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Sample records for adjustments affect interactions

  1. Discordant tasks and motor adjustments affect interactions between adaptations to altered kinematics and dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie Arce

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor control and adaptation are multi-determinate processes with complex interactions. This is reflected for example in the ambiguous nature of interactions during sequential adaptation of reaching under kinematics and dynamics perturbations. It has been suggested that perturbations based on the same kinematic parameter interfere. Others posited that opposing motor adjustments underlie interference. Here, we examined the influence of discordances in task and in motor adjustments on sequential adaptations to visuomotor rotation and viscous force field perturbations. These two factors – perturbation direction and task discordance – have been examined separately by previous studies, thus the inherent difficulty to identify the roots of interference. Forty-eight human subjects adapted sequentially to one or two types of perturbations, of matched or conflicting directions. We found a gradient of interaction effects based on perturbation direction and task discordance. Perturbations of matched directions showed facilitation while perturbations of opposite directions, which required opposing motor adjustments, interfered with each other. Further, interaction effects increased with greater task discordance. We also found that force field and visuomotor rotation had mutual anterograde and retrograde effects. However, we found independence between anterograde and retrograde interferences between similar tasks. The results suggest that the newly acquired internal models of kinematic and dynamic perturbations are not independent but they share common neuronal resources and interact between them. Such overlap does not necessarily imply competition of resources. Rather, our results point to an additional principle of sensorimotor adaptation allowing the system to tap or harness common features across diverse sensory inputs and task contexts whenever available.

  2. Experiencing affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2010-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective move

  3. Factors affecting couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Dorris, G; Charron-Moore, C

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the adjustment of women and their husbands to recurrent breast cancer and to examine the mutual effect that partners have on one another. An exploratory study was designed to determine the relationship between four predictor variables (support, uncertainty, symptom distress, hopelessness) and women's and husbands' adjustments. The sample consisted of 155 subjects; 81 women, who had a first recurrence of breast cancer, and 74 husbands. Multiple standardized instruments with established reliability and validity were used to measure the study variables. The independent variables were measured with the Social Support Questionnaire, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, McCorkle Symptom Distress Scale and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The dependent variable, psychosocial adjustment, was measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The results indicated that the independent variables accounted for 43% of the variance in women's distress and 32% of the variance in husbands' distress; they also explained 66% of the variance in women's role adjustment problems and 57% of the variance in husbands' role problems. Symptom distress and hopelessness accounted for the most variance in women's and husbands' levels of adjustment. A significant and positive relationship was found between women's and husbands' adjustment scores, indicating that partners have a mutual influence on one another. The findings suggest that there are multiple factors that influence couples' adjustment to recurrent breast cancer, and that these factors need to be taken into consideration when planning care for women and their partners.

  4. Seasonal affective disorder, grief reaction, and adjustment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Justin; Raetz, Jacqueline; Kost, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a subtype of other affective disorders. The most studied treatment is light therapy, although second-generation antidepressants are also an option. Grief reactions are normal for patients experiencing loss, and primary care providers (PCPs) should be aware of both the expected course of grief and the more severe symptoms that indicate complex grief. Adjustment disorder is a time-limited abnormal response to a stressor. PCPs can manage patients with adjustment disorder by arranging counseling, screening for suicidality, assessing for substance abuse, and ruling out other psychiatric diagnoses. At present there are no reliable data to suggest medication management.

  5. Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    2012 International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ICACII 2012) was the most comprehensive conference focused on the various aspects of advances in Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction. The conference provided a rare opportunity to bring together worldwide academic researchers and practitioners for exchanging the latest developments and applications in this field such as Intelligent Computing, Affective Computing, Machine Learning, Business Intelligence and HCI.   This volume is a collection of 119 papers selected from 410 submissions from universities and industries all over the world, based on their quality and relevancy to the conference. All of the papers have been peer-reviewed by selected experts.  

  6. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    As interactive digital technologies become a still more integrated and complex part of the everyday physical, social and cultural spaces we inhabit, research into these spaces’ dynamics and struc-tures needs to formulate adequate methods of analysis and dis-course. In this position paper we argue...... in favor of three points in that direction: First we argue that interaction – and the definition of interaction – is central to unfold the potential of digital urban media, from big, shared screens and media facades to small pri-vate, networked mobile and embedded platforms. Then we argue that an affective...

  7. Job Satisfaction Affecting Cross-Cultural Adjustment in Taiwanese Expatriates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen (Chiu-Yi/Joy Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of the increasing global competition and internationalization of world markets, international expatriates assignments are more and more essential to successful worldwide development for many multinational corporations. Therefore, international expatriates are imperative to the survival of globe enterprises in the twenty-first century. Expatriates can become an important human resource to international enterprises or multinational operations. Also, for the past two decades, research has examined a variety of correlates for the performance problems and dissatisfaction associated with global assignment. To facilitate business expatriates adjust to an overseas environment and work effectively, Multinational Corporations (MNCs need to recognise the expatriates’ job satisfaction factor to affect cross-cultural adjustment. The main purpose of this study is utilising previous researcher Lee’s (2002 questionnaire to investigate the relationship between the job satisfaction and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese Banks’ expatriates assigned to America, and this study employed same questionnaire to examine the relationship between the job satisfaction and cross-cultural adjustment of Taiwanese expatriates in several different industries assigned to Mainland China. Also, the empirical outcomes were compared between Taiwanese expatriates located in Mainland China and United States.In examining the significant degree of Taiwanese expatriates assigned to Mainland China, the instrument was a questionnaire survey conducted to this study. The variables of interest were measured using items Likert-type questions, and those items are divided into seven categories. Data collected from 353 participants who have experience of a posting to Mainland China for international assignments. Multiple regression and correlation were employed to analyse data.The statistical results of this study were compared Lee’s (2002 research that associated with

  8. Interactive Genetic Algorithms with Fitness Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Guang-song; GONG Dun-wei; HAO Guo-sheng; ZHANG Yong

    2006-01-01

    Noises widely exist in interactive genetic algorithms. However, there is no effective method to solve this problem up to now. There are two kinds of noises, one is the noise existing in visual systems and the other is resulted from user's preference mechanisms. Characteristics of the two noises are presented aiming at the application of interactive genetic algorithms in dealing with images. The evolutionary phases of interactive genetic algorithms are determined according to differences in the same individual's fitness among different generations. Models for noises in different phases are established and the corresponding strategies for reducing noises are given. The algorithm proposed in this paper has been applied to fashion design, which is a typical example of image processing. The results show that the strategies can reduce noises in interactive genetic algorithms and improve the algorithm's performance effectively. However, a further study is needed to solve the problem of determining the evolution phase by using suitable objective methods so as to find out an effective method to decrease noises.

  9. A family of interaction-adjusted indices of community similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas Sebastian Benedikt; Matias Rodrigues, João Frederico; von Mering, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between taxa are essential drivers of ecological community structure and dynamics, but they are not taken into account by traditional indices of β diversity. In this study, we propose a novel family of indices that quantify community similarity in the context of taxa interaction networks. Using publicly available datasets, we assessed the performance of two specific indices that are Taxa INteraction-Adjusted (TINA, based on taxa co-occurrence networks), and Phylogenetic INteraction-Adjusted (PINA, based on phylogenetic similarities). TINA and PINA outperformed traditional indices when partitioning human-associated microbial communities according to habitat, even for extremely downsampled datasets, and when organising ocean micro-eukaryotic plankton diversity according to geographical and physicochemical gradients. We argue that interaction-adjusted indices capture novel aspects of diversity outside the scope of traditional approaches, highlighting the biological significance of ecological association networks in the interpretation of community similarity. PMID:27935587

  10. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; van den Broek, Egon; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  11. Come, see and experience affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  12. Come, see and experience affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, Hendri

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  13. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, Anton; Reidsma, Dennis; Hondorp, Hendri

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  14. Come, See and Experience Affective Interactive Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Hondorp, G.H.W.

    2009-01-01

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on

  15. Competition Leverage : How the Demand Side Affects Optimal Risk Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.; Boone, J.; Zwart, G.

    2011-01-01

    We study optimal risk adjustment in imperfectly competitive health insurance markets when high-risk consumers are less likely to switch insurer than low-risk consumers. First, we find that insurers still have an incentive to select even if risk adjustment perfectly corrects for cost differences amon

  16. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  17. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Rees, Georg M; Ramseyer, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (motion energy analysis). Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology, and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.8 years). Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted 5 min. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  18. Nonverbal synchrony and affect in dyadic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eTschacher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment on dyadic social interaction, we invited participants to verbal interactions in cooperative, competitive, and 'fun task' conditions. We focused on the link between interactants' affectivity and their nonverbal synchrony, and explored which further variables contributed to affectivity: interactants' personality traits, sex, and the prescribed interaction tasks. Nonverbal synchrony was quantified by the coordination of interactants' body movement, using an automated video-analysis algorithm (Motion Energy Analysis, MEA. Traits were assessed with standard questionnaires of personality, attachment, interactional style, psychopathology and interpersonal reactivity. We included 168 previously unacquainted individuals who were randomly allocated to same-sex dyads (84 females, 84 males, mean age 27.3 years. Dyads discussed four topics of general interest drawn from an urn of eight topics, and finally engaged in a fun interaction. Each interaction lasted five minutes. In between interactions, participants repeatedly assessed their affect. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we found moderate to strong effect sizes for synchrony to occur, especially in competitive and fun task conditions. Positive affect was associated positively with synchrony, negative affect was associated negatively. As for causal direction, data supported the interpretation that synchrony entailed affect rather than vice versa. The link between nonverbal synchrony and affect was strongest in female dyads. The findings extend previous reports of synchrony and mimicry associated with emotion in relationships and suggest a possible mechanism of the synchrony-affect correlation.

  19. Shear-affected depletion interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    July, C.; Kleshchanok, D.; Lang, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of flow fields on the strength of the depletion interaction caused by disc-shaped depletants. At low mass concentration of discs, it is possible to continuously decrease the depth of the depletion potential by increasing the applied shear rate until the depletion force i

  20. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    As interactive digital technologies become a still more integrated and complex part of the everyday physical, social and cultural spaces we inhabit, research into these spaces’ dynamics and struc-tures needs to formulate adequate methods of analysis and dis-course. In this position paper we argue...

  1. Mixing Board Versus Mouse Interaction In Value Adjustment Tasks

    CERN Document Server

    Bergner, Steven; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E; Möller, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    We present a controlled, quantitative study with 12 participants comparing interaction with a haptically enhanced mixing board against interaction with a mouse in an abstract task that is motivated by several practical parameter space exploration settings. The study participants received 24 sets of one to eight integer values between 0 and 127, which they had to match by making adjustments with physical or graphical sliders. Based on recorded slider motion path data, we developed an analysis algorithm that identifies and measures different types of activity intervals, including error time moving irrelevant sliders and end time in breaks after completing each trial item. Our results showed a significant increase in speed of the mixing board interaction accompanied by reduced perceived cognitive load when compared with the traditional mouse-based GUI interaction. The gains in speed are largely due to the improved times required for the hand to reach for the first slider (acquisition time) and also when moving b...

  2. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  3. Regression Trees Identify Relevant Interactions: Can This Improve the Predictive Performance of Risk Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Florian; Wasem, Jürgen; Schillo, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Risk equalization formulas have been refined since their introduction about two decades ago. Because of the complexity and the abundance of possible interactions between the variables used, hardly any interactions are considered. A regression tree is used to systematically search for interactions, a methodologically new approach in risk equalization. Analyses are based on a data set of nearly 2.9 million individuals from a major German social health insurer. A two-step approach is applied: In the first step a regression tree is built on the basis of the learning data set. Terminal nodes characterized by more than one morbidity-group-split represent interaction effects of different morbidity groups. In the second step the 'traditional' weighted least squares regression equation is expanded by adding interaction terms for all interactions detected by the tree, and regression coefficients are recalculated. The resulting risk adjustment formula shows an improvement in the adjusted R(2) from 25.43% to 25.81% on the evaluation data set. Predictive ratios are calculated for subgroups affected by the interactions. The R(2) improvement detected is only marginal. According to the sample level performance measures used, not involving a considerable number of morbidity interactions forms no relevant loss in accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Conflict and disfluency as aversive signals: context-specific processing adjustments are modulated by affective location associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Reindl, Anna-Lena; Fischer, Rico

    2016-11-08

    Context-specific processing adjustments are one signature feature of flexible human action control. However, up to now the precise mechanisms underlying these adjustments are not fully understood. Here it is argued that aversive signals produced by conflict- or disfluency-experience originally motivate such context-specific processing adjustments. We tested whether the efficiency of the aversive conflict signal for control adaptation depends on the affective nature of the context it is presented in. In two experiments, high vs. low proportions of aversive signals (Experiment 1: conflict trials; Experiment 2: disfluent trials) were presented either above or below the screen center. This location manipulation was motivated by existing evidence that verticality is generally associated with affective valence with up being positive and down being negative. From there it was hypothesized that the aversive signals would lose their trigger function for processing adjustments when presented at the lower (i.e., more negative) location. This should then result in a reduced context-specific proportion effect when the high proportion of aversive signals was presented at the lower location. Results fully confirmed the predictions. In both experiments, the location-specific proportion effects were only present when the high proportion of aversive signals occurred at the more positive location above but were reduced (Experiment 1) or even eliminated (Experiment 2) when the high proportion occurred at the more negative location below. This interaction of processing adjustments with affective background contexts can thus be taken as further hint for an affective origin of control adaptations.

  5. Affective Embodied Conversational Agents for Natural Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo, Eva; Baldassarri, Sandra; Hupont, Isabelle; Seron, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a completely automated real-time character-based interface, where a scriptable affective humanoid 3D agent interacts with the user. Special care has been taken in making it possible multimodal natural user-agent interaction: communication is accomplished via text, image and voice (natural language). Our embodied agents are equipped with an emotional state which can be modified throughout the conversation with the user, and depends on the emotional state detected from the...

  6. Cognitive and affective reasons to expatriate and work adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with their subsequent adjustment to work. Hence, explorer reasons (adventure/travel), architect reasons (careers) or mercenary reasons (financial incentives) do not seem to have any effect on how well expatriate academics adjust to their work abroad. Implications of these findings are discussed in detail....... findings regarding business expatriates also are applicable to expatriate academics. To examine cognitive and affective reasons to expatriate and work adjustment, a questionnaire was directed electronically towards expatriate academics from 60 countries employed in 35 universities in 5 northern European...... countries. Results indicated that one of the affective reasons to expatriate, refugee reasons (life change/escape), has a clear negative influence on both job adjustment and time to proficiency. However, none of the other studied reasons for expatriate academics to go abroad had any association...

  7. The interaction between stress and positive affect in predicting mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, Judith A; Weiss, Alexander; Gale, Catharine R

    2017-09-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity; according to the stress-buffering hypothesis, this is because positive affect reduces the health harming effects of psychological stress. If this mechanism plays a role, then the association between positive affect and mortality risk should be most apparent among individuals who report higher stress. Here, we test this hypothesis. The sample consisted of 8542 participants aged 32-86 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) Epidemiological Follow-up Study (NHEFS). We used Cox's proportional hazards regression to test for the main effects of and the interaction between positive affect and perceived stress in predicting mortality risk over a 10year follow up period. Greater positive affect was associated with lower mortality risk. We found a significant interaction between positive affect and perceived stress such that the association between positive affect and mortality risk was stronger in people reporting higher stress. In the fully adjusted model, a standard deviation increase in positive affect was associated with a 16% (HR=0.84; 95% CI=0.75, 0.95) reduction in mortality risk among participants who reported high levels of stress. The association between positive affect and mortality risk was weaker and not significant among participants who reported low levels of stress (HR=0.98; 95% CI=0.89, 1.08). Our results support the stress-buffering model and illustrate that the association between positive affect and reduced risk may be strongest under challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Children's Affective Orientations in Preschool and Their Initial Adjustment to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Denise H.

    2014-01-01

    Children's prior attitudes toward school may be an important entry factor to consider in their initial adjustment to kindergarten. This short-term longitudinal study examined children's affective orientations and other school-related perceptions and approaches to learning in late preschool and then 1 to 2 months after entry into…

  9. Capitalizing on Academic Success: Students' Interactions with Friends as Predictors of School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Ellen Rydell

    2011-01-01

    Although friends often share successes with one another, very little attention has been paid to these interactions. The current study examines the nature of middle school students' interactions with friends following academic successes and the consequences of these interactions for students' school adjustment. Participants were 293 fifth- through…

  10. Mood swings: design and evaluation of affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; Broek, van den Egon L.

    2009-01-01

    The field of affective computing is concerned with developing emphatic products, such as affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes Mood Swings, an affective interactive art system, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings c

  11. Age affects the adjustment of cognitive control after a conflict: evidence from the bivalency effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Age affects cognitive control. When facing a conflict, older adults are less able to activate goal-relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information. However, cognitive control also affects the events after a conflict. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict. To this end, we investigated the bivalency effect, that is, the performance slowing occurring after the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two tasks). In two experiments, we tested young adults (aged 20-30) and older adults (aged 65-85) in a paradigm requiring alternations between three tasks, with bivalent stimuli occasionally occurring on one task. The young adults showed a slowing for all trials following bivalent stimuli. This indicates a widespread and long-lasting bivalency effect, replicating previous findings. In contrast, the older adults showed a more specific and shorter-lived slowing. Thus, age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict.

  12. Nonlinear effects in the torsional adjustment of interacting DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, A A; Wynveen, A

    2004-04-01

    DNA molecules in solution, having negatively charged phosphates and countercations readsorbed on its surface, possess a distinct charge separation motif to interact electrostatically. If their double-helical structure were ideal, duplexes in parallel juxtaposition could choose azimuthal alignment providing attraction, or at least a reduction of repulsion, between them. But duplexes are not perfect staircases and the distortions of their helical structure correlate with their base pair texts. If the patterns of distortions on the opposing molecules are uncorrelated, the mismatch will accumulate as a random walk and attraction vanishes. Based on this idea, a model of recognition of homologous sequences has been proposed [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3666 (2001)]. But DNA has torsional elasticity. How will this help to relax a mismatch between the charge distributions on two nonhomologous DNA's? In the same work, the solution of this problem has been mapped onto a frustrated sine Gordon equation in a nonlocal random field (where the latter represents a pattern of twist angle distortions on the opposing molecules), but the results had been obtained in the limit of torsionally rigid molecules. In the present paper, by solving this equation numerically, we find a strongly nonlinear relaxation mechanism which utilizes static kink-soliton modes triggered by the "random field." In the range of parameters where the solitons do not emerge, we find good agreement with the results of a variational study [A. G. Cherstvy, A. A. Kornyshev, and S. Leikin, J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published)]. We reproduce the first-order transitions in the interaxial separation dependence, but detect also second-order or weak first-order transitions for shorter duplexes. The recognition energy between two nonhomologous DNA sequences is calculated as a function of interaxial separation and the length of juxtaposition. The soliton-caused kinky length dependence is discussed in

  13. Nonlinear effects in the torsional adjustment of interacting DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, A. A.; Wynveen, A.

    2004-04-01

    DNA molecules in solution, having negatively charged phosphates and countercations readsorbed on its surface, possess a distinct charge separation motif to interact electrostatically. If their double-helical structure were ideal, duplexes in parallel juxtaposition could choose azimuthal alignment providing attraction, or at least a reduction of repulsion, between them. But duplexes are not perfect staircases and the distortions of their helical structure correlate with their base pair texts. If the patterns of distortions on the opposing molecules are uncorrelated, the mismatch will accumulate as a random walk and attraction vanishes. Based on this idea, a model of recognition of homologous sequences has been proposed [A. A. Kornyshev and S. Leikin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3666 (2001)]. But DNA has torsional elasticity. How will this help to relax a mismatch between the charge distributions on two nonhomologous DNA’s? In the same work, the solution of this problem has been mapped onto a frustrated sine Gordon equation in a nonlocal random field (where the latter represents a pattern of twist angle distortions on the opposing molecules), but the results had been obtained in the limit of torsionally rigid molecules. In the present paper, by solving this equation numerically, we find a strongly nonlinear relaxation mechanism which utilizes static kink-soliton modes triggered by the “random field.” In the range of parameters where the solitons do not emerge, we find good agreement with the results of a variational study [A. G. Cherstvy, A. A. Kornyshev, and S. Leikin, J. Phys. Chem. B (to be published)]. We reproduce the first-order transitions in the interaxial separation dependence, but detect also second-order or weak first-order transitions for shorter duplexes. The recognition energy between two nonhomologous DNA sequences is calculated as a function of interaxial separation and the length of juxtaposition. The soliton-caused kinky length dependence is

  14. Negative Affect in Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The vision of social robotics sees robots moving more and more into unrestricted social environments, where robots interact closely with users in their everyday activities, maybe even establishing relationships with the user over time. In this paper we present a field trial with a robot in a semi......-public place. Our analysis of the interactions with casual users shows that it is not enough to focus on modeling behavior that is similar to successful human interactions but that we have to take more deviant ways of interaction like abuse and impoliteness into account when we send robots into the users......’ environments. The analysis uses impoliteness theory as an analytical toolbox and exemplifies which strategies are employed by users in unexpected encounters with a humanoid robot....

  15. N3LO NN interaction adjusted to light nuclei in ab exitu approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, A. M.; Shin, I. J.; Kim, Y.; Sosonkina, M.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.

    2016-10-01

    We use phase-equivalent transformations to adjust off-shell properties of similarity renormalization group evolved chiral effective field theory NN interaction (Idaho N3LO) to fit selected binding energies and spectra of light nuclei in an ab exitu approach. We then test the transformed interaction on a set of additional observables in light nuclei to verify that it provides reasonable descriptions of these observables with an apparent reduced need for three- and many-nucleon interactions.

  16. Affect in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Werry, I., Rae , J., Dickerson, P., Stribling, P., & Ogden, B. (2002). Robotic Playmates: Analysing Interactive Competencies of Children with Autism...R.C., & Cameron, J.M. (1997). Multiagent Mission Specification and Execution. Autonomous Robots, 4(1), 29-52. 31. Manual for MissionLab Version 7.0

  17. Facial Affect Reciprocity in Dyadic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Factor Inventory (NEOFFI; Costa & McCrae , 1989, 1992), a 60-item version of form S of the NEO-PI-R that provides a measure of the five factor model...emotion and reciprocal affective relationships in families of disturbed adolescents. Family Process, 28(3), 337–348. Costa , P. T., & McCrae , R. R...1989). The Neo-PI/Neo-FFI manual supplement. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources. Costa , P. T., & McCrae , R. R. (1992). Revised Neo

  18. Interactive affective sharing versus non-interactive affective sharing in work groups : Comparative effects of group affect on work group performance and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor; Wisse, Barbara; Van Der Flier, Henk

    2011-01-01

    This study explores whether the dynamic path to group affect, which is characterized by interactive affective sharing processes, yields different effects on task performance and group dynamics than the static path to group affect, which arises from non-interactive affective sharing. The results of o

  19. Shame and Guilt: Relationships of Test of Self-Conscious Affect Measures With Psychological Adjustment and Gender Differences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Ghorbani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In numerous studies conducted in Western societies, shame as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA has correlated with maladjustment whereas the TOSCA Guilt Scale has predicted adjustment. The present investigation sought to determine if such linkages would also appear in the Muslim cultural context of Iran. Iranian university students (N = 132 responded to Shame and Guilt Scales from the third version of the TOSCA, along with an array of personality measures. Shame correlated negatively with adjustment and positively with maladjustment. Guilt displayed an opposite pattern of relationships. As in previous Western investigations, women scored higher than men on guilt, but the expected female elevation in shame failed to appear. Shame, nevertheless, interacted with gender to predict relationships with poorer psychological functioning in women, but not in men. These data most importantly confirmed that the TOSCA Shame and Guilt Scales in Iran display implications similar to those observed in the West and that gender differences in Iran may deserve additional research attention.

  20. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  1. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  2. ROLE OF PARENTS' ADJUSTMENT IN EXPLAINING PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENT'S NEGATIVE INTERACTIONS WITH MOTHER AND FATHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Efendić-Spahić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with the aim of examining the contribution of facets of the adjustment of mother and father for explaining the adolescents’ perception of negative relations with parents. The following adjustment measures were used in this research: anxiety, hypersensitivity, inner coherence, interpersonal orientation and aggression of mother and father individually. The measures of negative interactions between adolescents and parents are conceptualized through the dimension of negative relations with parents, which includes adolescents’ assessment regarding the rejection by father and mother and the assessment of negative relations with father and mother. The research was conducted on a sample including 273 subjects in total: 47 female subjects, 44 male subjects and their parents. For testing the hypotheses, the multiple regression analysis was used. The obtained results show that adjustment facets are important predictors for explaining the perception of negative relations with father. The facet of aggression stands as the most significant predictor among adjustment factors for the group of fathers. For the group of mothers, adjustment did not prove a significant predictor for explaining perception of negative relations. Possible explanations for a modest contribution of mother’s adjustment can be found in the possibility for the quality of family interactions with mother is more explained by an emotional relation that is established between her and the child in early childhood and does not change its quality at later development stages.

  3. Does infertility history affect the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproduction? the mediating role of the importance of parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Gameiro, Sofia; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Soares, Isabel; Almeida-Santos, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    The emotional adjustment of couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments has been widely studied; however, it remains unclear whether infertility history contributes to couples' adjustment. This study examined the impact of infertility history (duration of infertility and number of previous ART treatment cycles) on the emotional adjustment of couples undergoing an ART cycle and the mediating effect of importance of parenthood on that association. In this cross-sectional study, 70 infertile couples (70 women and 70 men) completed self-report questionnaires assessing emotional adjustment and infertility stress during the hormonal stimulation phase of an ART cycle. Path models accounting for the dyadic nature of the data examined the direct and indirect effects (by affecting representations about parenthood and childlessness) of infertility history on emotional adjustment. The number of previous cycles affected men's, but not women's, emotional adjustment by affecting the representations on the importance of parenthood and of childlessness. Duration of infertility had the opposite effect, as couples with longer infertility reported heightened importance of parenthood, which negatively affected their emotional adjustment. Infertility history was associated with emotional adjustment in men and women, although these associations were complex. The results suggest that progression through treatment is harder for those men and women who attribute higher importance to being parents, which is aggravated by longer infertility. What is already known about the subject? Infertility is an unexpected and stressful life event Assisted reproductive treatments (ART) are emotionally demanding What does this study add? The influence of infertility history on adjustment is mediated by the importance of parenthood Men and women are affected by their past history of infertility differently. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Health Psychology published by John

  4. Measuring and adapting behavior during product interaction to influence affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, M.B.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Keyson, D.V.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes, the way in which we interact with products implicitly communicates how we feel. Based on previous studies on how emotions can be detected and communicated via product interaction, we discuss how an interactive product could influence affect by responding and changing behaviors expressing

  5. Crossmodal interactions during affective picture processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrari

    Full Text Available "Natural" crossmodal correspondences, such as the spontaneous tendency to associate high pitches with high spatial locations, are often hypothesized to occur preattentively and independently of task instructions (top-down attention. Here, we investigate bottom-up attentional engagement by using emotional scenes that are known to naturally and reflexively engage attentional resources. We presented emotional (pleasant and unpleasant or neutral pictures either below or above a fixation cross, while participants were required to discriminate between a high or a low pitch tone (experiment 1. Results showed that despite a robust crossmodal attentional capture of task-irrelevant emotional pictures, the general advantage in classifying the tones for congruent over incongruent visual-auditory stimuli was similar for emotional and neutral pictures. On the other hand, when picture position was task-relevant (experiment 2, task-irrelevant tones did not interact with pictures with regard to their combination of pitch and visual vertical spatial position, but instead they were effective in minimizing the interference effect of emotional picture processing on the ongoing task. These results provide constraints on our current understanding of natural crossmodal correspondences.

  6. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  7. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  8. Dorsomedial striatum lesions affect adjustment to reward uncertainty, but not to reward devaluation or omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carmen; Glueck, Amanda C; Conrad, Shannon E; Morón, Ignacio; Papini, Mauricio R

    2016-09-22

    The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has been implicated in the acquisition of reward representations, a proposal leading to the hypothesis that it should play a role in situations involving reward loss. We report the results of an experiment in which the effects of DMS excitotoxic lesions were tested in consummatory successive negative contrast (reward devaluation), autoshaping training with partial vs. continuous reinforcement (reward uncertainty), and appetitive extinction (reward omission). Animals with DMS lesions exhibited reduced lever pressing responding, but enhanced goal entries, during partial reinforcement training in autoshaping. However, they showed normal negative contrast, acquisition under continuous reinforcement (CR), appetitive extinction, and response facilitation in early extinction trials. Open-field testing also indicated normal motor behavior. Thus, DMS lesions selectively affected the behavioral adjustment to a situation involving reward uncertainty, producing a behavioral reorganization according to which goal tracking (goal entries) became predominant at the expense of sign tracking (lever pressing). This pattern of results shows that the function of the DMS in situations involving reward loss is not general, but restricted to reward uncertainty. We suggest that a nonassociative, drive-related process induced by reward uncertainty requires normal output from DMS neurons.

  9. How Would Rural Hospitals Be Affected by Loss of the Affordable Care Act's Medicare Low-Volume Hospital Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Rebecca Garr; Holmes, G Mark; Pink, George H

    2017-04-01

    The low-volume hospital (LVH) payment adjustment established in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 is scheduled to sunset on October 1, 2017. The purpose of this analysis was: (1) to estimate the effect of the ACA LVH adjustment on qualifying hospitals' profitability margins; and (2) to examine hospital and market characteristics of the hospitals that would be most adversely affected by the loss of the ACA LVH adjustment. 2004-2015 data from the Hospital Cost Report Information System, Hospital Market Service Area File and Nielsen-Claritas Pop-Facts file were used to estimate difference-in-difference regression models with hospital-level random effects in order to determine whether the ACA LVH adjustment improved qualifying rural hospitals' profitability margins. Recycled predictions estimated the effect of losing the ACA LVH adjustment on profitability margins. Bivariate analyses explored associations between the predicted profitability margins and hospital and market characteristics. The ACA LVH adjustment significantly improved Sole Community Hospitals' Medicare inpatient margins in the year they received the adjustment, and it had a large but statistically insignificant effect on the profitability margins of other rural hospitals. Hospitals that would be the most adversely affected by loss of the ACA LVH adjustment were more likely to be small, located in the South, and in high-poverty markets with higher proportions of black and uninsured individuals. Elimination of the ACA LVH adjustment would have differential effects on subgroups of hospitals, and those located in markets serving historically underserved populations would be the most adversely affected. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Optimism, pessimism, and positive and negative affectivity in middle-aged adults: a test of a cognitive-affective model of psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E C; Sanna, L J

    2001-09-01

    This study attempted to address limitations in the understanding of optimism and pessimism among middle-aged adults. Specifically, a model of affectivity as a mediator of the link between outcome expectancies and psychological adjustment (life satisfaction and depressive symptoms) was presented and examined in a sample of 237 middle-aged adults. Consistent with a mediation model, results of path analyses indicated that optimism and pessimism (particularly the former) had significant direct and indirect links (by means of positive and negative affectivity) with depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. These results add to the small but growing literature identifying optimism and pessimism as important concomitants of psychological adjustment in more mature adults.

  11. ACII 2009, Affective Computing & Intelligent Interaction : Proceedings Volume II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, Christian; Heylen, Dirk; Nijholt, Anton

    2009-01-01

    These are the proceedings of ABCI 2009, Affective Brain Computer Interfaces, a workshop that was organized in conjunction with ACII 2009, the International Conference on Affective Computation and Intelligent Interaction, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 2009. The workshop took place on

  12. Interactive Adjustment of Regularization in SENSE and k-t SENSE Using Commodity Graphics Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Schacht; Atkinson, David; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2008-01-01

    This project demonstrates that modern commodity graphics cards (GPUs) can be used to perform fast Cartesian SENSE and k-t SENSE reconstruction. Specifically, the SENSE inversion is accelerated by up to two orders of magnitude and is no longer the time-limiting step. The achieved reconstruction...... times are now well below the acquisition times thus enabling real-time, interactive SENSE imaging, even with a large number of receive coils. The fast GPU reconstruction is also beneficial for datasets that are not acquired in real-time. We demonstrate it can be used for interactive adjustment...

  13. The Effects of Gratitude Journaling on Turkish First Year College Students' College Adjustment, Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Serife; Ergüner-Tekinalp, Bengü

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gratitude journaling on first-year college students' adjustment, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Students who scored high (i.e., scores between 35 and 56) on the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al. in "Journal of Health and Social Behavior," 24, 385-396, 1983) and low (i.e., scores between 48…

  14. Factors Negatively Affecting University Adjustment from the Views of First-Year University Students: The Case of Mersin University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinç, Seda; Gizir, Cem Ali

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study aims to investigate the most common factors that negatively affect adjustment to university and coping strategies used by first-year university students in the adaptation process from the viewpoint of first-year university students. The participants were 25 first-year university students from various faculties at Mersin…

  15. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  16. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  17. EVALUATION IMPACT AFFECTIONAL INTERACTIONS MOTHER & CHILD IN NURSING DENTAL CARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR JABBARIFFAR

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: one of oral disorder in childhood period is Nursing Dental caries. Causes of this disorder are Multiple. Aim of this proposal evolution of effect affectional Interaction mother & child is on Nursing dental caries. Method: For this proposal 250 children 2-5 years were randomly simple sampling selected & divided two equal group (case & control Mother two child group filled design questionaire & data of this proposal was analysed. Result: There were not significant difference between affectional Interaction in two groups. Discussion and Conclusion: The result of this study shows the affectional Interaction has not effect on Nursing dental caries but for precise Judgment have necessary studding as longitudinal study. Pedodontic Depart dental school university medical sciences Isfahan, Iran.

  18. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed.

  19. Locomotion in Stroke Subjects: Interactions between Unaffected and Affected Sides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloter, Evelyne; Wirz, Markus; Dietz, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensorimotor interactions between unaffected and affected sides of post-stroke subjects during locomotion. In healthy subjects, stimulation of the tibial nerve during the mid-stance phase is followed by electromyography responses not only in the ipsilateral tibialis anterior, but also in the proximal arm…

  20. Group Composition Affecting Student Interaction and Achievement: Instructors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.; Kuestermeyer, Bailey N.; Westmeyer, Kara A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple research studies have been conducted that focus on various uses of collaborative learning in and out of the classroom in higher education institutions. The purpose of this article is to review previously published literature regarding group composition and how it affects student interaction and achievement. Group composition research has…

  1. Positive affective interactions: The role of repeated exposure and copresence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, S.; Krahmer, E.; Neerincx, M.; Swerts, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a new interface to induce positive emotions in users: a digital, interactive adaptive mirror. We study whether the induced affect is repeatable after a fixed interval (Study 1) and how copresence influences the emotion induction (Study 2). Results show that participants syst

  2. How do attachment dimensions affect bereavement adjustment? A mediation model of continuing bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; He, Li; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jianping; Prigerson, Holly G

    2016-04-30

    The current study aims to examine mechanisms underlying the impact of attachment dimensions on bereavement adjustment. Bereaved mainland Chinese participants (N=247) completed anonymous, retrospective, self-report surveys assessing attachment dimensions, continuing bonds (CB), grief symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB and predicted PTG via internalized CB at the same time, whereas attachment avoidance positively predicted grief symptoms via externalized CB but negatively predicted PTG directly. Findings suggested that individuals with a high level of attachment anxiety could both suffer from grief and obtain posttraumatic growth after loss, but it depended on which kind of CB they used. By contrast, attachment avoidance was associated with a heightened risk of maladaptive bereavement adjustment. Future grief therapy may encourage the bereaved to establish CB with the deceased and gradually shift from externalized CB to internalized CB.

  3. Dogs (Canis familiaris) adjust their social behaviour to the differential role of inanimate interactive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petró, Eszter; Abdai, Judit; Gergely, Anna; Topál, József; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-03-01

    Dogs are able to flexibly adjust their social behaviour to situation-specific characteristics of their human partner's behaviour in problem situations. However, dogs do not necessarily detect the specific role played by the human in a particular situation: they may form expectations about their partners' behaviour based on previous experiences with them. Utilising inanimate objects (UMO-unidentified moving object) as interacting agents offers new possibilities for investigating social behaviour, because in this way we can remove or control the influence of previous experience with the partner. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dogs are able to recognise the different roles of two UMOs and are able to adjust their communicative behaviour towards them. In the learning phase of the experiment, dogs were presented with a two-way food-retrieval problem in which two UMOs, which differed in their physical appearance and abilities, helped the dog obtain a piece of food in their own particular manner. After a short experience with both UMOs, dogs in the test phase faced one of the problems in the presence of both inanimate agents. Overall, dogs displayed similar levels of gazing behaviour towards the UMOs, but in the first test they looked, approached and touched the relevant partner first. This rapid adjustment of social behaviour towards UMOs suggests that dogs may generalise their experiences with humans to unfamiliar agents and are able to select the appropriate partner when facing a problem situation.

  4. Immersion in a virtual world interactive drama and affective sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Interactive drama is more than just a new breed of entertainment software. As different research projects have shown, these systems can also be used for pedagogical and therapeutic purposes. The goal of these systems is to teach sophisticated problem solving skills by allowing the user to interact with compelling stories that have didactic purpose.One of the main attractions of narratives, independent of the medium in which they are presented, is that they elicit emotional response in their audiences. They have an affective impact and only engineers and authors who understand how the emotion s

  5. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting.

  6. Bibliotherapy Treatment for Children with Adjustment Difficulties: A Comparison of Affective and Cognitive Bibliotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzalel, Nurit; Shechtman, Zipora

    2010-01-01

    This study compared outcomes following cognitive and affective bibliotherapy treatment with 79 children and adolescents in a residential home in Israel. Treatment children were compared to a control-no treatment group from the same home. Anxiety was measured through a self-report measure (Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale; Reynolds &…

  7. Nephrology pre-dialysis care affects the psychological adjustment, not only blood pressure, anemia, and phosphorus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusho, Masahide; Kawazu, Minami; Takeda, Kazuhito; Kurachi, Emiko; Nakashima, Takafumi; Sagara, Rikako; Hara, Takashi; Mukai, Hideyuki; Miura, Shuhei; Sugawara, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Several studies have suggested that pre-dialysis care is associated with clinical outcomes. However, little has been reported on the influence of pre-dialysis care on the psychological adjustment to dialysis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre-dialysis care on psychological adjustment to dialysis and clinical characteristics. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 52 patients who started hemodialysis at our hospital. They were divided into two groups according to the time of referral to our hospital: the early referral group (over 1 year prior to first dialysis: 19 patients, mean age 69.3 ± 11.1) and the late referral group (within 1 year prior to first dialysis: 33 patients, mean age 72.3 ± 8.9). We measured the clinical characteristics and evaluated the psychological adjustment to dialysis by Shontz's stage theory. Compared with the late referral group, the early referral group had a significantly better clinical characteristics concerning blood pressure (140.2 ± 23.7 vs. 156.9 ± 23.3 mmHg, P = 0.0150), hemoglobin (10.3 ± 1.5 vs. 9.4 ± 1.0 g/dL, P = 0.0078), and phosphorus (4.5 ± 1.5 vs. 5.5 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P = 0.0166). In addition, psychological adjustment to dialysis evaluated by Shontz's stage theory was significantly better in the early referral group (P = 0.017). Our results indicate that nephrology pre-dialysis care affects not only blood pressure, anemia, and phosphorus control but also the psychological adjustment to dialysis.

  8. Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM

  9. Antioxidant enzyme and osmotic adjustment changes in bean seedlings as affected by biochar under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Torabian, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    Salinity damaged cellular membranes through overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while osmolytes and antioxidant capacities play a vital role in protecting plants from salinity caused oxidative damages. Biochar also could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crops. The pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar on some antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte adjustments of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Derakhshan) under salinity stress. Bean plants were subjected to three salinity levels (non-saline, 6 and 12 dSm(-1) of NaCl) and biochar treatments (non-biochar, 10% and 20% total pot mass). Shoot and root dry weights of bean were decreased at two salt stress treatments. Salinity increased the activity of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen radicals (O(2•-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in leaf and root compared to control. Additionally, increased magnitudes of proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugar and soluble protein contents were more pronounced under 12 dSm(-1) NaCl than those under 6 dSm(-1) NaCl. In contrast, biochar applied to soil enhanced the shoot and root dry weight in comparison with the non-biochar treatment. Furthermore, all of the antioxidant activities of seedlings in soil treated with biochar, particularly at 20% biochar, declined. With the addition of biochar, the contents of MDA, O(2•-) and H2O2 displayed remarkable decrease, and the osmotic substances accumulation in leaves and roots also reduced. The presented results supported the view that biochar can contribute to protect common bean seedlings against NaCl stress by alleviating the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Can the hydrophilicity of functional monomers affect chemical interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, V P; Ogliari, F A; Van Meerbeek, B; Watson, T F; Yoshihara, K; Ogliari, A O; Sinhoreti, M A; Correr, A B; Cama, G; Sauro, S

    2014-02-01

    The number of carbon atoms and/or ester/polyether groups in spacer chains may influence the interaction of functional monomers with calcium and dentin. The present study assessed the chemical interaction and bond strength of 5 standard-synthesized phosphoric-acid ester functional monomers with different spacer chain characteristics, by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), ATR-FTIR, thin-film x-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microtensile bond strength (μTBS). The tested functional monomers were 2-MEP (two-carbon spacer chain), 10-MDP (10-carbon), 12-MDDP (12-carbon), MTEP (more hydrophilic polyether spacer chain), and CAP-P (intermediate hydrophilicity ester spacer). The intensity of monomer-calcium salt formation measured by AAS differed in the order of 12-MDDP=10-MDP>CAP-P>MTEP>2-MEP. FTIR and SEM analyses of monomer-treated dentin surfaces showed resistance to rinsing for all monomer-dentin bonds, except with 2-MEP. TF-XRD confirmed the weaker interaction of 2-MEP. Highest µTBS was observed for 12-MDDP and 10-MDP. A shorter spacer chain (2-MEP) of phosphate functional monomers induced formation of unstable monomer-calcium salts, and lower chemical interaction and dentin bond strength. The presence of ester or ether groups within longer spacer carbon chains (CAP-P and MTEP) may affect the hydrophilicity, μTBS, and also the formation of monomer-calcium salts.

  11. Collaborative robotic biomechanical interactions and gait adjustments in young, non-impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Valdeci C; Brown, David A

    2016-06-16

    vs self-drive mode in device, participants had greater flexed posture and accentuated hip moments and propulsive force, but reduced braking force. Although the magnitudes and/or range of certain gait pattern components were altered by the device, we did not observe any interruption from the mechanical interface upon the advancement of the trajectories nor reversals in direction of movement which suggests that the KineAssist permits relative transparency (i.e.. lack of interference of movement by the device mechanism) to the individual's gait pattern. However, there are interactive forces to take into account, which appear to be overcome by kinematic and kinetic adjustments.

  12. What Makes Sports Fans Interactive? Identifying Factors Affecting Chat Interactions in Online Sports Viewing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsam Ko

    Full Text Available Sports fans are able to watch games from many locations using TV services while interacting with other fans online. In this paper, we identify the factors that affect sports viewers' online interactions. Using a large-scale dataset of more than 25 million chat messages from a popular social TV site for baseball, we extract various game-related factors, and investigate the relationships between these factors and fans' interactions using a series of multiple regression analyses. As a result, we identify several factors that are significantly related to viewer interactions. In addition, we determine that the influence of these factors varies according to the user group; i.e., active vs. less active users, and loyal vs. non-loyal users.

  13. Interactions of neurons with topographic nano cues affect branching morphology mimicking neuron-neuron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Koby; Kollmar, Davida; Chejanovsky, Nathan; Sharoni, Amos; Shefi, Orit

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of topographic nano-cues on neuronal growth-morphology using invertebrate neurons in culture. We use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nano-scale heights of 10-150 nm. We plate leech neurons atop the patterned-substrates and compare their growth pattern to neurons plated atop non-patterned substrates. The model system allows us the analysis of single neurite-single ridge interactions. The use of high resolution electron microscopy reveals small filopodia processes that attach to the line-pattern ridges. These fine processes, that cannot be detected in light microscopy, add anchoring sites onto the side of the ridges, thus additional physical support. These interactions of the neuronal process dominantly affect the neuronal growth direction. We analyze the response of the entire neuronal branching tree to the patterned substrates and find significant effect on the growth patterns compared to non-patterned substrates. Moreover, interactions with the nano-cues trigger a growth strategy similarly to interactions with other neuronal cells, as reflected in their morphometric parameters. The number of branches and the number of neurites originating from the soma decrease following the interaction demonstrating a tendency to a more simplified neuronal branching tree. The effect of the nano-cues on the neuronal function deserves further investigation and will strengthen our understanding of the interplay between function and form.

