine to be suitable for intradermal delivery needs a new formulation to facilitate either smaller injection volumes or the introduction into new delivery devises as micro-needles. This study presents a proof of concept for intradermal delivery of the MenC-CRM 197 glycoconjugate vaccine using a mouse model. Tangential flow filtration allowed obtaining a 20-fold concentrated vaccine formulation suitable for intradermal injection. Importantly the intradermal delivery of non-adjuvanted MenC glycoconjugate vaccine showed a quicker on-set and superiority in terms of immunogenicity compared to intramuscular administration of the respective vaccine and comparable immunogenicity to the aluminum adjuvanted vaccine formulation given intramuscular. Subsequently, the use of adjuvants allowed to further increase the immunogenicity and to modulate the quality of the immune response towards a more beneficial Th1 response. As adjuvants two Toll like receptor agonists (TLR4a and TLR7a), a mutant of the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT), a α-GalactosylCeramide analogue and an oil in water emulsion were investigated in order to target skin-resident antigen-presenting cells. This approach has the potential to be extended to other meningococcal serogroups, representing a promising strategy for the development of dermally administered multivalent glycoconjugate vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emission Impacts of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; DeLuchi, Mark A.; Sperling, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Alternative vehicular fuels are proposed as a strategy to reduce urban air pollution. In this paper, we analyze the emission impacts of electric vehicles in California for two target years, 1995 and 2010. We consider a range of assumptions regarding electricity consumption of electric vehicles, emission control technologies for power plants, and the mix of primary energy sources for electricity generation. We find that, relative to continued use of gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of electr...

  2. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  3. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance...... with the protocol. The patient cohort has been followed continuously without loss of any patient, and a final statistical analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis after more than 5 years; this included a subgroup analysis of perioperative blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications...... infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had...

  4. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been studied in randomised trials in early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) and reduce the risk of disease recurrence and metastasis. Treatment benefits have been reported but bisphosphonates do not currently have...... regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... was augmented by a workshop held in October 2014 for breast cancer and bone specialists to present and debate the available pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the use of adjuvant bisphosphonates. This was followed by a questionnaire to all members of the writing committee to identify areas of consensus...

  5. Ranitidine as adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F

    2002-01-01

    infectious complications (n = 170; HR 0.6 (95 per cent c.i. 0.4 to 0.9), P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis of patients who had a curative resection, including Dukes' stage, age, gender, tumour location, blood transfusion, postoperative infectious complications and treatment, ranitidine still had......: Patients scheduled for elective resection of primary tumours were consecutively included in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study designed to evaluate the effect of ranitidine on survival. Before skin incision ranitidine 100 mg or placebo was given intravenously twice daily followed...... by oral ranitidine 150 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 years. Adjuvant cytotoxic or radiation therapy was not given. An observer-blinded interim analysis performed after 40 months showed that there was no effect of ranitidine on overall survival, and the study was discontinued in accordance...

  6. Opioid adjuvant strategy: improving opioid effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihel, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Opioid analgesics continue to be the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment of moderate to severe pain. Many patients, particularly those suffering from chronic pain, require chronic high-dose analgesic therapy. Achieving clinical efficacy and tolerability of such treatment regimens is hampered by the appearance of opioid-induced side effects such as tolerance, hyperalgesia and withdrawal syndrome. Among the therapeutic options to improve the opioid effectiveness, this current review focuses on strategies combining opioids to other drugs that can modulate opioid-mediated effects. We will discuss about experimental evidences reported for several potential opioid adjuvants, including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, 5-HT7 agonists, sigma-1 antagonists, I2-R ligands, cholecystokinin antagonists, neuropeptide FF-R antagonists and toll-like receptor 4 antagonists.

  7. Involvement of gamma interferon in antibody enhancement by adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odean, M J; Frane, C M; Van derVieren, M; Tomai, M A; Johnson, A G

    1990-02-01

    In a previous study the adjuvant action of a monophosphoryl lipid A, a nontoxic derivative of endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was found to be negated by a monoclonal anti-gamma interferon (anti-IFN-gamma) antibody. The present investigation centered on three other adjuvants of diverse microbial origins, testing for their capacity to affect the release of IFN-gamma as an explanation for their antibody-enhancing action. The adjuvant action of each of the three, a wild-type LPS, synthetic poly(A)-poly(U) complexes, and a synthetic muramyl dipeptide, n-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutaminyl-n-butyl ester (murabutide), was transferable by adjuvant-stimulated T cells to normal spleen cells on coculture. Supernatant fluids from these T cells contained increased levels of IFN-gamma. Addition of a monoclonal anti-IFN-gamma antibody to adjuvant-stimulated spleen cell cultures reduced the adjuvant action by approximately one-half. Removal of natural killer cells from spleen cell populations prior to culture with antigen had no effect on the enhancement induced by LPS and monophosphoryl lipid A. It was concluded that the enhancement induced by the adjuvants LPS, poly(A)-poly(U), and murabutide is mediated in part by their action on T cells resulting in release of IFN-gamma suggesting activation of a common transmembrane signal.

  8. AS03- and MF59-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccines in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Amanda L.; Kazmin, Dmitri; Napolitani, Giorgio; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A.; Pulendran, Bali; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory disease leading to hospitalization in young children. However, seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) have been shown to be ineffective and poorly immunogenic in this population. The development of live-attenuated influenza vaccines and adjuvanted vaccines are important advances in the prevention of influenza in young children. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59 and adjuvant systems 03 (AS03) have been used as adjuvants in both seasonal adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines (ATIVs) and pandemic monovalent influenza vaccines. Compared with non-adjuvanted vaccine responses, these vaccines induce a more robust and persistent antibody response for both homologous and heterologous influenza strains in infants and young children. Evidence of a significant improvement in vaccine efficacy with these adjuvanted vaccines resulted in the use of the monovalent (A/H1N1) AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in children in the 2009 influenza pandemic and the licensure of the seasonal MF59 ATIV for children aged 6 months to 2 years in Canada. The mechanism of action of MF59 and AS03 remains unclear. Adjuvants such as MF59 induce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, but independently of type-1 interferon. This proinflammatory response is associated with improved recruitment, activation and maturation of antigen presenting cells at the injection site. In young children MF59 ATIV produced more homogenous and robust transcriptional responses, more similar to adult-like patterns, than did TIV. Early gene signatures characteristic of the innate immune response, which correlated with antibody titers were also identified. Differences were detected when comparing child and adult responses including opposite trends in gene set enrichment at day 3 postvaccination and, unlike adult data, a lack of correlation between magnitude of plasmablast response at day 7 and antibody titers at day 28 in children. These insights show the utility

  9. AS03- and MF59-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccines in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Wilkins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major cause of respiratory disease leading to hospitalization in young children. However, seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs have been shown to be ineffective and poorly immunogenic in this population. The development of live-attenuated influenza vaccines and adjuvanted vaccines are important advances in the prevention of influenza in young children. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59 and adjuvant systems 03 (AS03 have been used as adjuvants in both seasonal adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines (ATIVs and pandemic monovalent influenza vaccines. Compared with non-adjuvanted vaccine responses, these vaccines induce a more robust and persistent antibody response for both homologous and heterologous influenza strains in infants and young children. Evidence of a significant improvement in vaccine efficacy with these adjuvanted vaccines resulted in the use of the monovalent (A/H1N1 AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in children in the 2009 influenza pandemic and the licensure of the seasonal MF59 ATIV for children aged 6 months to 2 years in Canada. The mechanism of action of MF59 and AS03 remains unclear. Adjuvants such as MF59 induce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, but independently of type-1 interferon. This proinflammatory response is associated with improved recruitment, activation and maturation of antigen presenting cells at the injection site. In young children MF59 ATIV produced more homogenous and robust transcriptional responses, more similar to adult-like patterns, than did TIV. Early gene signatures characteristic of the innate immune response, which correlated with antibody titers were also identified. Differences were detected when comparing child and adult responses including opposite trends in gene set enrichment at day 3 postvaccination and, unlike adult data, a lack of correlation between magnitude of plasmablast response at day 7 and antibody titers at day 28 in children. These insights

  10. AS03- and MF59-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccines in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Amanda L; Kazmin, Dmitri; Napolitani, Giorgio; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Pulendran, Bali; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Influenza is a major cause of respiratory disease leading to hospitalization in young children. However, seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) have been shown to be ineffective and poorly immunogenic in this population. The development of live-attenuated influenza vaccines and adjuvanted vaccines are important advances in the prevention of influenza in young children. The oil-in-water emulsions MF59 and adjuvant systems 03 (AS03) have been used as adjuvants in both seasonal adjuvanted trivalent influenza vaccines (ATIVs) and pandemic monovalent influenza vaccines. Compared with non-adjuvanted vaccine responses, these vaccines induce a more robust and persistent antibody response for both homologous and heterologous influenza strains in infants and young children. Evidence of a significant improvement in vaccine efficacy with these adjuvanted vaccines resulted in the use of the monovalent (A/H1N1) AS03-adjuvanted vaccine in children in the 2009 influenza pandemic and the licensure of the seasonal MF59 ATIV for children aged 6 months to 2 years in Canada. The mechanism of action of MF59 and AS03 remains unclear. Adjuvants such as MF59 induce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL10, but independently of type-1 interferon. This proinflammatory response is associated with improved recruitment, activation and maturation of antigen presenting cells at the injection site. In young children MF59 ATIV produced more homogenous and robust transcriptional responses, more similar to adult-like patterns, than did TIV. Early gene signatures characteristic of the innate immune response, which correlated with antibody titers were also identified. Differences were detected when comparing child and adult responses including opposite trends in gene set enrichment at day 3 postvaccination and, unlike adult data, a lack of correlation between magnitude of plasmablast response at day 7 and antibody titers at day 28 in children. These insights show the utility

  11. Adjuvant radiation for vulvar carcinoma: improved local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, Clare M.; Mirmow, Dwight; Huang Qingshon; Gerszten, Kristina; Day, Roger; Jones, Mirka W.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is a significant problem following primary surgery for advanced vulva carcinoma. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of adjuvant vulvar radiation on local control in high risk patients and the impact of local recurrence on overall survival. Methods and Materials: From 1980-1994, 62 patients with invasive vulva carcinoma and either positive or close (less 8 mm) margins of excision were retrospectively studied. Thirty-one patients were treated with adjuvant radiation therapy to the vulva and 31 patients were observed after surgery. Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to evaluate the effect of adjuvant radiation therapy on local recurrence and overall survival. Independent prognostic factors for local recurrence and survival were also assessed. Results: Local recurrence occurred in 58% of observed patients and 16% in patients treated with adjuvant radiation therapy. Adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates in both the close margin and positive margin groups (p = 0.036, p = 0.0048). On both univariate and multivariate analysis adjuvant radiation and margins of excision were significant prognostic predictors for local control. Significant determinants of actuarial survival included International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage, percentage of pathologically positive inguinal nodes and margins of excision. The positive margin observed group had a significantly poorer actuarial 5 year survival than the other groups (p = 0.0016) and adjuvant radiation significantly improved survival for this group. The 2 year actuarial survival after developing local recurrence was 25%. Local recurrence was a significant predictor for death from vulva carcinoma (risk ratio 3.54). Conclusion: Local recurrence is a common occurrence in high risk patients. In this study adjuvant radiation therapy significantly reduced local recurrence rates and

  12. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Diatoms and diatomaceous earth as novel poultry vaccine adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazmi, A; Hauck, R; Davis, A; Hildebrand, M; Corbeil, L B; Gallardo, R A

    2017-02-01

    Diatoms are single cell eukaryotic microalgae; their surface possesses a porous nanostructured silica cell wall or frustule. Diatomaceous earth (DE) or diatomite is a natural siliceous sediment of diatoms. Since silica has been proved to have adjuvant capabilities, we propose that diatoms and DE may provide an inexpensive and abundant source of adjuvant readily available to use in livestock vaccines.In a first experiment, the safety of diatoms used as an adjuvant for in-ovo vaccination was investigated. In a second experiment, we assessed the humoral immune response after one in-ovo vaccination with inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and DE as adjuvant followed by 2 subcutaneous boosters on d 21 and 29 of age. In both experiments, results were compared to Freund's incomplete adjuvant and aluminum hydroxide.No detrimental effects on hatchability and chick quality were detected after in-ovo inoculation of diatoms and DE in experiments 1 and 2 respectively. In experiment 2 no humoral responses were detected after the in-ovo vaccination until 29 d of age. Seven d after the second subcutaneous booster an antibody response against NDV was detected in chickens that had received vaccines adjuvanted with Freund's incomplete adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide, and DE. These responses became significantly higher 10 d after the second booster. Finally, 15 d after the second booster, the humoral responses induced by the vaccine with Freund's incomplete adjuvant were statistically higher, followed by comparable responses induced by vaccines containing DE or aluminum hydroxide that were significantly higher than DE+PBS, PBS+INDV and PBS alone. From an applied perspective, we can propose that DE can serve as a potential adjuvant for vaccines against poultry diseases. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. A phase III randomized trial comparing adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy versus standard adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy in operable node-positive breast cancer: Final results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouesse, Jacques; Lande, Brigitte de la; Bertheault-Cvitkovic, Frederique; Serin, Daniel; Graic, Yvon; Combe, Martin; Leduc, Bernard; Lucas, Virginie; Demange, Liliane; Tan Dat Nguyen; Castera, Daniel; Krzisch, Claude; Villet, Richard; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Garbay, Jean-Remy; Nogues, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare concomitant and sequential adjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimens in node-positive, operable breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized, French, multicenter, phase III trial enrolling 638 eligible women with prior breast surgery and positive axillary dissection. Patients in Arm A received 500 mg/m 2 5-fluorouracil, 12 mg/m 2 mitoxantrone, and 500 mg/m 2 cyclophosphamide, with concomitant radiotherapy (50 Gy ± 10-20-Gy boost). Patients in Arm B received 500 mg/m 2 5-fluorouracil, 60 mg/m 2 epirubicin, and 500 mg/m 2 cyclophosphamide, with subsequent radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was administered on Day 1 every 21 days for 4 cycles. Results: Median treatment durations were 64 and 126 days (Arms A and B, respectively), with no significant difference in overall or disease-free survival. Five-year locoregional relapse-free survival favored patients with conservative surgery (two thirds of the population), with less local and/or regional recurrence in Arm A than in Arm B (3% vs. 9%; p 0.01). Multivariate analysis in this subgroup showed a 2.8-fold increased risk of locoregional recurrence with sequential chemoradiotherapy, independent of other prognostic factors (p = 0.027). Febrile neutropenia and Grade 3-4 leukopenia were significantly more frequent in Arm A. Subclinical left ventricular ejection fraction events at 1 year were more frequent with concomitant radiotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Concomitant radiotherapy with adjuvant fluorouracil, mitoxantrone, and cyclophosphamide has significantly better locoregional control in node-positive breast cancer after conservative surgery and 50% shorter treatment, albeit with slightly more acute toxicity. With mitoxantrone no longer available for adjuvant breast cancer treatment, alternative concomitant chemoradiotherapy studies are needed

  15. Recurrent sterile abscesses following aluminium adjuvant-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nicola P; Edwards, Kathryn M; Sparks, Robert C; Dekker, Cornelia L

    2009-01-01

    Abscess formation following immunisation is a previously reported complication, generally associated with microbial contamination of the vaccine. Less commonly, such abscesses have been sterile. Here we describe two children evaluated in the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) network who developed recurrent sterile abscesses after administration of vaccines containing aluminium adjuvant, either individually or in combination. Although the abscesses healed without sequelae, these occurrences support an association between receipt of aluminium adjuvant and sterile abscesses in susceptible patients. For patients with similar symptoms, clinicians may wish to choose a vaccine formulation containing the least amount of aluminium adjuvant.

  16. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. CpG ODN and ISCOMATRIX Adjuvant: A Synergistic Adjuvant Combination Inducing Strong T-Cell IFN-γ Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. McCluskie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the induction of robust humoral and cellular immune responses, a strong rationale exists to use vaccine-adjuvant combinations possessing both immune modulatory and enhanced delivery capabilities. Herein, we evaluated the combination of 2 different adjuvants, a TLR9 agonist, composed of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG, and ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (ISCOMATRIX, composed of saponin, phospholipid, and cholesterol, which possesses both immunostimulatory and delivery properties. While both individual adjuvants have been shown effective in numerous preclinical and clinical studies, it is likely that for optimal adjuvant activity a combined adjuvant approach will be necessary. Herein, using three different antigens, namely, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, ovalbumin (OVA, and influenza A haemagglutinin antigen (HA, we show in mice that some adjuvant effects of CpG and ISCOMATRIX are further enhanced if they are used in combination. In particular, with all three antigens, IFN-γ levels were greatly increased with the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination. The ability of the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination to induce antitumor responses when administered with OVA following administration to mice of a highly metastatic OVA-secreting tumor cell line (B16-OVA melanoma was also demonstrated. Thus the CpG/ISCOMATRIX combination may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of novel or improved vaccines.

  18. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  19. Electric engineering summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sing Eun; Park, Seong Taek; Lim, Yong Un

    1975-03-01

    This book is made up six parts, which deals with circuit theory about sinusoidal alternating current, basic current circuit, wave power, distorted wave, two terminal network, distributed circuit, laplace transformation and transfer function, power engineering on line, failure analysis transmission of line, substation and protection device and hydroelectric power plant, electricity machine like DC machine, electric transformer, induction machine and rectifier, electromagnetic on dielectric substance current, electromagnetic, electricity application like lighting engineering, heat transfer and electricity chemistry, industry, industry math with integer, rational number, factorization, matrix and differential.

  20. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  1. Activity of glycated chitosan and other adjuvants to PDT vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Banáth, Judit; Čiplys, Evaldas; Szulc, Zdzislaw; Bielawska, Alicja; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Glycated chitosan (GC), a water soluble galactose-conjugated natural polysaccharide, has proven to be an effective immunoadjuvant for treatment of tumors based on laser thermal therapy. It was also shown to act as adjuvant for tumor therapy with high-intensity ultrasound and in situ photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, GC was examined as potential adjuvant to PDT-generated cancer vaccine. Two other agents, pure calreticulin protein and acid ceramidase inhibitor LCL521, were also tested as prospective adjuvants for use in conjunction with PDT vaccines. Single treatment with GC, included with PDT vaccine cells suspension, improved the therapeutic efficacy when compared to vaccine alone. This attractive prospect of GC application remains to be carefully optimized and mechanistically elucidated. Both calreticulin and LCL521 proved also effective adjuvants when combined with PDT vaccine tumor treatment.

  2. Mx bio adjuvant for enhancing immune responses against influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Soleimani

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: These data revealed that Mx1 as biological adjuvant was able to increase antibody titer and induction memory immune responses against influenza immunization without causing any side effects.

  3. Ignoring Adjuvant Toxicity Falsifies the Safety Profile of Commercial Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial formulations of pesticides are invariably not single ingredients. Instead they are cocktails of chemicals, composed of a designated pesticidal “active principle” and “other ingredients,” with the latter collectively also known as “adjuvants.” These include surfactants, antifoaming agents, dyes, etc. Some adjuvants are added to influence the absorption and stability of the active principle and thus promote its pesticidal action. Currently, the health risk assessment of pesticides in the European Union and in the United States focuses almost exclusively on the stated active principle. Nonetheless, adjuvants can also be toxic in their own right with numerous negative health effects having been reported in humans and on the environment. Despite the known toxicity of adjuvants, they are regulated differently from active principles, with their toxic effects being generally ignored. Adjuvants are not subject to an acceptable daily intake, and they are not included in the health risk assessment of dietary exposures to pesticide residues. Here, we illustrate this gap in risk assessment by reference to glyphosate, the most used pesticide active ingredient. We also investigate the case of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are strongly suspected to be involved in bee and bumblebee colony collapse disorder. Authors of studies sometimes use the name of the active principle (for example glyphosate when they are testing a commercial formulation containing multiple (active principle plus adjuvant ingredients. This results in confusion in the scientific literature and within regulatory circles and leads to a misrepresentation of the safety profile of commercial pesticides. Urgent action is needed to lift the veil on the presence of adjuvants in food and human bodily fluids, as well as in the environment (such as in air, water, and soil and to characterize their toxicological properties. This must be accompanied by regulatory precautionary

  4. Engineering of an Inhalable DDA/TDB Liposomal Adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB).......The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB)....

  5. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Ciarlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s. The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many

  6. Ignoring Adjuvant Toxicity Falsifies the Safety Profile of Commercial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Robin; Antoniou, Michael N.

    2018-01-01

    Commercial formulations of pesticides are invariably not single ingredients. Instead they are cocktails of chemicals, composed of a designated pesticidal “active principle” and “other ingredients,” with the latter collectively also known as “adjuvants.” These include surfactants, antifoaming agents, dyes, etc. Some adjuvants are added to influence the absorption and stability of the active principle and thus promote its pesticidal action. Currently, the health risk assessment of pesticides in the European Union and in the United States focuses almost exclusively on the stated active principle. Nonetheless, adjuvants can also be toxic in their own right with numerous negative health effects having been reported in humans and on the environment. Despite the known toxicity of adjuvants, they are regulated differently from active principles, with their toxic effects being generally ignored. Adjuvants are not subject to an acceptable daily intake, and they are not included in the health risk assessment of dietary exposures to pesticide residues. Here, we illustrate this gap in risk assessment by reference to glyphosate, the most used pesticide active ingredient. We also investigate the case of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are strongly suspected to be involved in bee and bumblebee colony collapse disorder. Authors of studies sometimes use the name of the active principle (for example glyphosate) when they are testing a commercial formulation containing multiple (active principle plus adjuvant) ingredients. This results in confusion in the scientific literature and within regulatory circles and leads to a misrepresentation of the safety profile of commercial pesticides. Urgent action is needed to lift the veil on the presence of adjuvants in food and human bodily fluids, as well as in the environment (such as in air, water, and soil) and to characterize their toxicological properties. This must be accompanied by regulatory precautionary measures to

  7. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlo, Timothy J; Mullin, Christopher A; Frazier, James L; Schmehl, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s). The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants) were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many social interactions. Organosilicone spray adjuvants may therefore contribute to the

  8. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.

  9. Adjuvant therapy for ampullary carcinomas: The Mayo Clinic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Sumita; Miller, Robert C.; Haddock, Michael G.; Donohue, John H.; Krishnan, Sunil

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 125 patients who underwent definitive surgery for carcinomas involving the ampulla of Vater between April 1977 and February 2005 and who survived more than 50 days after surgery. Twenty-nine of the patients also received adjuvant radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Adverse prognostic factors were investigated, and overall survival (OS) and local and distant failure were estimated. Results: Adverse prognostic factors for decreased OS by univariate analysis included lymph node (LN) involvement, locally advanced tumors (T3/T4), and poor histologic grade. By multivariate analysis, positive LN status (p = 0.02) alone was associated with decreased OS. The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy improved OS for patients with positive LN (p = 0.01). Median survival for positive LN patients receiving adjuvant therapy was 3.4 years, vs. 1.6 years for those with surgery alone. Conclusions: The addition of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy may improve OS in patients with LN involvement. The effect of adjuvant therapy on outcomes for patients with poor histologic grade or T3/T4 tumors without LN involvement could not be assessed

  10. Use of adjuvants to minimize leaching of herbicides in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Ashok K.; Singh, Megh

    1991-03-01

    Excessive leaching of herbicides affects their efficacy against target weeds and results in contamination of groundwater. Use of adjuvants that can weakly bind herbicides and in turn release them slowly is a valuable technique to prolong the efficacy of herbicides and to minimize their leaching into groundwater. Effects of activated charcoal, three humic substances (Enersol SP 85%, Enersol 12%, and Agroliz), or a synthetic polymer (Hydrosorb) on the leaching of bromacil, dicamba, and simazine were investigated in leaching columns using a Candler fine sand (Typic Quartzipsamment). The addition of adjuvants had no harmful effects on physical properties of the soil as evident from lack of its affects on water percolation. When no adjuvants were used, 69%, 37%, and 4% of applied dicamba, bromacil, and simazine, respectively, were leached in the first pore volume of leachate (⋍3.2 cm rainfall). With five pore volumes of leachate (⋍16 cm rainfall), bromacil and dicamba were leached completely and only 80% of simazine was leached. Using Enersol 12% adjuvant resulted in a 13%-18% reduction in leaching of dicamba and bromacil in five pore volumes of leachate. The leaching of simazine was significantly decreased when any of the five adjuvants mentioned above were used. However, the decrease in leaching was significantly greater when using Enersol SP 85% or Enersol 12% (24%-28%) than when using the other adjuvants (12%-16%).

  11. [Novel Adjuvant Therapy for Ocular Melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jacobus J; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2017-05-01

    Background Malignant melanoma is the most common cancer of the eye in adults that originates either in the intra-ocular uveal tract or extra-ocular conjunctiva. Although the primary tumor can be treated successfully, no effective therapy for both metastatic conjunctival and uveal melanoma currently exits. Tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and immune cell infiltration play a pivotal role in the development and therapeutic targeting of metastases. Project description Here, we provide an overview of current translational research on lymphangiogenesis and its therapeutic inhibition as well as modulation of immune cell infiltration by passive and active immunotherapy in melanoma of the eye. Specifically, our previous and ongoing work on lymphangiogenesis and immune cells in ocular melanoma within the clinical research unit FOR 2240 "(Lymph)Angiogenesis and Cellular Immunity in Inflammatory Diseases of the Eye" is summarized. Conclusions Translational research on the modulation of tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis and immune cell infiltration could provide novel targets for adjuvant therapy in melanoma of the eye. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. PITX2 DNA-methylation predicts response to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absmaier, Magdalena; Napieralski, Rudolf; Schuster, Tibor; Aubele, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Magdolen, Viktor; Dorn, Julia; Gross, Eva; Harbeck, Nadia; Noske, Aurelia; Kiechle, Marion; Schmitt, Manfred

    2018-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) constitutes a heterogeneous breast cancer subgroup with poor prognosis; survival rates are likely to be lower with TNBC compared to other breast cancer subgroups. For this disease, systemic adjuvant chemotherapy regimens often yield suboptimal clinical results. To improve treatment regimens in TNBC, identification of molecular biomarkers may help to select patients for individualized adjuvant therapy. Evidence has accumulated that determination of the methylation status of the PITX2 gene provides a predictive value in various breast cancer subgroups, either treated with endocrine-based therapy or anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. To further explore the validity of this novel predictive candidate biomarker, in the present exploratory retrospective study, determination of the PITX2 DNA-methylation status was assessed for non-metastatic TNBC patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy by molecular analysis of breast cancer tissues. The PITX2 DNA-methylation status was determined in fresh-frozen tumor tissue specimens (n=56) by methylation-specific qRT-PCR (qMSP) and the data related to disease-free and overall survival, applying an optimized DNA-methylation score of 6.35%. For non-metastatic TNBC patients treated with adjuvant systemic anthracycline-based chemotherapy, a low PITX2 DNA-methylation status (PITX2 DNA-methylation. For non-metastatic TNBC patients, selective determination of the PITX2 DNA-methylation status may serve as a cancer biomarker for predicting response to anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The assay based on methylation of the PIXT2 gene can be applied to frozen and routinely available formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tumor tissues that will not only define those TNBC patients who may benefit from anthracycline-based chemotherapy but also those who should be spared the necessity of such potentially toxic treatment. Such patients should be allocated to

  13. Mutagenic Potential of Alternating Current Electric Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obringer, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Statistical analysis of the data indicated that there was no significant difference (p=> 0.05) in the mutagenic rate of phages grown in the presence of A/C E-fields compared to the controls except at a field-strength of 1053 V/M...

  14. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  15. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles: what in the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggetto, G.; Van Mierlo, J. [Vrije Universiteit, Brussel (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    In urban area, due to their beneficial effect on environment, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are an important factor for improvement of traffic and more particular for a healthier environment. Moreover, the need for alternative energy source is growing and the price competition of alternatives against oil is becoming more and more realistic. Electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles are offering the best possibility for the use of new energy sources, because electricity can result from a transformation with high efficiency of these sources and is always used with the highest possible efficiency in systems with electric drives or components. Some basic considerations about the situation today and in a mid and long-term perspective, are presented together with the infrastructure developments.

  16. Protection of Mice from Lethal Vaccinia Virus Infection by Vaccinia Virus Protein Subunits with a CpG Adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Reeman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox vaccination carries a high risk of adverse events in recipients with a variety of contra-indications for live vaccines. Although alternative non-replicating vaccines have been described in the form of replication-deficient vaccine viruses, DNA vaccines, and subunit vaccines, these are less efficacious than replicating vaccines in animal models. DNA and subunit vaccines in particular have not been shown to give equivalent protection to the traditional replicating smallpox vaccine. We show here that combinations of the orthopoxvirus A27, A33, B5 and L1 proteins give differing levels of protection when administered in different combinations with different adjuvants. In particular, the combination of B5 and A27 proteins adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN gives a level of protection in mice that is equivalent to the Lister traditional vaccine in a lethal vaccinia virus challenge model.

  17. Electric sales and revenue 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenue, and average revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  18. Preformulation studies on Freund's incomplete adjuvant emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R O; Mahaguna, V

    1998-02-01

    Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA), which is used in vaccine therapy, is a water-in-oil emulsion delivery system consisting of an aqueous internal phase containing an antigenic protein dispersed in an external phase containing a mixture of mannide monooleate and light mineral oil. Preformulation studies are reported in this investigation for FIA emulsion. The preformulation studies included the determination of the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the formulations investigated, the surface activity of mannide monooleate at the interface between the oil phase and the aqueous phase containing ovalbumin as the model antigenic protein, and the effect of ovalbumin on the surface activity at the interface. The influence of the concentration of mannide monooleate and/or ovalbumin on the interfacial tension between light mineral oil and either purified water or 0.9% w/v normal saline solution was measured by the DuNouy Ring Method at 25 degrees C. The CMC was determined experimentally from the relationship between the concentration of the surface active agent in each formulation and the interfacial tension. The number of moles of the surface active agent per unit area at the interface (surface excess concentration) was calculated from the Gibbs' Adsorption equation. The results indicated that mannide monooleate was an effective surface active agent since the formulation containing only mannide monooleate provided the lowest magnitude of CMC. The presence of the surface active agent, mannide monooleate and/or ovalbumin, in the formulations studied reduced the interfacial tension between the two phases. The surface activity was influenced by the presence of an electrolyte (sodium chloride), a protein (ovalbumin), or mannide monooleate in the formulation. The presence of antigenic proteins in the aqueous phase of a waterin-oil emulsion influenced the effectiveness of a surface active agent in the formulation.

  19. Evaluation of health status of horses immunized with snake venom and montanide adjuvants, IMS 3012 (nanoparticle), ISA 206 and ISA 35 (emulsion based) during polyvalent snake antivenom production: hematological and biochemical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, A B; Salvi, N C; Deopurkar, R L; Shenoy, P A; Sonpetkar, J M

    2014-05-01

    Several biochemical and hematological changes in horses are observed during production of snake antivenom. Although conventional adjuvants like Freund's (Complete and Incomplete) are good immunopotentiators, they produce considerable local reactions in animals. Variety of commercial adjuvants, like montanide adjuvants, having high immunopotentiation and showing lesser side effects are available. The prime objective during antivenom production is to strike a balance between safety of immunized horses and efficacy of the product. In our earlier work, efficacy of montanide group of adjuvants in antivenom production has already been established. The aim of the present work was to assess the safety parameters in horses, viz.: biochemical and hematological, during production of snake antivenom. In the present study, 33 new horses were randomly divided into four groups and hyperimmunized using mixture of snake venoms, viz.: Cobra venom, Russell's viper venom, Krait venom and Echis venom along with montanide adjuvants, IMS 3012, ISA 206, ISA 35 and Incomplete Freund's adjuvant as a control adjuvant; through subcutaneous route at intervals of two weeks. During the immunization period, biochemical and hematological parameters were monitored at 0th, 14th, 21st, 30th and 42nd weeks. The mean hemoglobin values dropped slightly during initial immunization but subsequently regained to normal levels. The mean serum total protein values and globulin levels showed an increment in all the four groups, compared to day zero, vice-versa a slight drop was observed in albumin levels. No significant changes were observed in serum creatinine, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen values. Finally, we conclude that montanide adjuvants could be a safer alternative to the conventional adjuvants for primary phase of immunization in antivenom production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  1. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  2. Solar-coupled electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willer, B.

    1993-01-01

    An electrical drive is an alternative to the present internal combustion engines. The electric car produces no exhaust gas where it is used and drives practically noiselessly. The energy required for driving is usually taken from an electro-chemical battery. The necessary electricity generation generates emission and CO 2 , depending on the primary energy used. An alternative is provided by electricity generation with the aid of regenerative energy. Apart from hydroelectric and wind energy, solar energy can make a considerable contribution in the future. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental adjuvants, apoptosis and the censorship over autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manfredi, Angelo A; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia

    2005-11-01

    Alterations during apoptosis lead to the activation of autoreactive T cells and the production of autoantibodies. This article discusses the pathogenic potential of cells dying in vivo, dissecting the role of signals that favor immune responses (adjuvants) and the influence of genetic backgrounds. Diverse factors determine whether apoptosis leads or not to a self-sustaining, clinically apparent autoimmune disease. The in vivo accumulation of uncleared dying cells per se is not sufficient to cause disease. However, dying cells are antigenic and their complementation with immune adjuvants causes lethal diseases in predisposed lupus-prone animals. At least some adjuvant signals directly target the function and the activation state of antigen presenting cells. Several laboratories are aggressively pursuing the molecular identification of endogenous adjuvants. Sodium monourate and the high mobility group B1 protein (HMGB1) are, among those identified so far, well known to rheumatologists. However, even the complementation of apoptotic cells with potent adjuvant signals fail to cause clinical autoimmunity in most strains: autoantibodies generated are transient, do not undergo to epitope/spreading and do not cause disease. Novel tools for drug development will derive from the molecular identification of the constraints that prevent autoimmunity in normal subjects.

  4. Adjuvant synergy in the response to hepatitis B vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Liu, Xu; Caulfield, Michael J

    2003-10-01

    The adjuvant properties of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and a phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide (S-ODN) hexamer consisting of the sequence, 5'-GACGTT-3', were evaluated in mice using hepatitis B (HBs) protein and DNA vaccines. GACGTT was an effective adjuvant when co-injected with HBs protein intramuscularly or when injected at the same anatomic site within 1 day before or 1 day after injection of the protein. Surprisingly, IL-12 had a negligible adjuvant effect when co-injected with HBsAg; however, when bound to "alum", IL-12 stimulated a dramatic increase in anti-HBs titers and a switch from a TH2 to a TH1 response profile as evidenced by an increase in IgG2a subclass anti-HBs antibodies and the ability to secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) upon in vitro stimulation with an HBs peptide. Interestingly, aluminum phosphate was a far better co-adjuvant (with IL-12) than was aluminum hydroxide even though both "alums" bound >99% of the IL-12. Finally, the combination of IL-12, GACGTT, and aluminum phosphate was found to elicit a markedly polarized TH1 response. The results indicate that aluminum phosphate is highly effective at delivering an antigen (HBsAg) together with TH1 adjuvants such as IL-12 and GACGTT resulting in a shift from a TH2 to a TH1 response.

  5. Adjuvants for Clostridium tetani and Clostridium diphtheriae vaccines updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshanqiti, Fatimah M; Al-Masaudi, Saad B; Al-Hejin, Ahmed M; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2017-01-01

    It's known that diphtheria and tetanus are a contagious lethal diseases over the years, they caused by pathogenic microbes corynebacterium diphtheria and Clostridium tetani, respectively. The diseases result from the production of bacterial toxin. Vaccination with bacterial toxoid vaccines adsorbed on particulates adjuvants still are the best way to prevent this epidemic diseases from spread. The particulate vaccines have been shown to be more efficient than soluble one for the induction of the immune responses. Nanoparticles can be engineered to enhance the immune responses. As well known the immune response to inactivate killed and subunit vaccine enhances by alum adjuvants. The adjuvants examined and tested after reducing its size to particle size, thus mimic size of viruses which is considered smallest units can derive the immune system. The major issue is minimizing the adjuvant particles, to gain insight of resulting immunity types and impact on immune response. The adjuvant effect of micro/nanoparticles appears to largely be a consequence of their uptake into antigen presenting cells.

  6. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  7. The rural energy alternatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstatter, L.; Panetti, C.; DeWein, M.

    1993-01-01

    A cooperative survey by the New York State Energy Office (SEO) and Office of Rural Affairs (ORA) identified hundreds of residences without utility electric power due to excessive line extension costs. SEO selected several of these residences for feasibility studies which compared site specific options for electricity generation, including existing fossil fuel generator(s), generator/battery sets, photovoltaic (PV) hybrid and micro-hydroelectric systems as well as utility provided electric service. Comprehensive reports included examination of a range of energy conservation measures. Alternatives to present fossil fuel systems were assessed for domestic hot water, refrigeration, and water pumping. Results included electric load data, solar and hydroelectric potential, life cycle cost estimates for electricity, and estimated system sizing information based on energy cost considerations. In addition to providing useful information to individual homeowners, these studies served as the basis for cooperative efforts to install and monitor stand-alone prototype PV hybrid systems

  8. Herbal Medicine and Acupuncture for Breast Cancer Palliative Care and Adjuvant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Shiou Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease among women worldwide with annual rates of reported incidence and death increasing alarmingly. Chemotherapy is a recommended and effective treatment option for breast cancer; however, the narrow therapeutic indices and varied side effects of currently approved drugs present major hurdles in increasing its effectiveness. An increasing number of literature evidence indicate that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM used in treatment-related symptom control and alleviation of side effects plays an important role in increasing survival rate and quality of life in breast cancer patients. This review focuses on the use of herbal medicines and acupuncture in palliative care and as adjuvants in the treatment of breast cancer. Herbal medicinal treatments, the correlation of clinical use with demonstrated in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action, and the use of certain acupoints in acupuncture are summarized. The aim of this review is to facilitate an understanding of the current practice and usefulness of herbal medicine and acupuncture as adjuvants in breast cancer therapy.

  9. INITIAL EXPERIENCE WITH ADJUVANT INTRAVESICAL THERMOCHEMOTHERAPY FOR NON-MUSCLE INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pavlenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the benefits of adjuvant intravesical thermochemotherapy (TCT and to evaluate its efficiency in the treatment of moderateand high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (BC.Subjects and methods. In the period 2009 to 2010, the Urology Clinic, Federal Medical Biophysical Center, treated 21 patients with nonmuscle invasive BC, by using a Thermotron RF-8 clinical hyperthermal system. Intravesical TCT with mitomycin C 40 mg for 60–80 min was performed at 42 ± 2 °С as one session weekly for 6 weeks. Control cystoscopy was carried out every 3 months.Results. Of the 21 patients, 19 were found to tolerate the procedure well. No complications were recorded in these patients during the sessions and throughout the course of intravesical TCT. A recurrence was histologically verified in 2 patients at 6-month follow-up. There was no evidence suggesting a recurrence in 12 (57.14 % patients at one-year follow-up. The follow-up of the other patients is now less than 12 months.Conclusion. The proposed method of hyperthermia may be used as an alternative to the existing one of intracavitary hyperthermia to treat high- and moderate-risk BC and in case of inefficiency of other adjuvant therapy options for non-muscle invasive BC.