  14. Experimental reduction in interaction intensity strongly affects biotic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletvold, Nina; Ågren, Jon

    2016-11-01

    The link between biotic interaction intensity and strength of selection is of fundamental interest for understanding biotically driven diversification and predicting the consequences of environmental change. The strength of selection resulting from biotic interactions is determined by the strength of the interaction and by the covariance between fitness and the trait under selection. When the relationship between trait and absolute fitness is constant, selection strength should be a direct function of mean population interaction intensity. To test this prediction, we excluded pollinators for intervals of different length to induce five levels of pollination intensity within a single plant population. Pollen limitation (PL) increased from 0 to 0.77 across treatments, accompanied by a fivefold increase in the opportunity for selection. Trait-fitness covariance declined with PL for number of flowers, but varied little for other traits. Pollinator-mediated selection on plant height, corolla size, and spur length increased by 91%, 34%, and 330%, respectively, in the most severely pollen-limited treatment compared to open-pollinated plants. The results indicate that realized biotic selection can be predicted from mean population interaction intensity when variation in trait-fitness covariance is limited, and that declines in pollination intensity will strongly increase selection on traits involved in the interaction. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Alepis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

  16. Modal interaction and vibration suppression in industrial turbines using adjustable journal bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasalevris, Athanasios; Dohnal, Fadi

    2016-09-01

    The vibration suppression by deliberately introducing a parametric excitation in the fluid-film bearings is investigated for an industrial turbine rotor system. A journal bearing with variable adjustable geometry is operated in such a way that the effective stiffness and damping properties vary periodically in time. The proposed bearing is designed for having the ability of changing the bearing fluid film thickness in a semi-active manner. Such an adjustment of the journal bearing properties introduces in the system a time-periodic variation of the effective stiffness and damping properties of the fluid-film. If the time-periodicity is tuned properly to match a parametric anti-resonance, vibration suppression is achieved in the overall system. The paper presents the principle of operation of the recently developed bearings. The simulation of an industrial turbine rotor-bearing shaft line at induced parametric excitation motivates the further development and application of such bearings since the vibration amplitudes are considerably decreased in critical speeds.

  17. Measuring Engagement: Affective and Social Cues in Interactive Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Spink, A.J.; Grieco, F; Krips, O.E.; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this special session at Measuring Behavior 2012 is to look at engagement and ways to measure engagement in situations where users are not glued to their chair and keyboard, that is, in sensor-equipped environments that are able to perceive nonverbal interaction behavior. And, moreover, we

  18. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume effec

  19. Social interactions can affect feeding behaviour of fish in tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    Fish from the same clutch of eggs, so of the same age and family, can differ substantially in size after some time in a tank as result of social interactions. On the basis of computer simulation studies I here demonstrate that it is possible to mimic this empirical observation using the rules of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, supplemented with a simple stochastic module for interaction between individuals that have identical parameters. The remarkable result is that length-at-age of two individuals in a tank where the number of food particles is kept constant closely follows von Bertalanffy growth curves with very different parameters, while in reality the individuals have identical parameters. The empirical observation demonstrates that fish are close to the supply end of the supply-demand spectrum and that age-based models for growth don't apply to supply systems. The significance of the result is discussed.

  20. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Dai; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed "social physiology." Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e., social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH) in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e., sociogenomics) in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals.

  1. Factors Affecting Peptide Interactions with Surface-Bound Microgels

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Effects of electrostatics and peptide size on peptide interactions with surface-bound microgels were investigated with ellipsometry, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results show that binding of cationic poly-L-lysine (pLys) to anionic, covalently immobilized, poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels increased with increasing peptide net charge and microgel charge density. Furthermore, peptide release was facilitated by decreasing either microgel or peptide ch...

  2. Woody stem galls interact with foliage to affect community associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W R; Rieske, L K

    2009-04-01

    Gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) hijack the physiology of their host plant to produce galls that house wasps throughout their immature stages. The gall-maker-host plant interaction is highly evolved, and galls represent an extended phenotype of the gall wasp. We evaluated two-way interactions between stem galls produced by Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu on Castanea spp. (Fagales: Fagaceae) and foliage directly attached to galls (gall leaves) using gall leaf excision experiments and herbivore bioassays. Early season gall leaf excision decreased the dry weight per chamber (nutritive index) and thickness of the protective schlerenchyma layer and increased the number of empty chambers and the occurrence and size of exterior fungal lesions. Leaf excision also caused a modestly significant (alpha = 0.1) increase in the incidence of feeding chamber fungi and herbivory by Curculio sayi Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and a modest decrease in parasitoids. This study shows that gall leaves are important for stem gall development, quality, and defenses, adding support for the nutrient and enemy hypotheses. We also evaluated the effects of stem galls on the suitability of gall leaves to Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) herbivory to assess the extent of gall defenses in important source leaves. Relative growth rate of L. dispar larvae was greater on gall leaves compared with normal leaves, indicating that, despite their importance, gall leaves may be more suitable to generalist insect herbivores, suggesting limitations to the extended phenotype of the gall wasp. Our results improve our knowledge of host-cynipid interactions, gall source-sink relations, and D. kuriphilus community interactions.

  3. Multiple-Scale Interactions Affecting Tropical Cyclone Track Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhexian Luo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Cyclone (TC track changes associated with Rossby wave energy dispersion are simulated in a shallow water primitive equation model with an initial field where a TC is located south of a subtropical high. An anticyclone east of the TC appears because of Rossby wave energy dispersion. The connection of the anticyclone with the subtropical high leads to a poleward TC track deflection. The TC eventually moves across the axis of the subtropical ridge. The formation of the track may be attributed to the nonlinear interaction between the subtropical high and the TC. This work validates the conceptual model proposed by previous observational research. The scenario of the nonlinear interaction between the TC and the subtropical high may also be modified through the influence of mesoscale vortices. The main modifications are (1 the anticyclone induced by energy dispersion of the TC weakens, (2 the connection between the anticyclone and the subtropical high is delayed, and (3 the TC shifts more westward and does not move across the ridge axis. We propose that some of the mesoscale vortices are axisymmetrized by the TC and results in an increase in TC size which modifies the properties of the energy dispersion. The phase and group speeds decrease and produce a simulated track deflection to the left compared to the simulation without mesoscale vortices. Our numerical results demonstrate that multiple scale nonlinear interactions have an essential role in influencing TC track changes.

  4. Interactions of climatic factors affecting milk yield and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.K.; Rodriguez, L.A.; Wilcox, C.J.; Collider, R.J.; Bachman, K.C.; Martin, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate effects of interactions of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and solar radiation on milk yield and constituent traits. Effects of climate variables and their interactions were significant but small in most cases. Second order regression models were developed for several variables. Six were examined in detail: Holstein and Jersey milk yields, Holstein fat and Feulgen-DNA reflectance percent, and Jersey protein percent and yield. Maximum temperature had greatest influence on each response, followed by minimum relative humidity and solar radiation. Optimum conditions for milk production were at maximum temperatures below 19. 4/degree/C, increasing solar radiation, and minimum relative humidity between 33.4 and 78.2% (cool sunny days, moderate humidity). Maximum Holstein fat percent of 3.5% was predicted for maximum temperatures below 30.8/degree/C, minimum relative humidity below 89%, and solar radiation below 109 Langleys; actual mean Holstein fat percent was 3. 35%. Optimum climatic conditions for Jersey protein percent were at maximum temperature of 10.6/degree/C with solar radiation at 300 Langleys and relative humidity at 16% (cool sunny days, low humidity). Because noteworthy interactions existed between climate effects, response surface methodology was suitable for determining optimum climatic conditions for milk production.

  5. Seesaw Discipline: The Interactive Effect of Harsh and Lax Discipline on Youth Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; McKee, Laura G; Forehand, Rex

    2016-02-01

    Although extant research documents the negative consequences of harsh and lax discipline for youth, little empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the impact when parents utilize both strategies. As such, the current study was designed to explore the interaction of harsh and lax discipline on youth internalizing and externalizing symptoms in three developmental periods (early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence). Participants were 615 parents (55 % female) and one of their 3-to-17 year old children (45 % female). Parents provided reports of their harsh and lax parenting tactics as well as offspring internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to examine the relations between the interaction of harsh and lax parenting on youth symptoms. The interaction between harsh and lax discipline was significantly related to youth internalizing, but not externalizing, problems in the both the young and middle childhood samples and marginally significant in the adolescence sample: Seesaw discipline - a novel construct indicative of high levels of both harsh and lax discipline - was associated with the highest levels of youth internalizing problems. Parents who engage in seesaw parenting have children and adolescents who are more likely to evidence internalizing symptoms. Such findings may inform prevention and intervention efforts that target dysfunctional discipline.

  6. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W Andrew; Thompson, Frank R; Reidy, Jennifer L; Faaborg, John

    2013-04-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri, USA, to investigate the relative influence of weather variables (temperature and precipitation) and landscape factors (forest cover and edge density) on the number of young produced per nest attempt (i.e., productivity) for three species of songbirds. We detected a strong forest cover × temperature interaction for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) on productivity. Greater forest cover resulted in greater productivity because of reduced brood parasitism and increased nest survival, whereas greater temperatures reduced productivity in highly forested landscapes because of increased nest predation but had no effect in less forested landscapes. The Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) exhibited a similar pattern, albeit with a marginal forest cover × temperature interaction. By contrast, productivity of the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) was not influenced by landscape effects or temperature. Our results highlight a potential difficulty of managing wildlife in response to global change such as habitat fragmentation and climate warming, as the habitat associated with the greatest productivity for flycatchers was also that most negatively influenced by high temperatures. The influence of high temperatures on nest predation (and therefore, nest predators) underscores the need to acknowledge the potential complexity of species' responses to climate change by incorporating a more thorough consideration of community ecology in the development of models of climate impacts on wildlife.

  7. Cortical response to social interaction is affected by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina; Guerreschi, Michele; Lutzenberger, Werner; Sokolov, Alexander N; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2010-04-15

    The ability of humans to predict and explain other people's actions is of immense value for adaptive behavior and nonverbal communication. Gender differences are often evident in the comprehension of social signals, but the underlying neurobiological basis for these differences is unclear. Combining visual psychophysics with an analysis of neuromagnetic activity, we assessed gender effects on the induced oscillatory response to visual social interaction revealed by motion. A robust difference in the induced gamma response was found between females and males over the left prefrontal cortex, a region implicated in perceptual decision making. The induced gamma neuromagnetic response peaked earlier in females than in males. Moreover, it appears that females anticipate social interaction predicting others' actions ahead of their realization, whereas males require accumulation of more sensory evidence for proper social decisions. The findings reflect gender-dependent modes in cortical processing of visually acquired social information. Contrary to popular wisdom, the outcome of this study indicates that gender effects are not evident in the neural circuitry underpinning visual social perception, but in the regions engaged in perceptual decision making. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Toward affective brain-computer interfaces : exploring the neurophysiology of affect during human media interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces (aBCI), the sensing of emotions from brain activity, seems a fantasy from the realm of science fiction. But unlike faster-than-light travel or teleportation, aBCI seems almost within reach due to novel sensor technologies, the advancement of neuroscience, and the

  9. Arsenic-Microbe-Mineral Interactions in Mining-Affected Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The toxic element arsenic (As occurs widely in solid and liquid mine wastes. Aqueous forms of arsenic are taken up in As-bearing sulfides, arsenides, sulfosalts, oxides, oxyhydroxides, Fe-oxides, -hydroxides, -oxyhydroxides and -sulfates, and Fe-, Ca-Fe- and other arsenates. Although a considerable body of research has demonstrated that microbes play a significant role in the precipitation and dissolution of these As-bearing minerals, and in the alteration of the redox state of As, in natural and simulated mining environments, the molecular-scale mechanisms of these interactions are still not well understood. Further research is required using traditional and novel mineralogical, spectroscopic and microbiological techniques to further advance this field, and to help design remediation schemes.

  10. Cryptococcal cell morphology affects host cell interactions and pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H Okagaki

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a common life-threatening human fungal pathogen. The size of cryptococcal cells is typically 5 to 10 microm. Cell enlargement was observed in vivo, producing cells up to 100 microm. These morphological changes in cell size affected pathogenicity via reducing phagocytosis by host mononuclear cells, increasing resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stress, and correlated with reduced penetration of the central nervous system. Cell enlargement was stimulated by coinfection with strains of opposite mating type, and ste3aDelta pheromone receptor mutant strains had reduced cell enlargement. Finally, analysis of DNA content in this novel cell type revealed that these enlarged cells were polyploid, uninucleate, and produced daughter cells in vivo. These results describe a novel mechanism by which C. neoformans evades host phagocytosis to allow survival of a subset of the population at early stages of infection. Thus, morphological changes play unique and specialized roles during infection.

  11. Present-day mass changes for the Greenland ice sheet and their interaction with bedrock adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaizola, M.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Helsen, M. M.; de Boer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes estimates, data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. This is usually done by independently modeling the Glaciological Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) trend and then by removing it from the data. Recently, Wu et al. (2010) proposed a new method to simultaneously estimate GIA and the present-day ice mass change, reporting an ice mass loss of around half of the previously published estimates and a general bedrock subsidence concentrated in the central parts of Greenland. This subsidence appears to be counterintuitive since the ice sheet is loosing mass at present. It was suggested by the authors that this could be a new evidence for additional net past ice accumulation. In this study, a 3-D ice-sheet model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach has been used to: (a) analyze the bedrock response to changes in the ice load in order to evaluate whether bedrock subsidence and ice thinning can exist simultaneously; (b) study the magnitude and the pattern of the bedrock movement; and (c) evaluate if present-day bedrock subsidence could be the result of a net past mass accumulation. Under a sine forcing of the annual temperature, that mimics the temperature variations in the Holocene, mass changes yield a delay of the bedrock response of 200 years. Thinning of the ice as well as bedrock subsidence coexist during this period with an order of magnitude equal to the observations by Wu et al. (2010). Although, the resulting pattern of bedrock changes differs considerable: instead of the general bedrock subsidence reported before, we found areas of bedrock uplift as well as areas of bedrock subsidence. A simulation since the last glacial maximum (with the temperature represented as a linear

  12. Present-day mass changes for the Greenland ice sheet and their interaction with bedrock adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Olaizola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the launch in 2002 of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellites, several estimates of the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS have been produced. To obtain ice mass changes estimates, data need to be corrected for the effect of deformation changes of the Earth's crust. This is usually done by independently modeling the Glaciological Isostatic Adjustment (GIA trend and then by removing it from the data. Recently, Wu et al. (2010 proposed a new method to simultaneously estimate GIA and the present-day ice mass change, reporting an ice mass loss of around half of the previously published estimates and a general bedrock subsidence concentrated in the central parts of Greenland. This subsidence appears to be counterintuitive since the ice sheet is loosing mass at present. It was suggested by the authors that this could be a new evidence for additional net past ice accumulation.

    In this study, a 3-D ice-sheet model with a surface mass balance forcing based on a mass balance gradient approach has been used to: (a analyze the bedrock response to changes in the ice load in order to evaluate whether bedrock subsidence and ice thinning can exist simultaneously; (b study the magnitude and the pattern of the bedrock movement; and (c evaluate if present-day bedrock subsidence could be the result of a net past mass accumulation.

    Under a sine forcing of the annual temperature, that mimics the temperature variations in the Holocene, mass changes yield a delay of the bedrock response of 200 years. Thinning of the ice as well as bedrock subsidence coexist during this period with an order of magnitude equal to the observations by Wu et al. (2010. Although, the resulting pattern of bedrock changes differs considerable: instead of the general bedrock subsidence reported before, we found areas of bedrock uplift as well as areas of bedrock subsidence. A simulation since the last glacial maximum (with the

  13. Temporal factors affecting somatosensory-auditory interactions in speech processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eIto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech perception is known to rely on both auditory and visual information. However, sound specific somatosensory input has been shown also to influence speech perceptual processing (Ito et al., 2009. In the present study we addressed further the relationship between somatosensory information and speech perceptual processing by addressing the hypothesis that the temporal relationship between orofacial movement and sound processing contributes to somatosensory-auditory interaction in speech perception. We examined the changes in event-related potentials in response to multisensory synchronous (simultaneous and asynchronous (90 ms lag and lead somatosensory and auditory stimulation compared to individual unisensory auditory and somatosensory stimulation alone. We used a robotic device to apply facial skin somatosensory deformations that were similar in timing and duration to those experienced in speech production. Following synchronous multisensory stimulation the amplitude of the event-related potential was reliably different from the two unisensory potentials. More importantly, the magnitude of the event-related potential difference varied as a function of the relative timing of the somatosensory-auditory stimulation. Event-related activity change due to stimulus timing was seen between 160-220 ms following somatosensory onset, mostly around the parietal area. The results demonstrate a dynamic modulation of somatosensory-auditory convergence and suggest the contribution of somatosensory information for speech processing process is dependent on the specific temporal order of sensory inputs in speech production.

  14. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pquinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  15. Roostocks/Scion/Nitrogen Interactions Affect Secondary Metabolism in the Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habran, Aude; Commisso, Mauro; Helwi, Pierre; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Negri, Stefano; Ollat, Nathalie; Gomès, Eric; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guzzo, Flavia; Delrot, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock, and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Pinot Noir (PN) varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM) or 110 Richter (110R) rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic, and hydroxybenzoic acids) that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization. PMID:27555847

  16. Roostocks/scion/ nitrogen interactions affect secondary metabolism in the grape berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Habran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : The present work investigates the interactions between soil content, rootstock and scion by focusing on the effects of roostocks and nitrogen supply on grape berry content. Scions of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS and Pinot Noir (PN varieties were grafted either on Riparia Gloire de Montpellier (RGM or 110 Richter (110R rootstock. The 4 rooststock/scion combinations were fertilized with 3 different levels of nitrogen after fruit set. Both in 2013 and 2014, N supply increased N uptake by the plants, and N content both in vegetative and reproductory organs. Rootstock, variety and year affected berry weight at harvest, while nitrogen did not affect significantly this parameter. Grafting on RGM consistently increased berry weight compared to 110R. PN consistently produced bigger berries than CS. CS berries were heavier in 2014 than in 2013, but the year effect was less marked for PN berries. The berries were collected between veraison and maturity, separated in skin and pulp, and their content was analyzed by conventional analytical procedures and untargeted metabolomics. For anthocyanins, the relative quantitation was fairly comparable with both LC-MS determination and HPLC-DAD, which is a fully quantitative technique. The data show complex responses of the metabolite content (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols/procyanidins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. that depend on the rootstock, the scion, the vintage, the nitrogen level, the berry compartment. This opens a wide range of possibilities to adjust the content of these compounds through the choice of the roostock, variety and nitrogen fertilization.

  17. A study on the interaction and evolution of the spatial expansion and administrative division adjustment in Beijing metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Dang, Anrong

    2008-10-01

    Since 1990s and especially since 2000, the city space of Beijing has grown rapidly. There's no doubt that the urban construction land area is expanding to the suburban areas, which is the result of rapid social and economic growth in the city and also closely related to the reform of "turning county into district". In other words, the adjustment of administrative division in Beijing interacts with the expansion of urban construction land space. Beijing turns counties into districts and introduces regional offices are two distinct evidence. As for the interaction, there're both advantages and disadvantages and the focus of the article is to explore how to exploit the favorable conditions and avoid unfavorable ones. The article takes the town administrative region as the minimum space unit so as to better explore the anisotropism and regional differences of city space expansion as well as the impact caused by the adjustment of administrative divisions. With initial analysis, we find that: firstly, on the contrary to the sharp reduction of farming land, the city construction land are for residential communities, factories and mines increases the fastest; secondly, the big central cluster expansion has great regional difference and the three directions of northwest, north and south grows the fastest, which is mainly caused by the positive guidance of trunk roads including highway construction; thirdly, the land area in central cluster used for new construction projects is mainly located in suburban area, but exurb districts of Daxing and Changping also take up a considerable proportion; fourthly, as for the key exurb towns including Changping, Shunyi, and Fangshan, the built-up area also grows rapidly.

  18. Leader charisma and affective team climate: the moderating role of the leader's influence and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Baeza, Ana; Araya Lao, Cristina; García Meneses, Juliana; González Romá, Vicente

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on team tension. In addition, the leader's influence and the frequency of leader-team interaction moderate the relationship between charisma and affective climate. However, whereas the leader's influence enhances the relationship between leader charisma and positive affective climate, the frequency of interaction has counterproductive effects.

  19. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse.

  20. Kinesio taping in young healthy subjects does not affect postural reflex reactions and anticipatory postural adjustments of the trunk: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-09-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 0.64, η2 0.07, η(2) Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population.Earlier anticipatory postural adjustments were observed under both Kinesio Taping and placebo conditions.There were no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo condition.

  1. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 0.64, η2 0.07, η2 Kinesio Taping does not affect postural reflex reactions in young healthy population. Earlier anticipatory postural adjustments were observed under both Kinesio Taping and placebo conditions. There were no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo condition. PMID:25177198

  2. Decisions at the brink: Locomotor experience affects infants’ use of social information on an adjustable drop-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana B. Karasik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available How do infants decide what to do at the brink of a precipice? Infants could use two sources of information to guide their actions: perceptual information generated by their own exploratory activity and social information offered by their caregivers. The current study investigated the role of locomotor experience in using social information—both encouragement and discouragement—for descending drop-offs. Mothers of 30 infants (experienced 12-month-old crawlers, novice 12-month-old walkers, and experienced 18-month-old walkers encouraged and discouraged descent on a gradation of drop-offs (safe steps and risky cliffs. Novice walkers descended more frequently than experienced crawlers and walkers and fell while attempting to walk over impossibly high cliffs. All infants showed evidence of integrating perceptual and social information, but locomotor experience affected infants’ use of social messages, especially on risky drop-offs. Experienced crawlers and walkers selectively deferred to social information when perceptual information is ambiguous. In contrast, novice walkers took mothers’ advice inconsistently and only at extreme drop-offs.

  3. Decisions at the Brink: Locomotor Experience Affects Infants’ Use of Social Information on an Adjustable Drop-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Lana B.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Adolph, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    How do infants decide what to do at the brink of a precipice? Infants could use two sources of information to guide their actions: perceptual information generated by their own exploratory activity and social information offered by their caregivers. The current study investigated the role of locomotor experience in using social information—both encouragement and discouragement—for descending drop-offs. Mothers of 30 infants (experienced 12-month-old crawlers, novice 12-month-old walkers, and experienced 18-month-old walkers) encouraged and discouraged descent on a gradation of drop-offs (safe “steps” and risky “cliffs”). Novice walkers descended more frequently than experienced crawlers and walkers and fell while attempting to walk over impossibly high cliffs. All infants showed evidence of integrating perceptual and social information, but locomotor experience affected infants’ use of social messages, especially on risky drop-offs. Experienced crawlers and walkers selectively deferred to social information when perceptual information is ambiguous. In contrast, novice walkers took mothers’ advice inconsistently and only at extreme drop-offs. PMID:27375507

  4. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human‐like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context‐aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long‐term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  5. Affective Interaction with a Virtual Character through an fNIRS Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Aranyi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI harness Neuroscience knowledge to develop affective interaction from first principles. In this paper, we explore affective engagement with a virtual agent through Neurofeedback (NF. We report an experiment where subjects engage with a virtual agent by expressing positive attitudes towards her under a NF paradigm. We use for affective input the asymmetric activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL-PFC, which has been previously found to be related to the high-level affective-motivational dimension of approach/avoidance. The magnitude of left-asymmetric DL-PFC activity, measured using fNIRS and treated as a proxy for approach, is mapped onto a control mechanism for the virtual agent’s facial expressions, in which Action Units are activated through a neural network. We carried out an experiment with 18 subjects, which demonstrated that subjects are able to successfully engage with the virtual agent by controlling their mental disposition through NF, and that they perceived the agent’s responses as realistic and consistent with their projected mental disposition. This interaction paradigm is particularly relevant in the case of affective BCI as it facilitates the volitional activation of specific areas normally not under conscious control. Overall, our contribution reconciles a model of affect derived from brain metabolic data with an ecologically valid, yet computationally controllable, virtual affective communication environment.

  6. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    P>1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction.2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem...

  7. Interaction between host genotype and environmental conditions affects bacterial density in Wolbachia symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mouton, Laurence; Henri, Hélène; Charif, Delphine; Boulétreau, Michel; Vavre, Fabrice

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of microbial population density is a necessity in stable symbiotic interactions. In Wolbachia symbiosis, both bacterial and host genotypes are involved in density regulation, but environmental factors may also affect bacterial population density. Here, we studied the interaction between three strains of Wolbachia in two divergent homozygous lines of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma at two different temperatures. Wolbachia density varied between the two host genotypes at only one tem...

  8. Interactive effects of emotional and restrained eating on responses to chocolate and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-12-01

    To examine differences and interactions between emotional and restrained-eating healthy adults (56 women, 53 men) were classified into emotional or restrained eaters, and persons scoring high or low on both dimensions. Participants tasted different types of chocolate (with 30, 70, 85, or 99% cocoa content) and completed questionnaires on affect and attitudes towards chocolate. Emotional eaters reported increased craving for and increased consumption of chocolate, whereas restrained eaters experienced chocolate-related guilt. However, restrained eaters rated plain chocolate (70% and 85% cocoa) as more pleasant than other groups. Persons scoring high on both dimensions showed heightened negative affect and may be prone to disturbances of eating and affect.

  9. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  10. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  11. Spatial heterogeneity of plant–soil feedback affects root interactions and interspecific competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Ravenek, J.; Smit-Tiekstra, A.E.; Paauw, van der J.W.M.; Caluwe, de H.; Putten, van der W.H.; Kroon, de H.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback is receiving increasing interest as a factor influencing plant competition and species coexistence in grasslands. However, we do not know how spatial distribution of plant-soil feedback affects plant below-ground interactions. We investigated the way in which spatial heterogeneit

  12. Foreword 3rd International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction - ACII 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, Jeffrey; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    It is a pleasure and an honor to have organized the Third International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII). The conference will be held from 10th – 12th September 2009 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The conference series is the premier forum for presenting research

  13. Design and implementation of an affect-responsive interactive photo frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.; Ortega Hortas, M.; Kosunen, I.; Zuzánek, P.; Salah, A.A.; Gevers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an affect-responsive interactive photo-frame application that offers its user a different experience with every use. It relies on visual analysis of activity levels and facial expressions of its users to select responses from a database of short video segments. This ever-growing

  14. User Experience of Mobile Interactivity: How Do Mobile Websites Affect Attitudes and Relational Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Mobile media offer new opportunities for fostering communications between individuals and companies. Corporate websites are being increasingly accessed via smart phones and companies are scrambling to offer a mobile-friendly user experience on their sites. However, very little is known about how interactivity in the mobile context affects user…

  15. Affective and Behavioral Features of Jealousy Protest: Associations with Child Temperament, Maternal Interaction Style, and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L.; Behrens, Kazuko Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored variation in affective and behavioral components of infants' jealousy protests during an eliciting condition in which mother and an experimenter directed differential attention exclusively toward a rival. Variation was examined in relation to child temperamental emotionality, maternal interaction style, and attachment security.…

  16. Toward interactive context-aware affective educational recommendations in computer-assisted language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.

  17. Approaches to Affective Computing and Learning towards Interactive Decision Making in Process Control Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Chong; LI Hong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Numerous multi-objective decision-making problems related to industrial process control engineering such as control and operation performance evaluation are being resolved through human-computer interactions.With regard to the problems that traditional interactive evolutionary computing approaches suffer i.e.,limited searching ability and human's strong subjectivity in multi-objective-attribute decision-making,a novel affective computing and learning solution adapted to human-computer interaction mechanism is explicitly proposed.Therein,a kind of stimulating response based affective computing model (STAM) is constructed,along with quantitative relations between affective space and human's subjective preferences.Thereafter,affective learning strategies based on genetic algorithms are introduced which are responsible for gradually grasping essentials in human's subjective judgments in decision-making,reducing human's subjective fatigue as well as making the decisions more objective and scientific.Affective learning algorithm's complexity and convergence analysis are shown in Appendices A and B.To exemplify applications of the proposed methods,ad-hoc test functions and PID parameter tuning are suggested as case studies,giving rise to satisfying results and showing validity of the contributions.

  18. Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Anja; Zimmer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates. However, relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions. We separately treated green crabs...... Carcinus maenas and periwinkles Littorina littorea under conditions that mimicked either ambient conditions (control) or warming and acidification, both separately and in combination, for 5 mo. After 5 mo, the predators, prey and predator-prey interactions were screened for changes in response...... to environmental change. Acidification negatively affected the closer-muscle length of the crusher chela and correspondingly the claw-strength increment in C. maenas. The effects of warming and/or acidification on L. littorea were less consistent but indicated weaker shells in response to acidification...

  19. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  20. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    of particular importance to practitioners: yield convexity adjustments, forward versus futures convexity adjustments, timing and quanto convexity adjustments. We claim that the appropriate way to look into any of these adjustments is as a side effect of a measure change, as proposed by Pelsser (2003...

  1. Neural coding of cooperative vs. affective human interactions: 150 ms to code the action's purpose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available The timing and neural processing of the understanding of social interactions was investigated by presenting scenes in which 2 people performed cooperative or affective actions. While the role of the human mirror neuron system (MNS in understanding actions and intentions is widely accepted, little is known about the time course within which these aspects of visual information are automatically extracted. Event-Related Potentials were recorded in 35 university students perceiving 260 pictures of cooperative (e.g., 2 people dragging a box or affective (e.g., 2 people smiling and holding hands interactions. The action's goal was automatically discriminated at about 150-170 ms, as reflected by occipito/temporal N170 response. The swLORETA inverse solution revealed the strongest sources in the right posterior cingulate cortex (CC for affective actions and in the right pSTS for cooperative actions. It was found a right hemispheric asymmetry that involved the fusiform gyrus (BA37, the posterior CC, and the medial frontal gyrus (BA10/11 for the processing of affective interactions, particularly in the 155-175 ms time window. In a later time window (200-250 ms the processing of cooperative interactions activated the left post-central gyrus (BA3, the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA10, as well as the right premotor cortex (BA6. Women showed a greater response discriminative of the action's goal compared to men at P300 and anterior negativity level (220-500 ms. These findings might be related to a greater responsiveness of the female vs. male MNS. In addition, the discriminative effect was bilateral in women and was smaller and left-sided in men. Evidence was provided that perceptually similar social interactions are discriminated on the basis of the agents' intentions quite early in neural processing, differentially activating regions devoted to face/body/action coding, the limbic system and the MNS.

  2. Normal and mutant HTT interact to affect clinical severity and progression in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, N A; Jurgens, C K; Landwehrmeyer, G B;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the HD gene (HTT). We aimed to assess whether interaction between CAG repeat sizes in the mutant and normal allele could affect disease severity and progression. METHODS: Using...... with less severe symptoms and pathology. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing CAG repeat size in normal HTT diminishes the association between mutant CAG repeat size and disease severity and progression in Huntington disease. The underlying mechanism may involve interaction of the polyglutamine domains of normal...

  3. Skin-light interaction of three main chromofores in skin affected by Port Wine Stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mújica Ascencio, S.; Velázquez González, J. S.; Álvarez Chávez, J. A.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, simulation and mathematical analysis of the absorption, dispersion and dynamics of laser light generated at 690nm and its interaction with skin affected by the Port Wine Stain is presented. The absorption coefficient and penetration depth of water, hemoglobin and oxy-hemoglobin, as key chromophores are calculated. A suitable wavelength for possible treatment on Port Wine Stain located in the skin layers such as Dermis and Hypodermis is determined. The presentation will include a full fiber laser design description, detailed skin affectation explanation and preliminary results.

  4. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…

  5. Warming, CO2, and nitrogen deposition interactively affect a plant-pollinator mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Shelley E R; Ladley, Jenny J; Shchepetkina, Anastasia A; Tisch, Maggie; Gieseg, Steven P; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2012-03-01

    Environmental changes threaten plant-pollinator mutualisms and their critical ecosystem service. Drivers such as land use, invasions and climate change can affect pollinator diversity or species encounter rates. However, nitrogen deposition, climate warming and CO(2) enrichment could interact to disrupt this crucial mutualism by altering plant chemistry in ways that alter floral attractiveness or even nutritional rewards for pollinators. Using a pumpkin model system, we show that these drivers non-additively affect flower morphology, phenology, flower sex ratios and nectar chemistry (sugar and amino acids), thereby altering the attractiveness of nectar to bumble bee pollinators and reducing worker longevity. Alarmingly, bees were attracted to, and consumed more, nectar from a treatment that reduced their survival by 22%. Thus, three of the five major drivers of global environmental change have previously unknown interactive effects on plant-pollinator mutualisms that could not be predicted from studies of individual drivers in isolation.

  6. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-01-01

    This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cogni...

  7. The Role of Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Spouses' Support Interactions: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstadt, Lesley; Devoldre, Inge; Buysse, Ann; Stevens, Michael; Hinnekens, Céline; Ickes, William; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how support providers' empathic dispositions (dispositional perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) as well as their situational empathic reactions (interaction-based perspective taking, empathic concern, and personal distress) relate to the provision of spousal support during observed support interactions. Forty-five committed couples provided questionnaire data and participated in two ten-minute social support interactions designed to assess behaviors when partners are offering and soliciting social support. A video-review task was used to assess situational forms of perspective taking (e.g., empathic accuracy), empathic concern and personal distress. Data were analyzed by means of the multi-level Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., dispositional empathic concern), provided lower levels of negative support. In addition, for male partners, scoring higher on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) was related to lower levels of negative support provision. For both partners, higher scores on cognitive empathy (i.e., situational perspective taking) correlated with more instrumental support provision. Male providers scoring higher on affective empathy (i.e., situational personal distress) provided higher levels of instrumental support. Dispositional perspective taking was related to higher scores on emotional support provision for male providers. The current study furthers our insight into the empathy-support link, by revealing differential effects (a) for men and women, (b) of both cognitive and affective empathy, and

  8. Spatial heterogeneity of plant-soil feedback affects root interactions and interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Marloes; Ravenek, Janneke M; Smit-Tiekstra, Annemiek E; van der Paauw, Jan Willem; de Caluwe, Hannie; van der Putten, Wim H; de Kroon, Hans; Mommer, Liesje

    2015-08-01

    Plant-soil feedback is receiving increasing interest as a factor influencing plant competition and species coexistence in grasslands. However, we do not know how spatial distribution of plant-soil feedback affects plant below-ground interactions. We investigated the way in which spatial heterogeneity of soil biota affects competitive interactions in grassland plant species. We performed a pairwise competition experiment combined with heterogeneous distribution of soil biota using four grassland plant species and their soil biota. Patches were applied as quadrants of 'own' and 'foreign' soils from all plant species in all pairwise combinations. To evaluate interspecific root responses, species-specific root biomass was quantified using real-time PCR. All plant species suffered negative soil feedback, but strength was species-specific, reflected by a decrease in root growth in own compared with foreign soil. Reduction in root growth in own patches by the superior plant competitor provided opportunities for inferior competitors to increase root biomass in these patches. These patterns did not cascade into above-ground effects during our experiment. We show that root distributions can be determined by spatial heterogeneity of soil biota, affecting plant below-ground competitive interactions. Thus, spatial heterogeneity of soil biota may contribute to plant species coexistence in species-rich grasslands.

  9. How affective information from faces and scenes interacts in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Stock, Jan; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Sinke, Charlotte B A; Goebel, Rainer; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-10-01

    Facial expression perception can be influenced by the natural visual context in which the face is perceived. We performed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with fearful or neutral faces against threatening or neutral background scenes. Triangles and scrambled scenes served as control stimuli. The results showed that the valence of the background influences face selective activity in the right anterior parahippocampal place area (PPA) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) with higher activation for neutral backgrounds compared to threatening backgrounds (controlled for isolated background effects) and that this effect correlated with trait empathy in the sgACC. In addition, the left fusiform gyrus (FG) responds to the affective congruence between face and background scene. The results show that valence of the background modulates face processing and support the hypothesis that empathic processing in sgACC is inhibited when affective information is present in the background. In addition, the findings reveal a pattern of complex scene perception showing a gradient of functional specialization along the posterior-anterior axis: from sensitivity to the affective content of scenes (extrastriate body area: EBA and posterior PPA), over scene emotion-face emotion interaction (left FG) via category-scene interaction (anterior PPA) to scene-category-personality interaction (sgACC). © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The interaction of borderline personality disorder symptoms and relationship satisfaction in predicting affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlken, Katherine; Robertson, Christopher; Benson, Jessica; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that stable, marital relationships may have overall prognostic significance for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD); however, research focused on the impact of nonmarital, and perhaps short-term, romantic relationships is lacking. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to examine the impact of the interaction of BPD symptoms and relationship satisfaction on state negative affect in college undergraduates. It was predicted that individuals who scored higher on measures of BPD symptoms and who were in a satisfying romantic relationship would report less negative affect than comparable individuals in a less satisfying romantic relationship. Questionnaires assessing BPD symptoms, relationship satisfaction, and negative affect were administered to 111 women, the majority of whom then completed daily measures of relationship satisfaction and negative affect over a 2-week follow-up period. Hierarchical multiple regression and hierarchical linear modeling were used to test the hypotheses. The interaction of BPD symptoms with relationship satisfaction was found to significantly predict anger, as measured at one time point, suggesting that satisfying romantic relationships may be a protective factor for individuals scoring high on measures of BPD symptoms with regard to anger.

  11. When sad groups expect to meet again : Interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klep, Annefloor H. M.; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that

  12. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Srivastava, Diane S

    2010-09-01

    1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads. 3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead, Corinna spiders contributed allochthonous nitrogen to bromeliads. 4. Our results provide the novel observations that predators in one ecosystem not only directly reduce taxa whose life cycles cross-ecosystem boundaries, but also indirectly facilitate taxa whose life cycles are entirely within the second ecosystem. This compensatory response between cross-ecosystem and within-ecosystem taxa may have led to an attenuation of top-down effects across ecosystem boundaries. In addition, our results add to a growing consensus that species identity is an important determinant of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic food webs may affect the strength of cross-ecosystem interactions.

  13. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

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    Katherine S Young

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.

  14. Mathematics for Maths Anxious Tertiary Students: Integrating the cognitive and affective domains using interactive multimedia

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    Janet Taylor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, commencing university students come from a diversity of backgrounds and have a broad range of abilities and attitudes. It is well known that attitudes towards mathematics, especially mathematics anxiety, can affect students’ performance to the extent that mathematics is often seen as a barrier to success by many. This paper reports on the design, development and evaluation of an interactive multimedia resource designed to explicitly address students’ beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics by following five characters as they progress through the highs and low of studying a preparatory mathematics course. The resource was built within two theoretical frameworks, one related to effective numeracy teaching (Marr and Helme 1991 and the other related to effective educational technology development (Laurillard 2002. Further, it uses a number of multimedia alternatives (video, audio, animations, diarying, interactive examples and self assessment to encourage students to feel part of a group, to reflect on their feelings and beliefs about mathematics, to expose students to authentic problem solving and generally build confidence through practice and self-assessment. Evaluation of the resource indicated that it encouraged students to value their own mathematical ability and helped to build confidence, while developing mathematical problem solving skills. The evaluation clearly demonstrated that it is possible to address the affective domain through multimedia initiatives and that this can complement the current focus on computer mediated communication as the primary method of addressing affective goals within the online environment.

  15. Using Bayesian Nonparametric Hidden Semi-Markov Models to Disentangle Affect Processes during Marital Interaction.

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    William A Griffin

    Full Text Available Sequential affect dynamics generated during the interaction of intimate dyads, such as married couples, are associated with a cascade of effects-some good and some bad-on each partner, close family members, and other social contacts. Although the effects are well documented, the probabilistic structures associated with micro-social processes connected to the varied outcomes remain enigmatic. Using extant data we developed a method of classifying and subsequently generating couple dynamics using a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden semi-Markov Model (HDP-HSMM. Our findings indicate that several key aspects of existing models of marital interaction are inadequate: affect state emissions and their durations, along with the expected variability differences between distressed and nondistressed couples are present but highly nuanced; and most surprisingly, heterogeneity among highly satisfied couples necessitate that they be divided into subgroups. We review how this unsupervised learning technique generates plausible dyadic sequences that are sensitive to relationship quality and provide a natural mechanism for computational models of behavioral and affective micro-social processes.

  16. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  17. Verbal marking of affect by children with Asperger Syndrome and high functioning autism during spontaneous interactions with family members.

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    Müller, Eve; Schuler, Adriana

    2006-11-01

    Verbal marking of affect by older children with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) during spontaneous interactions is described. Discourse analysis of AS and HFA and typically developing children included frequency of affective utterances, affective initiations, affective labels and affective explanations, attribution of affective responses to self and others, and positive and negative markers of affect. Findings indicate that children with AS and HFA engaged in a higher proportion of affect marking and provided a higher proportion of affective explanations than typically developing children, yet were less likely to initiate affect marking sequences or talk about the affective responses of others. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of the marking of positive and negative affect.

  18. Predator diversity and density affect levels of predation upon strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs.

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    Guidetti, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    Indirect effects of predators in the classic trophic cascade theory involve the effects of basal species (e.g. primary producers) mediated by predation upon strongly interactive consumers (e.g. grazers). The diversity and density of predators, and the way in which they interact, determine whether and how the effects of different predators on prey combine. Intraguild predation, for instance, was observed to dampen the effects of predators on prey in many ecosystems. In marine systems, species at high trophic levels are particularly susceptible to extinction (at least functionally). The loss of such species, which is mainly attributed to human activities (mostly fishing), is presently decreasing the diversity of marine predators in many areas of the world. Experimental studies that manipulate predator diversity and investigate the effects of this on strongly interactive consumers (i.e. those potentially capable of causing community-wide effects) in marine systems are scant, especially in the rocky sublittoral. I established an experiment that utilised cage enclosures to test whether the diversity and density of fish predators (two sea breams and two wrasses) would affect predation upon juvenile and adult sea urchins, the most important grazers in Mediterranean sublittoral rocky reefs. Changes in species identity (with sea breams producing major effects) and density of predators affected predation upon sea urchins more than changes in species richness per se. Predation upon adult sea urchins decreased in the presence of multiple predators, probably due to interference competition between sea breams and wrasses. This study suggests that factors that influence both fish predator diversity and density in Mediterranean rocky reefs (e.g. fishing and climate change) may have the potential to affect the predators' ability to control sea urchin population density, with possible repercussions for the whole benthic community structure.

  19. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services.

  20. AFFECTIVE AND EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

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    A. Askim GULUMBAY, Anadolu University, TURKEY

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computersupported learning and human-computer interactions.Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cognitive sciences, various aspects of communication and human computer interaction, interface design andcomputer science on one hand and educators and game industry on the other, this should open gates to evolutionary changes of the learning industry. The major topics discussed are emotions, motivation, games and game-experience.

  1. Eutrophication and predation risk interact to affect sexual trait expression and mating success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Rickey D; Stiff, Andy R; Jeyasingh, Punidan D; Relyea, Rick A

    2012-03-01

    Sexual traits are especially sensitive to low food resources. Other environmental parameters (e.g., predation) should also affect sexual trait expression by favoring investment in viability traits rather than sexual traits. We know surprisingly little about how predators alter investment in sexual traits, or how predator and resource environments interact to affect sexual trait investment. We explored how increasing phosphorous (P) availability, at a level mimicking cultural eutrophication, affects the development of sexual, nonsexual, and viability traits of amphipods in the presence and absence of predators. Sexual traits and growth were hypersensitive to low P compared to nonsexual traits. However, a key sexual trait responded to low P only when predator cues were absent. Furthermore, investment trade-offs between sexual traits and growth only occurred when P was low. The phenotypic changes caused by predator cues and increased P availability resulted in higher male mating success. Thus, eutrophication not only affects sexual trait expression but also masks the trade-off between traits with similar P demand. Sensitivity of sexually selected traits to changes in P, combined with the important roles these traits play in determining fitness and driving speciation, suggests that human-induced environmental change can greatly alter the evolutionary trajectories of populations.

  2. When sad groups expect to meet again: interactive affective sharing and future interaction expectation as determinants of work groups' analytical and creative task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klep, Annefloor H M; Wisse, Barbara; van der Flier, Henk

    2013-12-01

    The present study examines the moderating role of future interaction expectation in the relationship between affective sharing and work groups' task performance. We argue that group affect, a group defining characteristic, becomes more salient to its members when it is interactively shared, and that the anticipation of future interaction may strengthen the effects of group defining characteristics on subsequent group member behaviour. As a consequence, interactive sharing (vs. non-interactive sharing) of negative affect is more likely to influence work group outcomes when group members expect to meet again. Results from a laboratory experiment with 66 three-person work groups indeed show that interactively shared (vs. non-interactively shared) negative affect facilitated work groups' analytical task performance, whereas it inhibited performance on a creative fluency task when groups have expectations of future interaction and not when they do not have such expectations. The discussion focuses on how these results add to theory on group affect and contribute to insights in the effects of future interaction expectation.

  3. Interaction among the Criteria Affecting Main Battle Tank Selection: An Analysis with DEMATEL Method

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    Yavuz Gazibey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Main battle tanks (MBTs have always been in the heart of all military campaigns and have enabled armies to fight across the full spectrum of war. Countries need to consider the complex interactions between subsystems of MBTs in the decision phase of a design process or MBT acquisition. In order to define the interaction among the subsystems of ‘system of systems’, which is MBT system for this case, this study aims to determine the criteria and their sub criteria affecting MBT selection problem and to analyse the cause and effect relations among these criteria. The criteria and the complex interaction among them have been determined by consulting a group of experts. Because of multiple complex criteria interactions in MBT selection problem, decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method is used as a multiple criteria decision making method. DEMATEL method is applied on the main and the sub criteria separately to understand the cause and effect relations. The results show that Survivability main criterion has the strongest central role among the main criteria for MBT selection, while the followers are firepower, mobility and command and control (C2. It is also shown that, in terms of sub criteria for MBT selection, ballistic protection, a sub criterion of survivability main criterion, has the highest degree of influence over most of the other sub criteria. However, physical dimensions/silhouette, another sub criterion of survivability, is the most affected sub criteria. The top five sub criteria in terms of central role are determined as physical dimensions/silhouette, ballistic protection, power/weight ratio, ground pressure and suspension system.

  4. The Interaction Between the Adjustment of Land Use Control and the Actions of Relevant Actors%土地用途管制调整与权益主体行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗罡辉; 李贵才; 仝德

    2013-01-01

      研究目的:基于财产权的视角,研究土地用途管制决策与土地权益主体行为的互动关系。研究方法:文献资料法、实证法和博弈论。研究结果:土地用途管制的调整影响财产权结构的变化,政府和相关土地权益主体可通过协商互动达成权益平衡。研究结论:土地用途管制决策应开放更多权益主体参与论证,协调发展过程中的矛盾。%  The purpose of this paper is to explore the interaction between the adjustment of land use control and the actions of relevant actors from the perspective of property rights. Methods employed are documentation, empirical study and game theory. The results indicate that the adjustment of land use control affects the structure of property rights. Government and the relevant actors can reach agreements through consultation and interaction. The paper concludes that the decision-making of land use control shall be more open, allowing more participation of relevant stakeholders so as to coordinate the contradictions in the development process.

  5. Neural systems supporting cognitive-affective interactions in adolescence: The role of puberty and implications for affective disorders

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    Cecile D. Ladouceur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that adolescence may represent a period of vulnerability that, in the context of adverse events, could contribute to developmental trajectories toward behavioral and emotional health problems, including affective disorders. Adolescence is also a sensitive period for the development of neural systems supporting cognitive-affective processes, which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders such as anxiety and mood disorders. In particular, the onset of puberty brings about a cascade of physical, hormonal, psychological, and social changes that contribute in complex ways to the development of these systems. This article provides a brief overview of neuroimaging research pertaining to the development of cognitive-affective processes in adolescence. It also includes a brief review of evidence from animal and human neuroimaging studies suggesting that sex steroids influence the connectivity between prefrontal cortical and subcortical limbic regions in ways that contribute to increased reactivity to emotionally salient stimuli. We integrate these findings in the context of a developmental affective neuroscience framework suggesting that the impact of rising levels of sex steroids during puberty on fronto-limbic connectivity may be even greater in the context of protracted development of prefrontal cortical regions in adolescence. We conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for future research aimed at identifying neurodevelopmental markers of risk for future onset of affective disorders.

  6. Plant Water Stress Affects Interactions Between an Invasive and a Naturalized Aphid Species on Cereal Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, N E; Davis, T S; Crowder, D W; Bosque-Pérez, N A; Eigenbrode, S D

    2017-06-01

    In cereal cropping systems of the Pacific Northwestern United States (PNW), climate change is projected to increase the frequency of drought during summer months, which could increase water stress for crop plants. Yet, it remains uncertain how interactions between herbivore species are affected by drought stress. Here, interactions between two cereal aphids present in PNW cereal systems, Metopolophium festucae (Theobald) subsp. cerealium (a newly invasive species) and Rhopalosiphum padi L. (a naturalized species), were tested relative to wheat water stress. When aphids were confined in leaf cages on wheat, asymmetrical facilitation occurred; per capita fecundity of R. padi was increased by 46% when M. festucae cerealium was also present, compared to when only R. padi was present. Imposed water stress did not influence this interaction. When aphids were confined on whole wheat plants, asymmetrical competition occurred; cocolonization inhibited M. festucae cerealium population growth but did not affect R. padi population growth. Under conditions of plant water stress, however, the inhibitory effect of R. padi on M. festucae cerealium was not observed. We conclude that beneficial effects of cocolonization on R. padi are due to a localized plant response to M. festucae cerealium feeding, and that cocolonization of plants is likely to suppress M. festucae cerealium populations under ample water conditions, but not when plants are water stressed. This suggests that plant responses to water stress alter the outcome of competition between herbivore species, with implications for the structure of pest communities on wheat during periods of drought. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Conserved mosquito/parasite interactions affect development of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa.

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    Antonio M Mendes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In much of sub-Saharan Africa, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main vector of the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Convenient laboratory studies have identified mosquito genes that affect positively or negatively the developmental cycle of the model rodent parasite, P. berghei. Here, we use transcription profiling and reverse genetics to explore whether five disparate mosquito gene regulators of P. berghei development are also pertinent to A. gambiae/P. falciparum interactions in semi-natural conditions, using field isolates of this parasite and geographically related mosquitoes. We detected broadly similar albeit not identical transcriptional responses of these genes to the two parasite species. Gene silencing established that two genes affect similarly both parasites: infections are hindered by the intracellular local activator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics, WASP, but promoted by the hemolymph lipid transporter, ApoII/I. Since P. berghei is not a natural parasite of A. gambiae, these data suggest that the effects of these genes have not been drastically altered by constant interaction and co-evolution of A. gambiae and P. falciparum; this conclusion allowed us to investigate further the mode of action of these two genes in the laboratory model system using a suite of genetic tools and infection assays. We showed that both genes act at the level of midgut invasion during the parasite's developmental transition from ookinete to oocyst. ApoII/I also affects the early stages of oocyst development. These are the first mosquito genes whose significant effects on P. falciparum field isolates have been established by direct experimentation. Importantly, they validate for semi-field human malaria transmission the concept of parasite antagonists and agonists.

  8. Chemical interactions and gel properties of black carp actomyosin affected by MTGase and their relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Huang, Qilin; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-04-01

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to evaluate and correlate chemical interactions (-NH2 content, S-S bonds, four non-covalent interactions) with gel properties (dynamic rheological properties and cooking loss (CL)) of black carp actomyosin affected by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) at suwari and kamaboko stages. The G' and CL were significantly enhanced by MTGase and their values in kamaboko gels were higher than those in suwari gels at the same MTGase concentration. The γ-carboxyamide and amino cross-links, catalyzed by MTGase, were constructed at suwari stage and contributed to the network formation, while disulfide bonds were formed not only in suwari gels but also in kamaboko gels, further enhancing the gel network. PLSR analysis revealed that 86.6-90.3% of the variation of G' and 91.8-94.4% of the variation of CL were best explained by chemical interactions. G' mainly depended on covalent cross-links and gave positive correlation. CL was positively correlated with covalent cross-links, but negatively related to non-covalent bonds, indicating that covalent bonds promoted water extrusion, whereas non-covalent bonds were beneficial for water-holding.

  9. The Adjustment in the Relationship between Russia and Southeast Asia and Elements Affecting their Relations%调整中的俄罗斯与东南亚关系及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵银亮

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between Russia and Southeast Asian countries is experiencing adjustment and it has been increasingly characterized by mechanism and integration. Factors that affect their relations are multi - sided . Either historical elements, geo - political strategy of the superpowers, political culture or interior plights, to some extent, might be hindrance to the development of their bi - lateral relations. So their development depends on many variables.

  10. Interactions of bluff-body obstacles with turbulent airflows affecting evaporative fluxes from porous surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Erfan; Or, Dani

    2015-11-01

    Bluff-body obstacles interacting with turbulent airflows are common in many natural and engineering applications (from desert pavement and shrubs over natural surfaces to cylindrical elements in compact heat exchangers). Even with obstacles of simple geometry, their interactions within turbulent airflows result in a complex and unsteady flow field that affects surface drag partitioning and transport of scalars from adjacent evaporating surfaces. Observations of spatio-temporal thermal patterns on evaporating porous surfaces adjacent to bluff-body obstacles depict well-defined and persistent zonation of evaporation rates that were used to construct a simple mechanistic model for surface-turbulence interactions. Results from evaporative drying of sand surfaces with isolated cylindrical elements (bluff bodies) subjected to constant turbulent airflows were in good agreement with model predictions for localized exchange rates. Experimental and theoretical results show persistent enhancement of evaporative fluxes from bluff-rough surfaces relative to smooth flat surfaces under similar conditions. The enhancement is attributed to formation of vortices that induce a thinner boundary layer over part of the interacting surface footprint. For a practical range of air velocities (0.5-4.0 m/s), low-aspect ratio cylindrical bluff elements placed on evaporating sand surfaces enhanced evaporative mass losses (relative to a flat surface) by up to 300% for high density of elements and high wind velocity, similar to observations reported in the literature. Concepts from drag partitioning were used to generalize the model and upscale predictions to evaporation from surfaces with multiple obstacles for potential applications to natural bluff-rough surfaces.

  11. Major diet-drug interactions affecting the kinetic characteristics and hypolipidaemic properties of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, M P; Sánchez Muniz, F J; Jiménez Redondo, S; Prats Oliván, P; Higueras, F J; Bastida, S

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant administration of statins with food may alter statin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics, increasing the risk of adverse reactions such as myopathy or rhabdomyolysis or reducing their pharmacological action. This paper reviews major interactions between statins and dietary compounds. Consumption of pectin or oat bran together with Lovastatin reduces absorption of the drug, while alcohol intake does not appear to affect the efficacy and safety of Fluvastatin treatment. Grapefruit juice components inhibit cytochrome P-4503A4, reducing the presystemic metabolism of drugs such as Simvastatin, Lovastatin and Atorvastatin. Follow-up studies on the therapeutic effect of statins in patients consuming a Mediterranean-style diet are necessary to assure the correct prescription because the oil-statin and minor oil compound-statin possible interactions have been only briefly studied. Preliminary study suggests that olive oil can increase the hypolipaemiant effect of Simvastatin with respect sunflower oil. The consumption of polyunsaturated rich oils, throughout the cytochrome P- 450 activation could decrease the half-life of some statins and therefore their hypolipaemic effects. The statins and n-3 fatty acids combined therapy gives rise to pharmacodinamic interaction that improves the lipid profile and leads greater cardioprotection. Although statins are more effective in high endogenous cholesterol production subjects and plant sterols are more effective in high cholesterol absorption efficacy subjects, plant esterols-statins combined therapy generates very positive complementary effects. This review ends suggesting possible diet-stain interactions that require further investigations (e.g. types of olive oils, fruit juices other than grapefruit, fibre or consumption of alcoholic beverages rich in polyphenols or ethanol).

  12. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered

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    Natsumi Kinoshita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide the information that is necessary for making the proper use of kampo medicines, we have proposed the adequate methodology focused on the following issues: (i kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in max of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages.

  13. Self-construal, affective valence of the encounter, and quality of social interactions: Within and cross-culture examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Hess, Ursula; Nezlek, John B

    2017-03-15

    In two samples, one from Greece and another from Germany, we examined relationships between self-construal, emotional experience, and the quality of social interactions. In Greece, a more collectivistic culture, the negative affect people experienced in social interactions was more weakly related to the quality of social interactions for those higher in interdependent self-construal than it was for those lower in interdependent self-construal. In Germany, a more independent culture, a contrasting pattern was observed such that the positive affect people experienced in social interaction was more strongly related to the quality of social interactions for those higher in independent self-construal than it was for those lower in independent self-construal. These findings suggest that positive and negative affect in social encounters can have different effects for persons with independent and interdependent cultural orientations within different cultural settings.

  14. Does prey community composition affect the way different behavioral types interact with their environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H

    2016-10-01

    We examined how different exploratory behavioral types of largemouth bass responded to differing prey communities by determining effects on growth, survival and diet in experimental ponds. We found evidence that non-explorer largemouth bass target young-of-year bluegill early on in life, but bluegill were not an important diet item by late summer. The presence of young-of-year bluegill as prey does appear to affect the foraging strategy of the two exploring types differently. In the absence of small bluegill, both behavioral types feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton. When small bluegill were present, we saw a shift away from zooplankton as prey for largemouth bass. However, that shift was toward more benthic invertebrates for non-exploring behavioral types and toward terrestrial insects for exploring behavioral types. Thus, it appears that prey community composition can have important effects on the way in which different behavioral types interact with their environment.

  15. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Alisha; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2005-10-01

    Mutualisms can strongly affect the structure of communities, but their influence on ecosystem processes is not well resolved. Here we show that a plant-microbial mutualism affects the rate of leaf litter decomposition using the widespread interaction between tall fescue grass (Lolium arundinaceum) and the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. In grasses, fungal endophytes live symbiotically in the aboveground tissues, where the fungi gain protection and nutrients from their host and often protect host plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In a field experiment, decomposition rate depended on a complex interaction between the litter source (collected from endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), the decomposition microenvironment (endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), and the presence of mesoinvertebrates (manipulated by the mesh size of litter bags). Over all treatments, decomposition was slower for endophyte-infected fescue litter than for endophyte-free litter. When mesoinvertebrates were excluded using fine mesh and litter was placed in a microenvironment with the endophyte, the difference between endophyte-infected and endophyte-free litter was strongest. In the presence of mesoinvertebrates, endophyte-infected litter decomposed faster in microenvironments with the endophyte than in microenvironments lacking the endophyte, suggesting that plots differ in the detritivore assemblage. Indeed, the presence of the endophyte in plots shifted the composition of Collembola, with more Hypogastruridae in the presence of the endophyte and more Isotomidae in endophyte-free plots. In a separate outdoor pot experiment, we did not find strong effects of the litter source or the soil microbial/microinvertebrate community on decomposition, which may reflect differences between pot and field conditions or other differences in methodology. Our work is among the first to demonstrate an effect of plant-endophyte mutualisms on ecosystem processes under field

  16. Chiropractic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation Don't seek chiropractic adjustment ... Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal ...

  17. Dissolved organic matter conformation and its interaction with pyrene as affected by water chemistry and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bo; Ghosh, Saikat; Xing, Baoshan

    2008-03-01

    Water chemistry and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) have been reported to affect DOM conformation and binding properties with hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, relationship between DOM conformation and its binding properties remains unclear. We designed a multibag equilibration system (MBES) to investigate the variation of carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K(DOC)) of pyrene at different DOM concentrations based on an identical free solute concentration at different pHs and in the presence of Al ions. In addition, we studied the conformation of DOM under different conditions via atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential measurements. Zeta potential measurements indicated that intra- and intermolecular interaction was facilitated at low pH or with the presence of Al ions, and a more organized molecular aggregate (such as a micelle-like structure) could form, thus, enhancing K(DOC). As DOM concentration increased, DOM molecular aggregation was promoted in a way reducing K(DOC). This research is a first attempt to correlate DOM conformation with K(DOC). Aggregation of DOM molecules resulting from increased zeta potential (less negative) generally led to an increased K(DOC). Further study in this area will provide valuable information on HOC-DOM interactions, thus, leading to more accurate predictions of K(DOC).

  18. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met Polymorphism Interacts with Sex to Affect Face Recognition Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Yvette N.; McKay, Nicole S.; Singh, Shrimal S.; Waldie, Karen E.; Kirk, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism affects the breakdown of synaptic dopamine. Consequently, this polymorphism has been associated with a variety of neurophysiological and behavioral outcomes. Some of the effects have been found to be sex-specific and it appears estrogen may act to down-regulate the activity of the COMT enzyme. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in face recognition, a form of cognition for which a female advantage has typically been reported. This study aimed to investigate potential joint effects of sex and COMT genotype on face recognition. A sample of 142 university students was genotyped and assessed using the Faces I subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III). A significant two-way interaction between sex and COMT genotype on face recognition performance was found. Of the male participants, COMT val homozygotes and heterozygotes had significantly lower scores than met homozygotes. Scores did not differ between genotypes for female participants. While male val homozygotes had significantly lower scores than female val homozygotes, no sex differences were observed in the heterozygotes and met homozygotes. This study contributes to the accumulating literature documenting sex-specific effects of the COMT polymorphism by demonstrating a COMT-sex interaction for face recognition, and is consistent with a role for dopamine in face recognition. PMID:27445927

  19. Ultrasonic excitation affects friction interactions between food materials and cutting tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Schindler, Claudia; Rohm, Harald

    2009-06-01

    In the food industry, ultrasonic cutting is used to improve separation by a reduction of the cutting force. This reduction can be attributed to the modification of tool-workpiece interactions at the cutting edge and along the tool flanks because of the superposition of the cutting movement with ultrasonic vibration of the cutting tool. In this study, model experiments were used to analyze friction between the flanks of a cutting tool and the material to be cut. Friction force at a commercial cutting sonotrode was quantified using combined cutting-friction experiments, and sliding friction tests were carried out by adapting a standard draw-off assembly and using an ultrasonic welding sonotrode as sliding surface. The impact of material parameters, ultrasonic amplitude, and the texture of the contacting food surface on friction force was investigated. The results show that ultrasonic vibration significantly reduces the sliding friction force. While the amplitude showed no influence within the tested range, the texture of the contact surface of the food affects the intensity of ultrasonic transportation effects. These effects are a result of mechanical interactions and of changes in material properties of the contact layer, which are induced by the deformation of contact points, friction heating and absorption heating because of the dissipation of mechanical vibration energy.

  20. Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Xiao; Zhang, Xiang-Fei; Chen, Da-Song; Zhang, Yan-Kai; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate that Wolbachia induces strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), increases host fecundity, but has no effects on the longevity of females and the mating competitiveness of males in T. urticae. Most importantly, host mating pattern was found to affect Wolbachia density dynamics during host aging. Mating of an uninfected mite of either sex with an infected mite attenuates the Wolbachia density in the infected mite. According to the results of Wolbachia localization, this finding may be associated with the tropism of Wolbachia for the reproductive tissue in adult spider mites. Our findings describe a new interaction between Wolbachia and their hosts.

  1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val(158)met Polymorphism Interacts with Sex to Affect Face Recognition Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Yvette N; McKay, Nicole S; Singh, Shrimal S; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism affects the breakdown of synaptic dopamine. Consequently, this polymorphism has been associated with a variety of neurophysiological and behavioral outcomes. Some of the effects have been found to be sex-specific and it appears estrogen may act to down-regulate the activity of the COMT enzyme. The dopaminergic system has been implicated in face recognition, a form of cognition for which a female advantage has typically been reported. This study aimed to investigate potential joint effects of sex and COMT genotype on face recognition. A sample of 142 university students was genotyped and assessed using the Faces I subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III). A significant two-way interaction between sex and COMT genotype on face recognition performance was found. Of the male participants, COMT val homozygotes and heterozygotes had significantly lower scores than met homozygotes. Scores did not differ between genotypes for female participants. While male val homozygotes had significantly lower scores than female val homozygotes, no sex differences were observed in the heterozygotes and met homozygotes. This study contributes to the accumulating literature documenting sex-specific effects of the COMT polymorphism by demonstrating a COMT-sex interaction for face recognition, and is consistent with a role for dopamine in face recognition.

  2. Disrupted trophic interactions affect recruitment of boreal deciduous and coniferous trees in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Manton, Michael; Pedersen, Simen; Elbakidze, Marine

    2017-06-01

    Loss of large carnivore populations may lead to increased population densities of large herbivores, and subsequent cascading effects on the composition, structure, and function of ecosystems. Using a macroecological approach based on studies in multiple boreal forest landscapes in the Baltic Sea region and Russia, we tested the hypothesis that disrupted trophic interactions among large carnivores and large herbivores affect the recruitment of both ecologically and economically valuable tree species. We measured damage levels on young trees and large herbivore density in 10 local landscapes representing a gradient from extinct to extant populations of both large carnivores and large herbivores. We also tested the alternative hypothesis that forest management intensity is correlated to reduced recruitment of these tree species. At the macroecological scale there was an inverse relationship between the number of large carnivores and large herbivores. This coincided with a steep gradient in browsing damage on the ecologically important aspen, rowan and sallow as hosts for specialized species, as well as the economically important Scots pine. In one landscape hunting had replaced the presence of carnivores. Mean damage levels of these four tree species were correlated with large herbivore abundance, but not with forest management intensity. We discuss the pros and cons of this macroecological approach, as well as the challenge of governing and managing trophic interactions at multiple scales. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Ecological Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Aphidius colemani in Greenhouse Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Sara G; Jandricic, Sarah E; Frank, Steven D

    2015-06-11

    Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals that A. colemani efficacy within greenhouse production systems can be reduced by many stressors, both biotic (plants, aphid hosts, other natural enemies) and abiotic (climate and lighting). For example, effects from 3rd and 4th trophic levels (fungal-based control products, hyperparasitoids) can suddenly decimate A. colemani populations. But, the most chronic negative effects (reduced parasitoid foraging efficiency, fitness) seem to be from stressors at the first trophic level. Negative effects from the 1st trophic level are difficult to mediate since growers are usually constrained to particular plant varieties due to market demands. Major research gaps identified by our review include determining how plants, aphid hosts, and A. colemani interact to affect the net aphid population, and how production conditions such as temperature, humidity and lighting affect both the population growth rate of A. colemani and its target pest. Decades of research have made A. colemani an essential part of biological control programs in greenhouse crops. Future gains in A. colemani efficacy and aphid biological control will require an interdisciplinary, systems approach that considers plant production and climate effects at all trophic levels.

  4. Ecological Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Aphidius colemani in Greenhouse Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Prado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals that A. colemani efficacy within greenhouse production systems can be reduced by many stressors, both biotic (plants, aphid hosts, other natural enemies and abiotic (climate and lighting. For example, effects from 3rd and 4th trophic levels (fungal-based control products, hyperparasitoids can suddenly decimate A. colemani populations. But, the most chronic negative effects (reduced parasitoid foraging efficiency, fitness seem to be from stressors at the first trophic level. Negative effects from the 1st trophic level are difficult to mediate since growers are usually constrained to particular plant varieties due to market demands. Major research gaps identified by our review include determining how plants, aphid hosts, and A. colemani interact to affect the net aphid population, and how production conditions such as temperature, humidity and lighting affect both the population growth rate of A. colemani and its target pest. Decades of research have made A. colemani an essential part of biological control programs in greenhouse crops. Future gains in A. colemani efficacy and aphid biological control will require an interdisciplinary, systems approach that considers plant production and climate effects at all trophic levels.

  5. Factors affecting mito-nuclear codon usage interactions in the OXPHOS system of Drosophila melanogaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Codon usage bias varies considerably among genomes and even within the genes of the same genome.In eukaryotic organisms,energy production in the form of oxidative phosphorylation(OXPHOS)is the only process under control of both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes.Although factors affecting codon usage in a single genome have been studied,this has not occurred when both interactional genomes are involved.Consequently, we investigated whether or not other factors influence codon usage of coevolved genes.We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism.Our χ2 test on the number of codons of nuclear and mitochondrial genes involved in the OXPHOS system was significantly different (χ2=7945.16,P<0.01).A plot of effective number of codons against GC3s content of nuclear genes showed that few genes lie on the expected curve,indicating that codon usage was random.Correspondence analysis indicated a significant correlation between axis 1 and codon adaptation index(R=0.947,P<0.01)in every nuclear gene sequence.Thus,codon usage bias of nuclear genes appeared to be affected by translational selection.Correlation between axis 1 coordinates and GC content(R=0.814.P<0.01)indicated that the codon usage of nuclear genes was also affected by GC composition.Analysis of mitochondrial genes did not reveal a significant correlation between axis 1 and any parameter.Statistical analyses indicated that codon usages of both nDNA and mtDNA were subjected to context-dependent mutations.

  6. The interaction of affective states and cognitive vulnerabilities in the prediction of non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonah N; Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Jenkins, Abigail; Ong, Mian-Li; Heimberg, Richard G; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a serious public health concern and remains poorly understood. This study sought to identify both cognitive and affective vulnerabilities to NSSI and examine their interaction in the prediction of NSSI. A series of regressions indicated that low levels of positive affect (PA) moderated the relationships between self-criticism and brooding and NSSI. The associations of self-criticism and brooding with greater frequency of NSSI were attenuated by higher levels of PA. The interaction of cognitive and affective vulnerabilities is discussed within the context of current NSSI theory.

  7. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  8. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Voglar, Nejc Sarabon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in randomized, participants blinded, placebo controlled cross-over study. In the experimental condition the tape was applied over the paravertebral muscles and in placebo condition sham application of the tape was done transversally over the lumbar region. Timing of anticipatory postural adjustments to fast voluntary arms movement and postural reflex reactions to sudden loading over the hands were measured by means of superficial electromyography before and one hour after each tape application. Results showed no significant differences between Kinesio Taping and placebo taping conditions for any of the analyzed muscles in anticipatory postural adaptations (F1,11 0.64, η2 0.07, η2 < 0.49. Anticipatory postural adjustments of erector spinae and multifidus muscles were initiated significantly earlier after application of taping (regardless of technique compared to pre-taping (F1,11 = 5.02, p = 0.046, η2 = 0.31 and F1,11 = 6.18, p = 0.030, η2 = 0.36 for erector spinae and multifidus, respectively. Taping application over lumbar region has potential beneficial effects on timing of anticipatory postural adjustments regardless of application technique but no effect on postural reflex reactions in young pain free participants. Further research in patients with low back pain would be encouraged.

  9. Kinesio Taping in Young Healthy Subjects Does Not Affect Postural Reflex Reactions and Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of the Trunk: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Voglar, Matej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic Kinesio Taping method is used for treatment of various musculo-skeletal conditions. Kinesio Taping might have some small clinically important beneficial effects on range of motion and strength but findings about the effects on proprioception and muscle activation are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to test if Kinesio Taping influences anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex reactions. To test the hypothesis twelve healthy young participants were recruited in ...

  10. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Ward

    Full Text Available Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI. The aims of this study were to (1 investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2 determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3 explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii, and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93. A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated

  11. Macrofauna assemblage composition and soil moisture interact to affect soil ecosystem functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, E. J.; Riutta, T.; Slade, E. M.

    2013-02-01

    Changing climatic conditions and habitat fragmentation are predicted to alter the soil moisture conditions of temperate forests. It is not well understood how the soil macrofauna community will respond to changes in soil moisture, and how changes to species diversity and community composition may affect ecosystem functions, such as litter decomposition and soil fluxes. Moreover, few studies have considered the interactions between the abiotic and biotic factors that regulate soil processes. Here we attempt to disentangle the interactive effects of two of the main factors that regulate soil processes at small scales - moisture and macrofauna assemblage composition. The response of assemblages of three common temperate soil invertebrates (Glomeris marginata Villers, Porcellio scaber Latreille and Philoscia muscorum Scopoli) to two contrasting soil moisture levels was examined in a series of laboratory mesocosm experiments. The contribution of the invertebrates to the leaf litter mass loss of two common temperate tree species of contrasting litter quality (easily decomposing Fraxinus excelsior L. and recalcitrant Quercus robur L.) and to soil CO2 fluxes were measured. Both moisture conditions and litter type influenced the functioning of the invertebrate assemblages, which was greater in high moisture conditions compared with low moisture conditions and on good quality vs. recalcitrant litter. In high moisture conditions, all macrofauna assemblages functioned at equal rates, whereas in low moisture conditions there were pronounced differences in litter mass loss among the assemblages. This indicates that species identity and assemblage composition are more important when moisture is limited. We suggest that complementarity between macrofauna species may mitigate the reduced functioning of some species, highlighting the importance of maintaining macrofauna species richness.

  12. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  13. The intracellular domain of Dumbfounded affects myoblast fusion efficiency and interacts with Rolling pebbles and Loner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Bulchand

    Full Text Available Drosophila body wall muscles are multinucleated syncytia formed by successive fusions between a founder myoblast and several fusion competent myoblasts. Initial fusion gives rise to a bi/trinucleate precursor followed by more fusion cycles forming a mature muscle. This process requires the functions of various molecules including the transmembrane myoblast attractants Dumbfounded (Duf and its paralogue Roughest (Rst, a scaffold protein Rolling pebbles (Rols and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor Loner. Fusion completely fails in a duf, rst mutant, and is blocked at the bi/trinucleate stage in rols and loner single mutants. We analysed the transmembrane and intracellular domains of Duf, by mutating conserved putative signaling sites and serially deleting the intracellular domain. These were tested for their ability to translocate and interact with Rols and Loner and to rescue the fusion defect in duf, rst mutant embryos. Studying combinations of double mutants, further tested the function of Rols, Loner and other fusion molecules. Here we show that serial truncations of the Duf intracellular domain successively compromise its function to translocate and interact with Rols and Loner in addition to affecting myoblast fusion efficiency in embryos. Putative phosphorylation sites function additively while the extreme C terminus including a PDZ binding domain is dispensable for its function. We also show that fusion is completely blocked in a rols, loner double mutant and is compromised in other double mutants. These results suggest an additive function of the intracellular domain of Duf and an early function of Rols and Loner which is independent of Duf.

  14. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  15. Earthworm-Mycorrhiza Interactions Can Affect the Diversity, Structure and Functioning of Establishing Model Grassland Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Grabmaier, Andrea; Lichtenegger, Claudia; Piller, Katja; Allabashi, Roza; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics) and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m−2). AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that

  16. Earthworm-mycorrhiza interactions can affect the diversity, structure and functioning of establishing model grassland communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann G Zaller

    Full Text Available Both earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are important ecosystem engineers co-occurring in temperate grasslands. However, their combined impacts during grassland establishment are poorly understood and have never been studied. We used large mesocosms to study the effects of different functional groups of earthworms (i.e., vertically burrowing anecics vs. horizontally burrowing endogeics and a mix of four AMF taxa on the establishment, diversity and productivity of plant communities after a simulated seed rain of 18 grassland species comprising grasses, non-leguminous forbs and legumes. Moreover, effects of earthworms and/or AMF on water infiltration and leaching of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate were determined after a simulated extreme rainfall event (40 l m(-2. AMF colonisation of all three plant functional groups was altered by earthworms. Seedling emergence and diversity was reduced by anecic earthworms, however only when AMF were present. Plant density was decreased in AMF-free mesocosms when both anecic and endogeic earthworms were active; with AMF also anecics reduced plant density. Plant shoot and root biomass was only affected by earthworms in AMF-free mesocosms: shoot biomass increased due to the activity of either anecics or endogeics; root biomass increased only when anecics were active. Water infiltration increased when earthworms were present in the mesocosms but remained unaffected by AMF. Ammonium leaching was increased only when anecics or a mixed earthworm community was active but was unaffected by AMF; nitrate and phosphate leaching was neither affected by earthworms nor AMF. Ammonium leaching decreased with increasing plant density, nitrate leaching decreased with increasing plant diversity and density. In order to understand the underlying processes of these interactions further investigations possibly under field conditions using more diverse belowground communities are required. Nevertheless, this study

  17. Thunderstorm and stratocumulus: how does their contrasting morphology affect their interactions with aerosols?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that aerosols affect clouds and that the effect of aerosols on clouds is critical for understanding human-induced climate change. Most climate model studies have focused on the effect of aerosols on warm stratiform clouds (e.g., stratocumulus clouds for the prediction of climate change. However, systems like the Asian and Indian Monsoon, storm tracks, and the intertropical convergence zone, play important roles in the global hydrological cycle and in the circulation of energy and are driven by thunderstorm-type convective clouds. Here, we show that the different morphologies of these two cloud types lead to different aerosol-cloud interactions. Increasing aerosols are known to suppress the conversion of droplets to rain (i.e., so-called autoconversion. This increases droplets as a source of evaporative cooling, leading to an increased intensity of downdrafts. The acceleration of the intensity of downdrafts is larger in convective clouds due to their larger cloud depths (providing longer paths for downdrafts to follow to the surface than in stratiform clouds. More accelerated downdrafts intensify the gust front, leading to significantly increased updrafts, condensation and thus the collection of cloud liquid by precipitation, which offsets the suppressed autoconversion. This leads to an enhancement of precipitation with increased aerosols in convective clouds. However, the downdrafts are less accelerated in stratiform clouds due to their smaller cloud depths, and they are not able to induce changes in updrafts as large as those in convective clouds. Thus, the offset is not as effective, and this allows the suppression of precipitation with increased aerosols. Thus aerosols affect these cloud systems differently. The dependence of the effect of aerosols on clouds on the morphology of clouds should be taken into account for a more complete assessment of climate change.

  18. The dynamic reactance interaction – How vested interests affect people’s experience, behavior, and cognition in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eSteindl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In social interactions, individuals may sometimes pursue their own interests at the expense of their interaction partner. Such self-interested behaviors impose a threat to the interaction partner’s freedom to act. The current article investigates this threat in the context of interdependence and reactance theory. We explore how vested interests influence reactance process stages of an advisor-client interaction. We aim to explore the interactional process that evolves. In two studies, participants took the perspective of a doctor (advisor or a patient (client. In both studies we incorporated a vested interest. In Study 1 (N=82 we found that in response to a vested interest of their interaction partner, patients indicated a stronger experience of reactance, more aggressive behavioral intentions, and more biased cognitions than doctors. A serial multiple mediation revealed that a vested interest engendered mistrust toward the interaction partner and this mistrust led to an emerging reactance process. Study 2 (N=207 further demonstrated that doctors expressed their reactance in a subtle way: They revealed a classic confirmation bias when searching for additional information on their preliminary decision preference, indicating stronger defense motivation. We discuss how these findings can help us to understand how social interactions develop dynamically.

  19. The Identification of Novel Protein-Protein Interactions in Liver that Affect Glucagon Receptor Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Han

    Full Text Available Glucagon regulates glucose homeostasis by controlling glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. Exaggerated and dysregulated glucagon secretion can exacerbate hyperglycemia contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D. Thus, it is important to understand how glucagon receptor (GCGR activity and signaling is controlled in hepatocytes. To better understand this, we sought to identify proteins that interact with the GCGR to affect ligand-dependent receptor activation. A Flag-tagged human GCGR was recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, and GCGR complexes were isolated by affinity purification (AP. Complexes were then analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS, and protein-GCGR interactions were validated by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP and Western blot. This was followed by studies in primary hepatocytes to assess the effects of each interactor on glucagon-dependent glucose production and intracellular cAMP accumulation, and then in immortalized CHO and liver cell lines to further examine cell signaling. Thirty-three unique interactors were identified from the AP-MS screening of GCGR expressing CHO cells in both glucagon liganded and unliganded states. These studies revealed a particularly robust interaction between GCGR and 5 proteins, further validated by Co-IP, Western blot and qPCR. Overexpression of selected interactors in mouse hepatocytes indicated that two interactors, LDLR and TMED2, significantly enhanced glucagon-stimulated glucose production, while YWHAB inhibited glucose production. This was mirrored with glucagon-stimulated cAMP production, with LDLR and TMED2 enhancing and YWHAB inhibiting cAMP accumulation. To further link these interactors to glucose production, key gluconeogenic genes were assessed. Both LDLR and TMED2 stimulated while YWHAB inhibited PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression. In the present study, we have probed the GCGR interactome and found three novel GCGR interactors that control glucagon

  20. Investigating the Neural Correlates of Emotion–Cognition Interaction Using an Affective Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Raschle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The human brain has the capacity to integrate various sources of information and continuously adapts our behavior according to situational needs in order to allow a healthy functioning. Emotion–cognition interactions are a key example for such integrative processing. However, the neuronal correlates investigating the effects of emotion on cognition remain to be explored and replication studies are needed. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated an involvement of emotion and cognition related brain structures including parietal and prefrontal cortices and limbic brain regions. Here, we employed whole brain event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during an affective number Stroop task and aimed at replicating previous findings using an adaptation of an existing task design in 30 healthy young adults. The Stroop task is an indicator of cognitive control and enables the quantification of interference in relation to variations in cognitive load. By the use of emotional primes (negative/neutral prior to Stroop task performance, an emotional variation is added as well. Behavioral in-scanner data showed that negative primes delayed and disrupted cognitive processing. Trials with high cognitive demand furthermore negatively influenced cognitive control mechanisms. Neuronally, the emotional primes consistently activated emotion-related brain regions (e.g., amygdala, insula, and prefrontal brain regions while Stroop task performance lead to activations in cognition networks of the brain (prefrontal cortices, superior temporal lobe, and insula. When assessing the effect of emotion on cognition, increased cognitive demand led to decreases in neural activation in response to emotional stimuli (negative > neutral within prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insular cortex. Overall, these results suggest that emotional primes significantly impact cognitive performance and increasing cognitive demand leads to reduced neuronal activation in

  1. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb affects social interaction but not maternal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult-born neurons arrive to the olfactory bulb and integrate into the existing circuit throughout life. Despite the prevalence of this phenomenon, its functional impact is still poorly understood. Recent studies point to the importance of newly generated neurons to olfactory learning and memory. Adult neurogenesis is regulated by a variety of factors, notably by instances related to reproductive behavior, such as exposure to mating partners, pregnancy and lactation, and exposure to offspring. To study the contribution of olfactory neurogenesis to maternal behavior and social recognition, here we selectively disrupted olfactory bulb neurogenesis using focal irradiation of the subventricular zone in adult female mice. We show that reduction of olfactory neurogenesis results in an abnormal social interaction pattern with male, but not female, conspecifics; we suggest that this effect could result from inability to detect or discriminate male odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Disruption of olfactory bulb neurogenesis, however, neither impaired maternal-related behaviors, nor did it affect the ability of mothers to discriminate their own progeny from others.

  2. The Age of Cortical Neural Networks Affects Their Interactions with Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Andy; Kunze, Anja; Jun, Dukwoo; Hoek, Eric; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-07-01

    Despite increasing use of nanotechnology in neuroscience, the characterization of interactions between magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and primary cortical neural networks remains underdeveloped. In particular, how the age of primary neural networks affects MNP uptake and endocytosis is critical when considering MNP-based therapies for age-related diseases. Here, primary cortical neural networks are cultured up to 4 weeks and with CCL11/eotaxin, an age-inducing chemokine, to create aged neural networks. As the neural networks are aged, their association with membrane-bound starch-coated ferromagnetic nanoparticles (fMNPs) increases while their endocytic mechanisms are impaired, resulting in reduced internalization of chitosan-coated fMNPs. The age of the neurons also negates the neuroprotective effects of chitosan coatings on fMNPs, attributing to decreased intracellular trafficking and increased colocalization of MNPs with lysosomes. These findings demonstrate the importance of age and developmental stage of primary neural cells when developing in vitro models for fMNP therapeutics targeting age-related diseases.

  3. Zn—Cu Interaction Affecting Zn Adsorption and Plant Availability in a Metal—Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.L.Rimmer; LuoYongming

    1996-01-01

    In a previous greenhouse experiment,we showed that there was an interaction between cu and Zn,which affected growth and metal uptake by young barley plants grown on soil to which Cd,Cu,Pb,and Zn had been added.We suggested that the underlying mechanism was the control of the amount of plant-available Zn by competitive adsorption between Cu and Zn,In order to test this hypothesis,the adsorption of Zn alone,and in the presence of added Cd,Cu and Pb,has been measured using the same soil.Following adsorption,the extractability of the Zn in CaCl2 solution was measured .The adsorption isotherms showed that of the added metals only Cu had a large effect on Zn adsorption.The effect of Cu was to reduce Zn adsoption and to increase the amount of CaCl2-extractable(i.e.plant-available) Zn,in agreement with the conclusions from the greenhouse experiment.The magnitude of the effect of Cu on plant-avalilable Zn was similar in both experiments.

  4. Asymptomatic Malaria Infection Affects the Interpretation of Biomarkers of Iron and Vitamin A Status, Even after Adjusting for Systemic Inflammation, but Does Not Affect Plasma Zinc Concentrations among Young Children in Burkina Faso1-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    K Ryan Wessells; Sonja Y Hess; Zinewendé P Oúedraogo; Noel Rouamba; Jean-Bosco Oúedraogo; Kenneth H Brown

    2014-01-01

    ...). Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), pF, RBP, and pZn concentrations were measured among 451 asymptomatic children aged 6-23 mo in Burkina Faso and adjusted for elevated APP (C-reactive protein ≥5 mg/L...

  5. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  6. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Affiliation and control in marital interaction: interpersonal complementarity is present but is not associated with affect or relationship quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Butner, Jonathan; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Nealey-Moore, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory states that an actor's behavior tends to "pull, elicit, invite, or evoke" responses from interaction partners who are similar in affiliation (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) and opposite in control (i.e., dominance vs. submissiveness). Furthermore, complementary interactions are proposed to evoke less negative affect and promote greater relationship satisfaction. These predictions were examined in two studies of married couples. Results suggest that complementarity in affiliation describes a robust general pattern of marital interaction, but complementarity in control varies across contexts. Consistent with behavioral models of marital interaction, greater levels of affiliation and lower control by partners-not complementarity in affiliation or control-were associated with less anger and anxiety and greater relationship quality. Partners' levels of affiliation and control combined in ways other than complementarity-mostly additively, but sometimes synergistically-to predict negative affect and relationship satisfaction.

  8. Ecological Momentary Assessment of social functioning in schizophrenia: impact of performance appraisals and affect on social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Fulford, Daniel; Swendsen, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Research concerning the complex interplay between factors that contribute to poor social functioning in schizophrenia has been hampered by limitations of traditional measures, most notably the ecological validity and accuracy of retrospective self-report and interview measures. Computerized Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMAc) permits the real-time assessment of relationships between daily life experiences, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In the current study, EMAc was used to record daily social interactions, subjective performance appraisals of these interactions (e.g., "I succeeded/failed"; "I was liked/rejected"), and affect in 145 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Participants completed electronic questionnaires on a personal digital assistant (PDA) four times per day for one week. Time-lagged multilevel modeling of the data revealed that more positive interaction appraisals at any point in a day were associated with greater positive affect which, in turn, was a strong predictor of more social interactions over subsequent hours. Social functioning, therefore, was linked to positive performance beliefs about social interactions that were associated with greater positive affect. The findings suggest a useful treatment target for cognitive behavioral therapy and other psychosocial interventions that can be used to challenge defeatist beliefs and increase positive affect to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia.

  9. Interactivity in brand web sites: cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses explained by consumers’ online flow experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Web site interactivity creates numerous opportunities for marketers to persuade online consumers and receives extensive attention in the marketing literature. However, research on cognitive and behavioral responses to web site interactivity is scarce, and more importantly, it does not provide

  10. Interactive effect of negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity in terms of mental health among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-09-30

    From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample.

  11. Interaction between Hsp60 and Bax in normal human myocardium and in myocardium affected by dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhonkova I. O.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The main functional compartments of molecular chaperone Hsp60 are mitochondria and cytoplasm. Up to 30 % of Hsp60 are located in cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. The interaction between molecular chaperone Hsp60 and proapoptotic Bax protein in the cytoplasmic fraction from normal human heart tissue has been revealed by co-immunoprecipitation in contrast to myocardium affected by dilated cardiomyopathy, where this interaction has not been observed

  12. Interactions between extracellular polymeric substances and clay minerals affect soil aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Cordula; Rehschuh, Stephanie; Kemi Olagoke, Folasade; Redmile Gordon, Marc; Kalbiltz, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Soil aggregation is crucial for carbon (C) sequestration and microbial processes have been recognised as important control of aggregate turnover (formation, stability, and destruction). However, how microorganisms contribute to these processes is still a matter of debate. An enthralling mechanism determining aggregate turnover and therefore C sequestration may be the excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as microbial glue, but effects of EPS on aggregation is largely unknown. Moreover, interdependencies between important aggregation factors like the amount of fine-sized particles (clay content), the decomposability of organic matter and the microbial community (size and composition, as well as the excretion of EPS) are still poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the complex interactions between these factors and their role in aggregate turnover. It was hypothesized that an increase in microbial activity, induced by the input of organic substrates, will stimulate EPS production and therefore the formation and stability of aggregates. To test this hypothesis, an incubation experiment has been conducted across a gradient of clay content (montmorillonite) and substrate decomposability (starch and glucose) as main drivers of the microbial activity. A combination of aggregate separation and stability tests were applied. This results will be examined with respect to the obtained microbial parameters (amount and composition of EPS, CO2 emission, microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid), to disentangle the mechanisms and factors controlling aggregate turnover affected by soil microorganisms. This study is expected to provide insights on the role of EPS in the stability of aggregates. Thus, the results of this study will provide an improved understanding of the underlying processes of aggregate turnover in soils, which is necessary to implement strategies for enhanced C sequestration in agricultural soils.