  10. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy for Stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nakagawa, Kazuo; Suzuki, Kenji; Takamochi, Kazuya; Ito, Hiroyuki; Okami, Jiro; Aokage, Keiju; Saji, Hisashi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Zenke, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Tadashi; Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Okada, Morihito

    2017-12-01

    The treatments for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) should control both local and microscopic systemic disease, because the 5-year survival of patients with Stage III NSCLC who underwent surgical resection alone has been dismal. One way to improve surgical outcome is the administration of chemotherapy before or after the surgical procedure. During the last two decades, many clinical studies have focused on developing optimal adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens that can be combined with surgical treatment and/or radiotherapy. Based on the results of those clinical studies, multimodality therapy is considered to be an appropriate treatment approach for Stage IIIA NSCLC patients; although, optimal treatment strategies are still evolving. When N2 nodal involvement is discovered postoperatively, adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy confers an overall survival benefit. The addition of postoperative radiotherapy might be considered for patients with nodal metastases. Although definitive chemoradiation remains a standard of care for cN2 NSCLC, alternative approaches such as induction chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and surgery can be considered for a selective group of patients. When surgical resection can be performed after induction therapy with low risk and a good chance of complete resection, the outcome may be optimal. The decision to proceed with resection after induction therapy must include a detailed preoperative pulmonary function evaluation as well as a critical intraoperative assessment of the feasibility of complete resection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Vaginal brachytherapy alone is sufficient adjuvant treatment of surgical stage I endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solhjem, Matthew C.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy and complications of adjuvant vaginal high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone for patients with Stage I endometrial cancer in whom complete surgical staging had been performed. Methods and Materials Between April 1998 and March 2004, 100 patients with Stage I endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging (total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with pelvic ± paraaortic nodal sampling) and postoperative vaginal high-dose-rate brachytherapy at our institution. The total dose was 2100 cGy in three fractions. Results With a median follow-up of 23 months (range 2-62), no pelvic or vaginal recurrences developed. All patients underwent pelvic dissection, and 42% underwent paraaortic nodal dissection. A median of 29.5 pelvic nodes (range 1-67) was removed (84% had >10 pelvic nodes removed). Most patients (73%) had endometrioid (or unspecified) adenocarcinoma, 16% had papillary serous carcinoma, and 11% had other histologic types. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade was Stage IA, grade III in 5; Stage IB, grade I, II, or III in 6, 27, or 20, respectively; and Stage IC, grade I, II, or III in 13, 17, or 10, respectively. The Common Toxicity Criteria (version 2.0) complications were mild (Grade 1-2) and consisted primarily of vaginal mucosal changes, temporary urinary irritation, and temporary diarrhea. Conclusion Adjuvant vaginal high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone may be a safe and effective alternative to pelvic external beam radiotherapy for surgical Stage I endometrial cancer

  12. Mortality in experimental adjuvant intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT) using ALA, Photofrin II, and mTHPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Steffi; Prosst, Ruediger L.; Stern, Josef; Rheinwald, Markus; Haase, Thomas; Herfarth, Christian; Gahlen, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    A clinical problem in the treatment of colorectal cancer is the high rate of local tumor recurrence. Adjuvant therapy methods are necessary to receive a better clinical outcome in minimizing local tumor relapse. Adjuvant intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT) seems to be a promising alternative therapy in the treatment of malignant colorectal diseases. IN experimental settings the success of AIOPDT depends on the accumulation of the photosensitizer (PS) in tumor tissue and may be jeopardized by high mortality rates, due to inadequate energy doses. Our study evaluated mortality rates of nude mice after AIOPDT with ALA, Photofrin II and mTHPC using the following various light doses: ALA/Photofrin II: 100J, 50J, 25J; mTHPC: 30J, 15J, 5J generated by an Argon-Dye-laser system. There was a close correlation between laser energy applied for AIOPDT and postoperative mortality rate. Initial high mortality rates were lowered by stepwise reduction of the energy dose. Mortality rates reached a maximum 24 hours after AIOPDT in all groups.

  13. Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer operated for cure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sune Høirup; Harling, Henrik; Kirkeby, Lene Tschemerinsky

    2012-01-01

    in Dukes´ C (TNM stage III) colon tumours i.e. tumours with metastases in the regional lymph nodes but no distant metastases. In contrast, the evidence for recommendations of adjuvant therapy in rectal cancer is sparse. In Europe it is generally acknowledged that locally advanced rectal tumours receive...... preoperative (i.e., neoadjuvant) downstaging by radiotherapy (or chemoradiotion), whereas in the US postoperative chemoradiotion is considered the treatment of choice in all Dukes´ C rectal cancers. Overall, no universal consensus exists on the adjuvant treatment of surgically resectable rectal carcinoma......Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in the Western world. Apart from surgery - which remains the mainstay of treatment for resectable primary tumours - postoperative (i.e., adjuvant) chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) based regimens is now the standard treatment...

  14. Cognitive function after adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Riis, Jens Østergaard; Engebjerg, Malene Cramer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive function in patients with early breast cancer before and after adjuvant chemotherapy or 6 months of tamoxifen. We performed a population-based study in the county of North Jutland, Denmark, including 120 women aged ... chemotherapy with seven cycles of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and fluoruracil or adjuvant tamoxifen for 6 months for early breast cancer from 2004 to 2006. They were compared with an aged-matched group of 208 women without previous cancer selected randomly from the same population. Data were collected before...... themselves as impaired at 6 months. Our results do not support that adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with cognitive side effects in breast cancer patients....

  15. Production, purification and immunogenicity of recombinant Ebola virus proteins - A comparison of Freund's adjuvant and adjuvant system 03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melén, Krister; Kakkola, Laura; He, Felix; Airenne, Kari; Vapalahti, Olli; Karlberg, Helen; Mirazimi, Ali; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need for Ebola virus (EBOV) proteins, EBOV-specific antibodies and recombinant antigens to be used in diagnostics and as potential vaccine candidates. Our objective was to produce and purify recombinant proteins for immunological assays and for the production of polyclonal EBOV specific antibodies. In addition, a limited comparison of the adjuvant effects of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) and adjuvant system 03 (AS03) was carried out. Recombinant EBOV GST-VP24, -VP30, -VP35, -VP40 and -NP were produced in E. coli and purified with affinity chromatography followed by preparative gel electrophoresis. Recombinant EBOV GP-His was produced in Sf9 insect cells and purified by preparative gel electrophoresis. To compare the adjuvant effect of FCA and AS03, 12 rabbits were immunized four times with one of the six recombinant EBOV proteins using FCA or AS03. In addition, three guinea pigs were immunized with EBOV VP24 using FCA. With the exception of sera from two rabbits immunized with GST-VP24, the antisera against all other EBOV proteins showed very high and specific antibody responses after three to four immunizations. The adjuvant effect of AS03 was comparable to that of FCA. The produced antibodies recognized the corresponding EBOV proteins in wild type EBOV-infected cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the widespread and erroneous belief that they are natural and do no harm, and because their use offers the opportunity for more control over treatment options and procedures. Alternative therapies can reduce stress, pain, and/or fatigue. Some therapies are covered ...

  17. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  18. Scratching the surface: Exploratory analysis of key opinion leaders on rate limiting factors in novel adjuvanted-vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronker, E.S.; Claassen, E.; Weenen, T; Commandeur, H; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative article analyzes the potentially rate-limiting factors affecting value chain dynamics during adjuvanted-vaccine development. Adjuvants are considered immunostimulating substances that can be added to a vaccine. Although adjuvants have the potential to elicit adverse

  19. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  20. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  1. Energy alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2010-01-01

    The present work is about primary sources the conventional fossil fuels (petroleum, coal and natural gas) and not conventional (nuclear fuels), as well as the solar light that reaches the floor, the winds, the rivers, the oceanic currents including the seas, and the biomass, among others. In the present technological era the primary sources are used for the most part to transform their energy into electric power.

  2. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  3. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  4. Rail travel with water and wind. Alternatives for more renewable energies with Germany's largest electricity consumer; Bahn fahren mit Wasser und Wind. Wege fuer mehr regenerative Energien beim groessten Stromverbraucher Deutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horenburg, Peter

    2012-07-01

    It is a core problem of the energy revolution: the fluctuating yields from renewable energy sources have to be integrated into the electricity supply without endangering its safety and economic feasibility. Here the Deutsche Bahn railway company provides a prime example: by 2020, the company intends to draw more than one third of the 12 billion kilowatthours it consumes each year from green electricity. Researchers have calculated that doubling the green electricity used today will increase the electricity costs by around five per cent. The German railway power grid is distinguished, however, by many unique features. (orig.)

  5. Dexamethasone as an adjuvant to peripheral nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehora, Carolyne; Pearson, Annabel Me; Kaushal, Alka; Crawford, Mark W; Johnston, Bradley

    2017-11-09

    Peripheral nerve block (infiltration of local anaesthetic around a nerve) is used for anaesthesia or analgesia. A limitation to its use for postoperative analgesia is that the analgesic effect lasts only a few hours, after which moderate to severe pain at the surgical site may result in the need for alternative analgesic therapy. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the analgesic duration of peripheral nerve block, including perineural or intravenous dexamethasone. To evaluate the comparative efficacy and safety of perineural dexamethasone versus placebo, intravenous dexamethasone versus placebo, and perineural dexamethasone versus intravenous dexamethasone when added to peripheral nerve block for postoperative pain control in people undergoing surgery. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, DARE, Web of Science and Scopus from inception to 25 April 2017. We also searched trial registry databases, Google Scholar and meeting abstracts from the American Society of Anesthesiologists, the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society, the American Society of Regional Anesthesia, and the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing perineural dexamethasone with placebo, intravenous dexamethasone with placebo, or perineural dexamethasone with intravenous dexamethasone in participants receiving peripheral nerve block for upper or lower limb surgery. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included 35 trials of 2702 participants aged 15 to 78 years; 33 studies enrolled participants undergoing upper limb surgery and two undergoing lower limb surgery. Risk of bias was low in 13 studies and high/unclear in 22. Perineural dexamethasone versus placeboDuration of sensory block was significantly longer in the perineural dexamethasone group compared with placebo (mean difference (MD) 6.70 hours, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.54 to 7.85; participants1625

  6. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers.\\ud \\ud In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover ser...

  8. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  9. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  11. Non-conventional rule of making a periodically varying different-pole magnetic field in low-power alternating current electrical machines with using ring coils in multiphase armature winding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastun, A. T.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Malygin, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents methods of making a periodically varying different-pole magnetic field in low-power electrical machines. Authors consider classical designs of electrical machines and machines with ring windings in armature, structural features and calculated parameters of magnetic circuit for these machines.

  12. Adjuvants and delivery systems in veterinary vaccinology: current state and future developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Dedieu, Laurence; Johnson, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Modern adjuvants should induce strong and balanced immune responses, and it is often desirable to induce specific types of immunity. As an example, efficient Th1-immunity-inducing adjuvants are highly in demand. Such adjuvants promote good cell-mediated immunity against subunit vaccines that have...

  13. External Validation of Adjuvant! Online Breast Cancer Prognosis Tool Prioritising Recommendations for Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajage, D.; de Rycke, Y.; Bollet, M.; Savignoni, A.; Caly, M.; Pierga, J.Y.; Horlings, H.M.; van de Vijver, M.J.; Vincent-Salomon, A.; Sigal-Zafrani, B.; Senechal, C.; Asselain, B.; Sastre, X.; Reyal, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer

  14. External validation of Adjuvant! Online breast cancer prognosis tool. Prioritising recommendations for improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajage, David; de Rycke, Yann; Bollet, Marc; Savignoni, Alexia; Caly, Martial; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Horlings, Hugo M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Senechal, Claire; Asselain, Bernard; Sastre, Xavier; Reyal, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer datasets, and

  15. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hayashi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV, a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism.

  16. Advax, a Delta Inulin Microparticle, Potentiates In-built Adjuvant Property of Co-administered Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masayuki; Aoshi, Taiki; Haseda, Yasunari; Kobiyama, Kouji; Wijaya, Edward; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Igarashi, Yoshinobu; Standley, Daron M; Yamada, Hiroshi; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Saito, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Coban, Cevayir; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Ishii, Ken J

    2017-02-01

    Advax, a delta inulin-derived microparticle, has been developed as an adjuvant for several vaccines. However, its immunological characteristics and potential mechanism of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that Advax behaves as a type-2 adjuvant when combined with influenza split vaccine, a T helper (Th)2-type antigen, but behaves as a type-1 adjuvant when combined with influenza inactivated whole virion (WV), a Th1-type antigen. In addition, an adjuvant effect was not observed when Advax-adjuvanted WV vaccine was used to immunize toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 knockout mice which are unable to respond to RNA contained in WV antigen. Similarly, no adjuvant effect was seen when Advax was combined with endotoxin-free ovalbumin, a neutral Th0-type antigen. An adjuvant effect was also not seen in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α knockout mice, and the adjuvant effect required the presences of dendritic cells (DCs) and phagocytic macrophages. Therefore, unlike other adjuvants, Advax potentiates the intrinsic or in-built adjuvant property of co-administered antigens. Hence, Advax is a unique class of adjuvant which can potentiate the intrinsic adjuvant feature of the vaccine antigens through a yet to be determined mechanism. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-course radiotherapy followed by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer – the RAPIDO trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Per J; Marijnen, Corrie AM; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Wiggers, Theo; Glimelius, Bengt; Etten, Boudewijn van; Hospers, Geke AP; Påhlman, Lars; Velde, Cornelis JH van de; Beets-Tan, Regina GH; Blomqvist, Lennart; Beukema, Jannet C; Kapiteijn, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Current standard for most of the locally advanced rectal cancers is preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and, variably per institution, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Short-course preoperative radiation with delayed surgery has been shown to induce tumour down-staging in both randomized and observational studies. The concept of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has been proven successful in gastric cancer, hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer and is currently tested in primary colon cancer. Patients with rectal cancer with high risk features for local or systemic failure on magnetic resonance imaging are randomized to either a standard arm or an experimental arm. The standard arm consists of chemoradiation (1.8 Gy x 25 or 2 Gy x 25 with capecitabine) preoperatively, followed by selective postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Postoperative chemotherapy is optional and may be omitted by participating institutions. The experimental arm includes short-course radiotherapy (5 Gy x 5) followed by full-dose chemotherapy (capecitabine and oxaliplatin) in 6 cycles before surgery. In the experimental arm, no postoperative chemotherapy is prescribed. Surgery is performed according to TME principles in both study arms. The hypothesis is that short-course radiotherapy with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy increases disease-free and overall survival without compromising local control. Primary end-point is disease-free survival at 3 years. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, local control, toxicity profile, and treatment completion rate, rate of pathological complete response and microscopically radical resection, and quality of life. Following the advances in rectal cancer management, increased focus on survival rather than only on local control is now justified. In an experimental arm, short-course radiotherapy is combined with full-dose chemotherapy preoperatively, an alternative that offers advantages compared to concomitant chemoradiotherapy with or without postoperative

  18. Effectiveness of adjuvant carboplatin-based chemotherapy compared to cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couillard-Montminy, Valérie; Gagnon, Pierre-Yves; Fortin, Sebastien; Côté, Jimmy

    2017-01-01

    Background Cisplatin and vinorelbine given intravenously is a well-established adjuvant chemotherapy regimen after surgery for early non-small cell lung cancer. However, few validated alternatives exist when cisplatin is not indicated or tolerated. Carboplatin is frequently used in this setting. We evaluated the 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival and toxicity in patients treated for stage IB to IIIB resected non-small cell lung cancer receiving adjuvant carboplatin-based chemotherapy compared to cisplatin in association with vinorelbine. Methods Single-center retrospective study of patients having received adjuvant chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2013 at the oncology clinic at Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec (Canada). Three sub-groups, cisplatin/vinorelbine, carboplatin/vinorelbine and the substitution of cisplatin/vinorelbine for carboplatin/vinorelbine (cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine), were studied during treatment. Results One hundred twenty-seven patients were included in this study. The median PFS was not significantly different, with 50.4 months for cisplatin/vinorelbine, 57.3 months for cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine and not yet achieved for the carboplatin/vinorelbine group ( p = 0.80). Overall survival also did not differ significantly between the three groups. The 5-year overall survival rates were 66% in cisplatin/vinorelbine group, 55% in carboplatin/vinorelbine group and 70% in cisplatin/vinorelbine/carboplatin/vinorelbine group ( p = 0, 95). No differences were noted between groups concerning high-grade hematologic toxicity. Conclusions Although the effectiveness and hematologic toxicity are comparable between cisplat in and carboplatin in the adjuvant treatment of resected non-small cell lung cancer, the results obtained corroborate the practice used at our oncology clinic. Nevertheless, more prospective studies would be needed to confirm these

  19. Organ function and quality of life after transoral laser microsurgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Arno; Hess, Clemens F. [Dept. of Phoniatrics and Pedaudiology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Ewen, Andreas; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Hermann, Robert Michael; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Roedel, Ralph; Steiner, Wolfgang [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Cancerology, CHU Morvan, Brest (France)

    2009-05-15

    Background and purpose: transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and adjuvant radiotherapy are an established therapy regimen for locally advanced laryngeal cancer at our institution. Aim of the present study was to assess value of quality of life (QoL) data with special regard to organ function under consideration of treatment efficacy in patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer treated with larynx-preserving TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and methods: from 1994 to 2006, 39 patients (ten UICC stage III, 29 UICC stage IVA/B) with locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas were treated with TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy. Data concerning treatment efficacy, QoL (using the VHI [Voice Handicap Index], the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H and N35 questionnaires) and organ function (respiration, deglutition, voice quality) were obtained for ten patients still alive after long-term follow-up. Correlations were determined using the Spearman rank test. Results: after a median follow-up of 80.8 months, the 5-year overall survival rate was 46.8% and the locoregional control rate 76.5%, respectively. The larynx preservation rate was 89.7% for all patients and 100% for patients still alive after follow-up. Despite some verifiable problems in respiration, speech and swallowing, patients showed a subjectively good QoL. Conclusion: TLM and adjuvant radiotherapy is a curative option for patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer and an alternative to radical surgery. Even if functional deficits are unavoidable in the treatment of locally advanced laryngeal carcinomas, larynx preservation is associated with a subjectively good QoL. (orig.)

  20. A randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intrathecal adjuvants are added to local anaesthetics to improve the quality of neuraxial blockade and prolong the duration of analgesia during spinal anaesthesia. Used intrathecally, fentanyl improves the quality of spinal blockade as compared to plain bupivacaine and confers a short duration of post ...

  1. Lipopolysaccharide contamination in intradermal DNA vaccination : toxic impurity or adjuvant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.H. van den; Quaak, S.G.L.; Beijnen, J.H.; Hennink, W.E.; Storm, G.; Schumacher, T.N.; Haanen, J.B.A.G.; Nuijen, B.

    Purpose: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known both as potential adjuvants for vaccines and as toxic impurity in pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LPS in intradermal DNA vaccination administered by DNA tattooing. Method: Micewere vaccinated with a model DNA

  2. Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I non-seminomatous testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemotherapy regimen consisted of 2 cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin. Each cycle of chemotherapy lasted 3 days. There have been no relapses at a median follow-up of 31 months (range 12 - 53 months). Acute and late toxicity have been modest. We have found adjuvant chemotherapy to be effective after ...