  13. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Majbrit M; Arvaniti, Maria; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Michalski, Dominik; Pinborg, Lars H; Härtig, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Morten S

    2015-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder involving impaired cholinergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ly-6/neurotoxin (Lynx) proteins have been shown to modulate cognition and neural plasticity by binding to nAChR subtypes and modulating their function. Hence, changes in nAChR regulatory proteins such as Lynx proteins could underlie the dysregulation of nAChRs in AD. Using Western blotting, we detected bands corresponding to the Lynx proteins prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Lypd6 in human cortex indicating that both proteins are present in the human brain. We further showed that PSCA forms stable complexes with the α4 nAChR subunit and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells. In addition, we analyzed protein levels of PSCA and Lypd6 in postmortem tissue of medial frontal gyrus from AD patients and found significantly increased PSCA levels (approximately 70%). In contrast, no changes in Lypd6 levels were detected. In concordance with our findings in AD patients, PSCA levels were increased in the frontal cortex of triple transgenic mice with an AD-like pathology harboring human transgenes that cause both age-dependent β-amyloidosis and tauopathy, whereas Tg2576 mice, which display β-amyloidosis only, had unchanged PSCA levels compared to wild-type animals. These findings identify PSCA as a nAChR-binding protein in the human brain that is affected in AD, suggesting that PSCA-nAChR interactions may be involved in the cognitive dysfunction observed in AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nociception affects motor output: a review on sensory-motor interaction with focus on clinical implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, J.; Daenen, L.; Cras, P.; Struyf, F.; Roussel, N.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research has provided us with an increased understanding of nociception-motor interaction. Nociception-motor interaction is most often processed without conscious thoughts. Hence, in many cases neither patients nor clinicians are aware of the interaction. It is aimed at reviewing the sci

  15. Adjustments in CAM and enzymatic scavenging of H2O2 in juvenile plants of the epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia as affected by drought and rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Victória; Abreu, Maria E; Mercier, Helenice; Nievola, Catarina C

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile plants of epiphytes such as bromeliads are highly prone to dehydration under drought conditions. It is likely that young epiphytes evolved mostly metabolic strategies to resist drought, which may include the plastic modulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Few studies have investigated such strategies in juvenile epiphytes, although such research is important to understand how these plants might face drought intensification derived from potential climatic alterations. The epiphytic CAM bromeliad Guzmania monostachia (L.) Rusby ex Mez var. monostachia is known to have plastic responses to drought, but no reports have focused on the metabolism of juvenile plants to drought and recovery. Hence, we aimed to verify how juvenile G. monostachia plants adjust malate (indicative of CAM), H2O2 content and enzymatic scavenging in response to drought (eight days without irrigation) and rewatering (six days of irrigation post-drought). Interestingly, drought decreased H2O2 content and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the pre-dusk period, although glutathione reductase (GR) and CAM activity increased. Rewatering restored H2O2, but activities of APX, CAT and GR exceeded pre-stress levels in the pre-dusk and/or pre-dawn periods. Results suggest that recovery from a first drought redefines the homeostatic balance of H2O2 scavenging, in which rewatered plants stimulate the enzymatic antioxidant system while drought-exposed plants intensify CAM activity to regulate H2O2 content, a photosynthetic pathway known to prevent oxidative stress. Such data show that young G. monostachia plants adjust CAM and H2O2 scavenging to adapt to water availability.

  16. Affect recognition and the quality of mother-infant interaction: understanding parenting difficulties in mothers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Sarah J; Lewin, Jona; Butler, Stephen; Vaillancourt, Kyla; Seth-Smith, Fiona

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the quality of mother-infant interaction and maternal ability to recognise adult affect in three study groups consisting of mothers with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, mothers with depression and healthy controls. Sixty-four mothers were recruited from a Mother and Baby Unit and local children's centres. A 5-min mother-infant interaction was coded on a number of caregiving variables. Affect recognition and discrimination abilities were tested via a series of computerised tasks. Group differences were found both in measures of affect recognition and in the mother-infant interaction. Mothers with schizophrenia showed consistent impairments across most of the parenting measures and all measures of affect recognition and discrimination. Mothers with depression fell between the mothers with schizophrenia and healthy controls on most measures. However, depressed women's parenting was not significantly poorer than controls on any of the measures, and only showed trends for differences with mothers with schizophrenia on a few measures. Regression analyses found impairments in affect recognition and a diagnosis of schizophrenia to predict the occurrence of odd or unusual speech in the mother-infant interaction. Results add to the growing body of knowledge on the mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia and mothers with depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a need for parenting interventions aimed at mothers with these conditions. While affect recognition impairments were not found to fully explain differences in parenting among women with schizophrenia, further research is needed to understand the psychopathology of parenting disturbances within this clinical group.

  17. The influence of prejudice and stereotypes on anticipated affect : feelings about a potentially negative interaction with another ethnic group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine; Finchilescu, Gillian; Brix, Louise; Wijnants, Nienke; Koomen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this research we investigated whether feelings about an imagined potentially negative interaction with a member of another ethnic group was affected more by valence than content of stereotypes, and whether the differential influence of perception and meta-perception was similar for dominant and d

  18. The influence of prejudice and stereotypes on anticipated affect : feelings about a potentially negative interaction with another ethnic group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine; Finchilescu, Gillian; Brix, Louise; Wijnants, Nienke; Koomen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this research we investigated whether feelings about an imagined potentially negative interaction with a member of another ethnic group was affected more by valence than content of stereotypes, and whether the differential influence of perception and meta-perception was similar for dominant and

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Vergeer, M.; de Vries, R.; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Dullaart RPF, Vergeer M, de Vries R, Kappelle PJWH, Dallinga-Thie GM (University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen; and Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam; The Netherlands). Type 2 diabetes mellitus interacts with obesity and common variations in PLTP to affect p

  20. The influence of prejudice and stereotypes on anticipated affect: Feelings about a potentially negative interaction with another ethnic group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, E.; Finchilescu, G.; Brix, L.; Wijnants, N.; Koomen, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this research we investigated whether feelings about an imagined potentially negative interaction with a member of another ethnic group was affected more by valence than content of stereotypes, and whether the differential influence of perception and meta-perception was similar for dominant and d

  1. The influence of prejudice and stereotypes on anticipated affect : feelings about a potentially negative interaction with another ethnic group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine; Finchilescu, Gillian; Brix, Louise; Wijnants, Nienke; Koomen, Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this research we investigated whether feelings about an imagined potentially negative interaction with a member of another ethnic group was affected more by valence than content of stereotypes, and whether the differential influence of perception and meta-perception was similar for dominant and d

  2. Do Core Interpersonal and Affective Traits of PCL-R Psychopathy Interact with Antisocial Behavior and Disinhibition to Predict Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennealy, Patrick J.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Walters, Glenn D.; Camp, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance "interacts" with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already…

  3. Structural properties and interaction energies affecting drug design. An approach combining molecular simulations, statistics, interaction energies and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Dimitris; Papadopoulos, Georgios E; Anastassopoulos, Georgios; Kortsaris, Alexandros; Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-06-01

    In order to elucidate some basic principles for protein-ligand interactions, a subset of 87 structures of human proteins with their ligands was obtained from the PDB databank. After a short molecular dynamics simulation (to ensure structure stability), a variety of interaction energies and structural parameters were extracted. Linear regression was performed to determine which of these parameters have a potentially significant contribution to the protein-ligand interaction. The parameters exhibiting relatively high correlation coefficients were selected. Important factors seem to be the number of ligand atoms, the ratio of N, O and S atoms to total ligand atoms, the hydrophobic/polar aminoacid ratio and the ratio of cavity size to the sum of ligand plus water atoms in the cavity. An important factor also seems to be the immobile water molecules in the cavity. Nine of these parameters were used as known inputs to train a neural network in the prediction of seven other. Eight structures were left out of the training to test the quality of the predictions. After optimization of the neural network, the predictions were fairly accurate given the relatively small number of structures, especially in the prediction of the number of nitrogen and sulfur atoms of the ligand.

  4. Childhood depression and conduct disorder: I. Behavioral, affective, and cognitive aspects of family problem-solving interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Dadds, M R; Johnston, B M; Cash, R

    1992-08-01

    We assessed the family interactions of depressed, conduct-disordered, mixed depressed-conduct-disordered, and nonclinic children, ages 7-14 years, during a standardized family problem-solving discussion in the clinic. The child's and the mother's problem-solving proficiency, aversive behavior, and associated affective behavior (depressed and angry-hostile) were observed. The child and mother also rated each other's affect during the interaction for the dimensions sad, angry, critical, and happy on Likert-type scales. The child's and mother's cognitive constructions about the interaction were assessed using video-mediated recall. Although all clinic groups had lower levels of effective problem solving than did nonclinic children, their deficiencies were somewhat different. Mixed and depressed children displayed high levels of depressed affect and low levels of angry affect, whereas conduct-disordered children displayed both angry and depressed affect. In addition, conduct-disordered children had lower levels of positive problem solving and higher levels of aversive content than did non-conduct-disordered children. Depressed and conduct-disordered children had higher levels of self-referent negative cognitions than did mixed and comparison children, and depressed children also had higher other-referent negative cognitions than did all other groups. The study provides support for theories and treatment that stress the importance of family problem-solving and conflict resolution skills in child psychopathology.

  5. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss in rats delays long-term extinction of contextual conditioned fear, and reduces social interaction without affecting short-term social interaction memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Espejo, Emilio

    2003-03-01

    Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (ploss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning responses without affecting their acquisition, and it is involved in time spent on social interaction, but not acquisition and short

  6. Familial interactions and physical, lifestyle, and dietary factors to affect bone mineral density of children in the KNHANES 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmin; Park, Chung-Yill; Ham, Jung-O; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2014-07-01

    We examined familial bone mineral density (BMD) interactions between parents and children and lifestyle factors affecting BMD in the Korean general population of children under 20 and parents under 50 years of age. This cross-sectional study included 2,453 participants (667 daughters, 705 sons, 719 mothers, and 362 fathers) in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We calculated prevalence ratios and 95 % confidence intervals for BMD values of whole femur, femur neck, lumbar spine, and whole body excluding the head being in the low tertile in adolescents according to parental BMD tertile after adjusting for physical, lifestyle, and dietary factors. For daughters and sons, there were significant differences in BMD at the four bone sites according to age group, body fat percentage, regular walking and exercise, and milk consumption compared to the reference value for each classification category. Surprisingly, there were no differences in BMD according to serum 25-OH-D levels. Birth order affected BMD of only whole body except head, but its impact was less than that of lifestyle factors. The mean differences in BMD between daughters and sons in the first and third parental BMD tertiles were statistically significant. Notably, the prevalence ratio of whole body without head BMD being in the low tertile increased eight and ten-folds in adolescent daughters and sons, respectively, when parents were in the low BMD tertile. In specific bone regions, parental BMD had a greater effect on total femur in daughters but in the lumbar spine in sons. In conclusion, parental BMD positively influences BMD in daughters and sons after adjustment for environmental parameters. This suggests that the children from parents with low BMD need to make an extra effort to increase BMD through dietary and lifestyle changes.

  7. Is Infant Initiation of Joint Attention by Pointing Affected by Type of Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Fabia; Perucchini, Paola; March, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of two experiments studying the effects of type of interaction on infant production of declarative pointing. In Experiment 1, intensity of social presence was manipulated in adult-infant interaction with 12-19-month-olds (no social presence; adult responding only; adult also initiating joint attentional bids).…

  8. The shock-vortex interaction patterns affected by vortex flow regime and vortex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keun-Shik; Barik, Hrushikesh; Chang, Se-Myong

    2009-08-01

    We have used a third-order essentially non-oscillatory method to obtain numerical shadowgraphs for investigation of shock-vortex interaction patterns. To search different interaction patterns, we have tested two vortex models (the composite vortex model and the Taylor vortex model) and as many as 47 parametric data sets. By shock-vortex interaction, the impinging shock is deformed to a S-shape with leading and lagging parts of the shock. The vortex flow is locally accelerated by the leading shock and locally decelerated by the lagging shock, having a severely elongated vortex core with two vertices. When the leading shock escapes the vortex, implosion effect creates a high pressure in the vertex area where the flow had been most expanded. This compressed region spreads in time with two frontal waves, an induced expansion wave and an induced compression wave. They are subsonic waves when the shock-vortex interaction is weak but become supersonic waves for strong interactions. Under a intermediate interaction, however, an induced shock wave is first developed where flow speed is supersonic but is dissipated where the incoming flow is subsonic. We have identified three different interaction patterns that depend on the vortex flow regime characterized by the shock-vortex interaction.

  9. Interactivity in brand web sites: cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses explained by consumers’ online flow experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Web site interactivity creates numerous opportunities for marketers to persuade online consumers and receives extensive attention in the marketing literature. However, research on cognitive and behavioral responses to web site interactivity is scarce, and more importantly, it does not provide empiri

  10. Interactivity in brand web sites: cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses explained by consumers’ online flow experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Web site interactivity creates numerous opportunities for marketers to persuade online consumers and receives extensive attention in the marketing literature. However, research on cognitive and behavioral responses to web site interactivity is scarce, and more importantly, it does not provide empiri

  11. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  12. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  13. Empathy and personality traits as predictors of adjustment in Indian youth

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle, Yashwant K.; Kalpna Anand

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although adjustment has been studied in relation with a host of variables, the relevance of empathy and its importance in the process of adjustment has received little attention. It is a well-known fact that personality plays a very important role in our interactions and dealings and also that empathy facilitates this process. Settings and Design: This study evaluated whether these two things combined together affect or predict adjustment. A random sample of 52 young male adults v...

  14. PARO robot affects diverse interaction modalities in group sensory therapy for older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šabanović, Selma; Bennett, Casey C; Chang, Wan-Ling; Huber, Lesa

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the seal-like robot PARO in the context of multi-sensory behavioral therapy in a local nursing home. Participants were 10 elderly nursing home residents with varying levels of dementia. We report three principle findings from our observations of interactions between the residents, PARO, and a therapist during seven weekly therapy sessions. Firstly, we show PARO provides indirect benefits for users by increasing their activity in particular modalities of social interaction, including visual, verbal, and physical interaction, which vary between primary and non-primary interactors. Secondly, PARO's positive effects on older adults' activity levels show steady growth over the duration of our study, suggesting they are not due to short-term "novelty effects." Finally, we show a variety of ways in which individual participants interacted with PARO and relate this to the "interpretive flexibility" of its design.

  15. Emotion Modelling and Facial Affect Recognition in Human-Computer and Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Malatesta, Lori; Murray, John; Raouzaiou, Amaryllis; Hiolle, Antoine; Ca?amero, Lola; Karpouzis, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    This work is funded by the EU FP6 project Feelix Growing: FEEL, Interact, eXpress: a Global appRoach to develOpment With INterdisciplinary Grounding, Contract FP6 IST-045169 (http://feelix-growing.org).

  16. Affect-modulated startle: interactive influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Benedikt; Winter, Bernward; Gajewska, Agnes; Zwanzger, Peter; Reif, Andreas; Herrmann, Martin J; Dlugos, Andrea; Warrings, Bodo; Jacob, Christian; Mühlberger, Andreas; Arolt, Volker; Pauli, Paul; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system--partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene variation--for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample of 95 healthy adults, we investigated effects of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, caffeine as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (300 mg in a placebo-controlled intervention design) and childhood maltreatment (CTQ) as well as their interaction on the affect-modulated startle response as a neurobiologically founded defensive reflex potentially related to fear- and distress-related disorders. COMT val/val genotype significantly increased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli, while met/met homozygotes showed a blunted startle response to aversive pictures. Furthermore, significant gene-environment interaction of COMT Val158Met genotype with CTQ was discerned with more maltreatment being associated with higher startle potentiation in val/val subjects but not in met carriers. No main effect of or interaction effects with caffeine were observed. Results indicate a main as well as a GxE effect of the COMT Val158Met variant and childhood maltreatment on the affect-modulated startle reflex, supporting a complex pathogenetic model of the affect-modulated startle reflex as a basic neurobiological defensive reflex potentially related to anxiety and affective disorders.

  17. Affect-modulated startle: interactive influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Klauke

    Full Text Available The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system--partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene variation--for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample of 95 healthy adults, we investigated effects of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, caffeine as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (300 mg in a placebo-controlled intervention design and childhood maltreatment (CTQ as well as their interaction on the affect-modulated startle response as a neurobiologically founded defensive reflex potentially related to fear- and distress-related disorders. COMT val/val genotype significantly increased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli, while met/met homozygotes showed a blunted startle response to aversive pictures. Furthermore, significant gene-environment interaction of COMT Val158Met genotype with CTQ was discerned with more maltreatment being associated with higher startle potentiation in val/val subjects but not in met carriers. No main effect of or interaction effects with caffeine were observed. Results indicate a main as well as a GxE effect of the COMT Val158Met variant and childhood maltreatment on the affect-modulated startle reflex, supporting a complex pathogenetic model of the affect-modulated startle reflex as a basic neurobiological defensive reflex potentially related to anxiety and affective disorders.

  18. Social Interaction Affects Neural Outcomes of Sign Language Learning As a Foreign Language in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-01-01

    Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.

  19. Does suppressing the thought of a self-relevant stigma affect interpersonal interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borton, Jennifer L S; Reiner, David R; Vazquez, Erica V; Ruddiman, Jessica F; Anglin, Stephanie M

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of women's suppressing negative gender stereotypes while interacting with a male confederate. Compared with control participants, those who suppressed negative thoughts about women's ability experienced less self-confidence, lower self-esteem, and were more nonverbally submissive during the interaction, particularly if they were high in stigma consciousness (Pinel, 1999). These findings illustrate the negative intra- and interpersonal consequences of stigma suppression.

  20. Muecas: A Multi-Sensor Robotic Head for Affective Human Robot Interaction and Imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Cid; Jose Moreno; Pablo Bustos; Pedro Núñez

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, inclu...

  1. Temperature : diet interactions affect survival through foraging behavior in a bromeliad-dwelling predator

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, food quantity and quality play important roles in insect growth and survival, influencing population dynamics as well as interactions with other community members. However, the interaction between temperature and diet and its ecological consequences have been poorly documented. Toxorhynchites are well-known biocontrol agents for container-inhabiting mosquito larvae. We found that Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) inhabiting water-filled rosettes of tank b...

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Factors Affecting Trust in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND... validating metrics for the evaluation of a wide spectrum of human-robot interactions (HRI) issues (Steinfeld et al., 2006); designing human-robot...almost exclusively via subjective response, measured one time after a specific interaction. However, physiological indicators, such as oxytocin -related

  3. Susceptibility to predation affects trait-mediated indirect interactions by reversing interspecific competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie L Mowles

    Full Text Available Numerous studies indicate that the behavioral responses of prey to the presence of predators can have an important role in structuring assemblages through trait-mediated indirect interactions. Few studies, however, have addressed how relative susceptibility to predation influences such interactions. Here we examine the effect of chemical cues from the common shore crab Carcinus maenas on the foraging behavior of two common intertidal gastropod molluscs. Of the two model consumers studied, Littorina littorea is morphologically more vulnerable to crab predation than Gibbula umbilicalis, and it exhibited greater competitive ability in the absence of predation threat. However, Littorina demonstrated a greater anti-predator response when experimentally exposed to predation cues, resulting in a lower level of foraging. This reversed the competitive interaction, allowing Gibbula substantially increased access to shared resources. Our results demonstrate that the susceptibility of consumers to predation can influence species interactions, and suggest that inter-specific differences in trait-mediated indirect interactions are another mechanism through which non-consumptive predator effects may influence trophic interactions.

  4. The interaction of arousal and valence in affective priming: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Kong, Lingyue; Jiang, Yang

    2012-09-20

    The affective priming paradigm has been studied extensively and applied in many fields during the past two decades. Most research thus far has focused on the valence dimension. Whether emotional arousal influences affective priming remains poorly understood. The present study demonstrates how arousal impacts evaluation of affective words using reaction time and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Eighteen younger subjects evaluated pleasantness of target words after seeing affective pictures as primes. The participants' responses were faster and/or more accurate for valence-congruent trials than for incongruent trials, particularly with high-arousal stimuli. An ERP affective priming effect (N400) also occurred mainly in high-arousing stimulus pairs. In addition, whereas valence congruency influenced both the N400 and the LPP, arousal congruency influenced only the LPP, suggesting that arousal congruency mainly modulates post-semantic processes, but valence congruency effects begin with semantic processes. Overall, our current findings indicate that the arousal level of visual images impacts both behavioral and ERP effects of affective priming.

  5. Interactive Software System Developed to Study How Icing Affects Airfoil Performance (Phase 1 Results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yung K.; Vickerman, Mary B.

    2000-01-01

    SmaggIce (Surface Modeling and Grid Generation for Iced Airfoils), which is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is an interactive software system for data probing, boundary smoothing, domain decomposition, and structured grid generation and refinement. All these steps are required for aerodynamic performance prediction using structured, grid-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD), as illustrated in the following figure. SmaggIce provides the underlying computations to perform these functions, as well as a graphical user interface to control and interact with them, and graphics to display the results.

  6. REVIEW: Affective and Emotional Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    GULUMBAY, Reviewed By Dr. A. Askim

    2006-01-01

    This book was edited by, Maja Pivec, an educator at the University of Applied Sciences, and published by IOS Pres in 2006. The learning process can be seen as an emotional and personal experience that is addictive and leads learners to proactive behavior. New research methods in this field are related to affective and emotional approaches to computer-supported learning and human-computer interactions. Bringing together scientists and research aspects from psychology, educational sciences, cog...

  7. Higher-order interaction between molluscs and sheep affecting seedling numbers in grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clear Hill, B. H.; Silvertown, J.

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores are both important in mesotrophic grasslands and these two different classes of herbivore potentially interact in their effect upon plant populations. We used two field experiments to test for higher order interactions (HOIs) among sheep, slugs and seedlings, using the mechanistic definition that an HOI occurs when the presence of one species modifies the interaction between two others. In each experiment slug addition and slug-removal treatments were nested inside treatments that altered sheep grazing intensity and timing, and the emergence, of seedlings from experimentally sown seeds was monitored. In Experiment 1, seedling numbers of Cerastium fontanum were increased by intense summer grazing by sheep in both slug-addition and slugremoval treatment, but winter grazing by sheep only increased seedling emergence if slugs were removed. In Experiment 2, winter grazing by sheep significantly reduced total seedling emergence of four species sown ( Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata, Leucanthemum vulgare, Achillea millefolium), but the effect was only seen where slugs were removed. Though the experimental system is a relatively simple one with only four components (sheep, slugs, seedlings and the matrix vegetation), higher order interactions, a combination of direct and indirect effects and possible switching behaviour by slugs are all suggested by our results.

  8. Interactive uncertainty reduction strategies and verbal affection in computer-mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antheunis, M.L.; Schouten, A.P.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the language-based strategies that computer-mediated communication (CMC) users employ to reduce uncertainty in the absence of nonverbal cues. Specifically, this study investigated the prevalence of three interactive uncertainty reduction strategies (i.e.,

  9. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior: Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  10. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior: Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children'

  11. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  12. Does adjusting for recall in trend analysis affect coverage estimates for maternal and child health indicators? An analysis of DHS and MICS survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobubelo K. Ngandu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS are the major data sources in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs for evaluating health service coverage. For certain maternal and child health (MCH indicators, the two surveys use different recall periods: 5 years for DHS and 2 years for MICS. Objective: We explored whether the different recall periods for DHS and MICS affect coverage trend analyses as well as missing data and coverage estimates. Designs: We estimated coverage, using proportions with 95% confidence intervals, for four MCH indicators: intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, tetanus vaccination, early breastfeeding and postnatal care. Trends in coverage were compared using data from 1 standard 5-year DHS and 2-year MICS recall periods (unmatched and 2 DHS restricted to 2-year recall to match the MICS 2-year recall periods (matched. Linear regression was used to explore the relationship between length of recall, missing data and coverage estimates. Results: Differences in coverage trends were observed between matched and unmatched data in 7 of 18 (39% comparisons performed. The differences were in the direction of the trend over time, the slope of the coverage change or the significance levels. Consistent trends were seen in 11 of the 18 (61% comparisons. Proportion of missing data was inversely associated with coverage estimates in both short (2 years and longer (5 years recall of the DHS (r=−0.3, p=0.02 and r=−0.4, p=0.004, respectively. The amount of missing information was increased for longer recall compared with shorter recall for all indicators (significant odds ratios ranging between 1.44 and 7.43. Conclusions: In a context where most LMICs are dependent on population-based household surveys to derive coverage estimates, users of these types of data need to ensure that variability in recall periods and the proportion of missing data across data

  13. N- and O-methylation of sphingomyelin markedly affects its membrane properties and interactions with cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorkbom, A.; Rog, T.; Kankaanpaa, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have prepared palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM) analogs in which either the 2-NH was methylated to NMe, the 3-OH was methylated to OMe, or both were methylated simultaneously. The aim of the study was to determine how such modifications in the membrane interfacial region of the molecules affected ...

  14. Teaching Second Language Texts: Schematic Interaction, Affective Response and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Richard G.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the cognitive and affective factors influencing second language reading comprehension are reviewed, and an instructional technique designed to both guide the reading process and develop comprehension at several levels is described. Teachers are urged to develop process-oriented reading comprehension activities in collaboration with…

  15. Earthworm functional traits and interspecific interactions affect plant nitrogen acquisition and primary production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, Walter; Schmidt, Olaf; Brussaard, L.; Faber, J.H.; Bolger, T.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a greenhouse experiment to test how the functional diversity of earthworms, the dominant group of soil macro-invertebrates in many terrestrial ecosystems, affects nitrogen cycling and plant growth. Three species were chosen to represent a range of functional traits: Lumbricus terrestris

  16. Narrative centrality and negative affectivity: independent and interactive contributors to stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David C; Boals, Adriel; Hoyle, Rick H

    2014-06-01

    Reactions to stressful negative events have long been studied using approaches based on either the narrative interpretation of the event or the traits of the individual. Here, we integrate these 2 approaches by using individual-differences measures of both the narrative interpretation of the stressful event as central to one's life and the personality characteristic of negative affectivity. We show that they each have independent contributions to stress reactions and that high levels on both produce greater than additive effects. The effects on posttraumatic stress symptoms are substantial for both undergraduates (Study 1, n = 2,296; Study 3, n = 488) and veterans (Study 2, n = 104), with mean levels for participants low on both measures near floor on posttraumatic stress symptoms and those high on both measures scoring at or above diagnostic thresholds. Study 3 included 3 measures of narrative centrality and 3 of negative affectivity to demonstrate that the effects were not limited to a single measure. In Study 4 (n = 987), measures associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress correlated substantially with either measures of narrative centrality or measures of negative affectivity. The concepts of narrative centrality and negative affectivity and the results are consistent with findings from clinical populations using similar measures and with current approaches to therapy. In broad nonclinical populations, such as those used here, the results suggest that we might be able to substantially increase our ability to account for the severity of stress response by including both concepts.

  17. 'There's a Nation United': On the Interaction of Affect and Discourse in Shifting Significations of Ubuntu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuit, H.

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to enhance understandings of the concept of ubuntu as primarily intuitive, by explicating the interrelated influence of both discursive processes and affective connotations on its meaning. It does so by first analysing ubuntu in the context of the South African truth and reconcili

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met and adulthood chronic stress interact to affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C; Williams, Redford B

    2013-02-01

    BDNF Val66Met by chronic stress interaction has been studied using childhood stress as a moderator, but has not been widely studied using chronic stress in adulthood. Two independent samples were used: Duke-CG (238 Caucasians) and MESA (5524 Caucasians, African Americans and Hispanics). Chronic stress in Duke-CG was operationalized as having primary caregiving responsibility for a spouse or relative with diagnosed Alzheimer's disease or other major dementia; chronic stress in MESA was defined using chronic burden score constructed from self-reported problems of health (self and someone close), job, finance and relationships. CES-D scale was the measure of depression in both samples. The BDNF Val66Met by adulthood chronic stress interaction predicting CES-D was examined using linear regression, adjusted for covariates. The main effect of BDNF Val66Met genotype on CES-D scores was non-significant (ps > 0.607) but the adulthood chronic stress indicator was significant (ps adulthood chronic stress interaction was also significant (ps adulthood on CES-D scores was significantly larger in Val/Val genotype individuals than Met carriers. We found in two independent samples that depression levels increased significantly more as a function of adulthood chronic stress Val/Val genotype carriers than Met carriers. Individuals with the Val/Val genotype and chronic stress exposure could be targeted for interventions designed to reduce risk of depression if this finding is confirmed in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The interaction of early life experiences with COMT val158met affects anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A

    2013-11-01

    The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles.

  20. Interactions between active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients affecting bioavailability: impact on bioequivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2014-12-18

    The aim of the present paper is to illustrate the impact that excipients may have on the bioavailability of drugs and to review existing US-FDA, WHO and EMA regulatory guidelines on this topic. The first examples illustrate that small amounts of sorbitol (7, 50 or 60mg) affect the bioavailability of risperidone, a class I drug, oral solution, in contrast to what is stated in the US-FDA guidance. Another example suggests, in contrast to what is stated in the US-FDA BCS biowaivers guideline, that a small amount of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) (3.64mg) affects the bioavailability of risperidone tablets, although the reference product also includes SLS in an amount within the normal range for that type of dosage form. These factors are considered sufficient to ensure that excipients do not affect bioavailability according to the WHO guideline. The alternative criterion, defined in the WHO guideline and used in the FIP BCS biowaivers monographs, that asserts that excipients present in generic products of the ICH countries do not affect bioavailability if used in normal amounts, is shown to be incorrect with an example of alendronate (a class III drug) tablets, where 4mg of SLS increases bioavailability more than 5-fold, although a generic product in the USA contains SLS. Finally, another example illustrates that a 2mg difference in SLS may affect bioavailability of a generic product of a class II drug, even if SLS is contained in the comparator product, and in all cases its amount was within the normal range. Therefore, waivers of in vivo bioequivalence studies (e.g., BCS biowaivers, waivers of certain dosage forms in solution at the time of administration and variations in the excipient composition) should be assessed more cautiously.

  1. Coordination and Crystallization Molecules: Their Interactions Affecting the Dimensionality of Metalloporphyrinic SCFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkaitz Fidalgo-Marijuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic metalloporphyrin complexes are often used as analogues of natural systems, and they can be used for the preparation of new Solid Coordination Frameworks (SCFs. In this work, a series of six metalloporphyrinic compounds constructed from different meso substituted metalloporphyrins (phenyl, carboxyphenyl and sulfonatophenyl have been structurally characterized by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The compounds were classified considering the dimensionality of the crystal array, referred just to coordination bonds, into 0D, 1D and 2D compounds. This way, the structural features and relationships of those crystal structures were analyzed, in order to extract conclusions not only about the dimensionality of the networks but also about possible applications of the as-obtained compounds, focusing the interest on the interactions of coordination and crystallization molecules. These interactions provide the coordination bonds and the cohesion forces which produce SCFs with different dimensionalities.

  2. How 3D Interaction Metaphors Affect User Experience in Collaborative Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hrimech

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents the results of our experimental study which aims to understand the impact of three interaction 3D metaphors (ray casting, GoGo, and virtual hand on the user experience in a semi-immersive collaborative virtual environment (the Braccetto System. For each session, participants are grouped in twos to reconstruct a puzzle by an assemblage of cubes. The puzzle to reconstruct corresponds to a gradient of colors. We found that there is a significant difference in the user experience by changing the interaction metaphor on the copresence, awareness, involvement, collaborative effort, satisfaction usability, and preference. These findings provide a basis for designing 3D navigation techniques in a CVE.

  3. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  4. Timing and Duration of Drug Exposure Affects Outcomes of a Drug-Nutrient Interaction During Ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Alcorn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Significant drug-nutrient interactions are possible when drugs and nutrients share the same absorption and disposition mechanisms. During postnatal development, the outcomes of drug-nutrient interactions may change with postnatal age since these processes undergo ontogenesis through the postnatal period. Our study investigated the dependence of a significant drug-nutrient interaction (cefepime-carnitine on the timing and duration of drug exposure relative to postnatal age. Rat pups were administered cefepime (5 mg/kg twice daily subcutaneously according to different dosing schedules (postnatal day 1-4, 1-8, 8-11, 8-20, or 1-20. Cefepime significantly reduced serum and heart L-carnitine levels in postnatal day 1-4, 1-8 and 8-11 groups and caused severe degenerative changes in ventricular myocardium in these groups. Cefepime also altered the ontogeny of several key L-carnitine homeostasis pathways. The qualitative and quantitative changes in levels of hepatic γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase mRNA and activity, hepatic trimethyllysine hydroxlase mRNA, intestinal organic cation/carnitine transporter (Octn mRNA, and renal Octn2 mRNA depended on when during postnatal development the cefepime exposure occurred and duration of exposure. Despite lower levels of heart L-carnitine in earlier postnatal groups, levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase mRNA and activity, heart Octn2 mRNA and ATP levels in all treatment groups remained unchanged with cefepime exposure. However, changes in other high energy phosphate substrates were noted and reductions in the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio were found in rat pups with normal serum L-carnitine levels. In summary, our data suggest a significant drug-nutrient transport interaction in developing neonates, the nature of which depends on the timing and duration of exposure relative to postnatal age.

  5. Interaction of gold nanoparticles and nickel(II) sulfate affects dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sarah; Baré, Birgit; Piella, Jordi; Tirez, Kristof; Hoet, Peter; Monopoli, Marco P; Dawson, Kenneth A; Puntes, Victor F; Nelissen, Inge

    2016-12-01

    Despite many investigations have focused on the pristine toxicity of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), little is known about the outcome of co-exposure and interaction of GNPs with heavy metals which can possibly detoxify or potentiate them. Here, the combined exposure of nickel (II) sulfate (NiSO4) and GNPs on the maturation response of dendritic cells (DCs) was explored. Exposure to GNPs or NiSO4 separately induced cell activation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of both, however, the observed cell activation pattern indicated a competitive rather than an additive effect of both inducers with levels similar to those induced by NiSO4 alone. Quantification of the GNP uptake by DCs demonstrated a significant decrease in intracellular gold content during co-incubation with NiSO4. An extensive physiochemical characterization was performed to determine the interaction between GNPs and NiSO4 in the complex physiological media using nanoparticle tracking analyses, disc centrifugation, UV-visible spectroscopy, ICP-MS analyses, zeta potential measurements, electron microscopy, and proteomics. Although GNPs and NiSO4 did not directly interact with each other, the presence of NiSO4 in the physiological media resulted in changes in GNPs' charge and their associated protein corona (content and composition), which may contribute to a decreased cellular uptake of GNPs and sustaining the nickel-induced DC maturation. The presented results provide new insights in the interaction of heavy metals and NPs in complex physiological media. Moreover, this study highlights the necessity of mixture toxicology, since these combined exposures are highly relevant for human subjection to NPs and risk assessment of nanomaterials.

  6. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronized, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance) but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functi...

  7. Wolbachia-Host Interactions: Host Mating Patterns Affect Wolbachia Density Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Dong-Xiao Zhao; Xiang-Fei Zhang; Da-Song Chen; Yan-Kai Zhang; Xiao-Yue Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods and cause an array of effects on host reproduction, fitness and mating behavior. Although our understanding of the Wolbachia-associated effects on hosts is rapidly expanding, our knowledge of the host factors that mediate Wolbachia dynamics is rudimentary. Here, we explore the interactions between Wolbachia and its host, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. Our results indicate th...

  8. Network Regulation and Support Schemes - How Policy Interactions Affect the Integration of Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Jacobsen, Henrik; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    -off between the incentives for these two market agents to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based on five EU Member States. Aspects of operational nature and investments in grid and distributed...... generation facilities are covered. The question in which policy segment to incorporate locational signals is at the heart of the debate...

  9. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guili; Ren, Gaowei; Cui, Xin; Lu, Zhitao; Ma, Yanpin; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yujing; Liu, Zhongyang; Sun, Zhengrong; Ruan, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns.Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer inHCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis.

  10. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-07

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  11. Host protein Snapin interacts with human cytomegalovirus pUL130 and affects viral DNA replication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guili Wang; Gaowei Ren; Xin Cui; Yanpin Ma; Ying Qi; Yujing Huang; Zhongyang Liu; Zhengrong Sun; Qiang Ruan

    2016-06-01

    The interplay between the host and Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a pivotal role in the outcome of an infection. HCMV growth in endothelial and epithelial cells requires expression of viral proteins UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins (UL128-131), of which UL130 is the largest gene and the only one that is not interrupted by introns. Mutation of the C terminus of the UL130 protein causes reduced tropism of endothelial cells (EC). However, very few host factors have been identified that interact with the UL130 protein. In this study, HCMV UL130 protein was shown to directly interact with the human protein Snapin in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells by Yeast two-hybrid screening, in vitro glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down, and co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, heterologous expression of protein UL130 revealed co-localization with Snapin in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of HEK293 cells using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Furthermore, decreasing the level of Snapin via specific small interfering RNAs decreased the number of viral DNA copies and titer in HCMV-infected U373-S cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Snapin, the pUL130 interacting protein, has a role in modulating HCMV DNA synthesis.

  12. LES of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction affected by microramp vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Laurent; Grebert, Arnaud; Jamme, Stéphane; Bodart, Julien; Aerodynamics, Energetics; Propulsion Dep. Team

    2016-11-01

    At large Mach numbers, the interaction of an oblique shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer (SWTBLI) developing over a flat plate gives rise to a separation bubble known to exhibit low-frequency streamwise oscillations around StL = 0 . 03 (a Strouhal number based on the separated region length). Because these oscillations yield wall pressure or load fluctuations, efforts are made to reduce their amplitude. We perform large eddy simulations to reproduce the experiments by Wang etal (2012) where a rake of microramp vortex generators (MVGs) were inserted upstream the SWTBLI with consequences yet to be fully understood. There is no consensus on the flow structure downstream MVGs and this is first clarified in the case of MVGs protruding by 0 . 47 δ in a TBL at Mach number M = 2 . 7 and Reynolds number Reθ = 3600 . Large-scale vortices intermittently shed downstream the MVGs are characterized by a streamwise period close to twice the TBL thickness and a frequency f 0 . 5Ue / δ , two orders of magnitude higher than the one of the uncontrolled SWTBLI. We then characterize the interaction between the unsteady wake of the MVGs with the SWTBLI resulting in the reduction of the interaction length and the high-frequency modulation of the shock feet motions.

  13. Pharmacokinetic interactions between glimepiride and rosuvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: does the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism affect these drug interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choon Ok; Oh, Eun Sil; Kim, Hohyun; Park, Min Soo

    2017-01-01

    To improve cardiovascular outcomes, dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes needs to be treated. Thus, these patients are likely to take glimepiride and rosuvastatin concomitantly. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions between these two drugs in healthy males and to explore the effect of SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms on their interactions in two randomized, open-label crossover studies. Glimepiride was studied in part 1 and rosuvastatin in part 2. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to each part. All subjects (n=24) completed part 1, and 22 subjects completed part 2. A total of 38 subjects among the participants of the PK interaction studies were enrolled in the genotype study to analyze their SLCO1B1 and CYP2C9 polymorphisms retrospectively (n=22 in part 1, n=16 in part 2). Comparison of the PK and safety of each drug alone with those of the drugs in combination showed that both glimepiride and rosuvastatin did not interact with each other and had tolerable safety profiles in all subjects. However, with regard to glimepiride PK, the SLCO1B1 521TC group had a significantly higher maximum plasma concentration (Cmax,ss) and area under the plasma concentration–time curve during the dose interval at steady state (AUCτ,ss) for glimepiride in combination with rosuvastatin than those for glimepiride alone. However, other significant effects of the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 polymorphism on the interaction between the two drugs were not observed. In conclusion, there were no significant PK interactions between the two drugs; however, the exposure to glimepiride could be affected by rosuvastatin in the presence of the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. PMID:28260863

  14. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (-53.8 and -74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs.

  15. Double trouble. Trait food craving and impulsivity interactively predict food-cue affected behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    Impulsivity and food craving have both been implicated in overeating. Recent results suggest that both processes may interactively predict increased food intake. In the present study, female participants performed a Go/No-go task with pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. They were instructed to press a button in response to the respective target category, but withhold responses to the other category. Target category was switched after every other block, thereby creating blocks in which stimulus-response mapping was the same as in the previous block (nonshift blocks) and blocks in which it was reversed (shift blocks). The Food Cravings Questionnaires and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale were used to assess trait and state food craving and attentional, motor, and nonplanning impulsivity. Participants had slower reaction times and more omission errors (OE) in high-calorie than in low-calorie blocks. Number of commission errors (CE) and OE was higher in shift blocks than in nonshift blocks. Trait impulsivity was positively correlated with CE in shift blocks while trait food craving was positively correlated with CE in high-calorie blocks. Importantly, CE in high-calorie-shift blocks were predicted by an interaction of food craving × impulsivity such that the relationship between food craving and CE was particularly strong at high levels of impulsivity, but vanished at low levels of impulsivity. Thus, impulsive reactions to high-calorie food-cues are particularly pronounced when both trait impulsivity and food craving is high, but low levels of impulsivity can compensate for high levels of trait food craving. Results support models of self-regulation which assume that interactive effects of low top-down control and strong reward sensitive, bottom-up mechanisms may determine eating-related disinhibition, ultimately leading to increased food intake.

  16. Phosphocreatine interacts with phospholipids, affects membrane properties and exerts membrane-protective effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Tokarska-Schlattner

    Full Text Available A broad spectrum of beneficial effects has been ascribed to creatine (Cr, phosphocreatine (PCr and their cyclic analogues cyclo-(cCr and phospho-cyclocreatine (PcCr. Cr is widely used as nutritional supplement in sports and increasingly also as adjuvant treatment for pathologies such as myopathies and a plethora of neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, Cr and its cyclic analogues have been proposed for anti-cancer treatment. The mechanisms involved in these pleiotropic effects are still controversial and far from being understood. The reversible conversion of Cr and ATP into PCr and ADP by creatine kinase, generating highly diffusible PCr energy reserves, is certainly an important element. However, some protective effects of Cr and analogues cannot be satisfactorily explained solely by effects on the cellular energy state. Here we used mainly liposome model systems to provide evidence for interaction of PCr and PcCr with different zwitterionic phospholipids by applying four independent, complementary biochemical and biophysical assays: (i chemical binding assay, (ii surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR, (iii solid-state (31P-NMR, and (iv differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. SPR revealed low affinity PCr/phospholipid interaction that additionally induced changes in liposome shape as indicated by NMR and SPR. Additionally, DSC revealed evidence for membrane packing effects by PCr, as seen by altered lipid phase transition. Finally, PCr efficiently protected against membrane permeabilization in two different model systems: liposome-permeabilization by the membrane-active peptide melittin, and erythrocyte hemolysis by the oxidative drug doxorubicin, hypoosmotic stress or the mild detergent saponin. These findings suggest a new molecular basis for non-energy related functions of PCr and its cyclic analogue. PCr/phospholipid interaction and alteration of membrane structure may not only protect cellular membranes against various insults

  17. Divalent Ion Parameterization Strongly Affects Conformation and Interactions of an Anionic Biomimetic Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Michael D.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2016-03-10

    The description of peptides and the use of molecular dynamics simulations to refine structures and investigate the dynamics on an atomistic scale are well developed. Through a consensus in this community over multiple decades, parameters were developed for molecular interactions that only require the sequence of amino-acids and an initial guess for the three-dimensional structure. The recent discovery of peptoids will require a retooling of the currently available interaction potentials in order to have the same level of confidence in the predicted structures and pathways as there is presently in the peptide counterparts. Here we present modeling of peptoids using a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) and atomistic resolution classical forcefield (FF) to span the relevant time and length scales. To properly account for the dominant forces that stabilize ordered structures of peptoids, namely steric-, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions mediated through sidechain-sidechain interactions in the FF model, those have to be first mapped out using high fidelity atomistic representations. A key feature here is not only to use gas phase quantum chemistry tools, but also account for solvation effects in the condensed phase through AIMD. One major challenge is to elucidate ion binding to charged or polar regions of the peptoid and its concomitant role in the creation of local order. Here, similar to proteins, a specific ion effect is observed suggesting that both the net charge and the precise chemical nature of the ion will need to be described. MDD was supported by MS3 (Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales) Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Research was funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. MDB acknowledges support from US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material & Engineering. CJM acknowledges

  18. Mutations affecting interaction of integrase with TNPO3 do not prevent HIV-1 cDNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribier Alexandra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 into a host cell chromosome is an essential step under the control of the viral integrase (IN. Although this enzyme is necessary and sufficient to catalyze the integration reaction in vitro, cellular cofactors are involved in the process in vivo. The chromatin-associated factor LEDGF/p75 interacts with IN and promotes integration to transcription units of the host genome. HIV-1 IN also binds the karyopherin TNPO3, however the significance of this interaction during viral replication remains to be explored. Results Here we present a functional analysis of IN mutants impaired for LEDGF/p75 and TNPO3 interaction. Among them, IN W131A and IN Q168L, that were previously identified to be deficient for LEDGF/p75 interaction, were also partially impaired for TNPO3 binding. We observed that mutations abolishing IN ability to form tetramers resulted in a severe reduction in LEDGF/p75 binding. In sharp contrast, no correlation could be found between the ability of IN to multimerize and TNPO3 interaction. Most of the mutant viruses were essentially impaired for the integration step whereas the amount of 2-LTR circles, reflecting the nuclear import of the viral DNA, was not significantly affected. Conclusion Our functional analysis of HIV-1 IN mutants reveals distinct structural basis for TNPO3 interaction and suggests that the interaction between IN and TNPO3 is not a major determinant of nuclear import but could take place at a nuclear step prior to integration.

  19. Interaction with ectomycorrhizal fungi and endophytic Methylobacterium affects nutrient uptake and growth of pine seedlings in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanen, Johanna; Koskimäki, Janne J; Sutela, Suvi; Ardanov, Pavlo; Suorsa, Marja; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2014-09-01

    Tissues of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) contain several endophytic microorganisms of which Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 is a dominant species throughout the year. Similar to other endophytic bacteria, M. extorquens is able to colonize host plant tissues without causing any symptoms of disease. In addition to endophytic bacteria, plants associate simultaneously with a diverse set of microorganisms. Furthermore, plant-colonizing microorganisms interact with each other in a species- or strain-specific manner. Several studies on beneficial microorganisms interacting with plants have been carried out, but few deal with interactions between different symbiotic organisms and specifically, how these interactions affect the growth and development of the host plant. Our aim was to study how the pine endophyte M. extorquens DSM13060 affects pine seedlings and how the co-inoculation with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi [Suillus variegatus (SV) or Pisolithus tinctorius (PT)] alters the response of Scots pine. We determined the growth, polyamine and nutrient contents of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings in vitro. Our results show that M. extorquens is able to improve the growth of seedlings at the same level as the ECM fungi SV and PT do. The effect of co-inoculation using different symbiotic organisms was seen in terms of changes in growth and nutrient uptake. Inoculation using M. extorquens together with ECM fungi improved the growth of the host plant even more than single ECM inoculation. Symbiotic organisms also had a strong effect on the potassium content of the seedling. The results indicate that interaction between endophyte and ECM fungus is species dependent, leading to increased or decreased nutrient content and growth of pine seedlings.

  20. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host–microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host–microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia. PMID:26405832

  1. Inhibition of polyamine oxidase activity affects tumor development during the maize-Ustilago maydis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Robles, Francisco Ignacio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Gonzalez, María Elisa; Pieckenstain, Fernando Luis; García de la Cruz, Ramón Fernando; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita

    2016-05-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic plant pathogenic fungus that leads to tumor development in the aerial tissues of its host, Zea mays. These tumors are the result of cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and are accompanied by the reprograming of primary and secondary metabolism of infected plants. Up to now, little is known regarding key plant actors and their role in tumor development during the interaction with U. maydis. Polyamines are small aliphatic amines that regulate plant growth, development and stress responses. In a previous study, we found substantial increases of polyamine levels in tumors. In the present work, we describe the maize polyamine oxidase (PAO) gene family, its contribution to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and its possible role in tumor development induced by U. maydis. Histochemical analysis revealed that chlorotic lesions and maize tumors induced by U. maydis accumulate H2O2 to significant levels. Maize plants inoculated with U. maydis and treated with the PAO inhibitor 1,8-diaminooctane exhibit a notable reduction of H2O2 accumulation in infected tissues and a significant drop in PAO activity. This treatment also reduced disease symptoms in infected plants. Finally, among six maize PAO genes only the ZmPAO1, which encodes an extracellular enzyme, is up-regulated in tumors. Our data suggest that H2O2 produced through PA catabolism by ZmPAO1 plays an important role in tumor development during the maize-U. maydis interaction.

  2. Food availability affects the strength of mutualistic host-microbiota interactions in Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Martijn; Macke, Emilie; Muylaert, Koenraad; Bossier, Peter; Lievens, Bart; Waud, Michael; Decaestecker, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The symbiotic gut microbial community is generally known to have a strong impact on the fitness of its host. Nevertheless, it is less clear how the impact of symbiotic interactions on the hosts' fitness varies according to environmental circumstances such as changes in the diet. This study aims to get a better understanding of host-microbiota interactions under different levels of food availability. We conducted experiments with the invertebrate, experimental model organism Daphnia magna and compared growth, survival and reproduction of conventionalized symbiotic Daphnia with germ-free individuals given varying quantities of food. Our experiments revealed that the relative importance of the microbiota for the hosts' fitness varied according to dietary conditions. The presence of the microbiota had strong positive effects on Daphnia when food was sufficient or abundant, but had weaker effects under food limitation. Our results indicate that the microbiota can be a potentially important factor in determining host responses to changes in dietary conditions. Characterization of the host-associated microbiota further showed that Aeromonas sp. was the most prevalent taxon in the digestive tract of Daphnia.

  3. Examination of the Impact of Using an Interactive Electronic Textbook on the Affective Learning of Prospective Mathematics Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Öngöz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This semi-experimental study aims to examine the impact of a learning environment that uses interactive electronic textbook on the affective learning of prospective mathematics teachers. The study group consisted of 64 prospective teachers attending the Mathematics Teaching program at Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey. For 14 weeks, experimental group received the Development and Learning course in a blended learning environment, in which an interactive e-textbook was used inside and outside the classroom. In this period, only face to face education was conducted with the control group in the classroom environment. A course attitude scale and a blended learning environment satisfaction scale were employed for the purpose of data collection. In addition, observations were conducted with both of the groups during the application. The analysis of the findings indicated that there was a significant increase between pre- and post-course attitude scores of experimental group students, the students were satisfied with the learning environment formed, and the electronic text book increased interest in the course.Key Words: Interactive electronic textbook, prospective mathematics teachers, blended learning model, affective learning

  4. Protein-binding RNA aptamers affect molecular interactions distantly from their binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Daniel M; Thuesen, Cathrine K; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A;

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamer selection is a powerful strategy for the development of regulatory agents for molecular intervention. Accordingly, aptamers have proven their diligence in the intervention with serine protease activities, which play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Nonetheless...... potential, both binding to the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). We determine the subsequent impact of aptamer binding on the well-established molecular interactions (plasmin, PAI-1, uPAR, and LRP-1A) controlling uPA activities. One of the aptamers (upanap-126) binds to the area...... around the C-terminal α-helix in pro-uPA, while the other aptamer (upanap-12) binds to both the β-hairpin of the growth factor domain and the kringle domain of uPA. Based on the mapping studies, combined with data from small-angle X-ray scattering analysis, we construct a model for the upanap-12:pro...

  5. How sedimentation affects rift segment interaction during oblique extension: a 4D analogue modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. Previous modelling of rift interaction structures has shown the dominant influence of oblique extension, promoting rift segment linkage (e.g. Zwaan et al., 2016) and eventual continent break-up (Brune et al., 2012). However, these studies did not incorporate sedimentation, which can have important implications for rift evolution (e.g. Bialas and Buck, 2009). Here we present a series of analogue model experiments investigating the influence of sedimentation on rift interaction structures under oblique extension conditions. Our set-up involves a base of compressed foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying analogue materials when the model sidewalls move apart. A sand layer simulates the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture the ductile lower crust. One of the underlying base plates can move laterally allowing oblique extension. Right-stepping offset and disconnected lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous serve as inherited structures since the strong sand cover is locally thinner. We apply syn-rift sediments by filling in the developing rift and transfer zone basins with sand at fixed time steps. Models are run either with sedimentation or without to allow comparison. The first results suggest that the gross structures are similar with or without sedimentation. As seen by Zwaan et al. (2016), dextral oblique extension promotes rift linkage because rift propagation aligns itself perpendicular to the extension direction. This causes the rift segments to grow towards each other and to establish a continuous rift structure. However, the structures within the rift segments show quite different behaviour when sedimentation is applied. The extra sediment loading in the rift basin

  6. Disruption of NAD~+ binding site in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase affects its intranuclear interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manali; Phadke; Natalia; Krynetskaia; Anurag; Mishra; Carlos; Barrero; Salim; Merali; Scott; A; Gothe; Evgeny; Krynetskiy

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To characterize phosphorylation of human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH),and mobility of GAPDH in cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents. METHODS:We used proteomics analysis to detect and characterize phosphorylation sites within human GAPDH. Site-specific mutagenesis and alanine scanning was then performed to evaluate functional significance of phosphorylation sites in the GAPDH polypeptide chain. Enzymatic properties of mutated GAPDH variants were assessed using kinetic studies. Intranuclear dynamics parameters(diffusion coefficient and the immobile fraction) were estimated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) experiments and confocal microscopy. Molecular modeling experiments were performed to estimate the effects of mutations on NAD+ cofactor binding.RESULTS:Using MALDI-TOF analysis,we identified novel phosphorylation sites within the NAD+ binding center of GAPDH at Y94,S98,and T99. Using polyclonal antibody specific to phospho-T99-containing peptide within GAPDH,we demonstrated accumulation of phospho-T99-GAPDH inthe nuclear fractions of A549,HCT116,and SW48 cancer cel s after cytotoxic stress. We performed site-mutagenesis,and estimated enzymatic properties,intranuclear distribution,and intranuclear mobility of GAPDH mutated variants. Site-mutagenesis at positions S98 and T99 in the NAD+ binding center reduced enzymatic activity of GAPDH due to decreased affinity to NAD+(Km = 741 ± 257 μmol/L in T99 I vs 57 ± 11.1 μmol/L in wild type GAPDH. Molecular modeling experiments revealed the effect of mutations on NAD+ binding with GAPDH. FRAP(fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching) analysis showed that mutations in NAD+ binding center of GAPDH abrogated its intranuclear interactions. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest an important functional role of phosphorylated amino acids in the NAD+ binding center in GAPDH interactions with its intranuclear partners.

  7. Gender and age interact to affect early outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odera Umeano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a common and devastating form of cerebrovascular disease. In ICH, gender differences in outcomes remain relatively understudied but have been examined in other neurological emergencies. Further, a potential effect of age and gender on outcomes after ICH has not been explored. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that age and gender interact to modify neurological outcomes after ICH. METHODS: Adult patients admitted with spontaneous primary supratentorial ICH from July 2007 through April 2010 were assessed via retrospective analysis of an existing stroke database at Duke University. Univariate analysis of collected variables was used to compare gender and outcome. Unfavorable outcome was defined as discharge to hospice or death. Using multivariate regression, the combined effect of age and gender on outcome after ICH was analyzed. RESULTS: In this study population, women were younger (61.1+14.5 versus 65.8+17.3 years, p=0.03 and more likely to have a history of substance abuse (35% versus 8.9%, p<0.0001 compared to men. Multivariable models demonstrated that advancing age had a greater effect on predicting discharge outcome in women compared to men (p=0.02. For younger patients, female sex was protective; however, at ages greater than 60 years, female sex was a risk factor for discharge to hospice or death. CONCLUSION: While independently associated with discharge to hospice or death after ICH, the interaction effect between gender and age demonstrated significantly stronger correlation with early outcome after ICH in a single center cohort. Prospective study is required to verify these findings.

  8. Muecas: a multi-sensor robotic head for affective human robot interaction and imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Felipe; Moreno, Jose; Bustos, Pablo; Núñez, Pedro

    2014-04-28

    This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, including eyes, eyebrows, mouth and neck, and has been designed and built entirely by IADeX (Engineering, Automation and Design of Extremadura) and RoboLab. A detailed description of its kinematics is provided along with the design of the most complex controllers. Muecas can be directly controlled by FACS (Facial Action Coding System), the de facto standard for facial expression recognition and synthesis. This feature facilitates its use by third party platforms and encourages the development of imitation and of goal-based systems. Imitation systems learn from the user, while goal-based ones use planning techniques to drive the user towards a final desired state. To show the flexibility and reliability of the robotic head, the paper presents a software architecture that is able to detect, recognize, classify and generate facial expressions in real time using FACS. This system has been implemented using the robotics framework, RoboComp, which provides hardware-independent access to the sensors in the head. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the real-time functioning of the whole system, including recognition and imitation of human facial expressions.

  9. Muecas: A Multi-Sensor Robotic Head for Affective Human Robot Interaction and Imitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Cid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-sensor humanoid robotic head for human robot interaction. The design of the robotic head, Muecas, is based on ongoing research on the mechanisms of perception and imitation of human expressions and emotions. These mechanisms allow direct interaction between the robot and its human companion through the different natural language modalities: speech, body language and facial expressions. The robotic head has 12 degrees of freedom, in a human-like configuration, including eyes, eyebrows, mouth and neck, and has been designed and built entirely by IADeX (Engineering, Automation and Design of Extremadura and RoboLab. A detailed description of its kinematics is provided along with the design of the most complex controllers. Muecas can be directly controlled by FACS (Facial Action Coding System, the de facto standard for facial expression recognition and synthesis. This feature facilitates its use by third party platforms and encourages the development of imitation and of goal-based systems. Imitation systems learn from the user, while goal-based ones use planning techniques to drive the user towards a final desired state. To show the flexibility and reliability of the robotic head, the paper presents a software architecture that is able to detect, recognize, classify and generate facial expressions in real time using FACS. This system has been implemented using the robotics framework, RoboComp, which provides hardware-independent access to the sensors in the head. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the real-time functioning of the whole system, including recognition and imitation of human facial expressions.

  10. Interaction between COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affects reward processing in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker-Schlier, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered dopamine transmission may increase the risk of mental disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia or depression, possibly mediated by reward system dysfunction. This study aimed to clarify the impact of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism in interaction with environmental variation (G×E) on neuronal activity during reward processing. 168 healthy young adults from a prospective study conducted over 25years participated in a monetary incentive delay task measured with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. DNA was genotyped for COMT, and childhood family adversity (CFA) up to age 11 was assessed by a standardized parent interview. At reward delivery, a G×E revealed that fMRI activation for win vs. no-win trials in reward-related regions increased with the level of CFA in Met homozygotes as compared to Val/Met heterozygotes and Val homozygotes, who showed no significant effect. During the anticipation of monetary vs. verbal rewards, activation decreased with the level of CFA, which was also observed for EEG, in which the CNV declined with the level of CFA. These results identify convergent genetic and environmental effects on reward processing in a prospective study. Moreover, G×E effects during reward delivery suggest that stress during childhood is associated with higher reward sensitivity and reduced efficiency in processing rewarding stimuli in genetically at-risk individuals. Together with previous evidence, these results begin to define a specific system mediating interacting effects of early environmental and genetic risk factors, which may be targeted by early intervention and prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Processes and features affecting the near field hydrochemistry. Groundwater-bentonite interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Arcos, D.; Duro, L. [QuantiSci SL, Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-12-01

    This report discusses in a quantitative manner the evolution of the near field aqueous chemistry as a result of the interactions between three different intruding groundwaters (Aespoe, Gideaa and Finnsjoen) with the MX-80 bentonite buffer material. The main emphasis has been placed on studying the evolution of the main chemical buffers of the system (alkalinity and redox capacities) and the resulting master variables (pH and pe). The calculations have been done by using a set of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters previously calibrated against experimental data on bentonite/granitic groundwater interactions, in combination with the PHREEQC geochemical code. The results of the calculations indicate that the alkalinity buffercapacity is mainly exerted by the accessory content of carbonate minerals (calcite) in the bentonite system, while the ion exchange process plays a secondary (but not negligible) role. The Ca(II) content of the intruding groundwater has an impact on the resulting pH. For Ca(II) rich waters, like Aespoe, the resulting pH remains in the range of granitic groundwaters (7.5-9.5) during the overall repository lifetime (1 million years). For Ca(II) poor groundwaters, the systems evolves to high alkalinity (pH : 10.5 - 10.8) due to the depletion of calcite and the release of carbonate in to the near field aqueous chemistry. Concerning the reducing capacity of the system, this is mainly controlled by the accessory pyrite content, although the Fe(II) content in montmorillonite and in the carbonates cannot be disregarded. Reducing conditions in the bentonite/groundwater system are ensured throughout the lifetime of the repository system unless this is placed in direct and lifetime contact with the atmosphere (surface storage)

  12. Network-oriented modeling addressing complexity of cognitive, affective and social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Treur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach that can be applied to complex, integrated individual and social human processes. It provides an alternative means of addressing complexity, better suited for its purpose than and effectively complementing traditional strategies involving isolation and separation assumptions. Network-oriented modeling allows high-level cognitive, affective and social models in the form of (cyclic) graphs to be constructed, which can be automatically transformed into executable simulation models. The modeling format used makes it easy to take into account theories and findings about complex cognitive and social processes, which often involve dynamics based on interrelating cycles. Accordingly, it makes it possible to address complex phenomena such as the integration of emotions within cognitive processes of all kinds, of internal simulations of the mental processes of others, and of social phenomena such as shared understandings and collective actions. A variety of sample models – including ...

  13. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamini Kashimshetty

    Full Text Available Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG, which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively, with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene

  14. Variable gene dispersal conditions and spatial deforestation patterns can interact to affect tropical tree conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimshetty, Yamini; Pelikan, Stephan; Rogstad, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Tropical lowland rain forest (TLRF) biodiversity is under threat from anthropogenic factors including deforestation which creates forest fragments of different sizes that can further undergo various internal patterns of logging. Such interventions can modify previous equilibrium abundance and spatial distribution patterns of offspring recruitment and/or pollen dispersal. Little is known about how these aspects of deforestation and fragmentation might synergistically affect TLRF tree recovery demographics and population genetics in newly formed forest fragments. To investigate these TLRF anthropogenic disturbance processes we used the computer program NEWGARDEN (NG), which models spatially-explicit, individual-based plant populations, to simulate 10% deforestation in six different spatial logging patterns for the plant functional type of a long-lived TLRF canopy tree species. Further, each logging pattern was analyzed under nine varying patterns of offspring versus pollen dispersal distances that could have arisen post-fragmentation. Results indicated that gene dispersal condition (especially via offspring) had a greater effect on population growth and genetic diversity retention (explaining 98.5% and 88.8% of the variance respectively) than spatial logging pattern (0.2% and 4.7% respectively), with 'Near' distance dispersal maximizing population growth and genetic diversity relative to distant dispersal. Within logged regions of the fragment, deforestation patterns closer to fragment borders more often exhibited lower population recovery rates and founding genetic diversity retention relative to more centrally located logging. These results suggest newly isolated fragments have populations that are more sensitive to the way in which their offspring and pollen dispersers are affected than the spatial pattern in which subsequent logging occurs, and that large variation in the recovery rates of different TLRF tree species attributable to altered gene dispersal

  15. Mode of heparin attachment to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite affects its interaction with bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonasekera, Chandhi S; Jack, Kevin S; Bhakta, Gajadhar; Rai, Bina; Luong-Van, Emma; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M; Cooper-White, Justin J; Grøndahl, Lisbeth

    2015-12-16

    Heparin has a high affinity for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), which is a key growth factor in bone regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how the rate of release of BMP-2 was affected when adsorbed to nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAP) particles functionalized with heparin by different methods. Heparin was attached to the surface of HAP, either via adsorption or covalent coupling, via a 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) layer. The chemical composition of the particles was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis, revealing that the heparin grafting densities achieved were dependent on the curing temperature used in the fabrication of APTES-modified HAP. Comparable amounts of heparin were attached via both covalent coupling and adsorption to the APTES-modified particles, but characterization of the particle surfaces by zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements indicated that the conformation of the heparin on the surface was dependent on the method of attachment, which in turn affected the stability of heparin on the surface. The release of BMP-2 from the particles after 7 days in phosphate-buffered saline found that 31% of the loaded BMP-2 was released from the APTES-modified particles with heparin covalently attached, compared to 16% from the APTES-modified particles with the heparin adsorbed. Moreover, when heparin was adsorbed onto pure HAP, it was found that the BMP-2 released after 7 days was 5% (similar to that from unmodified HAP). This illustrates that by altering the mode of attachment of heparin to HAP the release profile and total release of BMP-2 can be manipulated. Importantly, the BMP-2 released from all the heparin particle types was found by the SMAD 1/5/8 phosphorylation assay to be biologically active.

  16. Gene-Gene Interactions Among PRKCA, NOS3 and BDKRB2 Polymorphisms Affect the Antihypertensive Effects of Enalapril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Luizon, Marcelo R; Lacchini, Riccardo; Fontana, Vanessa; Silva, Pamela S; Biagi, Celso; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2017-03-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) signalling is critically involved in the control of blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) affect PKC expression and activity, which are partially associated with the responses to ACEi. We examined whether PRKCA (protein kinase C, alpha) polymorphisms (rs887797 C>T, rs1010544 T>C and rs16960228 G>A), or haplotypes, and gene-gene interactions within the ACEi pathway affect the antihypertensive responses in 104 hypertensive patients treated with enalapril as monotherapy. Patients were classified as poor responders (PR) or good responders (GR) to enalapril if their changes in mean arterial pressure were lower or higher than the median value, respectively. Multi-factor dimensionality reduction was used to characterize interactions among PRKCA, NOS3 (nitric oxide synthase 3) and BDKRB2 (bradykinin receptor B2) polymorphisms. The TC+CC genotypes for the rs1010544 polymorphism were more frequent in GR than in PR (p = 0.037). Conversely, the GA+AA genotypes for the rs16960228 polymorphism, and the CTA haplotype, were more frequent in PR than in GR (p = 0.040 and p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, the GG genotype for the PRKCA rs16960228 polymorphism was associated with PR or GR depending on the genotypes for the rs2070744 (NOS3) and rs1799722 (BDKRB2) polymorphisms (p = 0.012). Our results suggest that PRKCA polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions within the ACEi pathway affect the antihypertensive responses to enalapril. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. Cells Sensing Mechanical Cues: Stiffness Influences the Lifetime of Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions by Affecting the Loading Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Sun, Zhenglong; Chen, Xiaofei; Li, Jing; Xu, Yue; Zu, Yan; Hu, Jiliang; Han, Dong; Yang, Chun

    2016-01-26

    The question of how cells sense substrate mechanical cues has gained increasing attention among biologists. By introducing contour-based data analysis to single-cell force spectroscopy, we identified a loading-rate threshold for the integrin α2β1-DGEA bond beyond which a dramatic increase in bond lifetime was observed. On the basis of mechanical cues (elasticity or topography), the effective spring constant of substrates k is mapped to the loading rate r under actomyosin pulling speed v, which, in turn, affects the lifetime of the integrin-ligand bond. Additionally, downregulating v with a low-dose blebbistatin treatment promotes the neuronal lineage specification of mesenchymal stem cells on osteogenic stiff substrates. Thus, sensing of the loading rate is central to how cells sense mechanical cues that affect cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stem cell differentiation.

  18. Influences of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Affective Behavior of Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…

  19. Ambient temperature affects the temperature threshold for TRPM8 activation through interaction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Fumitaka; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Takaishi, Masayuki; Sokabe, Takaaki; Tominaga, Makoto

    2013-04-03

    Cold sensation is an important and fundamental sense for animals and it is known to be affected by ambient temperature. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a nonselective cation channel expressed in a subset of peripheral afferent fibers, acts as a cold sensor, having an activation threshold of ∼28°C. Although the cold temperature threshold of TRPM8 is affected by menthol or pH, ambient temperature has not been reported to affect it. Because the cold temperature threshold was thought to be unchanged by alterations in ambient temperature, the relativity of temperature sensing in different ambient temperatures could not be understood at the level of molecular function of thermosensitive TRP channels. Here, we show that ambient temperature changed the temperature threshold for activation of human and rat TRPM8 in a heterologous expression system and cold responses in mouse DRG neurons. Moreover, reducing the level of cellular phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) attenuated changes in the cold temperature threshold after alterations in ambient temperature. A single amino acid mutation at position 1008 in the C terminus of TRPM8 (arginine to glutamine) also attenuated changes in the cold temperature threshold induced by ambient temperature. These findings suggest that ambient temperature does affect the temperature threshold for TRPM8 activation through interaction of PIP2.

  20. PSD-95 interacts with NBCn1 and enhances channel-like activity without affecting Na/HCO(3) cotransport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojung; Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Ju, Eun Ji; Kwon, Min Hyung; Dudley, R Kyle; Smith, Yoland; Yun, C Chris; Choi, Inyeong

    2012-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate transporter NBCn1 plays an essential role in intracellular pH regulation and transepithelial HCO(3)(-) movement in the body. NBCn1 also has sodium channel-like activity uncoupled to Na/HCO(3) cotransport. We previously reported that NBCn1 interacts with the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 in the brain. Here, we elucidated the structural determinant and functional consequence of NBCn1/PSD-95 interaction. In rat hippocampal CA3 neurons, NBCn1 was localized to the postsynaptic membranes of both dendritic shafts and spines and occasionally to the presynaptic membranes. A GST/NBCn1 fusion protein containing the C-terminal 131 amino acids of NBCn1 pulled down PSD-95 from rat brain lysates, whereas GST/NBCn1-ΔETSL (deletion of the last four amino acids) and GST/NBCn2 (NCBE) lacking the same ETSL did not. NBCn1 and PSD-95 were coimmunoprecipitated in HEK 293 cells, and their interaction did not affect the efficacy of PSD-95 to bind to the NMDA receptor NR2A. PSD-95 has negligible effects on intracellular pH changes mediated by NBCn1 in HEK 293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. However, PSD-95 increased an ionic conductance produced by NBCn1 channel-like activity. This increase was abolished by NBCn1-ΔETSL or by the peptide containing the last 15 amino acids of NBCn1. Our data suggest that PSD-95 interacts with NBCn1 and increases its channel-like activity while negligibly affecting Na/HCO(3) cotransport. The possibility that the channel-like activity occurs via an intermolecular cavity of multimeric NBCn1 proteins is discussed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. PSD-95 Interacts with NBCn1 and Enhances Channel-like Activity without Affecting Na/HCO3 Cotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojung; Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Ju, Eun Ji; Kwon, Min Hyung; Dudley, R. Kyle; Smith, Yoland; Yun, C. Chris; Choi, Inyeong

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims The sodium/bicarbonate transporter NBCn1 plays an essential role in intracellular pH regulation and transepithelial HCO3− movement in the body. NBCn1 also has sodium channel-like activity uncoupled to Na/HCO3 cotransport. We previously reported that NBCn1 interacts with the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 in the brain. Here, we elucidated the structural determinant and functional consequence of NBCn1/PSD-95 interaction. Methods: Results In rat hippocampal CA3 neurons, NBCn1 was localized to the postsynaptic membranes of both dendritic shafts and spines and occasionally to the presynaptic membranes. A GST/NBCn1 fusion protein containing the C-terminal 131 amino acids of NBCn1 pulled down PSD-95 from rat brain lysates, whereas GST/NBCn1-ΔETSL (deletion of the last four amino acids) and GST/NBCn2 (NCBE) lacking the same ETSL did not. NBCn1 and PSD-95 were coimmunoprecipitated in HEK 293 cells, and their interaction did not affect the efficacy of PSD-95 to bind to the NMDA receptor NR2A. PSD-95 has negligible effects on intracellular pH changes mediated by NBCn1 in HEK 293 cells and Xenopus oocytes. However, PSD-95 increased an ionic conductance produced by NBCn1 channel-like activity. This increase was abolished by NBCn1-ΔETSL or by the peptide containing the last 15 amino acids of NBCn1. Conclusion Our data suggest that PSD-95 interacts with NBCn1 and increases its channel-like activity while negligibly affecting Na/HCO3 cotransport. The possibility that the channel-like activity occurs via an intermolecular cavity of multimeric NBCn1 proteins is discussed. PMID:23183381

  2. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  3. Benzoic Acid Interactions Affect Aquatic Properties and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuang; Fang, Hao; Wang, Se

    2016-08-01

    Effects of benzoic acid (BA) on physicochemical properties and ecotoxicities of CuO nanoparticles (CuONPs) in model aqueous media were studied. The CuONPs had larger hydrodynamic sizes and higher surface zeta potentials during 96 h of settling in the presence of BA than when the BA were not present. BA interaction with CuONPs is shown to promote dissolved Cu release from CuONPs in a dose-dependent manner. The contribution of free Cu(2+)-ions to growth inhibition toxicity of the CuONP suspensions at a toxicologically relevant concentration for the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was around 22 %, indicating that dissolved fraction was not the major source of toxicity of CuONPs. The toxicity of CuONPs increased as the BA concentration increased. BA significantly altered total antioxidant capacity of CuONPs-exposed algal cells. The mechanism of the BA effect on the CuONPs toxicity may be mainly associated with degree of agglomeration, dissolved Cu, and particle-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Salts affect the interaction of ZnO or CuO nanoparticles with wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jacob; Hansen, Trevor; McLean, Joan E; McManus, Paul; Das, Siddhartha; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J; Dimkpa, Christian O

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) that release metals with potential phytotoxicity could pose problems in agriculture. The authors of the present study used growth in a model growth matrix, sand, to examine the influence of 5 mmol/kg of Na, K, or Ca (added as Cl salts) and root exudates on transformation and changes to the bioactivity of copper(II) oxide (CuO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on wheat. These salt levels are found in saline agricultural soils. After 14 d of seedling growth, particles with crystallinity typical of CuO or ZnO remained in the aqueous fraction from the sand; particles had negative surface charges that differed with NP type and salt, but salt did not alter particle agglomeration. Reduction in shoot and root elongation and lateral root induction by ZnO NPs were mitigated by all salts. However, whereas Na and K promoted Zn loading into shoots, Ca reduced loading, suggesting that competition with Zn ions for uptake occurred. With CuO NPs, plant growth and loading was modified equally by all salts, consistent with major interaction with the plant with CuO rather than Cu ions. Thus, for both NPs, loading into plant tissues was not solely dependent on ion solubility. These findings indicated that salts in agricultural soils could modify the phytotoxicity of NPs.

  5. Maternal condition and previous reproduction interact to affect offspring sex in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-08-01

    Trivers and Willard proposed that offspring sex ratio should vary with maternal condition when condition, meant as maternal capacity to care, has different fitness consequences for sons and daughters. In polygynous and dimorphic species, mothers in good condition should preferentially produce sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should produce more daughters. Despite its logical appeal, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent. Sex-ratio variation may be influenced by additional factors, such as environmental conditions and previous reproduction, which are often ignored in empirical studies. We analysed 39 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that fit all the assumptions of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Production of sons increased with maternal condition only for mothers that weaned a son the previous year. This relationship likely reflects a mother's ability to bear the higher reproductive costs of sons. The interaction between maternal condition and previous weaning success on the probability of producing a son was independent of the positive effect of paternal reproductive success. Maternal and paternal effects accounted for similar proportions of the variance in offspring sex. Maternal reproductive history should be considered in addition to current condition in studies of sex allocation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. The interactive effects of affect and shopping goal on information search and product evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangyuan; Wyer, Robert S; Shen, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Although shoppers often want to evaluate products to make a purchase decision, they can also shop for enjoyment. In each case, the amount of time they spend on shopping and the number of options they consider can depend on the mood they happen to be in. We predicted that mood can signal whether the goal has been attained and when people should stop processing information. When people are primarily motivated to purchase a particular type of product, positive mood signals that they have done enough. Thus, they consider less information if they are happy than if they are unhappy. When people shop for enjoyment, however, positive mood signals that they are still having fun. Thus, they consider more information when they are happy than when they are not. Four experiments among university students (N = 827) examined these possibilities. Experiment 1 provided initial evidence for the interactive effects of mood and goals on search behavior and product evaluation. Other studies examined the implications of this conceptualization for different domains: (a) the relative impact of brand and attribute information on judgments (Experiment 2), (b) gender differences in shopping behavior (Experiment 3), and (c) the number of options that people review in an actual online shopping website (Experiment 4).

  7. Do interactions of land use and climate affect productivity of waterbirds and prairie-pothole wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of aquatic invertebrates on migration and breeding areas influences recruitment of ducks and shorebirds. In wetlands of Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), aquatic invertebrate production primarily is driven by interannual fluctuations of water levels in response to wet-dry cycles in climate. However, this understanding comes from studying basins that are minimally impacted by agricultural landscape modifications. In the past 100–150 years, a large proportion of wetlands within the PPR have been altered; often water was drained from smaller to larger wetlands at lower elevations creating consolidated, interconnected basins. Here I present a case study and I hypothesize that large basins receiving inflow from consolidation drainage have reduced water-level fluctuations in response to climate cycles than those in undrained landscapes, resulting in relatively stable wetlands that have lower densities of invertebrate forage for ducks and shorebirds and also less foraging habitat, especially for shorebirds. Furthermore, stable water-levels and interconnected basins may favor introduced or invasive species (e.g., cattail [Typha spp.] or fish) because native communities "evolved" in a dynamic and isolated system. Accordingly, understanding interactions between water-level fluctuations and landscape modifications is a prerequisite step to modeling effects of climate change on wetland hydrology and productivity and concomitant recruitment of waterbirds.

  8. Toxic metal interactions affect the bioaccumulation and dietary intake of macro- and micro-nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Sardar; Alam, Mehboob; Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Aamir, Muhammad; Qamar, Zahir; Ur Rehman, Zahir; Perveen, Sajida

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and Cd-Pb mix) on bioaccumulation of different nutrients. Three plant species including potato, tomato and lettuce were grown in pots containing soil contaminated with Cd, Pb and Cd-Pb mix at four different levels. The edible portions of each plant were analysed for Cd, Pb and different macro- and micro-nutrients including protein, vitamin C, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Results indicated significant variations in selected elemental concentrations in all the three plants grown in different treatments. The projected daily dietary intake values of selected metals were significant (P < 0.001) for Fe, Mn, Ca and Mg but not significant for protein, vitamin C, N and P. The elemental contribution to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was significant for Mn. Similarly, Fe and Mg also showed substantial contribution to RDA, while Ca, N, P, K, protein and vitamin C showed the minimal contribution for different age groups. This study suggests that vegetables cultivated on Cd and Pb contaminated soil may significantly affect their quality, and the consumption of such vegetables may result in substantial negative effects on nutritional composition of the consumer body. Long term and continuous use of contaminated vegetables may result in malnutrition.

  9. Nutrient Deprivation Affects Salmonella Invasion and Its Interaction with the Gastrointestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Tupin, Audrey; Valdez, Yanet; Antunes, L Caetano M; Yen, Ryan; Finlay, B Brett

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a foodborne enteric pathogen and a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. It is known that molecules derived from the human fecal microbiota downregulate S. Typhimurium virulence gene expression and induce a starvation-like response. In this study, S. Typhimurium was cultured in minimal media to mimic starvation conditions such as that experienced by S. Typhimurium in the human intestinal tract, and the pathogen's virulence in vitro and in vivo was measured. S. Typhimurium cultured in minimal media displayed a reduced ability to invade human epithelial cells in a manner that was at least partially independent of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1) type III secretion system. Nutrient deprivation did not, however, alter the ability of S. Typhimurium to replicate and survive inside epithelial cells. In a murine model of S. Typhimurium-induced gastroenteritis, prior cultivation in minimal media did not alter the pathogen's ability to colonize mice, nor did it affect levels of gastrointestinal inflammation. Upon examining the post-infection fecal gastrointestinal microbiota, we found that specifically in the 129Sv/ImJ murine strain S. Typhimurium cultured in minimal media induced differential microbiota compositional shifts compared to that of S. Typhimurium cultured in rich media. Together these findings demonstrate that S. Typhimurium remains a potent pathogen even in the face of nutritional deprivation, but nevertheless that nutrient deprivation encountered in this environment elicits significant changes in the bacterium genetic programme, as well as its capacity to alter host microbiota composition.

  10. The blues of adolescent romance: observed affective interactions in adolescent romantic relationships associated with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; Dishion, Thomas J; Overbeek, Geertjan; Burk, William J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-05-01

    We examined the associations between observed expressions of positive and negative emotions during conflict discussions and depressive symptoms during a 2-year period in a sample of 160 adolescents in 80 romantic relationships (M age = 15.48, SD = 1.16). Conflict discussions were coded using the 10-code Specific Affect Coding System. Depressive symptoms were assessed at the time of the observed conflict discussions (Time 1) and 2 years later (Time 2). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Girls' expression of both positive and negative emotions at T1 was related to their own depressive symptoms at T2 (actor effect). Boys' positive emotions and negative emotions (actor effect) and girls' negative emotions (partner effect) were related to boys' depressive symptoms at T2. Contrary to expectation, relationship break-up and relationship satisfaction were unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms or expression of negative or positive emotion during conflict discussion. These findings underscore the unique quality of adolescent romantic relationships and suggest new directions in the study of the link between mental health and romantic involvement in adolescence.

  11. Prostate stem cell antigen interacts with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and is affected in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majbrit M; Arvaniti, Maria; Mikkelsen, Jens D;

    2015-01-01

    and modulating their function. Hence, changes in nAChR regulatory proteins such as Lynx proteins could underlie the dysregulation of nAChRs in AD. Using Western blotting, we detected bands corresponding to the Lynx proteins prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) and Lypd6 in human cortex indicating that both proteins...... are present in the human brain. We further showed that PSCA forms stable complexes with the α4 nAChR subunit and decreases nicotine-induced extracellular-signal regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells. In addition, we analyzed protein levels of PSCA and Lypd6 in postmortem tissue of medial frontal...... human transgenes that cause both age-dependent β-amyloidosis and tauopathy, whereas Tg2576 mice, which display β-amyloidosis only, had unchanged PSCA levels compared to wild-type animals. These findings identify PSCA as a nAChR-binding protein in the human brain that is affected in AD, suggesting...

  12. Working with interpreters: how student behavior affects quality of patient interaction when using interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha-Chi Fung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the prevalence of medical interpreting in the clinical environment, few medical professionals receive training in best practices when using an interpreter. We designed and implemented an educational workshop on using interpreters as part of the cultural competency curriculum for second year medical students (MSIIs at David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. The purpose of this study is two-fold: first, to evaluate the effectiveness of the workshop and second, if deficiencies are found, to investigate whether the deficiencies affected the quality of the patient encounter when using an interpreter. Methods: A total of 152 MSIIs completed the 3-hour workshop and a 1-station objective-structured clinical examination, 8 weeks later to assess skills. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-tests were used to assess workshop effectiveness. Results: Based on a passing score of 70%, 39.4% of the class failed. Two skills seemed particularly problematic: assuring confidentiality (missed by 50% and positioning the interpreter (missed by 70%. While addressing confidentiality did not have a significant impact on standardized patient satisfaction, interpreter position did. Conclusion: Instructing the interpreter to sit behind the patient helps sustain eye contact between clinician and patient, while assuring confidentiality is a tenet of quality clinical encounters. Teaching students and faculty to emphasize both is warranted to improve cross-language clinical encounters.

  13. Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, Kyle A.; Anderson, Sean C.; Reynolds, John D.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Paquet, Paul C.; Darimont, Chris T.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts impose considerable costs to people and wildlife worldwide. Most research focuses on proximate causes, offering limited generalizable understanding of ultimate drivers. We tested three competing hypotheses (problem individuals, regional population saturation, limited food supply) that relate to underlying processes of human-grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) conflict, using data from British Columbia, Canada, between 1960–2014. We found most support for the limited food supply hypothesis: in bear populations that feed on spawning salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), the annual number of bears/km2 killed due to conflicts with humans increased by an average of 20% (6–32% [95% CI]) for each 50% decrease in annual salmon biomass. Furthermore, we found that across all bear populations (with or without access to salmon), 81% of attacks on humans and 82% of conflict kills occurred after the approximate onset of hyperphagia (July 1st), a period of intense caloric demand. Contrary to practices by many management agencies, conflict frequency was not reduced by hunting or removal of problem individuals. Our finding that a marine resource affects terrestrial conflict suggests that evidence-based policy for reducing harm to wildlife and humans requires not only insight into ultimate drivers of conflict, but also management that spans ecosystem and jurisdictional boundaries. PMID:27185189

  14. Rootstock-scion interaction affecting citrus response to CTV infection: a proteomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, Paolo; Russo, Maria P; Guardo, Maria; Reforgiato-Recupero, Giuseppe; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi; Moliterni, Vita M C

    2016-04-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is the causal agent of various diseases with dramatic effects on citrus crops worldwide. Most Citrus species, grown on their own roots, are symptomless hosts for many CTV isolates. However, depending on different scion-rootstock combination, CTV infection should result in distinct syndromes, being 'tristeza' the more severe one, leading to a complete decline of the susceptible plants in a few weeks. Transcriptomic analyses revealed several genes involved either in defense response, or systemic acquired resistance, as well as transcription factors and components of the phosphorylation cascades, to be differentially regulated during CTV infection in Citrus aurantifolia species. To date little is known about the molecular mechanism of this host-pathogen interaction, and about the rootstock effect on citrus response to CTV infection. In this work, the response to CTV infection has been investigated in tolerant and susceptible scion-rootstock combinations by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). A total of 125 protein spots have been found to be differently accumulated and/or phosphorylated between the two rootstock combinations. Downregulation in tolerant plants upon CTV infection was detected for proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and defense response, suggesting a probable acclimation response able to minimize the systemic effects of virus infection. Some of these proteins resulted to be modulated also in absence of virus infection, revealing a rootstock effect on scion proteome modulation. Moreover, the phospho-modulation of proteins involved in ROS scavenging and defense response, further supports their involvement either in scion-rootstock crosstalk or in the establishment of tolerance/susceptibility to CTV infection. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Feeding History Affects Intraguild Interactions between Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Ingels

    Full Text Available While the effect of several factors such as predator and prey size, morphology and developmental stage on intraguild predation (IGP is widely investigated, little is known about the influence of diet on the occurrence and outcome of IGP. In the present study, the effect of the diet experienced during larval development on IGP between the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and the syrphid Episyrphus balteatus is investigated. Four diets were tested for H. axyridis: eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella, pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, in an ad libitum amount, pea aphids in a limited amount, and honey bee pollen. For E. balteatus only the two aphid diets were tested. First, experiments were performed to determine the quality of the various diets for development of both predators. Second, IGP experiments between H. axyridis and E. balteatus were performed both in Petri dishes and on potted pepper plants. The diet of both species influenced the incidence of IGP between H. axyridis and E. balteatus both in Petri dishes and on potted plants. In general, smaller larvae of H. axyridis (those fed on poor or restricted diet fed more on hoverflies than large (well-nourished ladybird larvae. Further, poorly nourished (smaller larvae of E. balteatus were more susceptible to predation than well-fed (larger hoverfly larvae. The observed effects were not only due to the lower fitness of larvae of both predators reared on an inferior quality diet but also to changes in predator behaviour. The results from this study show that IGP interactions are influenced by a multitude of factors, including feeding history of the organisms involved, and emphasize the importance of taking these factors into account in order to fully understand the ecological relevance of IGP.

  16. Benthic Trophic Interactions in an Antarctic Shallow Water Ecosystem Affected by Recent Glacier Retreat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasotti, Francesca; Saravia, Leonardo Ariel; De Troch, Marleen; Tarantelli, Maria Soledad; Sahade, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing strong environmental changes as a consequence of ongoing regional warming. Glaciers in the area are retreating rapidly and increased sediment-laden meltwater runoff threatens the benthic biodiversity at shallow depths. We identified three sites with a distinct glacier-retreat related history and different levels of glacial influence in the inner part of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), a fjord-like embayment impacted since the 1950s by a tidewater glacier retreat. We compared the soft sediment meio- and macrofauna isotopic niche widths (δ13C and δ15N stable isotope analysis) at the three sites to investigate possible glacier retreat-related influences on benthic trophic interactions. The isotopic niches were locally shaped by the different degrees of glacier retreat-related disturbance within the Cove. Wider isotopic niche widths were found at the site that has become ice-free most recently, and narrower niches at the older ice-free sites. At an intermediate state of glacier retreat-related disturbance (e.g. via ice-growler scouring) species with different strategies could settle. The site at the earliest stage of post-retreat development was characterized by an assemblage with lower trophic redundancy. Generally, the isotopic niche widths increased with increasing size spectra of organisms within the community, excepting the youngest assemblage, where the pioneer colonizer meiofauna size class displayed the highest isotopic niche width. Meiofauna at all sites generally occupied positions in the isotopic space that suggested a detrital-pool food source and/or the presence of predatory taxa. In general ice scour and glacial impact appeared to play a two-fold role within the Cove: i) either stimulating trophic diversity by allowing continuous re-colonization of meiofaunal species or, ii) over time driving the benthic assemblages into a more compact trophic structure with increased

  17. Neurophysiological Processing of Emotion and Parenting Interact to Predict Inhibited Behavior: An Affective-Motivational Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child’s ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP, interacted with observed approach- (promotion and avoidance- (prevention oriented parenting practices to predict children’s observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32 typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01. Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed.