  3. Effects of pH and adjuvants on clethodim photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falb, L.N.; Bridges, D.C.; Smith, A.E. Jr. (Univ. of Georgia, Griffin (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Physical degradation of clethodim (2-(1-(((3-chloro-2-propenyl)oxy)imino)propyl)-5-(2-(ethylthio)propyl)cyclohexane-1,3-dione) occurred in aqueous solution by acid catalysis and photocatalysis in in vitro experiments as assayed by HPLC. Clethodim degradation increased as acidity increased, being further accelerated under UV light with a half-life of 2.4, 2.6, and 3.2 h at pH 5, 6, and 7, respectively. Fewer degradation products were formed under UV plus adjuvant treatments, but the rate of photodegradation was increased by 2- to 7-fold over the UV control. The degradation rate in sunlight plus adjuvant treatments was enhanced by 7- to 27-fold over the sunlight control. The photodegradation rates in the presence of adjuvants followed the sequence LI700 > Dash > Agrioil > XE1167 > CC15943 > control. In summary, clethodim degradation was catalyzed by acid, the rate being accelerated in light (probably a different mechanism), and was further enhanced by the addition of adjuvants to the light treatment.

  4. Teaching adjuvant endocrine breast cancer treatment to medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. de; Fluit, C.R.M.G.; Timmer-Bonte, J.N.H.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Klaassen, T.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: In undergraduate medical education, students are supposed to acquire knowledge and understanding about the basic principles of adjuvant breast cancer treatment. The best education method in this context is unknown. In this randomised study we assessed the effect of designing a patient

  5. Teaching adjuvant endocrine breast cancer treatment to medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Fluit, C.; Timmer-Bonte, J.; Ottevanger, P.; Verhagen, C.; Klaassen, T.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    In undergraduate medical education, students are supposed to acquire knowledge and understanding about the basic principles of adjuvant breast cancer treatment. The best education method in this context is unknown. In this randomised study we assessed the effect of designing a patient education

  6. Uterine sarcoma following adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmion, P.J.; Goldfarb, P.M.; Youngkin, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    Since adjuvant radiotherapy for rectosigmoid carcinoma appears to improve prognosis, the importance of delayed side effects such as radiation-induced malignant disease must be considered. The present report describes the first reported case of the development of a uterine carcinosarcoma more than 9 years after preoperative radiotherapy to the midpelvis for rectal carcinoma.

  7. Efficacy of Killed Adjuvanted FMD Vaccine Developed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the potency of killed Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) vaccines serotypes SAT1 (Nig 1/98) and SAT 2 (Nig 2/97) virus isolates, formulated with montanide ISA 206 adjuvant was determined in guinea pigs and cattle by antibody assay using Complement Fixation and Serum Neutralization tests. The antibody titres ...

  8. Adjuvant treatment for high risk melanoma. Where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival rate for stage 3 and 4 melanoma is very poor. In the absence of effective treatments for metastatic disease focus has shifted to the adjuvant setting. While we are now able to identify those who are at high risk of recurrence the role of adjuvant systemic treatment in these individuals is still undefined. This is partly due to the lack of effective treatments, despite the advances in the understanding of the biology of melanoma and the natural history of the disease process. Of the various treatments studied in the adjuvant setting only interferons and vaccines have been shown to affect the clinical outcome but no agent has been accepted as a standard, with differences in practice between the US and Europe. In this review article we will report what is known at this time about the different agents studied in the adjuvant setting and refer to some new areas of research that may play a bigger role in the future management of melanoma.

  9. Effects of 5-fluorouracil adjuvant treatment of colon cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Plukker, John T. M.

    Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been the standard adjuvant treatment for Stage III colon cancer. After the initial introduction of 5-fluorouracil in standard treatment protocols, several changes have been made based on results of randomized studies on

  10. Tailorable Trimethyl chitosans as adjuvant for intranasal immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tailorable Trimethyl Chitosans as Adjuvant for Intranasal Immunization Active vaccination has proven to be the most (cost) effective tool in the fight against infectious diseases. Nowadays, most vaccines are administered via parenteral injection. However, the risk of contaminated needles and need

  11. Role of chemoradiotherapy in oesophageal cancer -- adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwynne, S.; Wijnhoven, B. P. L.; Hulshof, M.; Bateman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite low postoperative mortality rates, the long-term outcomes from surgical-based treatment for oesophageal cancer remain poor. Chemoradiotherapy (CRT), either given before surgical resection as neoadjuvant therapy or after resection as adjuvant therapy, has been postulated to improve these

  12. Cost considerations in determining the affordability of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rapid increase in costs in medicine has highlighted the affordability and value of medical treatments.[1] Affordability is the cost relative to the amount that the purchaser is able to pay. Value is the ratio of patient benefit to cost. A topical issue is the affordability and value of adjuvant trastuzumab for 1 year after surgery for ...

  13. [Oral magnesium supplementation: an adjuvant alternative to facing the worldwide challenge of type 2 diabetes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In the search for answers that contribute to the metabolic control of patients with diabetes and the primary prevention of the disease, we performed a review of the evidence from cohort studies on the relationship between serum and/or magnesium intake with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes as well as of clinical trials on the efficacy of oral magnesium salts on reducing glycemia. An electronic search using the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, updated to September 30, 2013, was performed. A total of seven cohort studies (24,388 persons/year) show unequivocally that magnesium intake is associated with decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes; two studies (13,076 persons/year) indicate that low magnesium intake is not associated with the risk of diabetes; one study (8,735 persons/year) shows that hypomagnesemia is associated with the development of impaired glucose metabolism. A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were identified; five show the effectiveness of oral magnesium salts in reducing glycemia in high-risk subjects and six studies carried out in patients with type 2 diabetes show inconsistent results. Magnesium intake in the customary diet of subjects of the general population and the high-risk groups and/or oral magnesium supplementation is recommended for the prevention of diabetes. The efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in the reduction of glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients is inconsistent.

  14. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  15. Electric power in Canada, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This annual review surveys Canadian electrical power production and consumption, exports and imports, and developments in the fields of energy policy, electric space heating, and alternate energy sources. Total Canadian capacity at Dec. 31 1982 was 84 777 MW, 6 280 MW from nuclear sources. Of 1 469 MW capacity added during 1982, 680 MW were nuclear. The demand for electricity dropped to 344 083 GWh in 1982 from 346 333 GWh in 1981

  16. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  17. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  18. Modulation of primary immune response by different vaccine adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Ciabattini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants contribute to enhancing and shaping the vaccine immune response through different modes of action. Since the primary immune response can influence the overall quality of the response generated, here we investigate early biomarkers of adjuvanticity after primary immunization with four different adjuvants combined with the chimeric tuberculosis vaccine antigen H56. C57BL/6 mice were immunized by the subcutaneous route with different vaccine formulations, and the modulation of primary CD4+ T cell and B cell responses was assessed within draining lymph nodes, blood and spleen, 7 and 12 days after priming. Vaccine formulations containing the liposome system CAF01 or a squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion (o/w Squalene, but not aluminum hydroxide (Alum or CpG ODN 1826, elicited a significant primary antigen-specific CD4+ T cell response compared to antigen alone, 7 days after immunization. The effector function of activated CD4+ T cells was skewed towards a Th1/Th17 response by CAF01, while a Th1/Th2 response was elicited by o/w Squalene. Differentiation of B cells in short-lived plasma cells, and subsequent early H56-specific IgG secretion, was observed in mice immunized with o/w Squalene or CpG adjuvants. Tested adjuvants promoted the germinal centre reaction with different magnitude. These results show that the immunological activity of different adjuvants can be characterized by profiling early immunization biomarkers after primary immunization. These data and this approach could give an important contribution to the rational development of heterologous prime-boost vaccine immunization protocols.

  19. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  20. Laser Adjuvant-Assisted Peptide Vaccine Promotes Skin Mobilization of Dendritic Cells and Enhances Protective CD8+TEMand TRMCell Responses Against Herpes Infection and Disease‡.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Patricia P; Todorov, George; Pham, Thanh T; Nesburn, Anthony B; Bahraoui, Elmostafa; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2018-02-07

    There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against the widespread viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex viruses type 2 (HSV-2), that infect a large proportion of the world human population. In the present study, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a laser adjuvant peptide vaccine (LAP vaccine) in the B6 mouse model of genital herpes. This LAP vaccine, and its laser-free peptide vaccine analog (LFP vaccine), contain the immunodominant HSV-2 glycoprotein B CD8 + T cell epitope (HSV-gB 498-505 ) covalently linked with the promiscuous glycoprotein D CD4 + T helper cell epitope (HSV-gD 49-89 ). Prior to intradermal delivery of the LAP vaccine, the lower flank shaved skin of B6 or CD11c/eYFP transgenic mice received a topical skin treatment with 5% Imiquimod Cream and then exposed for 60-seconds to a laser, using the FDA approved non-ablative diode. Compared to the LFP vaccine, the LAP vaccine: ( i ) triggered mobilization of dendritic cells (DC) in the skin that formed small spots along the laser-treated areas; ( ii ) induced phenotypic and functional maturation of DC; ( iii ) stimulated a long-lasting HSV-specific effector memory CD8 + T EM and tissue-resident CD8 + T RM cells locally in the vaginal muco-cutaneous tissues (VM); and ( iv ) induced protective immunity against genital herpes infection and disease. As an alternative to currently used conventional adjuvants, the chemical- and biological-free laser-adjuvant offers a well-tolerated, simple to produce method to enhance mass vaccination for widespread viral infections. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world population. There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants that would advance mass vaccination against the widespread herpes infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization with laser

  1. Electricity : Italian style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, L.

    2007-01-01

    Italy's electricity system was described. Italy relies on outside sources for between 10 and 15 per cent of its electricity supply. Most Italians use gas, wood stoves and fossil fuels, and are conservative about lighting. Electricity costs more in Italy than in any other European country. Italy made the decision to decommission its nuclear power stations after Chernobyl. In 2005, Italy's largest utility group signed a memorandum of understanding ensuring that they would contract energy from France's nuclear reactors. Italy is now financing and managing projects in Russia and eastern Europe, and has strengthened its ties in Spain and the Netherlands. Although Italy is intent on producing its own power, the perceptions of health hazards from electricity towers cause citizens to strongly protest new installations. It was concluded that rising energy prices may force Italians to reconsider the use of alternative energy sources. 3 figs

  2. Evaluation of several adjuvants in avian influenza vaccine to chickens and ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of three different adjuvants, mineral oil, Montanide™ ISA 70M VG, and Montanide™ ISA 206 VG, were evaluated on reverse genetics H5N3 avian influenza virus cell cultured vaccine. The immune results of SPF chickens after challenging with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus demonstrated that mineral oil adjuvant group and 70M adjuvant group provided 100% protection efficiency, but 206 adjuvant group provided only 40%. Statistical analysis indicated that the protection effects of mineral oil adjuvant group and the 70M adjuvant showed no significant difference to each other, but with significant difference to 206 adjuvant group. All three groups could induce high titres of antibody after immunizing SPF ducks, but there was no significant difference among them. The immunization effect of 70M adjuvant group on SPF chickens were the best and showed significant difference compared with optimized 70Mi Montanide™ eight series adjuvants groups. These results suggest that 70M adjuvant could be a novel adjuvant for preparing avian influenza vaccine.

  3. Review on adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer - why do treatment guidelines differ so much?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Laurids Ø; Qvortrup, Camilla; Pfeiffer, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial for rectal adenocarcinoma. Both international and national guidelines display a great span varying from recommending no adjuvant chemotherapy at all, over single drug 5-fluororuacil (5-FU), to combinations of 5-FU/oxalipl...... of adjuvant chemotherapy and if adjuvant colon cancer studies are considered transferrable to rectal cancer patients regardless of the molecular differences......./oxaliplatin. METHODS: A review of the literature was made identifying 24 randomized controlled trials on adjuvant treatment of rectal cancer based on about 10 000 patients. The trials were subdivided into a number of clinically relevant subgroups. RESULTS: As regards patients treated with preoperative (chemo......BACKGROUND: The use of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial for rectal adenocarcinoma. Both international and national guidelines display a great span varying from recommending no adjuvant chemotherapy at all, over single drug 5-fluororuacil (5-FU), to combinations of 5-FU...

  4. ELECTRICITY DEMAND AND ELECTRICITY VALUE

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Lim; Glenn Jenkins

    2000-01-01

    The estimation of the demand for electricity is important in the appraisal of power projects because it often affects the benefits of the projects. For projects that involve a decision about the timing of investment- when to install new capacity to meet the demand- the precision of the electricity demand forecast can be critical. For others, when electric tariff policy is involved, it is essential to relate the demand for electricity with tariffs through the use of an electricity demand model...

  5. Effect of different adjuvant formulations on the immunogenicity and protective effect of a live Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine after intramuscular inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiyan; Wei, Yanna; Xie, Haidong; Feng, Zhixin; Gan, Yuan; Wang, Chunlai; Liu, Maojun; Bai, Fangfang; Xie, Fang; Shao, Guoqing

    2014-06-05

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) vaccine strain 168 is an intrapulmonically injected attenuated live vaccine that is available in the Chinese market. The aim of this study was to develop suitable adjuvants for this live vaccine to provide effective protection after intramuscular inoculation. Several adjuvant components were screened to assess their toxicity for the live vaccine, and various adjuvant formulations were then designed and prepared. Vaccines supplemented with these adjuvants were used to immunize mice intramuscularly to assess the capacity of the adjuvants to induce a specific immune response. The screened formulations were then evaluated in pigs. Seven of the eight adjuvant components did not affect the viability of the live vaccine, and seven different adjuvant formulations were then designed. In mice, the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant significantly enhanced serum IgG responses against M. hyopneumoniae, while lymphocyte proliferation was enhanced by the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant, the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant. These four adjuvants were evaluated in pigs. Enhancement of specific lymphocyte proliferation responses was observed in the groups vaccinated with the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant and the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant. Significant enhancement of serum IgG antibody production was observed before challenge in pigs vaccinated with the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant and the levamisole-chitosan mixture adjuvant, while after challenge, all of the animals that received vaccines containing adjuvants had higher antibody concentrations against M. hyopneumoniae than unvaccinated animals. Animals inoculated with a vaccine containing the ISCOM-matrix adjuvant (median score 3.57) or the carbomer-astragalus polysaccharide mixture adjuvant (median score 5.28) had reduced lesion scores compared to unvaccinated animals

  6. Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Conjugate Vaccine against Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong; Cartmell, Jonathan; Bailey, Justin J.; Dziadek, Sebastian; Bundle, David R.; Cutler, Jim E.

    2012-01-01

    Our research on pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis led to the discovery that antibodies specific for Candida albicans cell surface β-1, 2–mannotriose [β-(Man)3] protect mice. A 14 mer peptide Fba, which derived from the N-terminal portion of the C. albicans cytosolic/cell surface protein fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, was used as the glycan carrier and resulted in a novel synthetic glycopeptide vaccine β-(Man)3-Fba. By a dendritic cell-based immunization approach, this conjugate induced protective antibody responses against both the glycan and peptide parts of the vaccine. In this report, we modified the β-(Man)3-Fba conjugate by coupling it to tetanus toxoid (TT) in order to improve immunogenicity and allow for use of an adjuvant suitable for human use. By new immunization procedures entirely compatible with human use, the modified β-(Man)3-Fba-TT was administered either alone or as a mixture made with alum or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvants and given to mice by a subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Mice vaccinated with or, surprisingly, without adjuvant responded well by making robust antibody responses. The immunized groups showed a high degree of protection against a lethal challenge with C. albicans as evidenced by increased survival times and reduced kidney fungal burden as compared to control groups that received only adjuvant or DPBS buffer prior to challenge. To confirm that induced antibodies were protective, sera from mice immunized against the β-(Man)3-Fba-TT conjugate transferred protection against disseminated candidiasis to naïve mice, whereas C. albicans-absorbed immune sera did not. Similar antibody responses and protection induced by the β-(Man)3-Fba-TT vaccine was observed in inbred BALB/c and outbred Swiss Webster mice. We conclude that addition of TT to the glycopeptide conjugate results in a self-adjuvanting vaccine that promotes robust antibody responses without the need for additional adjuvant, which is novel and represents a

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the safety of newly adjuvanted vaccines among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassijns, Jorgen; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Baay, Marc; Verstraeten, Thomas

    2016-02-03

    New adjuvants such as the AS- or the MF59-adjuvants improve vaccine efficacy and facilitate dose-sparing. Their use in influenza and malaria vaccines has resulted in a large body of evidence on their clinical safety in children. We carried out a systematic search for safety data from published clinical trials on newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. Serious adverse events (SAEs), solicited AEs, unsolicited AEs and AEs of special interest were evaluated for four new adjuvants: the immuno-stimulants containing adjuvant systems AS01 and AS02, and the squalene containing oil-in-water emulsions AS03 and MF59. Relative risks (RR) were calculated, comparing children receiving newly adjuvanted vaccines to children receiving other vaccines with a variety of antigens, both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted. Twenty-nine trials were included in the meta-analysis, encompassing 25,056 children who received at least one dose of the newly adjuvanted vaccines. SAEs did not occur more frequently in adjuvanted groups (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.75-0.96). Our meta-analyses showed higher reactogenicity following administration of newly adjuvanted vaccines, however, no consistent pattern of solicited AEs was observed across adjuvant systems. Pain was the most prevalent AE, but often mild and of short duration. No increased risks were found for unsolicited AEs, febrile convulsions, potential immune mediated diseases and new onset of chronic diseases. Our meta-analysis did not show any safety concerns in clinical trials of the newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. An unexplained increase of meningitis in one Phase III AS01-adjuvanted malaria trial and the link between narcolepsy and the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine illustrate that continued safety monitoring is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  9. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  10. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  11. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  12. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  13. The occurrence of fractures after adjuvant treatment of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant treatment in breast cancer patients especially with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) has adverse effects on bone metabolism resulting in an increased occurrence of fractures. In order to demonstrate this occurrence, long-term follow-up studies are necessary. From several national...... registries in Denmark, it is possible to link data from different sources and analyze this issue. METHODS: A study cohort of 68,842 breast cancer patients prospectively diagnosed and registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's database during the period 1995-2012 formed the basis...... menopause and tamoxifen treatment were associated with a lower occurrence and AI treatment, age and CCI were associated with a higher occurrence of fractures. CONCLUSION: Before advising adjuvant therapy with AIs fragile patients with chronic diseases should receive special attention in order to reduce...

  14. Antibiotic adjuvants - A strategy to unlock bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bello, Concepción

    2017-09-15

    Resistance to available antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria is currently a global challenge since the number of strains that are resistant to multiple types of antibiotics has increased dramatically each year and has spread worldwide. To unlock this problem, the use of an 'antibiotic adjuvant' in combination with an antibiotic is now being exploited. This approach enables us to prolong the lifespan of these life-saving drugs. This digests review provides an overview of the main types of antibiotic adjuvants, the basis of their operation and the remaining issues to be tackled in this field. Particular emphasis is placed on those compounds that are already in clinical development, namely β-lactamase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  16. Copper ions and coordination complexes as novel carbapenem adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Djoko, Karrera Y.; Achard, Maud E. S.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Lo, Alvin W.; Miraula, Manfredi; Prombhul, Sasiprapa; Hancock, Steven J.; Peters, Kate M.; Sidjabat, Hanna; Harris, Patrick N.; Mitić, Nataša; Walsh, Timothy R.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Shafer, William M.; Paterson, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are an urgent threat to global human health. These organisms produce β-lactamases with carbapenemase activity, such as the metallo-β-lactamase NDM-1, which is notable due to its association with mobile genetic elements and the lack of a clinically useful inhibitor. Here we examined the ability of copper to inhibit the activity of NDM-1 and explored the potential of a copper coordination complex as a mechanism to efficiently deliver copper as an adjuvant...