  18. A meta-analysis of factors affecting trust in human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Peter A; Billings, Deborah R; Schaefer, Kristin E; Chen, Jessie Y C; de Visser, Ewart J; Parasuraman, Raja

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate and quantify the effects of human, robot, and environmental factors on perceived trust in human-robot interaction (HRI). To date, reviews of trust in HRI have been qualitative or descriptive. Our quantitative review provides a fundamental empirical foundation to advance both theory and practice. Meta-analytic methods were applied to the available literature on trust and HRI. A total of 29 empirical studies were collected, of which 10 met the selection criteria for correlational analysis and 11 for experimental analysis. These studies provided 69 correlational and 47 experimental effect sizes. The overall correlational effect size for trust was r = +0.26,with an experimental effect size of d = +0.71. The effects of human, robot, and environmental characteristics were examined with an especial evaluation of the robot dimensions of performance and attribute-based factors. The robot performance and attributes were the largest contributors to the development of trust in HRI. Environmental factors played only a moderate role. Factors related to the robot itself, specifically, its performance, had the greatest current association with trust, and environmental factors were moderately associated. There was little evidence for effects of human-related factors. The findings provide quantitative estimates of human, robot, and environmental factors influencing HRI trust. Specifically, the current summary provides effect size estimates that are useful in establishing design and training guidelines with reference to robot-related factors of HRI trust. Furthermore, results indicate that improper trust calibration may be mitigated by the manipulation of robot design. However, many future research needs are identified.

  19. Benthic Trophic Interactions in an Antarctic Shallow Water Ecosystem Affected by Recent Glacier Retreat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Pasotti

    Full Text Available The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing strong environmental changes as a consequence of ongoing regional warming. Glaciers in the area are retreating rapidly and increased sediment-laden meltwater runoff threatens the benthic biodiversity at shallow depths. We identified three sites with a distinct glacier-retreat related history and different levels of glacial influence in the inner part of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, a fjord-like embayment impacted since the 1950s by a tidewater glacier retreat. We compared the soft sediment meio- and macrofauna isotopic niche widths (δ13C and δ15N stable isotope analysis at the three sites to investigate possible glacier retreat-related influences on benthic trophic interactions. The isotopic niches were locally shaped by the different degrees of glacier retreat-related disturbance within the Cove. Wider isotopic niche widths were found at the site that has become ice-free most recently, and narrower niches at the older ice-free sites. At an intermediate state of glacier retreat-related disturbance (e.g. via ice-growler scouring species with different strategies could settle. The site at the earliest stage of post-retreat development was characterized by an assemblage with lower trophic redundancy. Generally, the isotopic niche widths increased with increasing size spectra of organisms within the community, excepting the youngest assemblage, where the pioneer colonizer meiofauna size class displayed the highest isotopic niche width. Meiofauna at all sites generally occupied positions in the isotopic space that suggested a detrital-pool food source and/or the presence of predatory taxa. In general ice scour and glacial impact appeared to play a two-fold role within the Cove: i either stimulating trophic diversity by allowing continuous re-colonization of meiofaunal species or, ii over time driving the benthic assemblages into a more compact trophic structure with

  20. Feeding History Affects Intraguild Interactions between Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Brecht; Van Hassel, Pieter; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    While the effect of several factors such as predator and prey size, morphology and developmental stage on intraguild predation (IGP) is widely investigated, little is known about the influence of diet on the occurrence and outcome of IGP. In the present study, the effect of the diet experienced during larval development on IGP between the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and the syrphid Episyrphus balteatus is investigated. Four diets were tested for H. axyridis: eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella, pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, in an ad libitum amount, pea aphids in a limited amount, and honey bee pollen. For E. balteatus only the two aphid diets were tested. First, experiments were performed to determine the quality of the various diets for development of both predators. Second, IGP experiments between H. axyridis and E. balteatus were performed both in Petri dishes and on potted pepper plants. The diet of both species influenced the incidence of IGP between H. axyridis and E. balteatus both in Petri dishes and on potted plants. In general, smaller larvae of H. axyridis (those fed on poor or restricted diet) fed more on hoverflies than large (well-nourished) ladybird larvae. Further, poorly nourished (smaller) larvae of E. balteatus were more susceptible to predation than well-fed (larger) hoverfly larvae. The observed effects were not only due to the lower fitness of larvae of both predators reared on an inferior quality diet but also to changes in predator behaviour. The results from this study show that IGP interactions are influenced by a multitude of factors, including feeding history of the organisms involved, and emphasize the importance of taking these factors into account in order to fully understand the ecological relevance of IGP.

  1. The CHUVA Project Contributions to the Understanding of Anthropogenic Interactions Affecting the Atmospheric Physics over Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, E.; Frierson, D. M.; Kang, S. M.; Scheff, J.; Battisti, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Greater precipitation falls in the northern hemisphere (NH) tropics than in the southern hemisphere (SH) tropics over the course of the year. Here, we examine how Andes topography, ocean heat fluxes, and the presence of land affect the location of tropical precipitation in an idealized aquaplanet version of GFDL's AM2.1 GCM. We find that all three of these features influence which hemisphere has greater precipitation, though to different extents. The addition of Andes topography leads to a small regional northward shift of rainfall, but realistic ocean heat transport leads to a much larger and more global northward shift of precipitation. In simulations with an idealized NH subtropical continent, the location of tropical precipitation depends on the land albedo and continent width. To demonstrate this, we place a single Sahara-like rectangular continent with a width of 60-degrees and an albedo of 0.3 into the NH. This simulation has greater SH tropical precipitation, despite the NH continent's hot surface: the high land albedo increases the NH deficit of energy, creating an anomalous Hadley circulation that imports energy to the NH and moisture to the SH. As a result, the hemisphere with greater temperature is not the hemisphere with greater precipitation. However, simulations with wider continents and the same fixed albedo shift precipitation into the NH as the continent widens. While northward ocean heat transport is likely the reason for the observed annual NH peak in tropical precipitation, these experiments show that continents and topography also play an important role in modifying its location.

  2. Above- and belowground linkages in Sphagnum peatland: climate warming affects plant-microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassey, Vincent E J; Chiapusio, Geneviève; Binet, Philippe; Buttler, Alexandre; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Delarue, Frédéric; Bernard, Nadine; Mitchell, Edward A D; Toussaint, Marie-Laure; Francez, André-Jean; Gilbert, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Peatlands contain approximately one third of all soil organic carbon (SOC). Warming can alter above- and belowground linkages that regulate soil organic carbon dynamics and C-balance in peatlands. Here we examine the multiyear impact of in situ experimental warming on the microbial food web, vegetation, and their feedbacks with soil chemistry. We provide evidence of both positive and negative impacts of warming on specific microbial functional groups, leading to destabilization of the microbial food web. We observed a strong reduction (70%) in the biomass of top-predators (testate amoebae) in warmed plots. Such a loss caused a shortening of microbial food chains, which in turn stimulated microbial activity, leading to slight increases in levels of nutrients and labile C in water. We further show that warming altered the regulatory role of Sphagnum-polyphenols on microbial community structure with a potential inhibition of top predators. In addition, warming caused a decrease in Sphagnum cover and an increase in vascular plant cover. Using structural equation modelling, we show that changes in the microbial food web affected the relationships between plants, soil water chemistry, and microbial communities. These results suggest that warming will destabilize C and nutrient recycling of peatlands via changes in above- and belowground linkages, and therefore, the microbial food web associated with mosses will feedback positively to global warming by destabilizing the carbon cycle. This study confirms that microbial food webs thus constitute a key element in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. Their study can help understand how mosses, as ecosystem engineers, tightly regulate biogeochemical cycling and climate feedback in peatlands. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. KIR/HLA interactions negatively affect rituximab- but not GA101 (obinutuzumab)-induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terszowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Christian; Stern, Martin

    2014-06-15

    Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by NK cells is regulated by inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), which interact with target cell HLA class I. We analyzed how KIR/HLA interactions influence ADCC induced by rituximab and by GA101, a novel type II CD20 Ab glycoengineered for increased FcgRIII binding and ADCC capacity. We found that KIR/HLA interactions strongly and selectively inhibit rituximab-induced in vitro ADCC toward target cells expressing cognate HLA KIR ligands. NK cells of donors carrying all three ligands to inhibitory KIR showed weak activation and target cell depletion capacity when incubated with rituximab and KIR-ligand matched target B cells. In contrast, NK cells from individuals missing one or more KIR ligands activated more strongly and depleted KIR ligand-matched target B cells more efficiently in the presence of rituximab. NK cells expressing a KIR for which the ligand was absent were the main effectors of ADCC in these donors. Notably, the influence of KIR/HLA interactions on NK cell activation was synergistic with the effect of the V158F FCGR3A single nucleotide polymorphism. In contrast, GA101 induced activation of NK cells irrespective of inhibitory KIR expression, and efficiency of target cell depletion was not negatively affected by KIR/HLA interactions. These data show that modification of the Fc fragment to enhance ADCC can be an effective strategy to augment the efficacy of therapeutic mAbs by recruiting NK cells irrespective of their inhibitory KIR expression.

  4. The intercropping partner affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici interactions in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage-Ahmed, Karin; Krammer, Johannes; Steinkellner, Siegrid

    2013-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and their bioprotective aspects are of great interest in the context of sustainable agriculture. Combining the benefits of AMF with the utilisation of plant species diversity shows great promise for the management of plant diseases in environmentally compatible agriculture. In the present study, AMF were tested against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici with tomato intercropped with either leek, cucumber, basil, fennel or tomato itself. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) root colonisation of tomato was clearly affected by its intercropping partners. Tomato intercropped with leek showed even a 20 % higher AM colonisation rate than tomato intercropped with tomato. Positive effects of AMF expressed as an increase of tomato biomass compared to the untreated control treatment could be observed in root as well as in shoot weights. A compensation of negative effects of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on tomato biomass by AMF was observed in the tomato/leek combination. The intercropping partners leek, cucumber, basil and tomato had no effect on F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease incidence or disease severity indicating no allelopathic suppression; however, tomato co-cultivated with tomato clearly showed a negative effect on one plant/pot with regard to biomass and disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Nonetheless, bioprotective effects of AMF resulting in the decrease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici disease severity were evident in treatments with AMF and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici co-inoculation. However, these bioprotective effects depended on the intercropping partner since these effects were only observed in the tomato/leek and tomato/basil combination and for the better developed plant of tomato/tomato. In conclusion, the effects of the intercropping partner on AMF colonisation of tomato are of great interest for crop plant communities and for the influences on each other. The outcome of the bioprotective

  5. Pharmacokinetic interactions between glimepiride and rosuvastatin in healthy Korean subjects: does the SLCO1B1 or CYP2C9 genetic polymorphism affect these drug interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim CO

    2017-02-01

    interactions between the two drugs; however, the exposure to glimepiride could be affected by rosuvastatin in the presence of the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. Keywords: glimepiride, rosuvastatin, pharmacokinetics, SLCO1B1, CYP2C9

  6. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  7. The sucrose transporter SlSUT2 from tomato interacts with brassinosteroid functioning and affects arbuscular mycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlich, Michael; Krügel, Undine; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Franken, Philipp; Kühn, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Mycorrhizal plants benefit from the fungal partners by getting better access to soil nutrients. In exchange, the plant supplies carbohydrates to the fungus. The additional carbohydrate demand in mycorrhizal plants was shown to be balanced partially by higher CO2 assimilation and increased C metabolism in shoots and roots. In order to test the role of sucrose transport for fungal development in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tomato, transgenic plants with down-regulated expression of three sucrose transporter genes were analysed. Plants that carried an antisense construct of SlSUT2 (SlSUT2as) repeatedly exhibited increased mycorrhizal colonization and the positive effect of plants to mycorrhiza was abolished. Grafting experiments between transgenic and wild-type rootstocks and scions indicated that mainly the root-specific function of SlSUT2 has an impact on colonization of tomato roots with the AM fungus. Localization of SISUT2 to the periarbuscular membrane indicates a role in back transport of sucrose from the periarbuscular matrix into the plant cell thereby affecting hyphal development. Screening of an expression library for SlSUT2-interacting proteins revealed interactions with candidates involved in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling or biosynthesis. Interaction of these candidates with SlSUT2 was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Tomato mutants defective in BR biosynthesis were analysed with respect to mycorrhizal symbiosis and showed indeed decreased mycorrhization. This finding suggests that BRs affect mycorrhizal infection and colonization. If the inhibitory effect of SlSUT2 on mycorrhizal growth involves components of BR synthesis and of the BR signaling pathway is discussed. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes.

  9. Do gender differences affect the doctor-patient interaction during consultations in general practice? Results from the INTERMEDE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, Anne-Cécile; Delpierre, Cyrille; Lepage, Benoît; Afrite, Anissa; Pascal, Jean; Cases, Chantal; Lombrail, Pierre; Lang, Thierry; Kelly-Irving, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain whether disagreement between GPs and patients on advice given on nutrition, exercise and weight loss is related to patient-doctor gender discordance. Our hypothesis is that a patient interacting with a physician of the same gender may perceive more social proximity, notably on health care beliefs and may be more inclined to trust them. The analysis used the Intermede project's quantitative data collected via mirrored questionnaires at the end of the consultation. Multilevel logistic regressions were carried out to explore associations between patient-doctor gender discordance and their disagreement on advice given during the consultation adjusted on patients' and physicians' characteristics. The sample consists of 585 eligible patients and 27 GPs. Disagreement on advice given on nutrition was observed less often for female concordant dyads: OR = 0.25 (95% CI = 0.08-0.78), and for female doctors-male patients dyads: OR = 0.24 (95% CI = 0.07-0.84), taking the male concordant dyads as reference. For advice given on exercise, disagreement was found less often for female concordant dyads OR = 0.38 (95% CI = 0.15-0.98) and an interdoctor effect was found (P gender concordance/discordance is associated with their agreement/disagreement on advice given during the consultation. Physicians need to be conscious that their own demographic characteristics and perceptions might influence the quality of prevention counseling delivered to their patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Dopamine transporter DAT and receptor DRD2 variants affect risk of lethal cocaine abuse: a gene-gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D; Pinsonneault, J K; Papp, A C; Zhu, H; Lemeshow, S; Mash, D C; Sadee, W

    2013-01-22

    Epistatic gene-gene interactions could contribute to the heritability of complex multigenic disorders, but few examples have been reported. Here, we focus on the role of aberrant dopaminergic signaling, involving the dopamine transporter DAT, a cocaine target, and the dopamine D2 receptor, which physically interacts with DAT. Splicing polymorphism rs2283265 of DRD2, encoding D2 receptors, were shown to confer risk of cocaine overdose/death (odds ratio ∼3) in subjects and controls from the Miami Dade County Brain Bank.(1) Risk of cocaine-related death attributable to the minor allele of rs2283265 was significantly enhanced to OR=7.5 (P=0.0008) in homozygous carriers of the main 6-repeat allele of DAT rs3836790, a regulatory VNTR in intron8 lacking significant effect itself. In contrast, carriers of the minor 5-repeat DAT allele showed no significant risk (OR=1.1, P=0.84). DAT rs3836790 and DRD2 rs2283265 also interacted by modulating DAT protein activity in the ventral putamen of cocaine abusers. In high-linkage disequilibrium with the VNTR, DAT rs6347 in exon9 yielded similar results. Assessing the impact of DAT alone, a rare DAT haplotype formed by the minor alleles of rs3836790 and rs27072, a regulatory DAT variant in the 3'-UTR, occurred in nearly one-third of the cocaine abusers but was absent in African American controls, apparently conferring strong risk. These results demonstrate gene-gene-drug interaction affecting risk of fatal cocaine intoxication.

  11. Ant–plant–homopteran mutualism: how the third partner affects the interaction between a plant-specialist ant and its myrmecophyte host

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurence Gaume; Doyle McKey; Sandrine Terrin

    1998-01-01

    ... able to study whether the nature of the interaction was dependent on the identity of the third partner. First, the type of homopteran affects the benefits to the tree of maintaining a large ant colony...

  12. Reciprocity in computer-human interaction: source-based, norm-based, and affect-based explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Liang, Yuhua Jake

    2015-04-01

    Individuals often apply social rules when they interact with computers, and this is known as the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) effect. Following previous work, one approach to understand the mechanism responsible for CASA is to utilize computer agents and have the agents attempt to gain human compliance (e.g., completing a pattern recognition task). The current study focuses on three key factors frequently cited to influence traditional notions of compliance: evaluations toward the source (competence and warmth), normative influence (reciprocity), and affective influence (mood). Structural equation modeling assessed the effects of these factors on human compliance with computer request. The final model shows that norm-based influence (reciprocity) increased the likelihood of compliance, while evaluations toward the computer agent did not significantly influence compliance.

  13. Novel Genes Affecting the Interaction between the Cabbage Whitefly and Arabidopsis Uncovered by Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekgaarden, Colette; Bucher, Johan; Bac-Molenaar, Johanna; Keurentjes, Joost J B; Kruijer, Willem; Voorrips, Roeland E; Vosman, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of ways to defend themselves against biotic attackers. This has resulted in the presence of substantial variation in defense mechanisms among plants, even within a species. Genome-wide association (GWA) mapping is a useful tool to study the genetic architecture of traits, but has so far only had limited exploitation in studies of plant defense. Here, we study the genetic architecture of defense against the phloem-feeding insect cabbage whitefly (Aleyrodes proletella) in Arabidopsis thaliana. We determined whitefly performance, i.e. the survival and reproduction of whitefly females, on 360 worldwide selected natural accessions and subsequently performed GWA mapping using 214,051 SNPs. Substantial variation for whitefly adult survival and oviposition rate (number of eggs laid per female per day) was observed between the accessions. We identified 39 candidate SNPs for either whitefly adult survival or oviposition rate, all with relatively small effects, underpinning the complex architecture of defense traits. Among the corresponding candidate genes, i.e. genes in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with candidate SNPs, none have previously been identified as a gene playing a role in the interaction between plants and phloem-feeding insects. Whitefly performance on knock-out mutants of a number of candidate genes was significantly affected, validating the potential of GWA mapping for novel gene discovery in plant-insect interactions. Our results show that GWA analysis is a very useful tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of plant defense against herbivorous insects, i.e. we identified and validated several genes affecting whitefly performance that have not previously been related to plant defense against herbivorous insects.

  14. Intermonomer Interactions in Hemagglutinin Subunits HA1 and HA2 Affecting Hemagglutinin Stability and Influenza Virus Infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Christopher J.; Alvarado-Facundo, Esmeralda; Vassell, Russell

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) mediates virus entry by binding to cell surface receptors and fusing the viral and endosomal membranes following uptake by endocytosis. The acidic environment of endosomes triggers a large-scale conformational change in the transmembrane subunit of HA (HA2) involving a loop (B loop)-to-helix transition, which releases the fusion peptide at the HA2 N terminus from an interior pocket within the HA trimer. Subsequent insertion of the fusion peptide into the endosomal membrane initiates fusion. The acid stability of HA is influenced by residues in the fusion peptide, fusion peptide pocket, coiled-coil regions of HA2, and interactions between the surface (HA1) and HA2 subunits, but details are not fully understood and vary among strains. Current evidence suggests that the HA from the circulating pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] is less stable than the HAs from other seasonal influenza virus strains. Here we show that residue 205 in HA1 and residue 399 in the B loop of HA2 (residue 72, HA2 numbering) in different monomers of the trimeric A(H1N1)pdm09 HA are involved in functionally important intermolecular interactions and that a conserved histidine in this pair helps regulate HA stability. An arginine-lysine pair at this location destabilizes HA at acidic pH and mediates fusion at a higher pH, while a glutamate-lysine pair enhances HA stability and requires a lower pH to induce fusion. Our findings identify key residues in HA1 and HA2 that interact to help regulate H1N1 HA stability and virus infectivity. IMPORTANCE Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the principal antigen in inactivated influenza vaccines and the target of protective antibodies. However, the influenza A virus HA is highly variable, necessitating frequent vaccine changes to match circulating strains. Sequence changes in HA affect not only antigenicity but also HA stability, which has important implications for vaccine production, as well

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana DOF6 negatively affects germination in non-after-ripened seeds and interacts with TCP14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Romero, Paloma; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Carbonero, Pilar; Oñate-Sánchez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Seed dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under environmental conditions unfavourable for plant growth and development and constitutes an evolutionary advantage. Dry storage, also known as after-ripening, gradually decreases seed dormancy by mechanisms not well understood. An Arabidopsis thaliana DOF transcription factor gene (DOF6) affecting seed germination has been characterized. The transcript levels of this gene accumulate in dry seeds and decay gradually during after-ripening and also upon seed imbibition. While constitutive over-expression of DOF6 produced aberrant growth and sterility in the plant, its over-expression induced upon seed imbibition triggered delayed germination, abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive phenotypes and increased expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes. Wild-type germination and gene expression were gradually restored during seed after-ripening, despite of DOF6-induced over-expression. DOF6 was found to interact in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta with TCP14, a previously described positive regulator of seed germination. The expression of ABA1 and ABA-related stress genes was also enhanced in tcp14 knock-out mutants. Taken together, these results indicate that DOF6 negatively affects seed germination and opposes TCP14 function in the regulation of a specific set of ABA-related genes. PMID:22155632

  16. Emotional valence and arousal affect reading in an interactive way: neuroimaging evidence for an approach-withdrawal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Gray, Marcus A; Critchley, Hugo D; Weekes, Brendan S; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of literature shows that the emotional content of verbal material affects reading, wherein emotional words are given processing priority compared to neutral words. Human emotions can be conceptualised within a two-dimensional model comprised of emotional valence and arousal (intensity). These variables are at least in part distinct, but recent studies report interactive effects during implicit emotion processing and relate these to stimulus-evoked approach-withdrawal tendencies. The aim of the present study was to explore how valence and arousal interact at the neural level, during implicit emotion word processing. The emotional attributes of written word stimuli were orthogonally manipulated based on behavioural ratings from a corpus of emotion words. Stimuli were presented during an fMRI experiment while 16 participants performed a lexical decision task, which did not require explicit evaluation of a word's emotional content. Results showed greater neural activation within right insular cortex in response to stimuli evoking conflicting approach-withdrawal tendencies (i.e., positive high-arousal and negative low-arousal words) compared to stimuli evoking congruent approach vs. withdrawal tendencies (i.e., positive low-arousal and negative high-arousal words). Further, a significant cluster of activation in the left extra-striate cortex was found in response to emotional than neutral words, suggesting enhanced perceptual processing of emotionally salient stimuli. These findings support an interactive two-dimensional approach to the study of emotion word recognition and suggest that the integration of valence and arousal dimensions recruits a brain region associated with interoception, emotional awareness and sympathetic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seed trait-mediated selection by rodents affects mutualistic interactions and seedling recruitment of co-occurring tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Yan, Chuan; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-02-01

    As mutualists, seed dispersers may significantly affect mutualistic interactions and seedling recruitment of sympatric plants that share similar seed dispersers, but studies are rare. Here, we compared seed dispersal fitness in two co-occurring plant species (Armeniaca sibirica and Amygdalus davidiana) that inhabit warm temperate deciduous forest in northern China. We tested the hypothesis that seed trait-mediated selection by rodents may influence mutualistic interactions with rodents and then seedling establishment of co-occurring plant species. A. davidiana seeds are larger and harder (thick endocarps) than A. sibirica seeds, but they have similar levels of nutrients (crude fat, crude protein), caloric value and tannin. More A. sibirica seedlings are found in the field. Semi-natural enclosure tests indicated that the two seed species were both harvested by the same six rodent species, but that A. sibirica had mutualistic interactions (scatter hoarding) with four rodent species (Apodemus peninsulae, A. agrarius, Sciurotamias davidianus, Tamias sibiricus), and A. davidiana with only one (S. davidianus). Tagged seed dispersal experiments in the field indicated that more A. sibirica seeds were scatter-hoarded by rodents, and more A. sibirica seeds survived to the next spring and became seedlings. A. sibirica seeds derive more benefit from seed dispersal by rodents than A. davidiana seeds, particularly in years with limited seed dispersers, which well explained the higher seedling recruitment of A. sibirica compared with that of A. davidiana under natural conditions. Our results suggest that seed dispersers may play a significant role in seedling recruitment and indirect competition between co-occurring plant species.

  18. Temperature and resource availability may interactively affect over-wintering success of juvenile fish in a changing climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Brodersen

    Full Text Available The predicted global warming may affect freshwater systems at several organizational levels, from organism to ecosystem. Specifically, in temperate regions, the projected increase of winter temperatures may have important effects on the over-winter biology of a range of organisms and especially for fish and other ectothermic animals. However, temperature effects on organisms may be directed strongly by resource availability. Here, we investigated whether over-winter loss of biomass and lipid content of juvenile roach (Rutilus rutilus was affected by the physiologically relatively small (2-5 °C changes of winter temperatures predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, under both natural and experimental conditions. This was investigated in combination with the effects of food availability. Finally, we explored the potential for a correlation between lake temperature and resource levels for planktivorous fish, i.e., zooplankton biomass, during five consecutive winters in a south Swedish lake. We show that small increases in temperature (+2 °C affected fish biomass loss in both presence and absence of food, but negatively and positively respectively. Temperature alone explained only a minor part of the variation when food availability was not taken into account. In contrast to other studies, lipid analyses of experimental fish suggest that critical somatic condition rather than critical lipid content determined starvation induced mortality. Our results illustrate the importance of considering not only changes in temperature when predicting organism response to climate change but also food-web interactions, such as resource availability and predation. However, as exemplified by our finding that zooplankton over-winter biomass in the lake was not related to over-winter temperature, this may not be a straightforward task.

  19. Enhancing User Experience through Emotional Interaction: Determining Users' Interests in Online Art Collections Using AMARA (Affective Museum of Art Resource Agent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. Joon

    2013-01-01

    The need for emotional interaction has already influenced various disciplines and industries, and online museums represent a domain where providing emotional interactions could have a significant impact. Today, online museums lack the appropriate affective and hedonic values necessary to engage art enthusiasts on an emotional level. To address…

  20. Enhancing User Experience through Emotional Interaction: Determining Users' Interests in Online Art Collections Using AMARA (Affective Museum of Art Resource Agent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S. Joon

    2013-01-01

    The need for emotional interaction has already influenced various disciplines and industries, and online museums represent a domain where providing emotional interactions could have a significant impact. Today, online museums lack the appropriate affective and hedonic values necessary to engage art enthusiasts on an emotional level. To address…

  1. Nutrient demand interacts with grass maturity to affect milk fat concentration and digestion responses in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-09-01

    Effects of grass maturity on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 23.5 to 28.2 kg/d (mean=26.1 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield ranged from 30.8 to 57.2 kg/d (mean=43.7 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage harvested either (1) early-cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late-cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage. Early- and late-cut orchardgrass contained 44.9 and 54.4% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 20.1 and 15.3% crude protein, respectively. Forage:concentrate ratio was 58:42 and 46:54 for EC and LC, respectively; both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass maturity and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. The EC diet decreased milk yield and increased milk fat concentration compared with the LC diet. Grass maturity and its interaction with pDMI did not affect FCM yield, DMI, rumen pH, or microbial efficiency. The EC diet increased rates of ruminal digestion of potentially digestible NDF and passage of indigestible NDF (iNDF) compared with the LC diet. The lower concentration and faster passage rate of iNDF for EC resulted in lower rumen pools of iNDF, total NDF, organic matter, and dry matter for EC than LC. Ruminal passage rates of potentially digestible NDF and starch were related to level of intake (quadratic and linear interactions, respectively) and subsequently affected ruminal digestibility of these nutrients

  2. Nutrient demand interacts with grass particle length to affect digestion responses and chewing activity in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-02-01

    Effects of grass particle length on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, digestion and passage kinetics, and chewing activity and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 15 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.6 to 29.8 kg/d (mean=25.8 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 29.2 to 56.9 kg/d (mean=41.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing orchardgrass silage chopped to either (a) 19-mm (long) or (b) 10-mm (short) theoretical length of cut as the sole forage. Grass silages contained approximately 46% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diets contained 50% forage, 23% forage NDF, and 28% total NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of grass particle length and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Grass particle length and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield, milk composition, or rumen pH. Long particle length tended to decrease DMI compared with short particle length, which might have been limited by rumen fill or chewing time, or both. Passage rates of feed fractions did not differ between long and short particle lengths and were not related to level of intake. As pDMI increased, long particles decreased ruminal digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF at a faster rate than short particles. As a result, long particles decreased or tended to decrease rates of ruminal turnover for NDF, organic matter, and dry matter and increased their rumen pools compared with short particles for cows with high pDMI. Long particles increased eating time, which affected cows with high intake to the greatest extent, and total chewing time

  3. Identifying candidate genes affecting developmental time in Drosophila melanogaster: pervasive pleiotropy and gene-by-environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasson Esteban

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic architecture of ecologically relevant adaptive traits requires the contribution of developmental and evolutionary biology. The time to reach the age of reproduction is a complex life history trait commonly known as developmental time. In particular, in holometabolous insects that occupy ephemeral habitats, like fruit flies, the impact of developmental time on fitness is further exaggerated. The present work is one of the first systematic studies of the genetic basis of developmental time, in which we also evaluate the impact of environmental variation on the expression of the trait. Results We analyzed 179 co-isogenic single P[GT1]-element insertion lines of Drosophila melanogaster to identify novel genes affecting developmental time in flies reared at 25°C. Sixty percent of the lines showed a heterochronic phenotype, suggesting that a large number of genes affect this trait. Mutant lines for the genes Merlin and Karl showed the most extreme phenotypes exhibiting a developmental time reduction and increase, respectively, of over 2 days and 4 days relative to the control (a co-isogenic P-element insertion free line. In addition, a subset of 42 lines selected at random from the initial set of 179 lines was screened at 17°C. Interestingly, the gene-by-environment interaction accounted for 52% of total phenotypic variance. Plastic reaction norms were found for a large number of developmental time candidate genes. Conclusion We identified components of several integrated time-dependent pathways affecting egg-to-adult developmental time in Drosophila. At the same time, we also show that many heterochronic phenotypes may arise from changes in genes involved in several developmental mechanisms that do not explicitly control the timing of specific events. We also demonstrate that many developmental time genes have pleiotropic effects on several adult traits and that the action of most of them is sensitive

  4. Bem-estar subjetivo e senso de ajustamento psicológico em idosos que sofreram acidente vascular cerebral: uma revisão Subjective well being and perceived psychological adjustment among old people affected by stroke: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóris Firmino Rabelo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento dos estudos brasileiros e estrangeiros publicados entre 1996 e 2005 que relacionavam bem-estar subjetivo, senso de ajustamento psicológico e acidente vascular cerebral, com o objetivo de identificar variáveis mediadoras dessa relação em idosos. Estudos transversais e prospectivos indicaram que os afetados por acidente vascular cerebral apresentam menor bem-estar subjetivo quando comparados com a população geral. Boa capacidade cognitiva, suporte social efetivo, continuidade de uma ocupação produtiva, manutenção da competência em atividades instrumentais de vida diária e humor positivo são fatores que podem melhorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico. Variáveis que podem piorar o bem-estar subjetivo e psicológico são incapacidade funcional, déficits cognitivos, depressão, dificuldade em restabelecer a identidade e restrição à possibilidade de desempenhar atividades e papéis que contribuem para a auto-definição. O conhecimento das implicações psicológicas de sofrer acidente vascular cerebral pode beneficiar pacientes, familiares e profissionais no gerenciamento do evento.We gathered data from Brazilian and foreign studies published between 1996 and 2005 which related subjective well-being, sense of psychological adjustment and stroke. The objective was identifying mediator variables of this relation among old people. Prospective and cross-sectional studies indicated that those affected by stroke showed less subjective well-being than the general population. Good cognitive capacity, effective social support, continuity of a productive occupation, keeping the competence in instrumental activities of daily living and good mood are factors which can affect positively the subjective and psychological well-being. Variables which can affect negatively the subjective and psychological well-being are functional incapacity, cognitive deficits, depression, difficulty in re-establishing the identity and

  5. How mycorrhizal plant-soil interactions affect formation and degradation of soil organic matter in boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Bartosz; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Ahvenainen, Anu; Strakova, Petra; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    Forest soil organic matter (SOM) contains more carbon (C) than all the flora and atmosphere combined and that is why C release as CO2 from SOM may have drastic consequences for climate globally. SOM is enormous C sink which has the potential to become C source (IPCC 2013). To predict long-term soil C storage and climate feedbacks we need profound understanding of dynamics and drivers of SOM decomposition. Ecosystem processes associated with C cycle are constrained by C and N interactions. At the level of ecosystem boreal forest is N-limited, as most of soil N is stored in recalcitrant organic form bound or complexed with soil compounds such as polyphenols. To improve N uptake, also from less available pools, plant species form symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi able to degrade recalcitrant N and sharing it with plants. As a feedback, plants provide to fungal symbiont assimilated C. Climate change through elevated CO2 level led to increases in photosynthesis which enhance the C flow belowground accelerating N uptake by plants also from more recalcitrant N pools. Increased SOM decomposition would possibly result also in increase of CO2 production from soil. Our field experiment was conducted at Hyytiälä forestry field station (SMEAR II, University of Helsinki) located in southern Finland (61°84'N, 24°26'E). In this 3-year long experiment, we discriminated SOM decomposition with different mesh bags filled with humus. These mesh bags allowed for the entrance of mycorrhiza and fine roots (1mm mesh size), or only mycorrhiza (50µm), or both were excluded (1µm). We followed changes in SOM content, N pools and enzymatic activity. The results suggests that plant-mycorrhiza interactions increase recalcitrant pool of organic N in SOM due to root-derived tannins, but mycorrhizal plants have still access to this N. Although mycorrhizal plant-soil interaction seems to strongly affect the formation of recalcitrant SOM, the net decomposition is not hindered by these chemical

  6. Stress affects instrumental learning based on positive or negative reinforcement in interaction with personality in domestic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Moussu, Chantal; Lansade, Léa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements. The presence of stressors unrelated to the task (exposure to novel and sudden stimuli) impaired learning performance. Interestingly, this learning deficit was smaller when the negative reinforcement was used. The negative reinforcement, considered as a stressor related to the task, could have counterbalanced the impact of the extrinsic stressor by focusing attention toward the learning task. In addition, learning performance appears to differ between certain dimensions of personality depending on the presence of stressors and the type of reinforcement. These results suggest that when negative reinforcement is used (i.e. stressor related to the task), the most fearful horses may be the best performers in the absence of stressors but the worst performers when stressors are present. On the contrary, when positive reinforcement is used, the most fearful horses appear to be consistently the worst performers, with and without exposure to stressors unrelated to the learning task. This study is the first to demonstrate in ungulates that stress affects learning performance differentially according to the type of reinforcement and in interaction with personality. It provides fundamental and applied perspectives in the understanding of the relationships between personality and training abilities.

  7. Empathy and personality traits as predictors of adjustment in Indian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashwant K Nagle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although adjustment has been studied in relation with a host of variables, the relevance of empathy and its importance in the process of adjustment has received little attention. It is a well-known fact that personality plays a very important role in our interactions and dealings and also that empathy facilitates this process. Settings and Design: This study evaluated whether these two things combined together affect or predict adjustment. A random sample of 52 young male adults volunteered for this study. Materials and Methods: These 52 male participants filled up questionnaires related to personality (The Jackson Personality Inventory, empathy. The Empathy Quotient and adjustment (Bell adjustment inventory. Analysis and Results: The data were analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. Personality traits like interpersonal affect, conformity facilitated the process of adjustment, whereas traits like anxiety worked in the opposite direction. Empathy also emerged as a significant contributor to the social adjustment. Conclusions: Results showed that both empathy and personality traits accounted for unique variance in adjustment. Results are discussed in terms of empathy, personality traits and their role in adjustment.

  8. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  9. The effects of racial attitudes on affect and engagement in racially discordant medical interactions between non-Black physicians and Black patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Nao; Dovidio, John F.; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A.

    2016-01-01

    The association between physicians’ and patients’ racial attitudes and poorer patient–physician communication in racially discordant medical interactions is well-documented. However, it is unclear how physicians’ and patients’ racial attitudes independently and jointly affect their behaviors during these interactions. In a secondary analysis of video-recorded medical interactions between non-Black physicians and Black patients, we examined how physicians’ explicit and implicit racial bias and patients’ perceived past discrimination influenced their own as well as one another’s affect and level of engagement. Affect and engagement were assessed with a “thin slice” method. For physicians, the major findings were significant three-way interactions: physicians’ affect and engagement were influenced by their implicit and explicit racial bias (i.e., aversive racism), but only when they interacted with patients who reported any incidence of prior discrimination. In contrast, patients’ affect was influenced only by perceived discrimination. Theoretical and clinical implications of current findings are discussed. PMID:27642254

  10. Complex interactions among temporal variables affect the plasticity of clutch size in a multi-brooded bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westneat, David F; Stewart, Ian R K; Hatch, Margret I

    2009-05-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a widespread phenomenon and may have important influences on evolutionary processes. Multidimensional plasticity, in which multiple environmental variables affect a phenotype, is especially interesting if there are interactions among these variables. We used a long-term data set from House Sparrows (Passer domesticus), a multi-brooded passerine bird, to test several predictions from life-history theory regarding the shape of optimal reaction norms for clutch size. The best-fit model for variation in clutch size included three temporal variables (the order of attempt within a season, the date of those attempts, and the age of the female). Clutch size was also sensitive to the quadratics of date and female age, both of which had negative coefficients. Finally, we found that the relationship between date and clutch size became more negative as attempt order increased. These results suggest that female sparrows have a multidimensional reaction norm for clutch size that matches predictions of life-history theory but also implicates more complexity than can be captured by any single model. Analysis of the sources of variation in reaction norm height and slope was complicated by the additional environmental dimensions. We found significant individual variation in mean clutch size in all analyses, indicating that individuals differed in the height of their clutch size reaction norm. By contrast, we found no evidence of significant individual heterogeneity in the slopes of several dimensions. We assess the possible mechanisms producing this reaction norm and discuss their implications for understanding complex plasticity.

  11. Interactions between Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species in cofermentations are affected by carbon sources, including exopolysaccharides produced by bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G

    2013-12-01

    Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics.

  12. APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism interacts with saturated fatty acids intake to affect anthropometric and hormonal variables in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Marjan Ghane; Sotoudeh, Gity; Alvandi, Ehsan; Djalali, Mahmood; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Noorshahi, Neda; Koohdani, Fariba

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have established the interaction between APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism and dietary saturated fatty acids intake in relation to obesity on healthy individuals. In the current study, we investigate the effects of this interaction on anthropometric variables and serum levels of leptin and ghrelin in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, 737 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (290 males and 447 females) were recruited from diabetes clinics in Tehran. The usual dietary intake of all participants during the last year was obtained by validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. APOA2 genotyping was performed by real-time PCR on genomic DNA. No significant relation was obtained by univariate analysis between anthropometric variables and APOA2 genotypes. However, after adjusting for age, gender, physical activity and total energy intake, we identified a significant interaction between APOA2-saturated fatty acids intake and body mass index (BMI). After adjusting for potential confounders, serum levels of ghrelin in CC genotype patients were significantly higher than T allele carriers (p = 0.03), whereas the case with leptin did not reveal a significant difference. The result of this study confirmed the interaction between APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism and SFAs intake with BMI in type 2 diabetic patients. In fact, homozygous patients for the C allele with high saturated fatty acids intake had higher BMI. The APOA2 -256T>C polymorphism was associated with elevated levels of serum ghrelin.

  13. Nutrient demand interacts with legume particle length to affect digestion responses and rumen pool sizes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammes, K L; Ying, Y; Allen, M S

    2012-05-01

    Effects of legume particle length on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, ruminal fermentation and pool sizes, and digestion and passage kinetics, and the relationship of these effects with preliminary DMI (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 19-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 22.8 to 32.4 kg/d (mean=26.5 kg/d) and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield ranged from 22.9 to 62.4 kg/d (mean=35.1 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing alfalfa silage chopped to (1) 19 mm (long cut, LC) or (2) 10 mm (short cut, SC) theoretical length of cut as the sole forage. Alfalfa silages contained approximately 43% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diets contained approximately 47% forage and 20% forage NDF. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period, when cows were fed a common diet, and used as a covariate. Main effects of legume particle length and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Alfalfa particle length and its interaction with pDMI did not affect milk yield or rumen pH. The LC diet decreased milk fat concentration more per kilogram of pDMI increase than the SC diet and increased yields of milk fat and fat-corrected milk less per kilogram of pDMI increase than the SC diet, resulting in a greater benefit for LC at low pDMI and for SC at high pDMI. The LC diet tended to decrease DMI compared with the SC diet. Ruminal digestion and passage rates of feed fractions did not differ between LC and SC and were not related to level of intake. The LC diet tended to decrease the rate of ruminal turnover for NDF but increased NDF rumen pools at a slower rate than the SC diet as pDMI increased. This indicated that the faster NDF turnover rate did not counterbalance the higher DMI for SC, resulting in larger NDF rumen pools for SC than LC. As p

  14. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  15. Curling up with a good e-book: Mother-child shared story reading on screen or paper affects embodied interaction and warmth

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Yuill; Alex Martin

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper v...

  16. Curling up with a good e-book: mother-child shared story reading on screen or paper affects embodied interaction and warmth

    OpenAIRE

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper ...

  17. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S A Palmnäs

    Full Text Available Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat and further into ad libitum water control (W or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment. Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (P<0.05. Within HF, aspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  18. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Knaepen

    Full Text Available In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support. Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  19. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmnäs, Marie S A; Cowan, Theresa E; Bomhof, Marc R; Su, Juliet; Reimer, Raylene A; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame consumption is implicated in the development of obesity and metabolic disease despite the intention of limiting caloric intake. The mechanisms responsible for this association remain unclear, but may involve circulating metabolites and the gut microbiota. Aims were to examine the impact of chronic low-dose aspartame consumption on anthropometric, metabolic and microbial parameters in a diet-induced obese model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into a standard chow diet (CH, 12% kcal fat) or high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat) and further into ad libitum water control (W) or low-dose aspartame (A, 5-7 mg/kg/d in drinking water) treatments for 8 week (n = 10-12 animals/treatment). Animals on aspartame consumed fewer calories, gained less weight and had a more favorable body composition when challenged with HF compared to animals consuming water. Despite this, aspartame elevated fasting glucose levels and an insulin tolerance test showed aspartame to impair insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in both CH and HF, independently of body composition. Fecal analysis of gut bacterial composition showed aspartame to increase total bacteria, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium leptum. An interaction between HF and aspartame was also observed for Roseburia ssp wherein HF-A was higher than HF-W (Paspartame attenuated the typical HF-induced increase in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio. Serum metabolomics analysis revealed aspartame to be rapidly metabolized and to be associated with elevations in the short chain fatty acid propionate, a bacterial end product and highly gluconeogenic substrate, potentially explaining its negative affects on insulin tolerance. How aspartame influences gut microbial composition and the implications of these changes on the development of metabolic disease require further investigation.

  20. Human-Robot Interaction: Does Robotic Guidance Force Affect Gait-Related Brain Dynamics during Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaepen, Kristel; Mierau, Andreas; Swinnen, Eva; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Michielsen, Marc; Kerckhofs, Eric; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine optimal training parameters for robot-assisted treadmill walking, it is essential to understand how a robotic device interacts with its wearer, and thus, how parameter settings of the device affect locomotor control. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different levels of guidance force during robot-assisted treadmill walking on cortical activity. Eighteen healthy subjects walked at 2 km.h-1 on a treadmill with and without assistance of the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis. Event-related spectral perturbations and changes in power spectral density were investigated during unassisted treadmill walking as well as during robot-assisted treadmill walking at 30%, 60% and 100% guidance force (with 0% body weight support). Clustering of independent components revealed three clusters of activity in the sensorimotor cortex during treadmill walking and robot-assisted treadmill walking in healthy subjects. These clusters demonstrated gait-related spectral modulations in the mu, beta and low gamma bands over the sensorimotor cortex related to specific phases of the gait cycle. Moreover, mu and beta rhythms were suppressed in the right primary sensory cortex during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking with 100% guidance force, indicating significantly larger involvement of the sensorimotor area during treadmill walking compared to robot-assisted treadmill walking. Only marginal differences in the spectral power of the mu, beta and low gamma bands could be identified between robot-assisted treadmill walking with different levels of guidance force. From these results it can be concluded that a high level of guidance force (i.e., 100% guidance force) and thus a less active participation during locomotion should be avoided during robot-assisted treadmill walking. This will optimize the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex which is known to be crucial for motor learning.

  1. The organization of anticipatory postural adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Aruin Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    Central control of posture is expressed through anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) precede planned postural perturbations and minimize them with anticipatory corrections, while compensatory postural adjustments deal with actual perturbations of balance that occur as a result of suboptimal efficiency of anticipatory corrections. The process of generation of APAs is affected by three major factors: expected magnitude and direction of the...