  17. Tocotrienols are good adjuvants for developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Ammu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs have the potential for cancer immunotherapy due to their ability to process and present antigens to T-cells and also in stimulating immune responses. However, DC-based vaccines have only exhibited minimal effectiveness against established tumours in mice and humans. The use of appropriate adjuvant enhances the efficacy of DC based cancer vaccines in treating tumours. Methods In this study we have used tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF, a non-toxic natural compound, as an adjuvant to enhance the effectiveness of DC vaccines in treating mouse mammary cancers. In the mouse model, six-week-old female BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with DC and supplemented with oral TRF daily (DC+TRF and DC pulsed with tumour lysate from 4T1 cells (DC+TL. Experimental mice were also injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and supplemented daily with oral TRF (DC+TL+TRF while two groups of animal which were supplemented daily with carrier oil (control and with TRF (TRF. After three times vaccination, mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in the mammary breast pad to induce tumour. Results Our study showed that TRF in combination with DC pulsed with tumour lysate (DC+TL+TRF injected subcutaneously significantly inhibited the growth of 4T1 mammary tumour cells as compared to control group. Analysis of cytokines production from murine splenocytes showed significant increased productions of IFN-γ and IL-12 in experimental mice (DC+TL+TRF compared to control, mice injected with DC without TRF, mice injected with DC pulsed with tumour lysate and mice supplemented with TRF alone. Higher numbers of cytotoxic T cells (CD8 and natural killer cells (NK were observed in the peripheral blood of TRF adjuvanted DC pulsed tumour lysate mice. Conclusion Our study show that TRF has the potential to be an adjuvant to augment DC based immunotherapy.

  18. Feasibility study: comparison of coal- and nuclear-fueled alternatives for process steam and by product electrical power generation for the E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Incorporated Plant Site, Victoria, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a small, (365 MWt) nuclear reactor for supplying process steam and electricity as a replacement for energy sources using increasingly scarce natural gas or oil. The Du Pont Chemical Plant Site at Victoria, Texas, was chosen as representative of industrial installations that require sizeable amounts of process steam and electricity. For comparison purposes conventional coal-fired boilers were also evaluated. It was determined that both nuclear- and coal-based process energy supply systems are technically feasible. For the specific steam/electricity demands at the reference site, the coal-fired plant proved to be economically more attractive than the nuclear units. For an application requiring a base-loaded supply of saturated steam, utilizing full reactor capacity, the nuclear option appears competitive for coal costing $37/ton in 1978 dollars.

  19. Feasibility study: comparison of coal- and nuclear-fueled alternatives for process steam and by product electrical power generation for the PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site, Lake Charles, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a small, (365 MWt) nuclear reactor for supplying process steam and electricity as a replacement for energy sources using increasingly scarce natural gas or oil. The PPG Industries, Incorporated Plant Site at Lake Charles, Louisiana, was chosen as representative of industrial installations that require sizeable amounts of process steam and electricity. For comparison purposes conventional coal-fired boilers were also evaluated. It was determined that both nuclear- and coal-based process energy supply systems are technically feasible. For the specific steam/electricity demands at the reference site, the coal-fired plant proved to be economically more attractive than the nuclear units. For an application requiring a base-loaded supply of saturated steam, utilizing full reactor capacity, the nuclear option appears competitive for coal costing $40/ton in 1978 dollars.

  20. Adjuvanted vaccines in pregnancy : no evidence for effect of the adjuvanted H1N1/09 vaccination on occurrence of preeclampsia or intra-uterine growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Alies; Koopmans, Nienke K.; Broekhuijsen, Kim; Groen, Henk; Karstenberg-Kramer, Janna M. A.; van Goor, Kim; Groenewout, Mariette; van Loon, Arjen; Faas, Marijke M.; van Pampus, Maria G.

    OBJECTIVE: During the H1N1/09 pandemic, pregnant women in the Netherlands were vaccinated with an adjuvanted vaccine. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system changes to enable placental development and growth and acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus. As an adjuvant is a pro-inflammatory

  1. Adjuvant chemotherapy compliance is not superior after thoracoscopic lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Schytte, Tine; Jakobsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single-institution, ......BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that patient compliance with adjuvant chemotherapy is superior after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery compared with open lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of evidence for this assumption, however, is limited to single...... adjuvant chemotherapy and 121 (38.7%) completed all four cycles. Ordinal logistic regression revealed that chemotherapy compliance (none, partial, and full chemotherapy) was significantly reduced by the patient's age (p....02). No significant difference between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and thoracotomy was seen regarding chemotherapy compliance (p=0.17), number of chemotherapy cycles (p=0.60), or time from surgery to chemotherapy (p = 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Complete national data do not support the widespread assumption...

  2. A Purified Recombinant Lipopeptide as Adjuvant for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chyi Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic lipopeptides have been widely used as vaccine adjuvants to enhance immune responses. The present study demonstrated that the tryptic N-terminal fragment of the lipoprotein rlipo-D1E3 (lipo-Nter induces superior antitumor effects compared to a synthetic lipopeptide. The lipo-Nter was purified and formulated with protein or peptide vaccines to determine if lipo-Nter could be used as a novel adjuvant and could induce antitumor immunity in a cervical cancer model. Purified lipo-Nter activated the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs, leading to the secretion of TNF-α through TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2. A recombinant mutant HPV16 E7 (rE7m protein was mixed with lipo-Nter to immunize the mice; the anti-E7 antibody titers were increased, and the T helper cells were skewed toward the Th1 fate (increased IL-2 and decreased IL-5 secretion. Single-dose injection of rE7m and lipo-Nter inhibited tumor growth, but the injection of rE7m alone did not. Accordingly, lipo-Nter also enhanced the antitumor immunity of the E7-derived peptide but not the synthetic lipopeptide (Pam3CSK4. We demonstrated that the lipo-Nter of a bacterial-derived recombinant lipoprotein is a novel adjuvant that could be used for the development of a new generation of vaccines.

  3. Batteries charging systems for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Gonçalves, Henrique; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.

    2012-01-01

    Many countries have a large dependence on imported fossil fuels whose prices increase almost every day. Knowing that much of this consumption is for transportation systems, it becomes essential to seek for alternatives. The natural bet is the electric mobility, namely through Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs). However, the wide spread utilization of these vehicles has consequences on the electrical power grid, mainly in terms of load management and electric ...

  4. Alternating Copolymers and Alternative Device Geometries for Organic Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometr...

  5. External validation of Adjuvant! Online breast cancer prognosis tool. Prioritising recommendations for improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hajage

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant! Online is a web-based application designed to provide 10 years survival probability of patients with breast cancer. Several predictors have not been assessed in the original Adjuvant! Online study. We provide the validation of Adjuvant! Online algorithm on two breast cancer datasets, and we determined whether the accuracy of Adjuvant! Online is improved with other well-known prognostic factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The French data set is composed of 456 women with early breast cancer. The Dutch data set is composed of 295 women less than 52 years of age. Agreement between observation and Adjuvant! Online prediction was checked, and logistic models were performed to estimate the prognostic information added by risk factors to Adjuvant! Online prediction. RESULTS: Adjuvant! Online prediction was overall well-calibrated in the French data set but failed in some subgroups of such high grade and HER2 positive patients. HER2 status, Mitotic Index and Ki67 added significant information to Adjuvant! Online prediction. In the Dutch data set, the overall 10-year survival was overestimated by Adjuvant! Online, particularly in patients less than 40 years old. CONCLUSION: Adjuvant! Online needs to be updated to adjust overoptimistic results in young and high grade patients, and should consider new predictors such as Ki67, HER2 and Mitotic Index.

  6. Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin as Adjuvant Therapy for Stage I-III Operable Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin-Che; Ou-Yang, F U; Hsieh, Chia-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren; Tu, Chi-Wen; Wang, Hwei-Chung; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Conventional anthracyclines play an essential role for the treatment of breast cancer and have potent cytotoxic activity, but are associated with severe toxicity. In metastatic breast cancer, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a formulation with efficacy similar to conventional doxorubicin but with reduced toxicity. This multicenter study evaluated the efficacy and safety of PLD-based adjuvant chemotherapy for women with stage I-III operable breast cancer. One hundred and eighty women with stage I-III breast cancer who received PLD-based adjuvant chemotherapy at six different Institutions in Taiwan from February 2002 to March 2008 were included and followed-up until April 2015. Treatment efficacy was determined by disease-free survival (DFS) rate and safety was evaluated by adverse events. The 5- and 10-year DFS rates were 76.3 and 72.6%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that tumor size >5 cm (p=0.045; hazard ratio=3.31) and stage III (hazard ratio=3.54; p=0.019) were each associated with shorter DFS. Only stage III (hazard ratio=5.60; p=0.018) retained statistical significance with regard to DFS in the multivariate analysis. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicity was neutropenia (n=13; 7.2%). The women receiving PLD had low-grade 3 or 4 nausea/vomiting, mucositis, and alopecia. Grade 3 hand-foot syndrome occurred in three patients (1.7%). PLD could be considered an effective and safe alternative to conventional anthracyclines in the treatment of stage I-III operable breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapna; Faraj, Yasser; Duso, Debra K; Reiley, William W; Karlsson, Erik A; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Vajdy, Michael

    2017-05-21

    Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS), based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c) mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil), and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist Poly (I:C), induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1) or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases.

  8. Comparative Safety and Efficacy Profile of a Novel Oil in Water Vaccine Adjuvant Comprising Vitamins A and E and a Catechin in Protective Anti-Influenza Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Patel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-replicating vaccines, such as those based on recombinant proteins, require adjuvants and delivery systems, which have thus far depended on mimicking pathogen danger signals and strong pro-inflammatory responses. In search of a safer and more efficacious alternative, we tested whether vaccinations with influenza recombinant hemagglutinin (HA mixed with a novel vegetable oil in water emulsion adjuvant (Natural Immune-enhancing Delivery System, NIDS, based on the immune-enhancing synergy of vitamins A and E and a catechin, could protect against intra-nasal challenge with live influenza virus. Vaccinations of inbred Brag Albino strain c (BALB/c mice, with HA mixed with NIDS compared to other adjuvants, i.e., a squalene oil in water emulsion (Sq. oil, and the Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3 agonist Poly (I:C, induced significantly lower select innate pro-inflammatory responses in serum, but induced significantly higher adaptive antibody and splenic T Helper 1 (TH1 or TH2, but not TH17, responses. Vaccinations with NIDS protected against infection, as measured by clinical scores, lung viral loads, and serum hemagglutination inhibition titers. The NIDS exhibited a strong dose sparing effect and the adjuvant action of NIDS was intact in the outbred CD1 mice. Importantly, vaccinations with the Sq. oil, but not NIDS, induced a significantly higher Serum Amyloid P component, an acute phase reactant secreted by hepatocytes, and total serum IgE. Thus, the NIDS may be used as a clinically safer and more efficacious vaccine adjuvant against influenza, and potentially other infectious diseases.

  9. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  10. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  11. Iron supply to soybean plants through the foliar application of IDHA/Fe3+: effect of plant nutritional status and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Ropero, Edgar; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    Synthetic Fe chelates are commonly used to overcome Fe deficiencies in crops, but most of them are scarcely biodegradable. Iminodisuccinic acid (IDHA) is a biodegradable chelating agent that is currently being evaluated as an alternative to EDTA. In this work, the efficacy of the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) to soybean chlorotic plants under controlled conditions was studied, testing the influence of the adjuvant used and of the plant nutritional status. When IDHA/Fe(3+) was applied to soybean plants with severe Fe chlorosis and the foliar sprays were the sole source of Fe, this chelate behaved similarly to the EDTA/Fe(3+) and the recovery of the plants was slight in both cases. The same chelates were tested when foliar sprays were an additional source of Fe for mildly chlorotic plants, which were also being supplied with low concentrations of Fe applied to the nutrient solution. Then, plant recovery was appreciable in all cases, and the IDHA/Fe(3+) was as effective as EDTA/Fe(3+). Among the adjuvants studied, a urea-based product was the only one that did not damage the leaf surface and that could improve the efficiency of IDHA/Fe(3+) up tp the level of EDTA/Fe(3+). Thus, it was concluded the foliar application of IDHA/Fe(3+) can be an environmentally friendly alternative to the non-biodegradable chelate EDTA/Fe(3+) when the appropriate adjuvant is used. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Toxicity of 19 adjuvants to juvenile Lepomis macrochirus (bluegill sunfish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, William T; Stocker, Randall K

    2003-03-01

    Nineteen adjuvants, many used as surfactants for aquatic herbicide applications, were applied in static bioassay to bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) for 96 h to determine median lethal concentrations (LC50). Surfactants are added to the tank mix as a percentage (v/v) of the total volume, in contrast to herbicide application rates, which are usually expressed in kilograms per hectare. Two ethoxylated tallow amine products were the most toxic, having LC50 values of 1.6 and 2.9 ppm (all values v/v). Seven alcohol/glycol-based surfactants had 96-h LC50 values of 4.0 to 11.6 ppm (mean = 7.9 ppm). The polysiloxane- or silicone-based surfactants had toxicities of 18.1 to 29.7 ppm (mean = 24.7). Two limonene-based products had LC50 values of 10.2 and 30.2 ppm. A methylated seed oil with emulsifier had a LC50 of 53.1 ppm. Two acid/buffer utility adjuvants had LC50 values of 60.8 and 221 ppm. To compare the relative safety of the tested surfactants, we assumed maximum label rate applications to 1 m deep water with uniform mixing. This comparison of relative safety is based on mortality to 50% of the test organisms and does not imply application rates that would not result in any mortality. The two ethoxylated tallow amines, neither used or recommended for aquatic applications, had a relative safety factor of 12.6 or less. Relative safety factor varied from 6.2 to 20.4 for the seven alcohol/glycol surfactants, 38.4 to 63.2 for silicone-based products, 5.5 to 16.1 for limonene products, 113 for methylated seed oil, and 132.2 to 315.7 for acid/buffer utility adjuvants. When used according to label recommendations under normal use conditions, these adjuvants should not be present in acutely toxic concentrations; however, the most toxic adjuvants in very shallow water (< 10 cm) would be toxic to bluegill sunfish that did not move to deeper water to avoid lethal concentrations.

  13. Gamma ray sterilization of delta inulin adjuvant particles (Advax™) makes minor, partly reversible structural changes without affecting adjuvant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P. D.; Barclay, T. G.; Ginic-Markovic, M.; Petrovsky, N.

    2014-01-01

    We earlier identified a developmental series of seven isoforms/polymorphs of microparticulate inulin by comparing non-covalent bonding strengths. Their pharmaceutical utility lies in modulation of cellular immunity, exploited as vaccine adjuvants (Advax™) especially for delta inulin (DI). As such particles cannot be sterilized by filtration we explore the effect of 60Co gamma radiation (GR) on inulin isoforms, particularly DI. Its adjuvant activity and overt physical properties were unaffected by normal GR sterilizing doses (up to 25 kGy). Heating irradiated isoform suspensions near their critical dissolution temperature revealed increased solubility deduced to reflect a single lethal event in one component of a multi-component structure. Local oxidative effects of GR on DI were not found. The observed DI loss was almost halved by re-annealing at the critical temperature: surviving inulin chains apparently reassemble into smaller amounts of the original type of structure. Colorimetric tetrazolium assay revealed increases in reducing activity after GR of raw inulin powder, which yielded DI with normal physical properties but only 25% normal recovery yet 4× normal reducing ability, implying final retention of some GR-changed inulin chains. These findings suggest minimal inulin chain cleavage and confirm that GR may be a viable strategy for terminal sterilization of microparticulate inulin adjuvants. PMID:24342245

  14. Cost-utility analysis of adjuvant goserelin (Zoladex and adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased health care costs have made it incumbent on health-care facilities and physicians to demonstrate both clinical and cost efficacy when recommending treatments. Though studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin with radiotherapy for locally advanced prostate cancer, few have compared the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant goserelin to adjuvant chemotherapy alone in premenopausal breast cancer. Methods In this retrospective study at one hospital, the records of 152 patients with stage Ia to IIIa ER + breast cancer who received goserelin or chemotherapy were reviewed. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were interviewed to evaluate their quality of life using the European Organization for Research and Treatment Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30, version 4.0, and to obtain the utility value by the standard gamble (SG and visual scale (VS methods. Total medical cost was assessed from the (National Health Insurance NHI payer's perspective. Results Survival at 11 years was significantly better in the groserelin group (P Conclusions Goserelin therapy results in better survival and higher utility-weighted life-years, and is more cost-effective than TC or TEC chemotherapy.

  15. Immunogenicity of a reduced-dose whole killed rabies vaccine is significantly enhanced by ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, Merck amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) or a synthetic TLR9 agonist in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Daniel; Antonello, Joseph M; Bett, Andrew J; Medi, Muneeswara B; Casimiro, Danilo R; ter Meulen, Jan

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for novel rabies vaccines suitable for short course, pre- and post-exposure prophylactic regimens which require reduced doses of antigen to address the current worldwide supply issue. We evaluated in rhesus macaques the immunogenicity of a quarter-dose of a standard rabies vaccine formulated with Merck's amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate adjuvant, the saponin-based ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, or a synthetic TLR9 agonist. All adjuvants significantly increased the magnitude and durability of the humoral immune response as measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Several three-dose vaccine regimens resulted in adequate neutralizing antibody of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml earlier than the critical day seven post the first dose. Rabies vaccine with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant given at days 0 and 3 resulted in neutralizing antibody titers which developed faster and were up to one log10 higher compared to WHO-recommended intramuscular and intradermal regimens and furthermore, passive administration of human rabies immunoglobulin did not interfere with immunogenicity of this reduced dose, short course vaccine regimen. Adjuvantation of whole-killed rabies vaccine for intramuscular injection may therefore be a viable alternative to intradermal application of non-adjuvanted vaccine for both pre- and post-exposure regimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  17. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  18. Alternator control for battery charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  19. Development of a minimal saponin vaccine adjuvant based on QS-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Chea, Eric K.; George, Constantine; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Gardner, Jeffrey R.; Livingston, Philip O.; Ragupathi, Govind; Lewis, Jason S.; Tan, Derek S.; Gin, David Y.

    2014-07-01

    Adjuvants are materials added to vaccines to enhance the immunological response to an antigen. QS-21 is a natural product adjuvant under investigation in numerous vaccine clinical trials, but its use is constrained by scarcity, toxicity, instability and an enigmatic molecular mechanism of action. Herein we describe the development of a minimal QS-21 analogue that decouples adjuvant activity from toxicity and provides a powerful platform for mechanistic investigations. We found that the entire branched trisaccharide domain of QS-21 is dispensable for adjuvant activity and that the C4-aldehyde substituent, previously proposed to bind covalently to an unknown cellular target, is also not required. Biodistribution studies revealed that active adjuvants were retained preferentially at the injection site and the nearest draining lymph nodes compared with the attenuated variants. Overall, these studies have yielded critical insights into saponin structure-function relationships, provided practical synthetic access to non-toxic adjuvants, and established a platform for detailed mechanistic studies.

  20. 76 FR 19829 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    .... These include conversions of conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles to hybrid-electric vehicles, and conversions from hybrid-electric vehicles to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Since alternative fuel... Motor and Generator Manufacturing. 336312 Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing. 336322 Other...

  1. 75 FR 29605 - Clean Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Engine Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    .... These include conversions of conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles to hybrid-electric vehicles, and conversions from hybrid-electric vehicles to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Since alternative fuel... Motor and Generator Manufacturing. 336312 Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing. 336322 Other...

  2. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  3. Efficacy and Economic Value of Adjuvant Imatinib for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronchi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This article presents the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the use of adjuvant imatinib mesylate for treating patients with localized primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and discusses the impact of prolonged treatment with adjuvant imatinib on health care costs. Methods. A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted to explore recently reported clinical trials demonstrating the clinical benefit of adjuvant imatinib in GISTs, along with analyses discussing the economic impact of adjuvant imatinib. Results. Two phase III trials have demonstrated a significant clinical benefit of adjuvant imatinib treatment in GIST patients at risk of recurrence after tumor resection. Guidelines now suggest adjuvant treatment for at least 3 years in patients at high risk of recurrence. Despite this clinical effectiveness, prolonged use of adjuvant imatinib can lead to an increase in the risk for adverse events and to increased costs for both patients and health care systems. However, the increased cost is partially offset by cost reductions associated with delayed or avoided GIST recurrences. Three years of adjuvant treatment in high-risk patients was concluded to be cost-effective. Therefore, the careful selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment can lead to improved clinical outcomes and significant cost savings. Conclusion. Although introducing adjuvant imatinib has an economic impact on health plans, this effect seems to be limited. Several analyses have demonstrated that adjuvant imatinib is more cost-effective for treating localized primary GISTs than surgery alone. In addition, 3 years of adjuvant imatinib is more cost-effective than 1 year of adjuvant therapy. PMID:23709752

  4. Alternatives for hydrogen production in Brazilian regions aiming the generation of distributed electric energy; Alternativas para a producao de hidrogenio nas regioes brasileiras visando a geracao de energia eletrica distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2009-07-01

    In this work possible sources of hydrogen production for the generation of electric energy in a distributed way, with the fuel cell use, had been selected and studied. Three renewable sources (biomass, photovoltaic and wind) have been studied for energy generation in Brazil. For the establishment of numerical values, the main regional agricultural cultures and the amount of biomass in various brazilian states had been evaluated, in the form of waste, capable to be used for future hydrogen production. It was also investigated and evaluated the numerical capacity of hydrogen production from wind and photovoltaic resources for each region in Brazil, considering the electrolytic process. Based on the results, it is possible to demonstrate the potentialities of Brazil for electric energy generation in a planned distributed way, with fossil fuel substitution, and consequently, decreasing the environmental impacts. (author)

  5. Environmental Assessment, Finding of No Significant Impact/Finding of No Practicable Alternative for Replacement of Overhead Electrical Line, Feeders K1 and K7, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    of Overhead 3-13 Electrical Line, Feeders K1 and K7, Vandenberg Air Force Base Chapter 3. Affected Environment syncline; and the San Rafael ...marked California red- legged frogs in Santa Cruz County making overland movements of up to 2 miles over the course of a wet season. These individual...was collected in Calabasas Pond on the Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge in Santa Cruz County (Service 2002a). The chytrid fungus is now

  6. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  7. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  8. Alternative transportation fuels: Financing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadron, W.F.; Ward, C.O.; Brown, M.H.

    1992-06-01

    A multitude of alternative fuels could reduce air pollution and the impact of oil price shocks. Only a few of these fuels are readily available and inexpensive enough to merit serious consideration over the coming five years. In New York City, safety regulations narrow the field still further by eliminating propane. As a result, this study focuses on the three alternative fuels readily available in New York City: compressed natural gas, methanol, and electricity. Each has significant environmental benefits and each has different cost characteristics. With the Clean Air Act and the National Energy Strategy highlighting the country's need to improve urban air quality and move away from dependence on imported fuels, fleets may soon have little choice but to convert to altemative fuels. Given the potential for large infrastructure and vehicle costs, these fleets may have difficulty finding the capital to make that conversion. Ultimately, then, it will be the involvement of the private sector that will determine the success of alternative fuels. Whether it be utilities, fuel distributors or suppliers, private financing partners or others, it is critical that altemative fuels programs be structured and planned to attract their involvement. This report examines financing methods that do not involve government subsidies. It also explores financing methods that are specific to alternative fuels. Bond issues and other mechanisms that are used for conventional vehicles are not touched upon in this report. This report explores ways to spread the high cost of alternative fuels among a number of parties within the private sector. The emphasis is on structuring partnerships that suit methanol, electric, or natural gas vehicle fleets. Through these partnerships, alternative fuels may ultimately compete effectively against conventional vehicle fuels

  9. Beryllium, an adjuvant that promotes gamma interferon production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Atochina, O; King, B; Taylor, L; Elloso, M; Scott, P; Rossman, M D

    2000-07-01

    Beryllium is associated with a human pulmonary granulomatosis characterized by an accumulation of CD4(+) T cells in the lungs and a heightened specific lymphocyte proliferative response to beryllium (Be) with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) release (i.e., a T helper 1 [Th1] response). While an animal model of Be sensitization is not currently available, Be has exhibited adjuvant effects in animals. The effects of Be on BALB/c mice immunized with soluble leishmanial antigens (SLA) were investigated to determine if Be had adjuvant activity for IFN-gamma production, an indicator of the Th1 response. In this strain of Leishmania-susceptible BALB/c mice, a Th2 response is normally observed after in vivo SLA sensitization and in vitro restimulation with SLA. If interleukin-12 (IL-12) is given during in vivo sensitization with SLA, markedly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production are detected. We show here that when beryllium sulfate (BeSO(4)) was added during in vivo sensitization of BALB/c mice with SLA and IL-12, significantly increased IFN-gamma production and decreased IL-4 production from lymph node and spleen cells were detected upon in vitro SLA restimulation. No specific responses were observed to Be alone. Lymph node and spleen cells from all mice proliferated strongly and comparably upon in vitro restimulation with SLA and with SLA plus Be; no differences were noted among groups of mice that received different immunization regimens. In vivo, when Be was added to SLA and IL-12 for sensitization of BALB/c mice, more effective control of Leishmania infection was achieved. This finding has implications for understanding not only the development of granulomatous reactions but also the potential for developing Be as a vaccine adjuvant.

  10. Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after prostatectomy: AUA/ASTRO Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian M; Valicenti, Richard K; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J; Goldenberg, S Larry; Hahn, Carol; Klein, Eric; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Sartor, Oliver; Wolf, J Stuart; Faraday, Martha M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. A systematic literature review using the PubMed®, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiotherapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, the use of radiotherapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a re-staging evaluation. Physicians should offer adjuvant radiotherapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (i.e., seminal vesicle invasion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and should offer salvage radiotherapy to patients with prostatic specific antigen or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiotherapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiotherapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiotherapy should be made by the patient and the multi-disciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. Please visit the ASTRO and AUA websites (http://www.redjournal.org/webfiles/images/journals/rob/RAP%20Guideline.pdf and http://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/radiation-after-prostatectomy.cfm) to view this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adjuvant Ab Interno Tumor Treatment After Proton Beam Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Ira; Riechardt, Aline I; Heufelder, Jens; Cordini, Dino; Joussen, Antonia M

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to show long-term outcomes concerning globe preservation in uveal melanoma patients after proton beam therapy with the main focus on outcomes according to different adjuvant ab interno surgical procedures. Retrospective cohort study. All patients treated with primary proton beam therapy for choroidal or ciliary body melanoma between June 1998 and June 2015 were included. A total of 2499 patients underwent primary proton beam therapy, with local tumor control and globe preservation rates of 95.9% and 94.8% after 5 years, respectively. A total of 110 (4.4%) patients required secondary enucleation. Unresponsive neovascular glaucoma was the leading cause of secondary enucleation in 78 of the 2499 patients (3.1%). The 5-year enucleation-free survival rate was 94.8% in the endoresection group, 94.3% in the endodrainage group, and 93.5% in the comparator group. The log-rank test showed P = .014 (comparator group vs endoresection group) and P = .06 (comparator group vs endodrainage-vitrectomy group). Patients treated with endoresection or endodrainage-vitrectomy developed less radiation retinopathy (30.5% and 37.4% after 5 years, P = .001 and P = .048 [Kaplan-Meier], respectively) and less neovascular glaucoma (11.6% and 21.3% after 5 years, P = .001 and P = .01 [Kaplan-Meier], respectively) compared with the comparator group (52.3% radiation retinopathy and 57.8% neovascular glaucoma after 5 years). This study suggests that in larger tumors the enucleation and neovascular glaucoma rates might be reduced by adjuvant surgical procedures. Although endoresection is the most promising adjuvant treatment option, the endodrainage-vitrectomy is recommended in patients who are ineligible for endoresection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adjuvant radiotherapy for cutaneous melanoma: Comparing hypofractionation to conventional fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Daniel T.; Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G. M.S.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine locoregional control after adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for cutaneous melanoma and compare outcomes between conventional fractionation and hypofractionation. Methods and Materials: Between January 1980 and June 2004, 56 patients with high-risk disease were treated with adjuvant RT. Indications for RT included: recurrent disease, cervical lymph node involvement, lymph nodes >3 cm, more than three lymph nodes involved, extracapsular extension, gross residual disease, close or positive margins, or satellitosis. Hypofractionation was used in 41 patients (73%) and conventional fractionation was used in 15 patients (27%). Results: The median age was 61 years (21->90). The median follow-up among living patients was 4.4 years (range, 0.6-14.4 years). The primary site was located in the head and neck in 49 patients (87%) and below the clavicles in 7 patients (13%). There were 7 in-field locoregional failures (12%), 3 out-of-field regional failures (5%), and 24 (43%) distant failures. The 5-year in-field locoregional control (ifLRC) and freedom from distant metastases (FFDM) rates were 87% and 43%, respectively. The 5-year cause-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) was 57% and 46%, respectively. The only factor associated with ifLRC was satellitosis (p = 0.0002). Nodal involvement was the only factor associated with FFDM (p = 0.0007), CSS (p = 0.0065), and OS (p = 0.016). Two patients (4%) who experienced severe late complications, osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone and radiation plexopathy, and both received hypofractionation (5%). Conclusions: Although surgery and adjuvant RT provides excellent locoregional control, distant metastases remain the major cause of mortality. Hypofractionation and conventional fractionation are equally efficacious

  13. Melanoma Metastases to the Neck Nodes: Role of Adjuvant Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strojan, Primoz; Jancar, Boris; Cemazar, Maja; Perme, Maja Pohar; Hocevar, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To review experiences in the treatment of regionally advanced melanoma to the neck and/or parotid with emphasis on the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and histopathologic data, treatment details, and outcomes in patients treated during the period 2000-2006 at the Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia, were reviewed. Results: A total of 40 patients with 42 dissections underwent surgery, and 43 patients with 45 dissections received irradiation postoperatively to a median equivalent dose (eqTD 2 : 2 Gy/fraction, 1 fraction/day, 5 fractions/week) of 60 Gy (range, 47.8-78.8). Regional control 2 years after surgery was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40-72%) and after postoperative radiotherapy 78% (CI 63-92%) (p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, postoperative radiotherapy (yes vs. no: hazard ratio [HR] 6.3, CI 2.0-20.6) and sum of the risk factors present (i.e., risk factor score; HR 1.7 per score point, CI 1.2-2.6) were predictive for regional control. On logistic regression testing, the number of involved nodes was associated with the probability of distant metastases (p = 0.021). The incidence of late toxicity did not correlate with the mode of therapy, eqTD 2 , or fractionation pattern. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to compensate effectively for the negative impact of adverse histopatologic features to disease control in a dissected nodal basin. More conventionally fractionated radiotherapy regimens using fraction doses of 2-2.5 Gy, with cumulative eqTD 2 ≥60 Gy, are recommended. The number of involved lymph nodes is proposed as an additional criterion for limiting the implementation of adjuvant irradiation.

  14. Adjuvant brachytherapy for treatment of chest wall sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, K.E.; Nori, D.; Burt, M.; Bains, M.; McCormack, P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty patients treated with surgical resection and brachytherapy for chest wall sarcoma at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1980 through 1987 were reviewed. Patients selected to receive adjuvant irradiation were those for whom there was doubt as to the completeness of surgical resection. Overall 5-year survival and locoregional control after brachytherapy were 65% and 54%, respectively. Locoregional control was similar for tumors treated at initial diagnosis (12 patients), at the time of recurrence (13 patients), or for tumors that were metastatic to the chest wall (five patients). Six patients with tumors larger than 10 cm in maximum dimension had a locoregional recurrence rate of 69% versus a recurrence rate of 39% for 18 patients with smaller tumors (p = 0.27). Fifty-four percent of high-grade tumors recurred locoregionally versus 28% of low-grade tumors (p = 0.37). Bone invasion or the presence of positive resection margins was not clearly associated with a higher locoregional failure rate. Only one patient (1/28; 7%) was known to have had recurrence within the irradiated area. Eight patients (8/28; 37%) had recurrence adjacent to the implanted area, and the precise failure site could not be determined for the remaining two patients. Because of the relatively high risk of regional versus in-field recurrence, patients with chest wall sarcoma who receive adjuvant treatment should be treated primarily with external-beam irradiation to allow more generous coverage of the tumor bed. Brachytherapy could be used as a tumor bed 'boost' treatment. In patients undergoing resection of recurrent tumor in a previously irradiated site, adjuvant brachytherapy, without external-beam irradiation, should be considered to reduce the risk of extensive soft tissue necrosis

  15. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...

  16. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  17. An Economic Evaluation of Binary Cycle Geothermal Electricity Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Crissie

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is heavily dependent on fossil fuels to produce electricity. Geothermal energy, the heat in the earth's crust, can provide an alternative source of energy for electricity production as well as reduce fossil fuel consumption...

  18. Caffeine as an opioid analgesic adjuvant in fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Scott JR; Hassett AL; Brummett CM; Harris RE; Clauw DJ; Harte SE

    2017-01-01

    J Ryan Scott,1 Afton L Hassett,1 Chad M Brummett,1 Richard E Harris,1,2 Daniel J Clauw,1,2 Steven E Harte1,2 1Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: Caffeine’s properties as an analgesic adjuvant with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/acetaminophen are well documented. However, little clinical research has explored ca­ffeine&a...

  19. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosn Marwan G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. Methods 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. Results This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96% had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy was completed by 22 patients (91.7%. Only 7 patients (36.8% completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%, 2 regional relapses (10% and 2 distant relapses (10% were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5% died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8% with 9 (36% patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20% suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17% patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17% and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Conclusions Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the

  20. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric adenocarcinoma: an institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftimos, Philippe G; Nasr, Elie A; Nasr, Dolly I; Noun, Roger J; Nasr, Fady L; Ghosn, Marwan G; El Helou, Joelle A; Chahine, Georges Y

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that surgery alone is less than satisfactory in the management of early gastric cancer, with cure rates approaching 40%. The role of adjuvant therapy was indefinite until three large, randomized controlled trials showed the survival benefit of adjuvant therapy over surgery alone. Chemoradiation therapy has been criticized for its high toxicity. 24 patients diagnosed between September 2001 and July 2007 were treated with adjuvant chemoradiation. 18 patients had the classical MacDonald regimen of 4500 cGy of XRT and chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin, while chemotherapy consisted of 5FU/Cisplatin for 6 patients. This series consisted of non-metastatic patients, 17 females and 7 males with a median age of 62.5 years. 23 patients (96%) had a performance status of 0 or 1. The full course of radiation therapy (4500 cGy) was completed by 22 patients (91.7%). Only 7 patients (36.8%) completed the total planned courses of chemotherapy. 2 local relapses (10%), 2 regional relapses (10%) and 2 distant relapses (10%) were recorded. Time to progression has not been reached. 9 patients (37.5%) died during follow-up with a median overall survival of 75 months. Patients lost a mean of 4 Kgs during radiation therapy. We recorded 6 episodes of febrile neutropenia and the most frequent toxicity was gastro-intestinal in 17 patients (70.8%) with 9 (36%) patients suffering grade 3 or 4 toxicity and 5 patients (20%) suffering from grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. 4 (17%) patients required total parenteral nutrition for a mean duration of 20 days. 4 patients suffered septic shock (17%) and 1 patient developed a deep venous thrombosis and a pulmonary embolus. Adjuvant chemo-radiation for gastric cancer is a standard at our institution and has resulted in few relapses and an interesting median survival. Toxicity rates were serious and this remains a harsh regimen with only 36.8% of patients completing the full planned courses of chemotherapy. This is due to

  1. British Columbia : an alternative design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostergaard, P.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation outlined the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines' approach to the electricity market. A brief overview of the electric system in the province was provided, examining capacity (primarily hydro based) and the utility sector with its public ownership. In British Columbia, 80 per cent of the electricity is generated by British Columbia Hydro (BC Hydro). The rates are based on cost of service. British Columbia's market is western North America. A comparison of monthly bills for several large cities, both Canadian and American, was displayed. The market reviews conducted in 1995, 1998, and 2002 were reviewed and the major recommendations discussed. The author identified the opportunities in the province, discussing natural gas and coal for electricity production, resource potential, demand, and private sector capacity. The challenges facing the province are: cost effective development of resources to meet energy demand; aging infrastructure, high reliability requirements and economic growth; evolving electricity market structure in the United States; and, monopoly. The transmission system was reviewed with reference to trade with the Pacific Northwest, flexibility and storage. The energy plan objectives for the future were presented, including low rates and public ownership, secure and reliable supply, more private sector opportunities, and environmental responsibility. The alternative market structure includes regulated market characteristics, access to trade, and customer focus. figs

  2. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  3. Electricity derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Barone-Adesi, Giovanni; Gigli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm for pricing derivatives written on electricity in an incomplete market setting. A discrete time model for price dynamics which embodies the main features of electricity price revealed by simple time series analysis is considered. We use jointly Binomial and Monte Carlo methods for pricing under a risk-neutral measure of which we prove the existence.

  4. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohri, Nitin; Garg, Madhur K.; Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas; Tome, Wolfgang; Kennedy, Timothy J.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy

  5. Enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-DNA vaccine potency through incorporation of T-helper 1 molecular adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calarota, Sandra A; Weiner, David B

    2004-06-01

    It is clear that the development of a safe and effective vaccine for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a crucial goal for controlling the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic. At present, it is not clear what arm of the immune response correlates with protection from HIV-1 infection or disease. Therefore, a strong cellular and humoral immune response will likely be needed to control this infection. Among different vaccine alternatives, DNA vaccines appeared more than a decade ago, demonstrating important qualities of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses in animal models. However, after several years and various clinical studies in humans, supporting the safety of the HIV-DNA vaccine strategies, it has become clear that their potency should be improved. One way to modulate and enhance the immune responses induced by a DNA vaccine is by including genetic adjuvants such as cytokines, chemokines, or T-cell costimulatory molecules as part of the vaccine itself. Particularly, vaccine immunogenicity can be modulated by factors that attract professional antigen-presenting cells, provide additional costimulation, or enhance the uptake of plasmid DNA. This review focuses on developments in the coadministration of molecular adjuvants for the enhancement of HIV-1 DNA-vaccine potency.

  6. Archaeosome Adjuvant Overcomes Tolerance to Tumor-Associated Melanoma Antigens Inducing Protective CD8+ T Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Krishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles comprised of the ether glycerolipids of the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii (archaeosomes are potent adjuvants for evoking CD8+ T cell responses. We therefore explored the ability of archaeosomes to overcome immunologic tolerance to self-antigens. Priming and boosting of mice with archaeosome-antigen evoked comparable CD8+ T cell response and tumor protection to an alternate boosting strategy utilizing live bacterial vectors for antigen delivery. Vaccination with melanoma antigenic peptides TRP181-189 and Gp10025-33 delivered in archaeosomes resulted in IFN-γ producing antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with strong cytolytic capability and protection against subcutaneous B16 melanoma. Targeting responses against multiple antigens afforded prolonged median survival against melanoma challenge. Entrapment of multiple peptides within the same vesicle or admixed formulations were both effective at evoking CD8+ T cells against each antigen. Melanoma-antigen archaeosome formulations also afforded therapeutic protection against established B16 tumors when combined with depletion of T-regulatory cells. Overall, we demonstrate that archaeosome adjuvants constitute an effective choice for formulating cancer vaccines.