  2. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  3. Cross-scale interactions affect tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency and highlight the importance of spatial context in managing forests under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. We investigated the potential of cross-scale interactions to affect the outcome of density reduction in a large-scale silvicultural experiment. 2. We measured tree growth and intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) based on stable carbon isotopes (13C) to investigate the...

  4. How does shape affect predator- prey interactions in fish? Implications for marine food web structure and dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Cachera, Marie; Villanueva, Ching-maria; Ernande, Bruno; Baheux, Mickael; Rouquette, Manuel; Chambord, Sophie; Lefebvre, Sebastien

    2011-01-01

    Each species pertains to a given functional niche, depending on its relationships with others species and its interactions with the abiotic environment. Understanding inter-specific interactions is critical to know and predict ecosystems' structure, functioning and dynamics, but also their response to anthropogenic impacts. Predator-prey relationship is one of the main biotic interactions as it both determines the survival of the prey and the predator and is the keystone of food webs. Unra...

  5. Emotion Work and Affective Stance in the Mathematics Classroom: The Case of IRE Sequences in Finnish Classroom Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainio, Liisa; Laine, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Although according to the Finnish curriculum the learning environment in mathematics lessons should promote supportive interaction, Finnish pupils' attitudes toward and self-beliefs regarding mathematics deteriorate during basic education. This article investigates emotion work in teacher-student interaction in Finnish mathematics classrooms; the…

  6. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDICATORS OF SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS AND A POSSIBLE BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER (BAD IN FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS IN A SITUATION OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN THE CITY OF ARMENIA IN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the relationship between social adjustment problems and the possible emergence of a TAB in 30 women heads of household in condition of forced displacement in the city of Armenia, for the scale was used with adaptive social (SASS and the Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ. According to the results of the SAS, the main indicators of social adjustment problems were: low interest in work (31% and leisure (43% in addition, the presence of unsatisfactory relationships at the family level (30 % and social (20%. These adaptive difficulties can directly influence the emergence of a TAB and consequently, the joint probability of finding the population in social adjustment problems, while presenting a risk of emergence of a TAB is 6.8% and, if indicators of social adjustment problems are not treated properly, the possible emergence of a TAB in a 3.2% increase, causing increased psychosocial vulnerability to the MCH population in conditions of forced displacement.

  7. Engaging in Work Even When It Is Meaningless: Positive Affective Disposition and Meaningful Work Interact in Relation to Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah; Miller, Michal; Menger, Lauren; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of affective disposition and meaningful work on employee engagement. Specifically, it was proposed that meaningful work moderates the relationship between affective disposition and engagement. Questionnaires were completed by 252 white-collar employees, working in a variety of…

  8. Engaging in Work Even When It Is Meaningless: Positive Affective Disposition and Meaningful Work Interact in Relation to Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Michael F.; Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah; Miller, Michal; Menger, Lauren; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2013-01-01

    The central aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of affective disposition and meaningful work on employee engagement. Specifically, it was proposed that meaningful work moderates the relationship between affective disposition and engagement. Questionnaires were completed by 252 white-collar employees, working in a variety of…

  9. Advancing the Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust Effect: The Dynamic of User- and Robot-Generated Content on Human-Robot Trust and Interaction Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuhua Jake; Lee, Seungcheol Austin

    2016-09-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) will soon transform and shift the communication landscape such that people exchange messages with robots. However, successful HRI requires people to trust robots, and, in turn, the trust affects the interaction. Although prior research has examined the determinants of human-robot trust (HRT) during HRI, no research has examined the messages that people received before interacting with robots and their effect on HRT. We conceptualize these messages as SMART (Strategic Messages Affecting Robot Trust). Moreover, we posit that SMART can ultimately affect actual HRI outcomes (i.e., robot evaluations, robot credibility, participant mood) by affording the persuasive influences from user-generated content (UGC) on participatory Web sites. In Study 1, participants were assigned to one of two conditions (UGC/control) in an original experiment of HRT. Compared with the control (descriptive information only), results showed that UGC moderated the correlation between HRT and interaction outcomes in a positive direction (average Δr = +0.39) for robots as media and robots as tools. In Study 2, we explored the effect of robot-generated content but did not find similar moderation effects. These findings point to an important empirical potential to employ SMART in future robot deployment.

  10. Curling Up With a Good E-Book: Mother-Child Shared Story Reading on Screen or Paper Affects Embodied Interaction and Warmth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Martin, Alex F

    2016-01-01

    This study compared changes in cognitive, affective, and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children's shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 min in each of four conditions: mother or child as reader, paper, or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analyzed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers' commentaries and quality of children's recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviors that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children's transition to independent reading.

  11. Curling up with a good e-book: Mother-child shared story reading on screen or paper affects embodied interaction and warmth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Yuill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compared changes in cognitive, affective and postural aspects of interaction during shared mother and child book reading on screen and on paper. Readers commonly express strong preferences for reading on paper, but several studies have shown marginal, if any, effects of text medium on cognitive outcomes such as recall. Shared reading with a parent is an engaging, affective and embodied experience across time, as well as a cognitive task, so it is important to understand how paper vs. screen affects broader aspects of these shared experiences. Mid-childhood sees a steep rise in screen use alongside a shift from shared to independent reading. We assessed how the medium of paper or screen might alter children’s shared reading experiences at this transitional age. Twenty-four 7- to 9-year-old children and their mothers were videotaped sharing a story book for 8 minutes in each of 4 conditions: mother or child as reader, paper or tablet screen as medium. We rated videotapes for interaction warmth and child engagement by minute and analysed dyadic postural synchrony, mothers’ commentaries and quality of children’s recall, also interviewing participants about their experiences of reading and technology. We found no differences in recall quality but interaction warmth was lower for screen than for paper, and dropped over time, notably when children read on screen. Interactions also differed between mother-led and child-led reading. We propose that mother - child posture for paper reading supported more shared activity and argue that cultural affordances of screens, together with physical differences between devices, support different behaviours that affect shared engagement, with implications for the design and use of digital technology at home and at school. We advocate studying embodied and affective aspects of shared reading to understand the overall implications of screens in children’s transition to independent reading.

  12. Voicing by adapting and innovating employees : An empirical study on how personality and environment interact to affect voice behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O; Cozijnsen, AJ

    1998-01-01

    This article reports two studies exploring how cognitive style preferences for adaption-innovation affect the likelihood that employees will voice ideas for organizational change toward their supervisors. As hypothesized, Study 1 demonstrates that innovatively compared to adaptively predisposed poli

  13. The Natural Interactive Walking Project and Emergence of Its Results in Research on Rhythmic Walking Interaction and the Role of Footsteps in Affecting Body Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Sikström, Erik; Serafin, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we describe how the results of the Natural Interactive Project, which was funded within the 7th Framework Programme and ended in 2011, started several research directions concerning the role of auditory and haptic feedback in footstep simulations. We chose elements of the project ...

  14. The Natural Interactive Walking Project and Emergence of Its Results in Research on Rhythmic Walking Interaction and the Role of Footsteps in Affecting Body Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maculewicz, Justyna; Sikström, Erik; Serafin, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    which are interesting in a broader context of interactive walking with audio and haptic feedback to present and discuss the developed systems for gait analysis and feedback presentation, but also, what is even more interesting to show how it influence humans behavior and perception. We hope also to open...

  15. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  16. Benchmarking Judgmentally Adjusted Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice, usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights given

  17. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights

  18. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  19. Different genes interact with particulate matter and tobacco smoke exposure in affecting lung function decline in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Curjuric

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress related genes modify the effects of ambient air pollution or tobacco smoking on lung function decline. The impact of interactions might be substantial, but previous studies mostly focused on main effects of single genes. OBJECTIVES: We studied the interaction of both exposures with a broad set of oxidative-stress related candidate genes and pathways on lung function decline and contrasted interactions between exposures. METHODS: For 12679 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1, FEV(1 over forced vital capacity (FEV(1/FVC, and mean forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of the FVC (FEF(25-75 was regressed on interval exposure to particulate matter 10% in 3320 SAPALDIA participants without GWAS. RESULTS: On the SNP-level, rs2035268 in gene SNCA accelerated FEV(1/FVC decline by 3.8% (p(interaction = 2.5×10(-6, and rs12190800 in PARK2 attenuated FEV1 decline by 95.1 ml p(interaction = 9.7×10(-8 over 11 years, while interacting with PM10. Genes and pathways nominally interacting with PM10 and packyears exposure differed substantially. Gene CRISP2 presented a significant interaction with PM10 (p(interaction = 3.0×10(-4 on FEV(1/FVC decline. Pathway interactions were weak. Replications for the strongest SNPs in PARK2 and CRISP2 were not successful. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with a stratified response to increasing oxidative stress, different genes and pathways potentially mediate PM10 and tobacco smoke effects on lung function decline. Ignoring environmental exposures would miss these patterns, but achieving sufficient sample size and comparability across study samples is challenging.

  20. Vocal and visual stimulation, congruence and lateralization affect brain oscillations in interspecies emotional positive and negative interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria Elide

    2016-01-01

    The present research explored the effect of cross-modal integration of emotional cues (auditory and visual (AV)) compared with only visual (V) emotional cues in observing interspecies interactions. The brain activity was monitored when subjects processed AV and V situations, which represented an emotional (positive or negative), interspecies (human-animal) interaction. Congruence (emotionally congruous or incongruous visual and auditory patterns) was also modulated. electroencephalography brain oscillations (from delta to beta) were analyzed and the cortical source localization (by standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) was applied to the data. Frequency band (mainly low-frequency delta and theta) showed a significant brain activity increasing in response to negative compared to positive interactions within the right hemisphere. Moreover, differences were found based on stimulation type, with an increased effect for AV compared with V. Finally, delta band supported a lateralized right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity in response to negative and incongruous interspecies interactions, mainly for AV. The contribution of cross-modality, congruence (incongruous patterns), and lateralization (right DLPFC) in response to interspecies emotional interactions was discussed at light of a "negative lateralized effect."

  1. How the Use of Second Life Affects E-Learners' Perceptions of Social Interaction in Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Mansour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Educators, researchers, and online courses designers are increasingly investigating the use of 3-D shared virtual worlds for online education. This paper discusses the importance of social interaction in e-learning. We present the idea of using Second Life, a 3-D shared virtual world, in online courses. The researchers investigated the impact of using Second Life as a learning environment and a communication medium in online courses. We measured the extent to which the completion of a learning task and the communication in Second Life can enhance the elearners' perceptions of social interaction via a self-report questionnaire. A prototype application called The Village of Belknap was developed by the Delphi Center of Teaching and Learning at the University of Louisville. The study compared the perception of social interaction of e-learners who participated in Second Life sessions with the perception of social interaction of e-learners who did not participate in the Second Life sessions. The results indicated that the use of Second Life has a positive impact on experiencing a high perception of social interaction in online courses.

  2. Dynamic artificial neural networks with affective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Catherine D; Birdwell, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are processors that are trained to perform particular tasks. We couple a computational ANN with a simulated affective system in order to explore the interaction between the two. In particular, we design a simple affective system that adjusts the threshold values in the neurons of our ANN. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that this simple affective system can control the firing rate of the ensemble of neurons in the ANN, as well as to explore the coupling between the affective system and the processes of long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), and the effect of the parameters of the affective system on its performance. We apply our networks with affective systems to a simple pole balancing example and briefly discuss the effect of affective systems on network performance.

  3. Knowledge-driven analysis identifies a gene-gene interaction affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in multi-ethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Brautbar, Ariel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F; Clark, Andrew G; Keinan, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease. We tested for gene-gene interactions affecting the level of these four lipids based on prior knowledge of established genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits, protein-protein interactions, and pathway information. Using genotype data from 9,713 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and a locus near LIPC in their effect on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected P(c) = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we successfully validated this gene-gene interaction in the European American cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (P(c) = 0.002) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; P(c) = 0.006). The interaction between these two loci is also significant in the African American sample from ARIC (P(c) = 0.004) and in the Hispanic American sample from MESA (P(c) = 0.04). Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids, and genome-wide association studies have previously identified LIPC as associated with levels of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene-gene interaction reported here is twice as pronounced as that predicted by the sum of the marginal effects of the two loci. In conclusion, based on a knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis, together with a new locus-based validation method, we successfully identified and validated an interaction affecting a complex trait in multi-ethnic populations.

  4. Substrate phosphorylation affects degradation and interaction to endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M F M; Cunha, F M; Berti, D A; Heimann, A S; Klitzke, C F; Rioli, V; Oliveira, V; Ferro, E S

    2006-01-13

    Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that intracellular peptides containing putative post-translational modification sites (i.e., phosphorylation) could regulate specific protein interactions. Here, we extend our previous observations showing that peptide phosphorylation changes the kinetic parameters of structurally related endopeptidase EP24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15), neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1). Phosphorylation of peptides that are degraded by these enzymes leads to reduced degradation, whereas phosphorylation of peptides that interacted as competitive inhibitors of these enzymes alters only the K(i)'s. These data suggest that substrate phosphorylation could be one of the mechanisms whereby some intracellular peptides would escape degradation and could be regulating protein interactions within cells.

  5. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions...... interaction between a human operator and an artificial actor or agent. We can apply insights from puppetry to develop culturally-aware robots. Here we describe the development of a robotic marionette theatre wherein robotic controllers assume the role of human puppeteers. The system has been built, tested...

  6. Interactions between polymorphisms in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway and exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants affect human semen quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brokken, L J S; Lundberg, P J; Spanò, M;

    2014-01-01

    variants significantly modified the association between serum levels of both p,p'-DDE and CB-153 and inhibin B levels, sperm chromatin integrity, and seminal zinc levels. In the total cohort, interactions between AHRR variants and serum levels of CB-153 were associated with sperm chromatin integrity...

  7. How Inconvenient Assumptions Affect Preservice Teachers' Uptake of New Interactional Patterns in Mathematics: Analysis and Aspiration through a Bifocal Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I highlight the inadequacies of contemporary theoretical and philosophical orthodoxies to fully address pedagogic change. The required change is in mathematics education, and it has to do with enabling preservice teachers, upon graduation, to rework extant power relations in implementing new interactional patterns that centre the…

  8. Variants in the SIRT1 gene may affect diabetes risk in interaction with prenatal exposure to famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); S.R. de Rooij (Susanne); T.J. Roseboom (Tessa); J.G. Langendonk (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - To investigate whether SIRT1, a nutrient-sensing histone deacetylase, influences fetal programming during malnutrition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In 793 individuals of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort, we analyzed the interaction between three SIRT1 single nucleotide polymor

  9. Variants in the SIRT1 gene may affect diabetes risk in interaction with prenatal exposure to famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.G. Botden (Ilse); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); S.R. de Rooij (Susanne); T.J. Roseboom (Tessa); J.G. Langendonk (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - To investigate whether SIRT1, a nutrient-sensing histone deacetylase, influences fetal programming during malnutrition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In 793 individuals of the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort, we analyzed the interaction between three SIRT1 single nucleotide

  10. The Interaction of the Gammaherpesvirus 68 orf73 Protein with Cellular BET Proteins Affects the Activation of Cell Cycle Promoters▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Matthias; Pliquet, Daniel; Christalla, Thomas; Frank, Ronald; Stewart, James P.; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a valuable animal model for gamma-2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) infection and pathogenesis. The MHV-68 orf73 protein has been shown to be required for the establishment of viral latency in vivo. This study describes a novel transcriptional activation function of the MHV-68 orf73 protein and identifies the cellular bromodomain containing BET proteins Brd2/RING3, Brd3/ORFX, and BRD4 as interaction partners for the MHV-68 orf73 protein. BET protein members are known to interact with acetylated histones, and Brd2 and Brd4 have been implicated in fundamental cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation and transcriptional regulation. Using MHV-68 orf73 peptide array assays, we identified Brd2 and Brd4 interaction sites in the orf73 protein. Mutation of one binding site led to a loss of the interaction with Brd2/4 but not the retinoblastoma protein Rb, to impaired chromatin association, and to a decreased ability to activate the BET-responsive cyclin D1, D2, and E promoters. The results therefore pinpoint the binding site for Brd2/4 in a rhadinoviral orf73 protein and suggest that the recruitment of a member of the BET protein family allows the MHV-68 orf73 protein to activate the promoters of G1/S cyclins. These findings point to parallels between the transcriptional activator functions of rhadinoviral orf73 proteins and papillomavirus E2 proteins. PMID:19244327

  11. An Empirical Study of Factors Affecting Mobile Wireless Technology Adoption for Promoting Interactive Lectures in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Chin Lay; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile technology is widespread, particularly among the younger generation. There is a huge potential for utilizing such technology in lecture classes with large numbers of students, serving as an interaction tool between the students and lecturers. The challenge is to identify significant adoption factors to ensure effective adoption of…

  12. Exploring the Affective Inner Experiences of Therapists in Training: The Qualitative Interaction between Session Experience and Session Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John L.; Nofzinger-Collins, Dawn; Wynne, Martha E.; Susman, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-four 1st-year counseling students recorded their inner experiences following a simulated counseling session. Using a qualitative collective case study approach to extract emotion from a large pool of inner experience, 6 judges identified samples of affect through a triangulation process using intensity, extreme, and critical case sampling…

  13. GxE Interactions Between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Significantly Affect Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2015-01-01

    age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health...... benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles....

  14. Human papillomavirus 16 E2 interacts with neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1 affecting ErbB-3 expression in vitro and in clinical samples of cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Francesca; Curzio, Gianfranca; Melucci, Elisa; Terrenato, Irene; Antoniani, Barbara; Carosi, Mariantonia; Mottolese, Marcella; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Venuti, Aldo

    2016-05-01

    The ErbB tyrosine kinase receptors play a key role in regulating many cellular functions and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may interact with transductional pathway of different growth factor receptors. Here, these interactions were analysed in W12 cell line carrying HPV 16 genome and in clinical samples. W12 cells, in which HPV16 becomes integrated during passages, were utilised to detect viral and ErbB family expression at early (W12E) and late passages (W12G). Interestingly, a strong reduction of ErbB-3 expression was observed in W12G. Loss of the E2 and E5 viral genes occurs in W12G and this may affect ErbB-3 receptor expression. E2 and E5 rescue experiments demonstrated that only E2 gene was able to restore ErbB-3 expression. E2 is a transcriptional factor but the expression levels of ErbB3 were unaffected and ErbB-3 promoter did not show any consensus sequence for E2, thus E2 may interact in another way with ErbB3. Indeed, HPV 16 E2 can modulate ErbB-3 by interacting with the ubiquitin ligase neuregulin receptor degradation protein 1 (Nrdp-1) that is involved in the regulation of this receptor, via ubiquitination and degradation. E2 co-immunoprecipitated in a complex with Nrdp-1 leading to hypothesise an involvement of this interaction in ErbB-3 regulation. In addition, 90% of the clinical samples with integrated virus and E2 loss showed no or low ErbB-3 positivity, confirming in vitro results. In conclusion, the new discovered interaction of HPV-16 E2 with Nrdp-1 may affect ErbB-3 expression.

  15. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  16. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  17. Metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance are affected by group interactions and sex in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster: new data and a literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Burggren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila, where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects. Additionally, insects often show marked sexual dimorphism (larger females. Thus, in this study on D. melanogaster, we characterized the effects of fly density and sex on both mass-specific routine oxygen consumption (V̇O2 and hypoxia tolerance (PCrit. Females had significantly lower routine V̇O2 (∼4 µl O2 mg−1 h−1 than males (∼6 µl O2 mg−1 h−1 at an average fly density of 28 flies·respirometer chamber−1. However, V̇O2 was inversely related to fly density in males, with V̇O2 ranging from 4 to 11 µl O2 mg−1 h−1 at a density of 10 and 40 flies·chamber−1, respectively (r2=0.58, P0.5 flies, with higher fly densities having a lower PCrit. An extensive survey of the literature on metabolism in fruit flies indicates that not all studies control for, or even report on, fly density and gender, both of which may affect metabolic measurements.

  18. Metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance are affected by group interactions and sex in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster): new data and a literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggren, Warren; Souder, BriAnna M; Ho, Dao H

    2017-02-15

    Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila), where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors) affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects. Additionally, insects often show marked sexual dimorphism (larger females). Thus, in this study on D. melanogaster, we characterized the effects of fly density and sex on both mass-specific routine oxygen consumption (V̇O2) and hypoxia tolerance (PCrit). Females had significantly lower routine V̇O2 (∼4 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1)) than males (∼6 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1)) at an average fly density of 28 flies·respirometer chamber(-1) However, V̇O2 was inversely related to fly density in males, with V̇O2 ranging from 4 to 11 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1) at a density of 10 and 40 flies·chamber(-1), respectively (r(2)=0.58, Pflies showed a similar but less pronounced effect, with a V̇O2 of 4 and 7 μl O2·mg(-1)·h(-1) at a density of 10 and 40 flies·chamber(-1), respectively (r(2)=0.43, P0.5) flies, with higher fly densities having lower PCrits An extensive survey of the literature on metabolism in fruit flies indicates that not all studies control for, or even report on, fly density and gender, both of which may affect metabolic measurements.

  19. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  20. Direct interaction of natural and synthetic catechins with signal transducer activator of transcription 1 affects both its phosphorylation and activity

    KAUST Repository

    Menegazzi, Marta

    2013-12-10

    Our previous studies showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits signal transducer activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) activation. Since EGCG may be a promising lead compound for new anti-STAT1 drug design, 15 synthetic catechins, characterized by the (-)-gallocatechin-3-gallate stereochemistry, were studied in the human mammary MDA-MB-231 cell line to identify the minimal structural features that preserve the anti-STAT1 activity. We demonstrate that the presence of three hydroxyl groups of B ring and one hydroxyl group in D ring is essential to preserve their inhibitory action. Moreover, a possible molecular target of these compounds in the STAT1 pathway was investigated. Our results demonstrate a direct interaction between STAT1 protein and catechins displaying anti-STAT1 activity. In particular, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and molecular modeling indicate the presence of two putative binding sites (a and b) with different affinity. Based on docking data, site-directed mutagenesis was performed, and interaction of the most active catechins with STAT1 was studied with SPR to test whether Gln518 on site a and His568 on site b could be important for the catechin-STAT1 interaction. Data indicate that site b has higher affinity for catechins than site a as the highest affinity constant disappears in the H568ASTAT1 mutant. Furthermore, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) kinase assay data suggest that the contemporary presence in vitro of STAT1 and catechins inhibits JAK2-elicited STAT1 phosphorylation. The very tight catechin-STAT1 interaction prevents STAT1 phosphorylation and represents a novel, specific and efficient molecular mechanism for the inhibition of STAT1 activation. © Copyright 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors affecting the interactions between beta-lactoglobulin and fatty acids as revealed in molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Changhong; Wambo, Thierry O.

    2015-01-01

    Beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a bovine dairy protein, is a promiscuously interacting protein that can bind multiple hydrophobic ligands. Fatty acids (FAs), common hydrophobic molecules bound to BLG, are important sources of fuel for life because they yield large quantities of ATP when metabolized. The binding affinity increases with the length of the ligands, indicating the importance of the van der Waals (vdW) interactions between the hydrocarbon tail and the hydrophobic calyx of BLG. An exception to this rule is caprylic acid (OCA) which is two-carbon shorter but has a stronger binding affinity than capric acid. Theoretical calculations in the current literature are not accurate enough to shed light on the underlying physics of this exception. The computed affinity values are greater for longer fatty acids without respect for the caprylic exception and those values are generally several orders of magnitude away from the experimental data. In this work, we used hybrid steered molecular dynamics to accurately compute the binding free energies between BLG and the five saturated FAs of 8 to 16 carbon atoms. The computed binding free energies agree well with experimental data not only in rank but also in absolute values. We gained insights into the exceptional behavior of caprylic acid in the computed values of entropy and electrostatic interactions. We found that the electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of caprylic acid and the two amino groups of K60/69 in BLG is much stronger than the vdW force between OCA’s hydrophobic tail and the BLG calyx. This pulls OCA to the top of the beta barrel where it is easier to fluctuate, giving rise to greater entropy of OCA at the binding site. PMID:26272099

  2. Genotype-by-Environment Interactions and Adaptation to Local Temperature Affect Immunity and Fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Brian P.; Flores, Heather A.; Lorigan, James G.; Yourth, Christopher P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history “balance” between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both local adaptation to geographically heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions may explain the persistence of genetic variation for resistance to infection in natural populations. PMID:18369474

  3. Specific interactions between lactose repressor protein and DNA affected by ligand binding: ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Tatsuya; Hayakawa, Masato; Nishikawa, Shin; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2011-06-01

    Transcription mechanisms of gene information from DNA to mRNA are essentially controlled by regulatory proteins such as a lactose repressor (LacR) protein and ligand molecules. Biochemical experiments elucidated that a ligand binding to LacR drastically changes the mechanism controlled by LacR, although the effect of ligand binding has not been clarified at atomic and electronic levels. We here investigated the effect of ligand binding on the specific interactions between LacR and operator DNA by the molecular simulations combined with classical molecular mechanics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results indicate that the binding of anti-inducer ligand strengthens the interaction between LacR and DNA, which is consistent with the fact that the binding of anti-inducer enhances the repression of gene transcription by LacR. It was also elucidated that hydrating water molecules existing between LacR and DNA contribute to the specific interactions between LacR and DNA. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Crystal Water Affect in the Interaction between the Tenebrio Molitor Alpha-Amylase and Its Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhi-Fei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulation of the interaction between the Tenebrio molitor alpha-amylase and its inhibitor at different proportion of crystal water was carried out with OPLS force field by hyperchem 7.5 software. In the correlative study, the optimal temperature of wheat monomeric and dimeric protein inhibitors was from 273 K to 318 K. The the average temperature of experimentation is 289 K. (1 The optimal temperature of interaction between alpha-amylase and its inhibitors was 280 K without crystal water that was close to the results of experimentation. The forming of enzyme-water and inhibitor-water was easy, but incorporating third monomer was impossible. (2 Having analyzed the potential energy data, the optimal temperature of interaction energy between alpha-amylase and its inhibitors covering 9 : 1, 5 : 5, 4 : 6, and 1 : 9 proportion crystal water was 290 K. (3 We compared the correlative QSAR properties. The proportion of crystal water was close to the data of polarizability (12.4% in the QSAR properties. The optimal temperature was 280 K. This result was close to 289 K. These findings have theoretical and practical implications.

  5. Water dynamics as affected by interaction with biomolecules and change of thermodynamic state: a neutron scattering study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchini, A.; Paciaroni, A.; Petrillo, C.; Sebastiani, F.; De Francesco, A.; Sacchetti, F.

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of water as subtly perturbed by both the interaction with biomolecules and the variation of temperature and pressure has been investigated via neutron scattering spectroscopy. A measurement of inelastic neutron scattering devoted to the study of the coherent THz dynamics of water in a water-rich mixture with DNA (hydration level of 1 g DNA/15 g D2O) at room temperature is reported. The DNA hydration water coherent dynamics is characterised by the presence of collective modes, whose dispersion relations are similar to those observed in bulk water. These dispersion relations are well described by the interaction model developed in the case of bulk water, and the existence of a fast sound is experimentally demonstrated. The behaviour of the collective water dynamics was complemented by studying the single-particle dynamics of bulk water along the isotherm T = 298 K in the pressure range 0.1-350 MPa by means of incoherent scattering. This experiment is an attempt to simulate the change of the water molecular arrangement due to the interaction with DNA, by increasing the pressure as the presence of the biomolecule produces an increase in the density. An anomaly is found in the behaviour of the relaxation time derived from the quasi-elastic scattering signal, which can be related to the hypothetical second critical point in water. This anomaly and the transition from slow to fast sound take place in the same Q range, thus suggesting that the two phenomena could be related at some microscopic level.

  6. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  7. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  8. Nitrogen source and external medium pH interaction differentially affects root and shoot metabolism in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier eSarasketa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nutrition often represents an important growth-limiting stress in plants. Some of the symptoms that plants present under ammonium nutrition have been associated with pH deregulation, in fact external medium pH control is known to improve plants ammonium tolerance. However, the way plant cell metabolism adjusts to these changes is not completely understood. Thus, in this work we focused on how Arabidopsis thaliana shoot and root respond to different nutritional regimes by varying the nitrogen source (NO3- and NH4+, concentration (2 and 10 mM and pH of the external medium (5.7 and 6.7 to gain a deeper understanding of cell metabolic adaptation upon altering these environmental factors. The results obtained evidence changes in the response of ammonium assimilation machinery and of the anaplerotic enzymes associated to Tricarboxylic Acids (TCA cycle in function of the plant organ, the nitrogen source and the degree of ammonium stress. A greater stress severity at pH 5.7 was related to NH4+ accumulation; this could not be circumvented in spite of the stimulation of glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase and TCA cycle anaplerotic enzymes. Moreover, this study suggests specific functions for different gln and gdh isoforms based on the nutritional regime. Overall, NH4+ accumulation triggering ammonium stress appears to bear no relation to nitrogen assimilation impairment.

  9. I-mfa domain proteins interact with Axin and affect its regulation of the Wnt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Shuichi; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2002-09-01

    I-mfa has been identified as an inhibitor of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, and a related human I-mfa domain-containing protein (HIC) also has been identified as a protein that regulates Tat- and Tax-mediated expression of viral promoters. HIC and I-mfa represent a family of proteins that share a highly conserved cysteine-rich domain, termed the I-mfa domain. We show here that both I-mfa domain proteins, HIC and I-mfa, interacted in vivo with the Axin complex through their C-terminal I-mfa domains. This interaction inhibited Axin-mediated downregulation of free levels of cytosolic beta-catenin. I-mfa and HIC also both directly interacted with lymphocyte enhancer factor (LEF); however, I-mfa but not HIC significantly inhibited reporter constructs regulated by beta-catenin. The overexpression of HIC but not I-mfa decreased the inhibitory effects of Axin on beta-catenin-regulated reporter constructs, while both HIC and I-mfa decreased Axin-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with the Axin complex and affect Axin regulation of both the Wnt and the JNK activation pathways. Interestingly, HIC differs from I-mfa in that I-mfa affects both Axin function and T-cell factor- or LEF-regulated transcription in the Wnt signaling pathway while HIC affects primarily Axin function.

  10. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Fremgen

    Full Text Available Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP components essential for social (S gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  11. MasABK proteins interact with proteins of the type IV pilin system to affect social motility of Myxococcus xanthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremgen, Sarah; Williams, Amanda; Furusawa, Gou; Dziewanowska, Katarzyna; Settles, Matthew; Hartzell, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Gliding motility is critical for normal development of spore-filled fruiting bodies in the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Mutations in mgl block motility and development but one mgl allele can be suppressed by a mutation in masK, the last gene in an operon adjacent to the mgl operon. Deletion of the entire 5.5 kb masABK operon crippled gliding and fruiting body development and decreased sporulation. Expression of pilAGHI, which encodes type IV pili (TFP) components essential for social (S) gliding, several cryptic pil genes, and a LuxR family protein were reduced significantly in the Δmas mutant while expression of the myxalamide operon was increased significantly. Localization and two-hybrid analysis suggest that the three Mas proteins form a membrane complex. MasA-PhoA fusions confirmed that MasA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with a ≈100 amino acid periplasmic domain. Results from yeast two-hybrid assays showed that MasA interacts with the lipoprotein MasB and MasK, a protein kinase and that MasB and MasK interact with one another. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed a physical interaction between two gene products of the mas operon, MasA and MasB, and PilA. Deletion of mas may be accompanied by compensatory mutations since complementation of the Δmas social gliding and developmental defects required addition of both pilA and masABK.

  12. Patient-Provider Interactions Affect Symptoms in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Dossett

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the benefits that some patients derive from complementary and integrative medicine (CIM are related to the therapies recommended or to the consultation process as some CIM provider visits are more involved than conventional medical visits. Many patients with gastrointestinal conditions seek out CIM therapies, and prior work has demonstrated that the quality of the patient-provider interaction can improve health outcomes in irritable bowel syndrome, however, the impact of this interaction on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is unknown. We aimed to assess the safety and feasibility of conducting a 2 x 2 factorial design study preliminarily exploring the impact of the patient-provider interaction, and the effect of an over-the-counter homeopathic product, Acidil, on symptoms and health-related quality of life in subjects with GERD.24 subjects with GERD-related symptoms were randomized in a 2 x 2 factorial design to receive 1 either a standard visit based on an empathic conventional primary care evaluation or an expanded visit with questions modeled after a CIM consultation and 2 either Acidil or placebo for two weeks. Subjects completed a daily GERD symptom diary and additional measures of symptom severity and health-related quality of life.There was no significant difference in GERD symptom severity between the Acidil and placebo groups from baseline to follow-up (p = 0.41, however, subjects who received the expanded visit were significantly more likely to report a 50% or greater improvement in symptom severity compared to subjects who received the standard visit (p = 0.01. Total consultation length, perceived empathy, and baseline beliefs in CIM were not associated with treatment outcomes.An expanded patient-provider visit resulted in greater GERD symptom improvement than a standard empathic medical visit. CIM consultations may have enhanced placebo effects, and further studies to assess the active components of this

  13. Grb7 and Hax1 may colocalize partially to mitochondria in EGF treated SKBR3 cells and their interaction can affect Caspase3 cleavage of Hax1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lei; Bradford, Andrew M.; Cooke, Peter H.; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2017-01-01

    Growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7) is a signal transducing adaptor protein that mediates specific protein-protein interactions in multiple signaling pathways. Grb7, with Grb10 and Grb14, are members of the Grb7 protein family. The topology of the Grb7 family members contains several protein-binding domains that facilitate the formation of protein complexes and high signal transduction efficiency. Grb7 has been found overexpressed in several types of cancers and cancer cell lines, and is presumed involved in cancer progression through promotion of cell proliferation and migration via interactions with the ErbB2 (HER2) receptor, FAK (focal adhesion kinase), Ras-GTPases, and other signaling partners. We previously reported Grb7 binds to Hax1 (HS1 associated protein X1) isoform 1, an anti-apoptotic protein also involved in cell proliferation and calcium homeostasis. In this study, we confirm the in vitro Grb7/Hax1 interaction is exclusive to these two proteins and their interaction does not depend on Grb7 dimerization state. In addition, we report Grb7 and Hax1 isoform 1 may colocalize partially to mitochondria in EGF treated SKBR3 cells and growth conditions can affect this colocalization. Moreover, Grb7 can affect Caspase3 cleavage of the Hax1 isoform 1 in vitro, and Grb7 expression may slow the Caspase3 cleavage of Hax1 isoform 1 in apoptotic HeLa cells. Finally, Grb7 is shown to increase cell viability in apoptotic HeLa cells in a time dependent manner. Taken together, these discoveries provide clues for the role of a Grb7/Hax1 protein interaction in apoptosis pathways involving Hax1. PMID:26869103

  14. 同伴依恋在受艾滋病影响儿童自尊和学校适应间的中介作用%The mediation effect of the peer attachment between the self-esteem and the school adjustment of the children affected by AIDS/HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳辉; 李巧灵; 郭腾飞; 赵俊峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对学校适应的影响及同伴依恋在该过程中的作用.方法 从河南省某受艾滋病影响严重地区选取符合条件的250名受艾滋病影响儿童作为研究对象,用自尊量表、同伴依恋量表和学校适应量表进行调查.结果 ①受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对学校适应具有显著的正向影响(β=0.227,P<0.01).②受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对同伴依恋具有显著的正向影响(β=0.236,P<0.01).③在控制同伴依恋的间接作用后,自尊对学校适应的影响仍然显著(β=0.145,P<0.05),表明同伴依恋在自尊影响学校适应的内在机制中起部分中介作用.结论 受艾滋病影响儿童自尊对学校适应具有显著的影响,自尊既可以直接对学校适应产生影响,又可以通过同伴依恋的间接作用产生影响.%Objective To explore the mediation effect of the peer attachment between the self-esteem and the school adjustment of the children affected by AIDS/HIV.Methods 250 children affected by the AIDS/HIV were investigated in the research in a district affected by AIDS/HIV in the Henan province.Self-esteem scale,peer attachment questionnaire and school adjustment questionnaire was adopted in the study.Results ①Self-esteem had a positive significant effect on the school adjustment (β=0.227,P<0.01).(②)self-esteem had a positive significant effect on the peer attachment (β=0.236,P< 0.01).(③When controlled the indirect effect of peer attachment,the effect of the self-esteem on the school adjustment had still been significant (β =0.145,P<0.05),it proved that the peer attachment played a partly mediation between the relationship of the self-esteem and the school adjustment.Conclusion Self-esteem has a positive significant effect on the school adjustment; and self-esteem can not only affect the school adjustment directly,but also affect the school adjustment through the peer attachment.

  15. Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main theme of this anthology is the unique interaction between mathematics, physics and philosophy during the beginning of the 20th century. Seminal theories of modern physics and new fundamental mathematical structures were discovered or formed in this period. Significant physicists...... such as Lorentz and Einstein as well as mathematicians such as Poincare, Minkowski, Hilbert and Weyl contributed to this development. They created the new physical theories and the mathematical disciplines that play such paramount roles in their mathematical formulations. These physicists and mathematicians were...

  16. Isoform-specific interaction of Flamingo/Starry Night with excess Bazooka affects planar cell polarity in the Drosophila wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserscheid, Isabel; Thomas, Ulrich; Knust, Elisabeth

    2007-04-01

    Epithelia display two types of polarity, apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP), and both are crucial for morphogenesis and organogenesis. PCP signaling pathways comprise transmembrane proteins, such as Flamingo/Starry Night, and cytoplasmic, membrane-associated proteins such as Dishevelled. During establishment of PCP in the Drosophila wing, PCP proteins accumulate apically in distinct "cortical domains" on proximal and distal plasma membranes. This finding suggests that their localized function depends on prior definition of apicobasal polarity. Here, we show that overexpression of Bazooka, a PDZ-domain protein essential for apicobasal polarity in the embryo, perturbs development of PCP, but has no effect on apicobasal polarity. The PCP phenotype is associated with a failure to restrict Flamingo/Starry night to the proximal and distal plasma membranes of the wing epithelium. We further demonstrate that flamingo expresses two differentially spliced RNAs in wing imaginal discs, which encode two isoforms of the atypical cadherin Flamingo. The predominant Starry night-type form contains a PDZ-binding motif, which mediates binding to Bazooka in vitro. Pull-down assays support the occurrence of such an interaction in wing imaginal discs. The results suggest that interaction between the apicobasal and planar cell polarity systems has to be tightly coordinated to ensure proper morphogenesis of the wing disc epithelium.

  17. Religion priming and an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism interact to affect self-control in a social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Joni Y; Mojaverian, Taraneh; Kim, Heejung S

    2015-02-01

    Using a genetic moderation approach, this study examines how an experimental prime of religion impacts self-control in a social context, and whether this effect differs depending on the genotype of an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (rs53576). People with different genotypes of OXTR seem to have different genetic orientations toward sociality, which may have consequences for the way they respond to religious cues in the environment. In order to determine whether the influence of religion priming on self-control is socially motivated, we examine whether this effect is stronger for people who have OXTR genotypes that should be linked to greater rather than less social sensitivity (i.e., GG vs. AA/AG genotypes). The results showed that experimentally priming religion increased self-control behaviors for people with GG genotypes more so than people with AA/AG genotypes. Furthermore, this Gene × Religion interaction emerged in a social context, when people were interacting face to face with another person. This research integrates genetic moderation and social psychological approaches to address a novel question about religion's influence on self-control behavior, which has implications for coping with distress and psychopathology. These findings also highlight the importance of the social context for understanding genetic moderation of psychological effects.

  18. NH4+ enrichment and UV radiation interact to affect the photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake of Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiguang; Gao, Kunshan

    2012-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) is known to inhibit the photosynthesis of macroalgae, whereas nitrogen availability may alter the sensitivity of the algae to UVR. Here, we show that UV-B (280-315 nm) significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. This inhibition was alleviated by enrichment with ammonia, which also caused a decrease in dark respiration. The presence of both UV-A (315-400 nm) and UV-B stimulated the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. However, this stimulation was not affected by enrichment with ammonia. The content of phycoerythrin (PE) was increased by the enrichment of ammonia only in the absence of UVR. Ammonia uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase were repressed by UVR. However, exposure to UVR had an insignificant effect on the rate of nitrate uptake. In conclusion, increased PE content associated with ammonia enrichment played a protective role against UVR in this alga, and UVR differentially affected the uptake of nitrate and ammonia.

  19. Interaction Between Syndromic and Non-Syndromic Factors Affecting Speech and Language Development in Treacher-Collins Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Poorjavad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treacher-Collins syndrome is a congenital craniofacial disorder with multiple anomalies. This syndrome affects the maxilla, mandible, eyes, middle and outer ears, and soft palate. Conductive hearing loss due to the deformities of the middle and external ears is prevalent. The characteristics of this syndrome include multiple and serious threats to normal communication development in children. In this study, speech and language features of a Persian speaking child with this syndrome are presented.Case: The case was an 8-year old girl with Treacher-Collins syndrome and bilateral moderate conductive hearing loss due to atretic canal. In language and speech assessments, moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors and morphosyntactic deficits were observed. There were 13 phonemes that were incorrectly produced at least in one position. Besides, she used 22 types of phonological processes that were abnormal and disappear before the age of three in normal Persian speaking children.Conclusion: Moderate hearing loss, velopharyngeal incompetency, malocclusion and dental anomalies, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and environmental factors resulted in severe speech and language disorders in this case. These disorders affected her academic performance as well. Moderate hypernasality, numerous compensatory errors, and excessive and abnormal use of phonological processes were not presented as prevalent characteristics of Treacher-Collins syndrome in other resources.

  20. Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of NR2E3 affect in vivo dimerization and interaction with CRX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Roduit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NR2E3 (PNR is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for proper photoreceptor determination and differentiation. In humans, mutations in NR2E3 have been associated with the recessively inherited enhanced short wavelength sensitive (S- cone syndrome (ESCS and, more recently, with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. NR2E3 acts as a suppressor of the cone generation program in late mitotic retinal progenitor cells. In adult rod photoreceptors, NR2E3 represses cone-specific gene expression and acts in concert with the transcription factors CRX and NRL to activate rod-specific genes. NR2E3 and CRX have been shown to physically interact in vitro through their respective DNA-binding domains (DBD. The DBD also contributes to homo- and heterodimerization of nuclear receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed NR2E3 homodimerization and NR2E3/CRX complex formation in an in vivo situation by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET(2. NR2E3 wild-type protein formed homodimers in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. NR2E3 homodimerization was impaired in presence of disease-causing mutations in the DBD, except for the p.R76Q and p.R104W mutant proteins. Strikingly, the adRP-linked p.G56R mutant protein interacted with CRX with a similar efficiency to that of NR2E3 wild-type and p.R311Q proteins. In contrast, all other NR2E3 DBD-mutant proteins did not interact with CRX. The p.G56R mutant protein was also more effective in abolishing the potentiation of rhodospin gene transactivation by the NR2E3 wild-type protein. In addition, the p.G56R mutant enhanced the transrepression of the M- and S-opsin promoter, while all other NR2E3 DBD-mutants did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest different disease mechanisms in adRP- and ESCS-patients carrying NR2E3 mutations. Titration of CRX by the p.G56R mutant protein acting as a repressor in trans may account for the severe clinical phenotype in adRP patients.

  1. Fragmentation and thermal risks from climate change interact to affect persistence of native trout in the Colorado River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J.; Fausch, Kurt D.; Peterson, Douglas P.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Impending changes in climate will interact with other stressors to threaten aquatic ecosystems and their biota. Native Colorado River cutthroat trout (CRCT; Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) are now relegated to 309 isolated high-elevation (>1700 m) headwater stream fragments in the Upper Colorado River Basin, owing to past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss. Predicted changes in climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and resulting changes in stochastic physical disturbances (i.e., wildfire, debris flow, and channel drying and freezing) could further threaten the remaining CRCT populations. We developed an empirical model to predict stream temperatures at the fragment scale from downscaled climate projections along with geomorphic and landscape variables. We coupled these spatially explicit predictions of stream temperature with a Bayesian Network (BN) model that integrates stochastic risks from fragmentation to project persistence of CRCT populations across the upper Colorado River basin to 2040 and 2080. Overall, none of the populations are at risk from acute mortality resulting from high temperatures during the warmest summer period. In contrast, only 37% of populations have a greater than or equal to 90% chance of persistence for 70 years (similar to the typical benchmark for conservation), primarily owing to fragmentation. Populations in short stream fragments risk of extirpation. Therefore, interactions of stochastic disturbances with fragmentation are projected to be greater threats than warming for CRCT populations. The reason for this paradox is that past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss have restricted most CRCT populations to high-elevation stream fragments that are buffered from the potential consequences of warming, but at risk of extirpation from stochastic events. The greatest conservation need is for management to increase fragment lengths to forestall these risks. 