  7. Use of a Th1 Stimulator Adjuvant for Vaccination against Neospora caninum Infection in the Pregnant Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Grandgirard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical transmission from an infected cow to its fetus accounts for the vast majority of new Neospora caninum infections in cattle. A vaccine composed of a chimeric antigen named recNcMIC3-1-R, based on predicted immunogenic domains of the two microneme proteins NcMIC1 and NcMIC3, the rhoptry protein NcROP2, and emulsified in saponin adjuvants, significantly reduced the cerebral infection in non-pregnant BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2-type cytokine response. However, the same vaccine formulation elicited a Th2-type immune response in pregnant mice and did not prevent vertical transmission or disease, neither in dams nor in offspring mice. In this study, an alternative vaccine formulation containing recNcMIC3-1-R emulsified in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant, a stimulator of the cellular immunity, was investigated. No protection against vertical transmission and cerebral infection in the pregnant mice and a very limited protective effect in the non-pregnant mice were observed. The vaccine induced a Th1-type immune response characterized by high IgG2a titres and strong IFN-γ expression, which appeared detrimental to pregnancy.

  8. Alternating current and direct current generator

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Pedro Miguel Dourado; Sepúlveda, João; Esteves, João Sena

    2008-01-01

    Spinning a wire loop within a uniform magnetic field in a convenient fashion induces a voltage between the loop terminals. This effect can be used to build an electric power generator, such as the one described in this paper. A coil attached to a shaft spins within the magnetic field of a "U" shaped magnet. Three conveniently designed conductive disks allow the electrical load of the generator to be fed either with alternating current or direct current.

  9. An Effective Electrical Throughput from PANI Supplement ZnS Nanorods and PDMS-Based Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerator for Power up Portable Electronic Devices: An Alternative of MWCNT Filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ayesha; Alam, Md Mehebub; Garain, Samiran; Sinha, Tridib Kumar; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mandal, Dipankar

    2015-09-02

    We demonstrate the requirement of electrical poling can be avoided in flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (FPNGs) made of low-temperature hydrothermally grown wurtzite zinc sulfide nanorods (ZnS-NRs) blended with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). It has been found that conductive fillers, such as polyaniline (PANI) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), can subsequently improve the overall performance of FPNG. A large electrical throughput (open circuit voltage ∼35 V with power density ∼2.43 μW/cm(3)) from PANI supplement added nanogenerator (PZP-FPNG) indicates that it is an effective means to replace the MWCNTs filler. The time constant (τ) estimated from the transient response of the capacitor charging curves signifying that the FPNGs are very much capable to charge the capacitors in very short time span (e.g., 3 V is accomplished in 50 s) and thus expected to be perfectly suitable in portable, wearable and flexible electronics devices. We demonstrate that FPNG can instantly lit up several commercial Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (15 red, 25 green, and 55 blue, individually) and power up several portable electronic gadgets, for example, wrist watch, calculator, and LCD screen. Thus, a realization of potential use of PANI in low-temperature-synthesized ZnS-NRs comprising piezoelectric based nanogenerator fabrication is experimentally verified so as to acquire a potential impact in sustainable energy applications. Beside this, wireless piezoelectric signal detection possibility is also worked out where a concept of self-powered smart sensor is introduced.

  10. Preparation and evaluation of functional foods in adjuvant arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.

    2012-07-01

    Adjuvant arthritis is an animal model that closely resembles rheumatoid arthritis in humans. It is a successful working model used to study new anti-inflammatory agents. In previous studies (animal and clinical) we have shown that evening primrose oil, fish oil and the methanol extract of date fruits and fenugreek seeds have anti-inflammatory activity and that the methanol extract of dates has an antioxidant effect. Based on these studies, the aim of the present study was to prepare 7 functional foods containing such bioactive fractions separately or in combination and to evaluate them in adjuvant arthritis in rats, study the stability of bioactive ingredients and evaluate their sensory properties. The studied biochemical parameters were erythrocyte sedimentation rate, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and plasma copper, zinc and interlukin 2. Nutritional parameters, including body weight gain, food intake and food efficiency ratio were monitored during the feeding of the functional foods. The bioactive ingredients assessed were total phenolic contents and fatty acids. The results showed improvement in the biochemical parameters, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of arthritic rats fed on the functional foods with different degrees. All the prepared functional foods were sensory accepted. The active ingredients showed stability during storage. In conclusion, all the tested functional foods showed promising antiinflammatory activity and were determined to be acceptable through sensory evaluation which means that their potential beneficial use as dietary supplements in rheumatoid arthritis patients may be recommended. (Author) 42 refs.

  11. [Environmental pollutants as adjuvant factors of immune system derived diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Irina

    2017-06-01

    The main task of the immune system is to protect the body against invading pathogens. To be able to do so, immune cells must be able to recognize and combat exogenous challenges and at the same time tolerate body-borne structures. A complex regulatory network controls the sensitive balance between defense and tolerance. Perturbation of this network ultimately leads to the development of chronic inflammation, such as allergies, autoimmune reactions, and infections, because the immune system is no longer able to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens. Environmental pollutants can cause such perturbations by affecting the function of immune cells in such a way that they would react hypersensitively against allergens and the body's own structures, respectively, or that they would be no longer able to adequately combat pathogens. This indirect effect is also known as adjuvant effect. For pesticides, heavy metals, wood preservatives, or volatile organic compounds such adjuvant effects are well known. Examples of the mechanism by which environmental toxins contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases are manifold and will be discussed along asthma and allergies.While the immune system of healthy adults is typically well able to distinguish between foreign and endogenous substances even under adverse environmental conditions, that of children would react much more sensible upon comparable environmental challenges. To prevent priming for diseases by environmental cues during that highly sensitive period of early childhood children are to be particularly protected.

  12. Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer: A Clinical Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannarkatt, Joseph; Joseph, Joe; Kurniali, Peter C; Al-Janadi, Anas; Hrinczenko, Borys

    2017-04-01

    The decision to treat a patient with stage II colon cancer with adjuvant chemotherapy can be challenging. Although the benefit of treatment is clear in most patients with stage III disease, the decision to provide chemotherapy after surgical resection in stage II disease must be made on an individual basis. Several trials have demonstrated the small but absolute benefits of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer for disease-free survival and overall survival. In an attempt to better understand the role of chemotherapy, several studies were performed that identified high-risk characteristics that can be used prognostically and predictively to aid in the clinical decision making process. ASCO, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the European Society of Medical Oncology have published guidelines describing these high-risk characteristics. Since then, several other molecular markers have emerged that may offer more information on a given patient's risk for recurrence. The decision to treat a patient with stage II colon cancer must be made on an individual basis, considering the risks and benefits of treatment. In this short review, we will present the available evidence and offer possible directions for future study.

  13. Overview of alternative sources in the Brazilian electric matrix: incentive policies, the current market and future prospects; Panorama das fontes alternativas na matriz eletrica brasileira: politicas de incentivo, mercado atual e perspectivas futuras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martinno [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative (IEI), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian power matrix is among the cleanest in the world due to the large share of hydroelectric generation. In recent years, several efforts have been concentrated in an attempt to diversify the matrix from the insertion of other renewable alternatives sources. The aim of this study is to analyze the state of generation through biomass, wind and small hydropower sources, covered by specific auctions and the Proinfa, and solar energy (photovoltaic and thermal high temperature) in Brazil, besides trends development of these generation sources. (author)

  14. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  15. Immune responses and side effects of five different oil-based adjuvants in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, M.; Koedam, M.A.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.; Claassen, E.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, five different oil based adjuvants were compared to assess efficacy and side effects. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with a weak immunogen (synthetic peptide) emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (FA), Specol, RIBI, TiterMax or Montanide ISA50.

  16. Current adjuvant treatment modalities for gastric cancer: From history to the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Leyla; Ordu, Cetin; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Sen, Fatma; Keskin, Serkan; Ciftci, Rumeysa; Pilanci, Kezban Nur

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancy between the surgical technique and the type of adjuvant chemotherapy used in clinical trials and patient outcomes in terms of overall survival rates has led to the generation of different adjuvant treatment protocols in distinct parts of the world. The adjuvant treatment recommendation is generally chemoradiotherapy in the United States, perioperative chemotherapy in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe, and chemotherapy in Asia. These options mainly rely on the United States Intergroup-0116, United Kingdom British Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy, and the Asian Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer and Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Adjuvant Study in Stomach Cancer trials. However, the benefits were evident for only certain patients, which were not very homogeneous regarding the type of surgery, chemotherapy regimens, and stage of disease. Whether the dissimilarities in survival are attributable to surgical technique or intrinsic biological differences is a subject of debate. Regardless of the extent of surgery, multimodal therapy may offer modest survival advantage at least for diseases with lymph node involvement. Moreover, in the era of individualized treatment for most of the other cancer types, identification of special subgroups comprising those who will derive more or no benefit from adjuvant therapy merits further investigation. The aim of this review is to reveal the historical evolution and future reflections of adjuvant treatment modalities for resected gastric cancer patients. PMID:27190583

  17. The influence of adjuvants used in regional anesthesia on lidocaine-induced neurotoxicity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werdehausen, Robert; Braun, Sebastian; Hermanns, Henning; Kremer, David; Küry, Patrick; Hollmann, Markus W.; Bauer, Inge; Stevens, Markus F.

    2011-01-01

    Neurotoxic properties of local anesthetics can rarely lead to irreversible neuronal damage as in cauda equina syndrome. Clinically, local anesthetics are often combined with adjuvants to improve or prolong the anesthetic effect, whereas the impact of such adjuvants on lidocaine-induced apoptosis is

  18. Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop, March 26–27, 2013—Ottawa, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Twine, Susan; Gerdts, Volker; Barreto, Luis; Richards, James C

    2014-01-01

    Novel adjuvants hold the promise for developing effective modern subunit vaccines capable of appropriately modulating the immune response against challenging diseases such as those caused by chronic and/or intracellular pathogens and cancer. Over the past decade there has been intensive research into discovering new adjuvants, however, their translation into routine clinical use is lagging. To stimulate discussion and identify opportunities for networking and collaboration among various stakeholders, a Canadian Adjuvant Initiative Workshop was held in Ottawa. Sponsored by the National Research Council Canada, Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Vaccine Industry Committee, a two day workshop was held that brought together key Canadian and international stakeholders in adjuvant research from industry, academia and government. To discover innovation gaps and unmet needs, the presentations covered a board range of topics in adjuvant development; criteria for selection of lead adjuvant candidates from an industry perspective, discovery research across Canada, bioprocessing needs and challenges, veterinary vaccines, Canadian vaccine trial capabilities, the Canadian regulatory framework and WHO formulation laboratory experience. The workshop concluded with a discussion on the opportunity to create a Canadian Adjuvant Development Network. This report details the key discussion points and steps forward identified for facilitating adjuvant development research in Canada. PMID:24192752

  19. Does adjuvant therapy improve overall survival for stage IA/B pancreatic adenocarcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapoff, Katherine T; Gabriel, Emmanuel; Attwood, Kristopher; Kuvshinoff, Boris W; Nurkin, Steven J; Hochwald, Steven N

    2017-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, no studies have addressed its survival benefit for stage I patients as they comprise IA or IB PDAC were identified. Median OS was 60.3 months (mo) for stage IA and 36.9 mo for IB. 45.5% received adjuvant chemotherapy; 19.9% received adjuvant chemoradiation. There was OS benefit for both stage IA/IB patients with adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.73 and 0.76 for IA and IB, respectively, p = 0.002 and IA disease (n = 1,477, 37.8%), age ≥70 (p < 0.001), higher grade (p < 0.001), ≤10 lymph nodes examined (p = 0.008), positive margins (p < 0.001), and receipt of adjuvant chemoradiation (p = 0.002) were associated with worse OS. For stage IB patients (n = 2,432, 62.2%), similar associations were observed with the exception of adjuvant chemoradiation whereby there was no significant association (p = 0.35). Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with an OS benefit for patients with stage I PDAC; adjuvant chemoradiation was either of no benefit or associated with worse OS. Copyright © 2017 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long term effects of extended adjuvant endocrine therapy on quality of life in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Fontein, D. B. Y.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nortier, J. W. R.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Marang-van de Mheen, P. J.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The standard treatment for hormone-receptor positive, postmenopausal early breast cancer patients is 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Previous studies demonstrate that prolonging adjuvant endocrine therapy may improve disease-free survival. However, endocrine therapy is known for

  1. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter,

  2. Assessing Prescribing Trends of Adjuvant Medication Therapy in Outpatients With a Diagnosis of Noncancer Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasu, Rafia S; Vossen, Rachel K; Knell, Maureen E

    2017-09-01

    Chronic pain affects over 100 million adults in the United States, yet continues to be difficult to treat. Concerns continue to mount over the use of opioids to treat noncancer chronic pain (NCCP). Guidelines support the use of adjuvant medications as one of the preferred options for treating chronic pain over opioids. To examine reported usage of adjuvants in the treatment of chronic pain via the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). A retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluating reported usage of adjuvant pain medications for the treatment of NCCP was conducted using NAMCS data from 2000 to 2007. Weighted samples were analyzed with regard to several patient variables. Logistic regression models provided 95% confidence intervals and an adjusted odds ratio to determine statistically significant differences in reported usage for the evaluated patient variables. In total, 244,797,406 weighted visits were included for analysis. The analysis showed an almost 2-fold increase in adjuvant use during the study period. Statistically significant differences were identified for several factors evaluated. Younger age, female sex, care from a nonprimary care physician, comorbidities with pain, and >5 current medications were associated with higher rates adjuvant therapy use. Overall adjuvant usage dramatically increased during the study period. Analysis of data demonstrated adjuvant use in chronic pain varied based patient-specific characteristics. These results may allow clinicians, policy makers, and medical educators to identify potential gaps in adjuvant use in certain populations and target areas for clinical, populations-based, and educational improvements in managing NCCP.

  3. Adjuvanted multi-epitope vaccines protect HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    We created and tested multi-epitope DNA or protein vaccines with TLR4 ligand emulsion adjuvant (gluco glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE)) for their ability to protect against Toxoplasma gondii in HLA transgenic mice. Our constructs each included five of our best down selecte...

  4. Comparative effects of adjuvant cimetidine and omeprazole during pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Rauws, E. A.; Hoek, F. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, the hypotheses were tested that more powerful inhibition of gastric acid secretion by adjuvant omeprazole further improves the efficacy of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy compared to adjuvant cimetidine and that excluding the influence of

  5. 75 FR 66766 - NIAID Blue Ribbon Panel Meeting on Adjuvant Discovery and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES NIAID Blue Ribbon Panel Meeting on Adjuvant Discovery and Development Notice is hereby given that the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the... discovery, development and clinical evaluation of adjuvants for use with preventive vaccines. NIAID has...

  6. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles. © 2013.

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of an MF59(®)-adjuvanted A/H5N1 pre-pandemic influenza vaccine in adults and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Cioppa, Giovanni Della; Beygo, Jenny; Borkowski, Astrid; Groth, Nicola; Bennati, Mariaviviana; von Sonnenburg, Frank

    2012-02-08

    The potential consequences of an avian influenza pandemic warrants the development of safe, highly immunogenic pre-pandemic A/H5N1 vaccines with cross-clade protection. In this randomized, controlled study we compared the immunogenicity and safety of an MF59(®)-adjuvanted (Novartis Vaccines, Marburg, Germany) A/H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine with that of a licensed, MF59-adjuvanted, seasonal influenza vaccine. Healthy adult (18-60 years, n=3372) and elderly (≥61 years, n=275) volunteers received either an initial dose of a licensed, non-adjuvanted, trivalent, seasonal influenza vaccine (Agrippal(®)) on Day 1, followed by one dose of MF59-H5N1 study vaccine on Day 22 and a second dose of MF59-H5N1 on Day 43, or alternatively, placebo on Day 1 followed by one dose of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal reference vaccine on Day 22 and a second dose of reference vaccine on Day 43. Homologous and cross-reactive A/H5N1 antibody responses were analysed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI), single radial haemolysis (SRH), and microneutralization (MN) assays three weeks after each vaccination. Vaccine safety was assessed throughout the study. Analysis by HI assay found that two doses of MF59-H5N1 resulted in a seroconversion rate of 56% and a geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 7.1 in adult subjects. Similar results were observed on analysis by SRH (GMR 4.03; seroconversion 78% and seroprotection 91%) and MN (seroconversion 67%) assays. These data met the European licensure criteria for influenza vaccines. No significant difference in immunogenicity was detected between the adult and elderly populations. Anti-A/H5N1 cross-clade antibodies were detected by SRH, 49% of adult and 32% of elderly subjects achieved seroconversion after the second vaccine dose. Overall, MF59-H5N1 containing 7.5μg antigen was less reactogenic than the MF59-adjuvanted trivalent seasonal vaccine which contained 15μg antigen for each component strain. Two doses of MF59-H5N1 vaccine were well tolerated and induced

  8. The CD8⁺ T Cell-Mediated Immunity Induced by HPV-E6 Uploaded in Engineered Exosomes Is Improved by ISCOMATRIXTM Adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Francesco; di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Federico, Maurizio

    2016-11-09

    We recently described the induction of an efficient CD8⁺ T cell-mediated immune response against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) uploaded in engineered exosomes used as an immunogen delivery tool. This immune response cleared tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controlled the growth of tumors implanted before immunization. We looked for new protocols aimed at increasing the CD8⁺ T cell specific response to the antigen uploaded in engineered exosomes, assuming that an optimized CD8⁺ T cell immune response would correlate with a more effective depletion of tumor cells in the therapeutic setting. By considering HPV-E6 as a model of TAA, we found that the in vitro co-administration of engineered exosomes and ISCOMATRIX TM adjuvant, i.e., an adjuvant composed of purified ISCOPREP TM saponin, cholesterol, and phospholipids, led to a stronger antigen cross-presentation in both B- lymphoblastoid cell lines ( and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells compared with that induced by the exosomes alone. Consistently, the co-inoculation in mice of ISCOMATRIX TM adjuvant and engineered exosomes induced a significant increase of TAA-specific CD8⁺ T cells compared to mice immunized with the exosomes alone. This result holds promise for effective usage of exosomes as well as alternative nanovesicles in anti-tumor therapeutic approaches.

  9. The CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity Induced by HPV-E6 Uploaded in Engineered Exosomes Is Improved by ISCOMATRIXTM Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Francesco; di Bonito, Paola; Ridolfi, Barbara; Anticoli, Simona; Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Federico, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We recently described the induction of an efficient CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response against a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) uploaded in engineered exosomes used as an immunogen delivery tool. This immune response cleared tumor cells inoculated after immunization, and controlled the growth of tumors implanted before immunization. We looked for new protocols aimed at increasing the CD8+ T cell specific response to the antigen uploaded in engineered exosomes, assuming that an optimized CD8+ T cell immune response would correlate with a more effective depletion of tumor cells in the therapeutic setting. By considering HPV-E6 as a model of TAA, we found that the in vitro co-administration of engineered exosomes and ISCOMATRIXTM adjuvant, i.e., an adjuvant composed of purified ISCOPREPTM saponin, cholesterol, and phospholipids, led to a stronger antigen cross-presentation in both B- lymphoblastoid cell lines ( and monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells compared with that induced by the exosomes alone. Consistently, the co-inoculation in mice of ISCOMATRIXTM adjuvant and engineered exosomes induced a significant increase of TAA-specific CD8+ T cells compared to mice immunized with the exosomes alone. This result holds promise for effective usage of exosomes as well as alternative nanovesicles in anti-tumor therapeutic approaches. PMID:27834857

  10. An In vivo study: Adjuvant activity of poly-n-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid on immune responses against Melanoma synthetic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılbey, Kadriye; Mansuroğlu, Banu; Derman, Serap; Mustafaeva Akdeste, Zeynep

    2018-01-01

    Peptides have been studied as an important class of components in medicine to control many major diseases with vaccination. Polymers as adjuvants are capable of enhancing the vaccine potential against various diseases by improving the delivery of antigens, and they reduce the booster doses of vaccines. In brief, polymers are promising candidates for peptide-based vaccine delivery platforms. The purpose of the present study was to create a possible alternative approach in the treatment of malignant melanoma and/or to prevent metastasis of melanoma. The study was designed as both an experimental and an in vivo study. We prepared a complex and covalent conjugate of MAGE-3 121-134 (L-L-K-Y-R-A-R-E-P-V-T-K-A-E) T-cell epitope as a vaccine candidate for melanoma. These conjugates were able to generate an immune response in mice after a single immunization, without the help of any external adjuvant. The peptide-polymer complexes activated the immune system in the best way and formed the highest antigen specific immune response. These results indicate the adjuvant activity of Poly(N-vinyl-2- pyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid) [P(VP-co-AA)] and the potential use of P(VP-coAA)-peptide based vaccine prototypes for future melanoma cancer vaccine formulations.

  11. Topical Coenzyme Q10 Eye Drops as an Adjuvant Treatment in Challenging Refractory Corneal Ulcers: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Koray

    2017-03-01

    The management of nonhealing corneal ulcers, particularly in patients with neurotrophic corneas, remains a challenging problem today. Some patients may fail to respond to conventional therapy, making new alternative agents necessary to treat these resistant cases. In this article, we aim to present six challenging cases of refractory corneal ulcers that revealed healing response to the adjuvant treatment with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) eye drops and to review the literature examining of new therapeutic agents. Our study was designed as a descriptive case series demonstrating the use of novel coenzyme Q10 eye drops in refractory corneal ulcers. In our case series, CoQ10 eye drops were added to the existing therapies as an adjuvant agent in six cases: three cases with neurotrophic corneal ulcers, two cases with postinfectious corneal ulcers (one unknown etiology+one Acanthamoeba keratitis), and 1 case with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. All cases were monitored regularly and corneal images were taken at all visits. All nonhealing corneas with conventional therapy revealed recovery after the addition of CoQ10 eye drops. Except for two cases that responded to the CoQ10 eye drops more rapidly (within 1 to 2 weeks), complete corneal healing was observed in four cases between weeks 4 and 8. No adverse events were reported in these cases throughout the follow-up period. Coenzyme Q10 eye drops can be considered as an important adjuvant therapeutic agent promoting corneal epithelial wound healing in challenging cases.

  12. Design of a shear-thinning recoverable peptide hydrogel from native sequences and application for influenza H1N1 vaccine adjuvant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongzhou; Shi, Jishu; Laskin, Julia; Liu, Ziyan; McVey, David S.; Sun, Xiuzhi S.

    2011-10-07

    Peptide hydrogels are considered injectable materials for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Most published hydrogel-forming sequences contain either alternating-charged and noncharged residues or amphiphilic blocks. Here, we report a self-assembling peptide, h9e (FLIVIGSIIGPGGDGPGGD), designed by rationally combining two native sequences from an elastic segment of spider silk and a trans-membrane segment of human muscle L-type calcium channel. The turning segment GSII of h9e promoted hydrogel formation in both Ca2+ solution and acidic pH conditions at water content greater than 99.5%. Although h9e Ca2+ hydrogel and h9e acidic hydrogel have the same sequence, they have distinct physical properties. The shear-thinning, rapid-strengthrecovering h9e Ca2+ hydrogel was used as an H1N1 influenza vaccine adjuvant. The h9e adjuvant was biologically safe and improved immune response by 70% compared with an oil-based commercial adjuvant.

  13. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 4: Open recuperated and bottomed gas turbine cycles. [performance prediction and energy conversion efficiency of gas turbines in electric power plants (thermodynamic cycles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Grube, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Open-cycle recuperated gas turbine plant with inlet temperatures of 1255 to 1644 K (1800 to 2500 F) and recuperators with effectiveness values of 0, 70, 80 and 90% are considered. A 1644 K (2500 F) gas turbine would have a 33.5% plant efficiency in a simple cycle, 37.6% in a recuperated cycle and 47.6% when combined with a sulfur dioxide bottomer. The distillate burning recuperated plant was calculated to produce electricity at a cost of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh). Due to their low capital cost $170 to 200 $/kW, the open cycle gas turbine plant should see duty for peaking and intermediate load duty.

  15. Preliminary results of capecitabine metronomic chemotherapy in operable triple-negative breast cancer after standard adjuvant therapy – A single-arm phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Shawky

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: One year of capecitabine metronomic therapy preceded by standard adjuvant chemotherapy, is active and well-tolerated in TNBC patients previously treated with standard adjuvant chemotherapy.

  16. Electric cars as buffers in an electricity network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans; Brebbia, Carlos; Miralles i Garcia, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Producing more electricity from alternative sources may help to reach four goals: reduce CO2- and other emissions, compensate for depleting resources, reduce political dependency and replace an ageing and inefficient infrastructure. Billions of Euros have to be spent in ‘grey’ or ‘green technology

  17. The adjuvant value of Andrographis paniculata in metastatic esophageal cancer treatment - from preclinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Wong, Eric Chun-Wai; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Yu, Jun; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Chiu, Philip Wai-Yan

    2017-04-12

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is the fourth and sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in China and United States, respectively. The dismal prognosis of EC is mainly attributed to distant metastases, which may not be overcome by chemotherapy alone. Hence, the use of alternative adjuvant treatments, such as herbal medicines, for metastatic EC remains a great desire of patients. Our previous study demonstrated the in vivo anti-tumor and in vitro anti-invasion activities of Andrographis paniculata (AP) in esophageal cancer. In the present study, the chemical constituents of absorbed AP components through human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer were verified for the first time. The anti-migratory activities and suppressive effects on metastasis-related factors such as HER2, MMP2, MMP9, TM4SF3, CXCR4 of the absorbed AP components were revealed in esophageal cancer cells EC-109. The anti-tumor and anti-metastatic effects of AP water extract (1600 mg/kg) were further confirmed in metastatic esophageal xenograft-bearing mice. Besides, AP water extract acted synergistically with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil on inhibiting tumor nodule growth (with combination index present findings provide evidence on safety and advantages of the combined use of AP with chemotherapeutics in pre-clinical setting.

  18. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  19. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  20. Electricity Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Details technologies that can be used to store electricity so it can be used at times when demand exceeds generation, which helps utilities operate more effectively, reduce brownouts, and allow for more renewable energy resources to be built and used.

  1. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  2. Oncoplastic surgery in surgical treatment of breast cancer: is the timing of adjuvant treatment affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Lutfi; Gulcelik, Mehmet Ali; Karaman, Niyazi; Ozaslan, Cihangir; Reis, Erhan

    2013-06-01

    With the results of studies on the timing of adjuvant treatment, it currently appears that adjuvant treatment should be initiated as soon as possible. Breast conserving surgery and oncoplastic surgery is being used with increasing frequency. Therefore, studies about whether or not these applications delay the adjuvant treatment are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the time period needed for adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy of the patients with breast cancer and to reveal associated factors related to the patient, tumor, and surgical technique. Two hundred eighty patients with breast cancer who had surgery and were given adjuvant treatments in our clinic were included in the study. Age, body mass index, concomitant diseases, smoking habits, menopausal status, neoadjuvant treatments, tumor characteristics, surgical technique, and surgical complications were recorded. The time period between surgery and initiation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the number of chemotherapy cycles, and the duration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy were calculated. The numbers of patients who had modified radical mastectomy, breast conserving surgery, and oncoplastic surgery were 155 (55%), 47 (16.8%), and 78 (27.9%), respectively. The mean (SD) time period needed for chemotherapy administration was 19.5 ± 4.2 days (range, 13-41 days) and 3.9 ± 0.9 months for radiotherapy. Early wound complication of breast surgery was the only factor that delayed the adjuvant chemotherapy (P = .001). It has been well known that the time period between surgical treatment of breast cancer and adjuvant treatment affects survival. In our study, it has been shown that the surgical techniques used in breast and axillary surgery do not delay the initiation of adjuvant treatments. The adjuvant treatments of the patients who had oncoplastic surgery and breast conserving surgery were not delayed. The cooperation between the disciplines for the initiation of adjuvant treatments is important

  3. Alternating copolymers and alternative device geometries for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Zhang, Fengling; Andersson, Mats R

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of conversion of light to electrical energy with the help of conjugated polymers and molecules is rapidly improving. The optical absorption properties of these materials can be designed, and implemented via molecular engineering. Full coverage of the solar spectrum is thus feasible. Narrow absorption spectra allow construction of tandem solar cells. The poor transport properties of these materials require thin devices, which limits optical absorption. Alternative device geometries for these flexible materials compensate for the optical absorption by light trapping, and allow tandem cells.

  4. Caffeine as an opioid analgesic adjuvant in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott JR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available J Ryan Scott,1 Afton L Hassett,1 Chad M Brummett,1 Richard E Harris,1,2 Daniel J Clauw,1,2 Steven E Harte1,2 1Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Background: Caffeine’s properties as an analgesic adjuvant with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/acetaminophen are well documented. However, little clinical research has explored ca­ffeine’s effects on opioid analgesia. This study assessed the effects of caffeine consumption on pain and other symptoms in opioid-using and nonusing chronic pain patients meeting the survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Materials and methods: Patients presenting to a university-based pain clinic completed validated self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms. Patients (N=962 meeting the fibromyalgia survey criteria were stratified by opioid use and further split into groups based on caffeine amount consumed per day (no caffeine, or low, moderate, high caffeine. Analysis of covariance with Dunnett’s post hoc testing compared pain and symptom severity between the no caffeine group and the caffeine consuming groups. Results: In opioid users, caffeine consumption had modest but significant effects on pain, catastrophizing, and physical function. Lower levels of pain interference were associated with low and moderate caffeine use compared to no caffeine intake. Lower pain catastrophizing and higher physical function were observed in all caffeine dose groups, relative to the no caffeine group. Lower pain severity and depression were observed only in the moderate caffeine group. In opioid nonusers, low caffeine intake was associated with higher physical function; however, no other significant effects were observed. Conclusion: Caffeine consumption was associated with decreased pain and symptom severity in opioid users, but not in opioid nonusers, indicating caffeine may act as an

  5. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  6. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, A.; Alekseichuk, I.; Bikson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  7. Management of sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal breast cancer patients taking adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzko, C; Elliott, S; Lam, W

    2007-12-01

    attended with potential risk. Therefore, non-hormonal alternatives should in all cases be initially tried with the expectation that symptomatic relief can often be achieved.First-line therapy for urogenital symptoms, notably vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, should be the non-hormonal group of preparations such as moisturizers and precoital vaginal lubricants. In patients with estrogen-dependent breast cancer (notably those receiving anti-estrogenic adjuvant therapies) and severely symptomatic vaginal atrophy that fails to respond to non-hormonal options, menopausal hormone replacement or prescription vaginal estrogen therapy may considered. Systemic estrogen may be associated with risk and thus is best avoided. Judicious use of hormones may be appropriate in the well-informed patient who gives informed consent, but given the potential risk, these agents should be prescribed only after mutual agreement of the patient and her oncologist.

  8. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  9. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  10. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  11. Uncaria tomentosa—Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Santos Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma—Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and blood counts, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.

  12. Uncaria tomentosa-Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Araújo, Maria do Carmo; Farias, Iria Luiza; Gutierres, Jessie; Dalmora, Sergio L; Flores, Nélia; Farias, Julia; de Cruz, Ivana; Chiesa, Juarez; Morsch, Vera Maria; Chitolina Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut) in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma-Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide), were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and blood counts, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.

  13. Uncaria tomentosa—Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Araújo, Maria do Carmo; Farias, Iria Luiza; Gutierres, Jessie; Dalmora, Sergio L.; Flores, Nélia; Farias, Julia; de Cruz, Ivana; Chiesa, Juarez; Morsch, Vera Maria; Chitolina Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut) in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma—Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide), were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and blood counts, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. PMID:22811748

  14. New developments in oral vaccines and mucosal adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiza, Jose L; El-Qutob, David; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal immunity is the first line of defence of the organism against several pathogens and, at the same time, it is of critical importance in allergic diseases. Oral vaccines have been developed with the aim of enhancing the immune response to pathogens and for the treatment of allergic diseases. One of the major issues concerning oral vaccines is the use of oral adjuvants which could facilitate antigen presentation with the consequent induction of an effective immune response. The present review consists of an analysis, point by point, of the different patents that have been presented in the last 12 months in the different agencies: European (EP), US, and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and a general analysis of the future developments and trends in this emerging area.

  15. Hypofractionated Adjuvant Whole Breast Radiotherapy: Progress and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnold, John; Haviland, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Published results of randomised trials involving >7000 women confirm the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated schedules of adjuvant radiotherapy for women with early breast cancer using fraction sizes between 2 and 3 Gy assuming appropriate downward adjustments to total dose. Unnecessary concerns relating to heart tolerance, suboptimal dose distribution and duration of follow up need not discourage the routine adoption of 15- or 16-fraction schedules in women treated by breast conservation surgery for early breast cancer. Regardless of fractionation regimen, dose escalation to the index quadrant in high risk subgroups will result in a greater relative increase in late adverse effects than tumour control, a therapeutic disadvantage that can only be overcome by exploiting a marked dose-volume effect. A 15-fraction schedule of whole breast radiotherapy is unlikely to represent the lower limits of hypofractionation, and the preliminary results of a 5-fraction regimen are encouraging

  16. Lactic acid bacteria as adjuvants for sublingual allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Moussu, Helene; Horiot, Stéphane; Samson, Sandrine; Lombardi, Vincent; Mascarell, Laurent; van de Moer, Ariane; Bourdet-Sicard, Raphaëlle; Moingeon, Philippe

    2010-04-09

    We compared immunomodulatory properties of 11 strains of lactic acid bacteria as well as their capacity to enhance sublingual immunotherapy efficacy in a murine asthma model. Two types of bacterial strains were identified, including: (i) potent inducers of IL-12p70 and IL-10 in dendritic cells, supporting IFN-gamma and IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells such as Lactobacillus helveticus; (ii) pure Th1 inducers such as L. casei. Sublingual administration in ovalbumin-sensitized mice of L. helveticus, but not L. casei, reduced airways hyperresponsiveness, bronchial inflammation and proliferation of specific T cells in cervical lymph nodes. Thus, probiotics acting as a Th1/possibly Treg, but not Th1 adjuvant, potentiate tolerance induction via the sublingual route. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Appendix C. Gasification/combined-cycle power generation: comparison of alternative systems. 1977 technology status report. [246 references w. abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The technical, economic, and environmental aspects of low-Btu gasification/combined-cycle power-generation (LBG/CCPG) plants are assessed, using available published data. Six base-case plants, based on three different gasifiers and two different coals, are investigated. A representative combined power cycle is selected for analysis, and material and energy balances for the six systems are developed. Emissions of various air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and discharge rates of aqueous effluents are also calculated. The costs of electricity produced are derived for the six systems, using estimated plant-investment and operating costs. These costs and the emissions of various pollutants are compared with those for a conventional 500-MWe coal-based power plant using flue-gas cleaning and in compliance with the federal New Source Performance Standards. Finally, the commercialization potential of coal-based combined-cycle plants, based on the technical feasibility of building a first plant in the 1985 period and on economic viability, is evaluated. This evaluation is based on the current status of research and development programs for various components of the combined-cycle plant, such as gas turbines and fuel-gas-cleaning systems, and on the status of the demonstration plant.

  18. THE USE OF ADJUVANTS IN STUDIES ON INFLUENZA IMMUNIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salk, Jonas E.; Laurent, Angela M.

    1952-01-01

    Untoward reactions at the site of inoculation were not observed in monkeys vaccinated with influenza virus incorporated in a water-in-oil emulsion without acid-fast bacilli. Studies were then made to measure some of the dimensions of antigenicity of these emulsions to evaluate the extent of the immunologic adjuvant effect. This included measurements of height and persistence of the antibody response to inoculation and measurements of the extent to which the vaccine could be diluted and still induce antibody formation; i.e., antigenic extinction. In addition, comparisons were made of the rates of development of hemagglutination-inhibiting, virus-neutralizing, and complement-fixing antibody activities to determine the relationship among these three properties of the serum of immunized animals. It was found that levels of antibody many fold higher were induced by the virus-adjuvant mixtures as compared with virus in an aqueous menstruum, and that the level of antibody induced was related to the quantity of antigen incorporated in the emulsion. The stock vaccine when emulsified could be diluted 100,000-fold and was still active in antibody formation whereas a 100-fold dilution of the antigen without emulsification was essentially ineffective. Equivalent quantities of virus in 0.1 ml. or 1.0 ml. of emulsion induced antibody responses that were indistinguishable with respect to level or persistence. In comparing the course of antibody development it was found that hemagglutination-inhibiting, virus-neutralizing, and complement-fixing antibodies develop at different rates; careful analysis of the data derived from the present study together with other observations warrant the conclusion that these antibody activities are not present in constant proportion and are independent of one another. The implications of this observation and of the others mentioned above are discussed. PMID:14927797

  19. Caffeine as an opioid analgesic adjuvant in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J Ryan; Hassett, Afton L; Brummett, Chad M; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Harte, Steven E

    2017-01-01

    Caffeine's properties as an analgesic adjuvant with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/acetaminophen are well documented. However, little clinical research has explored caffeine's effects on opioid analgesia. This study assessed the effects of caffeine consumption on pain and other symptoms in opioid-using and nonusing chronic pain patients meeting the survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Patients presenting to a university-based pain clinic completed validated self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms. Patients (N=962) meeting the fibromyalgia survey criteria were stratified by opioid use and further split into groups based on caffeine amount consumed per day (no caffeine, or low, moderate, high caffeine). Analysis of covariance with Dunnett's post hoc testing compared pain and symptom severity between the no caffeine group and the caffeine consuming groups. In opioid users, caffeine consumption had modest but significant effects on pain, catastrophizing, and physical function. Lower levels of pain interference were associated with low and moderate caffeine use compared to no caffeine intake. Lower pain catastrophizing and higher physical function were observed in all caffeine dose groups, relative to the no caffeine group. Lower pain severity and depression were observed only in the moderate caffeine group. In opioid nonusers, low caffeine intake was associated with higher physical function; however, no other significant effects were observed. Caffeine consumption was associated with decreased pain and symptom severity in opioid users, but not in opioid nonusers, indicating caffeine may act as an opioid adjuvant in fibromyalgia-like chronic pain patients. These data suggest that caffeine consumption concomitant with opioid analgesics could provide therapeutic benefits not seen with opioids or caffeine alone.

  20. Rationally Designed TLR4 Ligands for Vaccine Adjuvant Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey A. Gregg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvant properties of bacterial cell wall components like MPLA (monophosphoryl lipid A are well described and have gained FDA approval for use in vaccines such as Cervarix. MPLA is the product of chemically modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS, altered to diminish toxic proinflammatory effects while retaining adequate immunogenicity. Despite the virtually unlimited number of potential sources among bacterial strains, the number of useable compounds within this promising class of adjuvants are few. We have developed bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC as a method to generate rationally designed, functionally diverse lipid A. BECC removes endogenous or introduces exogenous lipid A-modifying enzymes to bacteria, effectively reprogramming the lipid A biosynthetic pathway. In this study, BECC is applied within an avirulent strain of Yersinia pestis to develop structurally distinct LOS molecules that elicit differential Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activation. Using reporter cell lines that measure NF-κB activation, BECC-derived molecules were screened for the ability to induce a lower proinflammatory response than Escherichia coli LOS. Their structures exhibit varied, dose-dependent, TLR4-driven NF-κB activation with both human and mouse TLR4 complexes. Additional cytokine secretion screening identified molecules that induce levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-8 (IL-8 comparable to the levels induced by phosphorylated hexa-acyl disaccharide (PHAD. The lead candidates demonstrated potent immunostimulation in mouse splenocytes, human primary blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. This newly described system allows directed programming of lipid A synthesis and has the potential to generate a diverse array of TLR4 agonist candidates.