  2. AFM force spectroscopy reveals how subtle structural differences affect the interaction strength between Candida albicans and DC-SIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Riet, Joost; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Figdor, Carl G; Cambi, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Candida albicans is the most common cause of mycotic infections in immunocompromised hosts. Little is known about the initial interactions between Candida and immune cell receptors, such as the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intracellular cell adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), because a detailed characterization at the structural level is lacking. DC-SIGN recognizes specific Candida-associated molecular patterns, that is, mannan structures present in the cell wall of Candida. The molecular recognition mechanism is however poorly understood. We postulated that small differences in mannan-branching may result in considerable differences in the binding affinity. Here, we exploit atomic force microscope-based dynamic force spectroscopy with single Candida cells to gain better insight in the carbohydrate recognition capacity of DC-SIGN. We demonstrate that slight differences in the N-mannan structure of Candida, that is, the absence or presence of a phosphomannan side chain, results in differences in the recognition by DC-SIGN as follows: (i) it contributes to the compliance of the outer cell wall of Candida, and (ii) its presence results in a higher binding energy of 1.6 kB T. The single-bond affinity of tetrameric DC-SIGN for wild-type C. albicans is ~10.7 kB T and a dissociation constant kD of 23 μM, which is relatively strong compared with other carbohydrate-protein interactions described in the literature. In conclusion, this study shows that DC-SIGN specifically recognizes mannan patterns on C. albicans with high affinity. Knowledge on the binding pocket of DC-SIGN and its pathogenic ligands will lead to a better understanding of how fungal-associated carbohydrate structures are recognized by receptors of the immune system and can ultimately contribute to the development of new anti-fungal drugs.

  3. Interactions affect hyphal growth and enzyme profiles in combinations of coniferous wood-decaying fungi of Agaricomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Tuulia; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Shah, Firoz; Lundell, Taina Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Fomitopsis pinicola is a species of Polyporales frequently encountered in Nordic temperate and boreal forests. In nature, the fungus causes destructive brown rot in wood, colonizing tree trunks often occupied by other Basidiomycota species. We mimicked these species-species interactions by introducing F. pinicola to five white rot species, all common saprotrophs of Norway spruce. Hyphal interactions and mycelial growth in various combinations were recorded, while activities of lignocellulose-acting CAZymes and oxidoreductases were followed in co-cultures on two different carbon-source media. Of the species, Phlebia radiata and Trichaptum abietinum were the strongest producers of lignin-modifying oxidoreductases (laccase, manganese peroxidase) when evaluated alone, as well as in co-cultures, on the two different growth media (low-nitrogen liquid medium containing ground coniferous wood, and malt extract broth). F. pinicola was an outstanding producer of oxalic acid (up to 61 mM), whereas presence of P. radiata prevented acidification of the growth environment in the liquid malt-extract cultures. When enzyme profiles of the species combinations were clustered, time-dependent changes were observed on wood-supplemented medium during the eight weeks of growth. End-point acidity and production of mycelium, oxalic acid and oxidoreductase activities, in turn clustered the fungal combinations into three distinct functional groups, determined by the presence of F. pinicola and P. radiata, by principal component analysis. Our findings indicate that combinations of wood-decay fungi have dramatic dynamic effects on the production of lignocellulose-active enzymes, which may lead to divergent degradative processes of dead wood and forest litter.

  4. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kini, R. Manjunatha; Koh, Cho Yeow

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation. PMID:27690102

  5. Metalloproteases Affecting Blood Coagulation, Fibrinolysis and Platelet Aggregation from Snake Venoms: Definition and Nomenclature of Interaction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manjunatha Kini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom metalloproteases, in addition to their contribution to the digestion of the prey, affect various physiological functions by cleaving specific proteins. They exhibit their activities through activation of zymogens of coagulation factors, and precursors of integrins or receptors. Based on their structure–function relationships and mechanism of action, we have defined classification and nomenclature of functional sites of proteases. These metalloproteases are useful as research tools and in diagnosis and treatment of various thrombotic and hemostatic conditions. They also contribute to our understanding of molecular details in the activation of specific factors involved in coagulation, platelet aggregation and matrix biology. This review provides a ready reference for metalloproteases that interfere in blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation.

  6. Geochemical interactions between process-affected water from oil sands tailings ponds and North Alberta surficial sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, A A; Donahue, R B; Ulrich, A C

    2011-01-25

    In Northern Alberta, the placement of out-of-pit oil sands tailings ponds atop natural buried sand channels is becoming increasingly common. Preliminary modeling of such a site suggests that process-affected (PA) pond water will infiltrate through the underlying clay till aquitard, reaching the sand channel. However, the impact of seepage upon native sediments and groundwater resources is not known. The goal of this study is to investigate the role of adsorption and ion exchange reactions in the clay till and their effect on the attenuation or release of inorganic species. This was evaluated using batch sorption experiments (traditional and a recent modification using less disturbed sediment samples) and geochemical modeling with PHREEQC. The results show that clay till sediments have the capacity to mitigate the high concentrations of ingressing sodium (600 mg L(-1)), with linear sorption partitioning coefficients (K(d)) of 0.45 L kg(-1). Ion exchange theory was required to account for all other cation behaviour, precluding the calculation of such coefficients for other species. Qualitative evidence suggests that chloride will behave conservatively, with high concentrations remaining in solution (375 mg L(-1)). As a whole, system behaviour was found to be controlled by a combination of competitive ion exchange, dissolution and precipitation reactions. Observations, supported by PHREEQC simulations, suggest that the influx of PA water will induce the dissolution of pre-existing sulphate salts. Sodium present in the process-affected water will exchange with sediment-bound calcium and magnesium, increasing the divalent ions' pore fluid concentrations, and leading to the precipitation of a calcium-magnesium carbonate mineral phase. Thus, in similar tailings pond settings, particularly if the glacial till coverage is thin or altogether absent, it is reasonable to expect that high concentrations of sodium and chloride will remain in solution, while sulphate

  7. Human I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with KSHV LANA and affect its regulation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Shuichi; Eizuru, Yoshito

    2010-06-04

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein has been reported to interact with glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) and to negatively regulate its activity, leading to stimulation of GSK-3beta-dependent beta-catenin degradation. We show here that the I-mfa domain proteins, HIC (human I-mfa domain-containing protein) and I-mfa (inhibitor of MyoD family a), interacted in vivo with LANA through their C-terminal I-mfa domains. This interaction affected the intracellular localization of HIC, inhibited the LANA-dependent transactivation of a beta-catenin-regulated reporter construct, and decreased the level of the LANA.GSK-3beta complex. These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with LANA and negatively regulate LANA-mediated activation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription by inhibiting the formation of the LANA.GSK-3beta complex.

  8. Human I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with KSHV LANA and affect its regulation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Eizuru, Yoshito [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2010-06-04

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein has been reported to interact with glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and to negatively regulate its activity, leading to stimulation of GSK-3{beta}-dependent {beta}-catenin degradation. We show here that the I-mfa domain proteins, HIC (human I-mfa domain-containing protein) and I-mfa (inhibitor of MyoD family a), interacted in vivo with LANA through their C-terminal I-mfa domains. This interaction affected the intracellular localization of HIC, inhibited the LANA-dependent transactivation of a {beta}-catenin-regulated reporter construct, and decreased the level of the LANA.GSK-3{beta} complex. These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with LANA and negatively regulate LANA-mediated activation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription by inhibiting the formation of the LANA.GSK-3{beta} complex.

  9. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE delays NOD2 expression and affects NOD2/RIPK2 interactions in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian C Aldhous

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors influence susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD: NOD2 is the strongest individual genetic determinant and smoking the best-characterised environmental factor. Carriage of NOD2 mutations predispose to small-intestinal, stricturing CD, a phenotype also associated with smoking. We hypothesised that cigarette smoke extract (CSE altered NOD2 expression and function in intestinal epithelial cells.Intestinal epithelial cell-lines (SW480, HT29, HCT116 were stimulated with CSE and nicotine (to mimic smoking ±TNFα (to mimic inflammation. NOD2 expression was measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting; NOD2-RIPK2 interactions by co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP; nuclear NFκB-p65 by ELISA; NFκB activity by luciferase reporter assays and chemokines (CCL20, IL8 in culture supernatants by ELISA. In SW480 and HT29 cells the TNFα-induced NOD2 expression at 4 hours was reduced by CSE (p = 0.0226, a response that was dose-dependent (p = 0.003 and time-dependent (p = 0.0004. Similar effects of CSE on NOD2 expression were seen in cultured ileal biopsies from healthy individuals. In SW480 cells CSE reduced TNFα-induced NFκB-p65 translocation at 15 minutes post-stimulation, upstream of NOD2. Levels of the NOD2-RIPK2 complex were no different at 8 hours post-stimulation with combinations of CSE, nicotine and TNFα, but at 18 hours it was increased in cells stimulated with TNFα+CSE but decreased with TNFα alone (p = 0.0330; CSE reduced TNFα-induced NFκB activity (p = 0.0014 at the same time-point. At 24 hours, basal CCL20 and IL8 (p<0.001 for both and TNFα-induced CCL20 (p = 0.0330 production were decreased by CSE. CSE also reduced NOD2 expression, CCL20 and IL8 production seen with MDP-stimulation of SW480 cells pre-treated with combinations of TNFα and CSE.CSE delayed TNFα-induced NOD2 mRNA expression and was associated with abnormal NOD2/RIPK2 interaction, reduced NFκB activity and decreased chemokine

  10. Cultural Novelty and Adjustment: Western Business Expatriates in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Western business expatriates in China. Three sociocultural adjustment variables were examined; general, interaction and work adjustment. Although a negative relationship was hypothesized between cultural novelty and the three adjustment variables, results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis...... showed that there was no significant association between them. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that it is as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a very similar culture as to a very dissimilar culture, is fundamental. Implications of this potentially crucial finding are discussed...

  11. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. Right atrial pressure affects the interaction between lung mechanics and right ventricular function in spontaneously breathing COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Boerrigter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary interactions are influenced by right atrial pressure. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with COPD underwent simultaneous measurements of intrathoracic, right atrial and pulmonary artery pressures during spontaneous breathing at rest and during exercise. Intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure were used to calculate right atrial filling pressure. Dynamic changes in pulmonary artery pulse pressure during expiration were examined to evaluate changes in right ventricular output. RESULTS: Pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreased up to 40% during expiration reflecting a decrease in stroke volume. The decline in pulse pressure was most prominent in patients with a low right atrial filling pressure. During exercise, a similar decline in pulmonary artery pressure was observed. This could be explained by similar increases in intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure during exercise, resulting in an unchanged right atrial filling pressure. CONCLUSIONS: We show that in spontaneously breathing COPD patients the pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreases during expiration and that the magnitude of the decline in pulmonary artery pulse pressure is not just a function of intrathoracic pressure, but also depends on right atrial pressure.

  13. Interactions between barrier islands and backbarrier marshes affect island system response to sea level rise: Insights from a coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David; Moore, Laura J.; Duran Vinent, Orencio; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Mariotti, Giulio

    2014-09-01

    Interactions between backbarrier marshes and barrier islands will likely play an important role in determining how low-lying coastal systems respond to sea level rise and changes in storminess in the future. To assess the role of couplings between marshes and barrier islands under changing conditions, we develop and apply a coupled barrier island-marsh model (GEOMBEST+) to assess the impact of overwash deposition on backbarrier marsh morphology and of marsh morphology on rates of island migration. Our model results suggest that backbarrier marsh width is in a constant state of change until either the backbarrier basin becomes completely filled or backbarrier marsh deposits have completely eroded away. Results also suggest that overwash deposition is an important source of sediment, which allows existing narrow marshes to be maintained in a long-lasting alternate state (~500 m wide in the Virginia Barrier Islands) within a range of conditions under which they would otherwise disappear. The existence of a narrow marsh state is supported by observations of backbarrier marshes along the eastern shore of Virginia. Additional results suggest that marshes reduce accommodation in the backbarrier bay, which, in turn, decreases island migration rate. As climate change results in sea level rise, and the increased potential for intense hurricanes resulting in overwash, it is likely that these couplings will become increasingly important in determining future system behavior.

  14. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

    2013-09-01

    The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males.

  15. Daxx-like protein of Drosophila interacts with Dmp53 and affects longevity and Ark mRNA level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodai, László; Pardi, Norbert; Ujfaludi, Zsuzsanna; Bereczki, Orsolya; Komonyi, Orbán; Balint, Eva; Boros, Imre M

    2007-12-14

    Daxx-like protein (DLP), the Drosophila homolog of Daxx, binds Drosophila melanogaster p53 (Dmp53) through its C-terminal region. We generated DLP mutants and found that although DLP expression is developmentally regulated, it is not essential for the execution of the developmental program. The effects DLP mutations show in the loss of heterozygosity assay and on phenotypes resulting from Dmp53 overexpression indicate a genetic interaction between DLP and Dmp53. In contrast to Dmp53 mutants, however, loss of DLP does not result in radiosensitivity indicating that it does not play an essential role in the activation of Dmp53-dependent response after ionizing radiation, and DLP is also not required for the irradiation-induced activation of reaper. In contrast, DLP is involved in the transcriptional regulation of Ark, because Ark mRNA level is decreased in DLP mutants and increased upon ectopic overexpression of DLP. Interestingly, DLP mutants have reduced longevity and reduced female fertility. Altogether, our data suggest complex functions for DLP, which include an anti-apoptotic effect exerted through repression of some Dmp53 functions, and activation of some proapoptotic genes.

  16. Cholesterol affects the interaction between an ionic liquid and phospholipid vesicles. A study by differential scanning calorimetry and nanoplasmonic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Witos, Joanna; Rantamäki, Antti H; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2017-09-11

    The present work aims at studying the interactions between cholesterol-rich phosphatidylcholine-based lipid vesicles and trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate ([P8881][OAc]), a biomass dissolving ionic liquid (IL). The effect of cholesterol was assayed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nanoplasmonic sensing (NPS) measurement techniques. Cholesterol-enriched dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles were exposed to different concentrations of the IL, and the derived membrane perturbation was monitored by DSC. The calorimetric data could suggest that the binding and infiltration of the IL are delayed in the vesicles containing cholesterol. To clarify our findings, NPS was applied to quantitatively follow the resistance of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine incorporating 0, 10, and 50mol% of cholesterol toward the IL exposure over time. The membrane perturbation induced by different concentrations of IL was found to be a concentration dependent process on cholesterol-free lipid vesicles. Moreover, our results showed that lipid depletion in cholesterol-enriched lipid vesicles is inversely proportional to the increasing amount of cholesterol in the vesicles. These findings support that cholesterol-rich lipid bilayers are less susceptible toward membrane disrupting agents as compared to membranes that do not incorporate any sterols. This probably occurs because cholesterol tightens the phospholipid acyl chain packing of the plasma membranes, increasing their resistance and reducing their permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation affects plant-insect interactions in a natural ecosystem of Tierra del Fuego (southern Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, M Cecilia; Ballaré, Carlos L; Scopel, Ana L; Searles, Peter S; Caldwell, Martyn M

    1998-10-01

    We examined the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) on plant-herbivore interactions in native ecosystems of the Tierra del Fuego National Park (southern Argentina), an area of the globe that is frequently under the Antarctic "ozone hole" in early spring. We found that filtering out solar UVB from the sunlight received by naturally-occurring plants of Gunnera magellanica, a creeping perennial herb, significantly increased the number of leaf lesions caused by chewing insects. Field surveys suggested that early-season herbivory was principally due to the activity of moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Manipulative field experiments showed that exposure to solar UVB changes the attractiveness of G. magellanica leaf tissue to natural grazers. In a laboratory experiment, locally caught moth caterpillars tended to eat more tissue from leaves grown without UVB than from leaves exposed to natural UVB during development; however, the difference between treatments was not significant. Leaves grown under solar UVB had slightly higher N levels than leaves not exposed to UVB; no differences between UVB treatments in specific leaf mass, relative water content, and total methanol-soluble phenolics were detected. Our results show that insect herbivory in a natural ecosystem is influenced by solar UVB, and that this influence could not be predicted from crude measurements of leaf physical and chemical characteristics and a common laboratory bioassay.

  18. Association, haplotype, and gene-gene interactions of the HPA axis genes with suicidal behaviour in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Family twin and adoption studies have noted the heritability of specific biological factors that influence suicidal behaviour. Exposure to stress is one of the factors that strongly contribute to suicide attempts. The biological response to stress involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Therefore, we found it interesting to study polymorphisms of genes involved in the HPA axis (CRHR1, NR3C1, and AVPBR1). The study was performed on 597 patients, 225 of whom had a history of suicide attempts. We did not observe any significant differences in the studied polymorphisms between the group of patients with a history of suicide attempts and the control subjects. Our haplotype analysis of the AVPR1b gene revealed an association between the GCA haplotype and suicide attempts; however, this association was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. We did not observe any other association in haplotype and MDR analysis. We report here a comprehensive analysis of the HPA axis genes and a lack of association for genetic variations regarding the risk of suicide attempts in affective disorder patients. Nonetheless, the inconsistencies with the previously published results indicate the importance of the further investigation of these polymorphisms with respect to the risk of suicide attempts.

  19. Association, Haplotype, and Gene-Gene Interactions of the HPA Axis Genes with Suicidal Behaviour in Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family twin and adoption studies have noted the heritability of specific biological factors that influence suicidal behaviour. Exposure to stress is one of the factors that strongly contribute to suicide attempts. The biological response to stress involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Therefore, we found it interesting to study polymorphisms of genes involved in the HPA axis (CRHR1, NR3C1, and AVPBR1. The study was performed on 597 patients, 225 of whom had a history of suicide attempts. We did not observe any significant differences in the studied polymorphisms between the group of patients with a history of suicide attempts and the control subjects. Our haplotype analysis of the AVPR1b gene revealed an association between the GCA haplotype and suicide attempts; however, this association was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. We did not observe any other association in haplotype and MDR analysis. We report here a comprehensive analysis of the HPA axis genes and a lack of association for genetic variations regarding the risk of suicide attempts in affective disorder patients. Nonetheless, the inconsistencies with the previously published results indicate the importance of the further investigation of these polymorphisms with respect to the risk of suicide attempts.

  20. Negative affectivity and EEG asymmetry interact to predict emotional interference on attention in early school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Beylul; O'Toole, Laura; Hong, Melanie; Dennis, Tracy A

    2014-06-01

    Negative affectivity (NA) is a broad construct that has been associated with the development of psychopathologies, such as anxiety, and with exaggerated attention to threatening stimuli. EEG asymmetry reflects biological individual differences in emotional reactivity that may underlie the association between NA and attention to threat. The present study included a sample of 31 five-seven year olds (M age in months=74.39, SD=6.57) to test the hypothesis that greater NA, combined with greater right anterior and posterior asymmetries, predicts increased attention interference following threat stimuli. Children completed an executive attention task which presented task-irrelevant threat (angry) and non-threat (neutral) faces prior to each trial. EEG asymmetry was measured at baseline for anterior, anterior-temporal and posterior scalp regions and child NA was measured via maternal report. As predicted, children showing greater NA and greater right anterior-temporal asymmetry showed more attention interference following angry faces. Additionally, two trend-level effects emerged: children showing greater NA and greater left anterior-temporal asymmetry showed less attention interference following angry faces, and children showing greater NA and greater left posterior asymmetry showed less attention interference, but only following neutral faces. Discussion focuses on the utility of using EEG asymmetry in the study of temperament, attentional biases, and the biological processes by which temperament confers risk for psychopathology.

  1. Host-Pathogen Interactions: II. Parameters Affecting Polysaccharide-degrading Enzyme Secretion by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Grown in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, P D; Jurale, J B; Albersheim, P

    1971-01-01

    The effect of a number of physiological variables on the secretion of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes by culture-grown Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Saccardo and Magnus) Scribner was determined. The number of spores used to inoculate cultures grown on isolated bean hypocotyl cell walls affects the time after inoculation at which enzyme secretion occurs, but has no significant effect on the maximal amount of enzyme ultimately secreted. Cell walls isolated from bean leaves, first internodes, or hypocotyls (susceptible to C. lindemuthianum infection), when used as carbon source for C. lindemuthianum growth, stimulate the fungus to secrete more alpha-galactosidase than do cell walls isolated from roots (resistant to infection). The concentration of carbon source used for fungal growth determines the final level of enzyme activity in the culture fluid. The level of enzyme secretion is not proportional to fungal growth; rather, enzyme secretion is induced. Maximal alpha-galactosidase activity in the culture medium is found when the concentration of cell walls used as carbon source is 1% or greater. A higher concentration of cell walls is necessary for maximal alpha-arabinosidase activity. Galactose, when used as the carbon source, stimulates alpha-galactosidase secretion but, at comparable concentrations, is less effective in doing so than are cell walls. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes are secreted by C. lindemuthianum at different times during growth of the pathogen on isolated cell walls. Pectinase and alpha-arabinosidase are secreted first, followed by beta-xylosidase and cellulase, then beta-glucosidase, and, finally, alpha-galactosidase.

  2. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  3. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  4. How interacting fungal species and mineral nitrogen inputs affect transfer of nitrogen from litter via arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuejun; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Zhong, Zhangcheng; Dong, Ming; Jiang, Changhong

    2017-04-01

    In the karst landscape, widespread in the world including southern China, soil nutrient supply is strongly constrained. In such environments, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may facilitate plant nutrient uptake. However, the possible role of different AM fungal species, and their interactions, especially in transferring nitrogen (N) from litter to plant, is poorly understood. We conducted two microcosm experiments to investigate the role that two karst soil AM fungi, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus mosseae, play in the transfer of N from decomposing litter to the host plant and to determine how N availability influences these processes. In experiment 1, Cinnamomum camphora tree seedlings were grown in compartments inoculated with G. etunicatum. Lolium perenne leaf litter labeled with δ(15)N was added to the soil in unplanted compartments. Compartments containing the δ(15)N labeled litter were either accessible to hyphae but not to seedling roots or were not accessible to hyphae or roots. The addition of mineral N to one of the host compartments at the start of the experiment significantly increased the biomass of the C. camphora seedlings, N content and N:P ratio, AM mycelium length, and soil microbial biomass carbon and N. However, significantly, more δ(15)N was acquired, from the leaf litter by the AM hyphae and transferred to the host when mineral N was not added to the soil. In experiment 2, in which C. camphora seedlings were inoculated with both G. etunicatum and G. mosseae rather than with G. mosseae alone, there was a significant increase in mycelial growth (50.21%), in soil microbial biomass carbon (417.73%) in the rhizosphere, and in the amount of δ(15)N that was transferred to the host. These findings suggest that maintaining AM fungal diversity in karst soils could be important for mediating N transfer from organic material to host plants in N-poor soils.

  5. Aire knockdown in medullary thymic epithelial cells affects Aire protein, deregulates cell adhesion genes and decreases thymocyte interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzi, Nicole; Assis, Amanda Freire; Cotrim-Sousa, Larissa Cotrim; Lopes, Gabriel Sarti; Mosella, Maritza Salas; Lima, Djalma Sousa; Bombonato-Prado, Karina F; Passos, Geraldo Aleixo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that even a partial reduction of Aire mRNA levels by siRNA-induced Aire knockdown (Aire KD) has important consequences to medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire knockdown is sufficient to reduce Aire protein levels, impair its nuclear location, and cause an imbalance in large-scale gene expression, including genes that encode cell adhesion molecules. These genes drew our attention because adhesion molecules are implicated in the process of mTEC-thymocyte adhesion, which is critical for T cell development and the establishment of central self-tolerance. Accordingly, we consider the following: 1) mTECs contribute to the elimination of self-reactive thymocytes through adhesion; 2) Adhesion molecules play a crucial role during physical contact between these cells; and 3) Aire is an important transcriptional regulator in mTECs. However, its role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion remains unclear. Because Aire controls adhesion molecule genes, we hypothesized that the disruption of its expression could influence mTEC-thymocyte interaction. To test this hypothesis, we used a murine Aire(+) mTEC cell line as a model system to reproduce mTEC-thymocyte adhesion in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of the mTEC cell line revealed that Aire KD led to the down-modulation of more than 800 genes, including those encoding for proteins involved in cell adhesion, i.e., the extracellular matrix constituent Lama1, the CAM family adhesion molecules Vcam1 and Icam4, and those that encode peripheral tissue antigens. Thymocytes co-cultured with Aire KD mTECs had a significantly reduced capacity to adhere to these cells. This finding is the first direct evidence that Aire also plays a role in controlling mTEC-thymocyte adhesion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The structure of the Brassica napus seed microbiome is cultivar-dependent and affects the interactions of symbionts and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Daria; Mancinelli, Riccardo; Wikström, Mariann; Birch-Jensen, Ann-Sofie; Postma, Joeke; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo; Goertz, Simon; Berg, Gabriele

    2017-09-01

    Although the plant microbiome is crucial for plant health, little is known about the significance of the seed microbiome. Here, we studied indigenous bacterial communities associated with the seeds in different cultivars of oilseed rape and their interactions with symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms. We found a high bacterial diversity expressed by tight bacterial co-occurrence networks within the rape seed microbiome, as identified by llumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. In total, 8362 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of 40 bacterial phyla with a predominance of Proteobacteria (56%) were found. The three cultivars that were analyzed shared only one third of the OTUs. The shared core of OTUs consisted mainly of Alphaproteobacteria (33%). Each cultivar was characterized by having its own unique bacterial structure, diversity, and proportion of unique microorganisms (25%). The cultivar with the lowest bacterial abundance, diversity, and the highest predicted bacterial metabolic activity rate contained the highest abundance of potential pathogens within the seed. This data corresponded with the observation that seedlings belonging to this cultivar responded more strongly to the seed treatments with bacterial inoculants than other cultivars. Cultivars containing higher indigenous diversity were characterized as having a higher colonization resistance against beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. Our results were confirmed by microscopic images of the seed microbiota. The structure of the seed microbiome is an important factor in the development of colonization resistance against pathogens. It also has a strong influence on the response of seedlings to biological seed treatments. These novel insights into seed microbiome structure will enable the development of next generation strategies combining both biocontrol and breeding approaches to address world agricultural challenges.

  7. Amastin Knockdown in Leishmania braziliensis Affects Parasite-Macrophage Interaction and Results in Impaired Viability of Intracellular Amastigotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marcia Cardoso de Paiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of δ-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. δ-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole.

  8. Fragmentation and thermal risks from climate change interact to affect persistence of native trout in the Colorado River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James J; Fausch, Kurt D; Peterson, Douglas P; Hooten, Mevin B

    2013-05-01

    Impending changes in climate will interact with other stressors to threaten aquatic ecosystems and their biota. Native Colorado River cutthroat trout (CRCT; Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) are now relegated to 309 isolated high-elevation (>1700 m) headwater stream fragments in the Upper Colorado River Basin, owing to past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss. Predicted changes in climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and resulting changes in stochastic physical disturbances (i.e., wildfire, debris flow, and channel drying and freezing) could further threaten the remaining CRCT populations. We developed an empirical model to predict stream temperatures at the fragment scale from downscaled climate projections along with geomorphic and landscape variables. We coupled these spatially explicit predictions of stream temperature with a Bayesian Network (BN) model that integrates stochastic risks from fragmentation to project persistence of CRCT populations across the upper Colorado River basin to 2040 and 2080. Overall, none of the populations are at risk from acute mortality resulting from high temperatures during the warmest summer period. In contrast, only 37% of populations have a ≥90% chance of persistence for 70 years (similar to the typical benchmark for conservation), primarily owing to fragmentation. Populations in short stream fragments fragmentation are projected to be greater threats than warming for CRCT populations. The reason for this paradox is that past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss have restricted most CRCT populations to high-elevation stream fragments that are buffered from the potential consequences of warming, but at risk of extirpation from stochastic events. The greatest conservation need is for management to increase fragment lengths to forestall these risks. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Agricultural management and labile carbon additions affect soil microbial community structure and interact with carbon and nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Buckley, Daniel H; Drinkwater, Laurie E

    2013-07-01

    We investigated how conversion from conventional agriculture to organic management affected the structure and biogeochemical function of soil microbial communities. We hypothesized the following. (1) Changing agricultural management practices will alter soil microbial community structure driven by increasing microbial diversity in organic management. (2) Organically managed soil microbial communities will mineralize more N and will also mineralize more N in response to substrate addition than conventionally managed soil communities. (3) Microbial communities under organic management will be more efficient and respire less added C. Soils from organically and conventionally managed agroecosystems were incubated with and without glucose ((13)C) additions at constant soil moisture. We extracted soil genomic DNA before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting of soil bacteria and fungi. We measured soil C and N pools before and after incubation, and we tracked total C respired and N mineralized at several points during the incubation. Twenty years of organic management altered soil bacterial and fungal community structure compared to continuous conventional management with the bacterial differences caused primarily by a large increase in diversity. Organically managed soils mineralized twice as much NO3 (-) as conventionally managed ones (44 vs. 23 μg N/g soil, respectively) and increased mineralization when labile C was added. There was no difference in respiration, but organically managed soils had larger pools of C suggesting greater efficiency in terms of respiration per unit soil C. These results indicate that the organic management induced a change in community composition resulting in a more diverse community with enhanced activity towards labile substrates and greater capacity to mineralize N.

  10. Apolipoprotein E – Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Interaction Affects Spatial Memory Retention and Brain ApoE Levels in an Isoform-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lance A.; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Merkens, Louise S.; DeBarber, Andrea; Steiner, Robert D.; Sullivan, Patrick M.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three isoforms: apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4. APOE ε4 (E4) is a major genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE mediates cholesterol metabolism by binding various receptors. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has a high affinity for apoE, and is the only member of its receptor family to demonstrate an apoE isoform specific binding affinity (E4>E3>>E2). Evidence suggests that a functional interaction between apoE and LDLR influences the risk of CVD and AD. We hypothesize that the differential cognitive effects of the apoE isoforms are a direct result of their varying interactions with LDLR. To test this hypothesis, we have employed transgenic mice that express human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4, and either human LDLR (hLDLR) or no LDLR (LDLR−/−). Our results show that plasma and brain apoE levels, cortical cholesterol, and spatial memory are all regulated by isoform-dependent interactions between apoE and LDLR. Conversely, both anxiety-like behavior and cued associative memory are strongly influenced by APOE genotype, but these processes appear to occur via an LDLR-independent mechanism. Both the lack of LDLR and the interaction between E4 and the LDLR were associated with significant impairments in the retention of long term spatial memory. Finally, levels of hippocampal apoE correlate with long term spatial memory retention in mice with human LDLR. In summary, we demonstrate that the apoE-LDLR interaction affects regional brain apoE levels, brain cholesterol, and cognitive function in an apoE isoform-dependent manner. PMID:24412220

  11. Apolipoprotein E-low density lipoprotein receptor interaction affects spatial memory retention and brain ApoE levels in an isoform-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lance A; Olsen, Reid H J; Merkens, Louise S; DeBarber, Andrea; Steiner, Robert D; Sullivan, Patrick M; Maeda, Nobuyo; Raber, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) exists in three isoforms: apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4. APOE ε4 is a major genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE mediates cholesterol metabolism by binding various receptors. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has a high affinity for apoE, and is the only member of its receptor family to demonstrate an apoE isoform specific binding affinity (E4>E3>E2). Evidence suggests that a functional interaction between apoE and LDLR influences the risk of CVD and AD. We hypothesize that the differential cognitive effects of the apoE isoforms are a direct result of their varying interactions with LDLR. To test this hypothesis, we have employed transgenic mice that express human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4, and either human LDLR (hLDLR) or no LDLR (LDLR(-/-)). Our results show that plasma and brain apoE levels, cortical cholesterol, and spatial memory are all regulated by isoform-dependent interactions between apoE and LDLR. Conversely, both anxiety-like behavior and cued associative memory are strongly influenced by APOE genotype, but these processes appear to occur via an LDLR-independent mechanism. Both the lack of LDLR and the interaction between E4 and the LDLR were associated with significant impairments in the retention of long term spatial memory. Finally, levels of hippocampal apoE correlate with long term spatial memory retention in mice with human LDLR. In summary, we demonstrate that the apoE-LDLR interaction affects regional brain apoE levels, brain cholesterol, and cognitive function in an apoE isoform-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Young, Kimberly S; Laier, Christian; Wölfling, Klaus; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-12-01

    Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Mutation in Cyclophilin B That Causes Hyperelastosis Cutis in American Quarter Horse Does Not Affect Peptidylprolyl cis-trans Isomerase Activity but Shows Altered Cyclophilin B-Protein Interactions and Affects Collagen Folding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Vranka, Janice A.; Boudko, Sergei P.; Pokidysheva, Elena; Mizuno, Kazunori; Zientek, Keith; Keene, Douglas R.; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M.; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Winand, Nena J.; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    The rate-limiting step of folding of the collagen triple helix is catalyzed by cyclophilin B (CypB). The G6R mutation in cyclophilin B found in the American Quarter Horse leads to autosomal recessive hyperelastosis cutis, also known as hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. The mutant protein shows small structural changes in the region of the mutation at the side opposite the catalytic domain of CypB. The peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of the mutant CypB is normal when analyzed in vitro. However, the biosynthesis of type I collagen in affected horse fibroblasts shows a delay in folding and secretion and a decrease in hydroxylysine and glucosyl-galactosyl hydroxylysine. This leads to changes in the structure of collagen fibrils in tendon, similar to those observed in P3H1 null mice. In contrast to cyclophilin B null mice, where little 3-hydroxylation was found in type I collagen, 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen in affected horses is normal. The mutation disrupts the interaction of cyclophilin B with the P-domain of calreticulin, with lysyl hydroxylase 1, and probably other proteins, such as the formation of the P3H1·CypB·cartilage-associated protein complex, resulting in less effective catalysis of the rate-limiting step in collagen folding in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:22556420

  14. Mutation in cyclophilin B that causes hyperelastosis cutis in American Quarter Horse does not affect peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity but shows altered cyclophilin B-protein interactions and affects collagen folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Vranka, Janice A; Boudko, Sergei P; Pokidysheva, Elena; Mizuno, Kazunori; Zientek, Keith; Keene, Douglas R; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Winand, Nena J; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2012-06-22

    The rate-limiting step of folding of the collagen triple helix is catalyzed by cyclophilin B (CypB). The G6R mutation in cyclophilin B found in the American Quarter Horse leads to autosomal recessive hyperelastosis cutis, also known as hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia. The mutant protein shows small structural changes in the region of the mutation at the side opposite the catalytic domain of CypB. The peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of the mutant CypB is normal when analyzed in vitro. However, the biosynthesis of type I collagen in affected horse fibroblasts shows a delay in folding and secretion and a decrease in hydroxylysine and glucosyl-galactosyl hydroxylysine. This leads to changes in the structure of collagen fibrils in tendon, similar to those observed in P3H1 null mice. In contrast to cyclophilin B null mice, where little 3-hydroxylation was found in type I collagen, 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen in affected horses is normal. The mutation disrupts the interaction of cyclophilin B with the P-domain of calreticulin, with lysyl hydroxylase 1, and probably other proteins, such as the formation of the P3H1·CypB·cartilage-associated protein complex, resulting in less effective catalysis of the rate-limiting step in collagen folding in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

  15. Do postures of distal effectors affect the control of actions of other distal effectors? Evidence for a system of interactions between hand and mouth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gentilucci

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at determining whether, in healthy humans, postures assumed by distal effectors affect the control of the successive grasp executed with other distal effectors. In experiments 1 and 2, participants reached different objects with their head and grasped them with their mouth, after assuming different hand postures. The postures could be implicitly associated with interactions with large or small objects. The kinematics of lip shaping during grasp varied congruently with the hand posture, i.e. it was larger or smaller when it could be associated with the grasping of large or small objects, respectively. In experiments 3 and 4, participants reached and grasped different objects with their hand, after assuming the postures of mouth aperture or closure (experiment 3 and the postures of toe extension or flexion (experiment 4. The mouth postures affected the kinematics of finger shaping during grasp, that is larger finger shaping corresponded with opened mouth and smaller finger shaping with closed mouth. In contrast, the foot postures did not influence the hand grasp kinematics. Finally, in experiment 5 participants reached-grasped different objects with their hand while pronouncing opened and closed vowels, as verified by the analysis of their vocal spectra. Open and closed vowels induced larger and smaller finger shaping, respectively. In all experiments postures of the distal effectors induced no effect, or only unspecific effects on the kinematics of the reach proximal/axial component. The data from the present study support the hypothesis that there exists a system involved in establishing interactions between movements and postures of hand and mouth. This system might have been used to transfer a repertoire of hand gestures to mouth articulation postures during language evolution and, in modern humans, it may have evolved a system controlling the interactions existing between speech and gestures.

  16. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  17. The PpCMT chromomethylase affects cell growth and interacts with the homolog of LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangwal, Meenakshi; Kapoor, Sanjay; Kapoor, Meenu

    2014-02-01

    Chromomethylases (CMTs) are plant-specific cytosine DNA methyltransferases that are involved in maintenance of CpNpG methylation. In seed plants, histone methylation and interaction of CMT with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1) is essential for recruitment of CMT to target sites. LHP1 has been characterized as a putative component of the POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX1 (PRC1) in plants, and functions downstream of PRC2 to maintain genes in repressed state for orchestrated development. In the present study, we show that targeted disruption of PpCMT results in an approximately 50% reduction in global cytosine methylation levels. This affects growth of apical cells, predominantly growth of side branch initials emerging from chloronema cells. In some places, these cells develop thick walls with plasmolyzed cellular contents. Transcript accumulation patterns of genes involved in apical cell extension and metabolism of hemicelluloses, such as xyloglucans, in the primary cell walls decreased many fold in ppcmt mutant lines, as determined by real-time PCR. Using yeast two-hybrid method and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, we show that PpCMT and PpLHP1 interact through their chromo domains, while PpLHP1 homodimerizes through its chromo shadow domain. The results presented in this study provide insight into the role of the single chromomethylase, PpCMT, in proliferation of protonema filaments, and shed light on the evolutionary conservation of proteins interacting with these methylases in the early land plant, Physcomitrella patens.

  18. Palmitoylation of cysteine 415 of CB1 receptor affects ligand-stimulated internalization and selective interaction with membrane cholesterol and caveolin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddi, Sergio; Stepniewski, Tomasz Maciej; Totaro, Antonio; Selent, Jana; Scipioni, Lucia; Dufrusine, Beatrice; Fezza, Filomena; Dainese, Enrico; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2017-02-12

    We previously demonstrated that CB1 receptor is palmitoylated at cysteine 415, and that such a post-translational modification affects its biological activity. To assess the molecular mechanisms responsible for modulation of CB1 receptor function by S-palmitoylation, in this study biochemical and morphological approaches were paralleled with computational analyses. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that this acyl chain stabilizes helix 8 as well as the interaction of CB1 receptor with membrane cholesterol. In keeping with these in silico data, experimental results showed that the non-palmitoylated CB1 receptor was unable to interact efficaciously with caveolin 1, independently of its activation state. Moreover, in contrast with the wild-type receptor, the lack of S-palmitoylation in the helix 8 made the mutant CB1 receptor completely irresponsive to agonist-induced effects in terms of both lipid raft partitioning and receptor internalization. Overall, our results support the notion that palmitoylation of cysteine 415 modulates the conformational state of helix 8 and influences the interactions of CB1 receptor with cholesterol and caveolin 1, suggesting that the palmitoyl chain may serve as a functional interface for CB1 receptor localization and function.

  19. Interaction between BDNF Val66Met and childhood stressful life events is associated to affective memory bias in men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostrom, Iris; Franke, Barbara; Rijpkema, Mark; Gerritsen, Lotte; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Fernández, Guillèn; Tendolkar, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses point towards a pathogenic role of the Val66Met variant of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depressive disorder, specifically in males. We investigated whether BDNF Val66Met shows a male-specific interaction with childhood stressful life events on affective memory bias, a cognitive susceptibility factor for depression. Healthy volunteers (n=430; 272 females and 158 males) were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) and completed the self-referent encoding task and a childhood stressful life events scale. BDNF Met carriers reporting childhood events tended to recall a lower proportion of positive words compared to Val/Val homozygotes reporting childhood events. Sex-specific analyses revealed that the BDNF genotype×childhood events interaction was significant in male participants and not in female participants. The results suggest that in males, BDNF Val66Met interacts with childhood life events, increasing the cognitive susceptibility markers of depression. In females, this effect may be independent of BDNF Val66Met. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognitive and affective empathy in children with conduct problems: additive and interactive effects of callous-unemotional traits and autism spectrum disorders symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J

    2014-11-30

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms are characterized by problems in empathy; however, these behavioral features are rarely examined together in children with conduct problems. This study investigated additive and interactive effects of CU traits and ASD symptoms in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in a non-ASD clinic-referred sample. Participants were 134 children aged 3 to 9 years (M=5.60; 79% boys) with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder, and their parents. Clinicians, teachers, and parents reported on dimensions of child behavior, and parental reports of family dysfunction and direct observations of parental warmth/responsiveness assessed quality of family relationships. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that, over and above the effects of child conduct problem severity and quality of family relationships, both ASD symptoms and CU traits were uniquely associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Moreover, CU traits demonstrated an independent association with affective empathy, and this relationship was moderated by ASD symptoms. That is, there was a stronger negative association between CU traits and affective empathy at higher versus lower levels of ASD symptoms. These findings suggest including both CU traits and ASD-related social impairments in models delineating the atypical development of empathy in children with conduct problems.

  1. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  2. Socioeconomic Adversity, Negativity in the Parent Child-Relationship, and Physiological Reactivity: An Examination of Pathways and Interactive Processes Affecting Young Children's Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Melissa J; Roubinov, Danielle S; Adler, Nancy E; Boyce, William Thomas; Bush, Nicole R

    We tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic status (SES) would predict children's physical health problems at the end of kindergarten among children whose parent reported greater parent-child relationship (PCR) negativity and/or who exhibited greater parasympathetic (RSA) reactivity. We also tested whether RSA and PCR negativity mediated the SES-health association. Data were collected from 338 children (mean [SD] age, 5.32 [.32] years) and their primary caregivers (87% biological mothers) during the fall and subsequent spring of kindergarten. In the fall, parents reported income and education level (SES) and PCR negativity, and RSA reactivity was assessed via a standardized challenge protocol for young children. In the fall and then spring, parents reported children's chronic medical conditions and physical health impairments. Multivariate regression was conducted within a structural equation-modeling framework to test hypotheses. Significant interactions were found between SES and PCR negativity (b = -0.074, p = .035) and between SES and RSA reactivity (b = 0.169, p = .019) as predicts children's spring health impairment, adjusting for health in the preceding fall. Lower SES was associated with greater health impairment among children whose parents reported more PCR negativity (b = -0.110, p = .024) and children who showed greater RSA reactivity (b = -0.106, p = .011). Socioeconomic status was unrelated to physical health at low PCR negativity or RSA reactivity. Mediation models were not supported. Parent-child relationship quality and individual differences in stress reactivity may modulate the influence of SES on physical health in childhood.

  3. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... Keywords: Adjustment, blindness, Nigeria, psychological and social. Résumé. Background: ... clés de l'interaction sociale, mariage et famille. Majorité devaient être ..... unable to play a useful role in life,' 'feel nervous, tense, and worried,' ... findings in mothers with sickle cell disease children. (28%)[34] and ...

  4. Self-Adjustable Adhesion of Polyampholyte Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Chanchal Kumar; Guo, Hong Lei; Sun, Tao Lin; Ihsan, Abu Bin; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Takahata, Masakazu; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Gong, Jian Ping

    2015-12-02

    Developing nonspecific, fast, and strong adhesives that can glue hydrogels and biotissues substantially promotes the application of hydrogels as biomaterials. Inspired by the ubiquitous adhesiveness of bacteria, it is reported that neutral polyampholyte hydrogels, through their self-adjustable surface, can show rapid, strong, and reversible adhesion to charged hydrogels and biological tissues through the Coulombic interaction.

  5. Primary Analysis of Fluid-Structure Interaction of Adjustable Single Expansion Ramp Nozzle with Different Cowl Position%不同几何调节位置上的单边膨胀喷管流固耦合计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾瑞; 徐惊雷; 赵强; 洪亮

    2013-01-01

    In order to maintain a satisfactory performance of hypersonic vehicle on the off-design points, many studies have been conducted with the variable geometry, including the Single Expansion Ramp Nozzle (SERN), A SERN model was studied by FSI (Fluid-Structure Interaction) numerical simulation method. In order to analyze the key effects of the dynamic force of the FSI, the minor effects of the other uncertainty and difficulties are avoided. The heat transfer and the gravity are not considered in this study. Then, the cases of adjustable SERN with the cowl on the different position were studied. The results show that the supersonic vibration appeares with the SERN cowl on the different position. Based on the analysis of the results, the following conclusions could be obtained. Firstly, the vibration characteristics are mainly dominated by the material parameters and the structure. Secondly, the vibration frequency is about the first order of the natural frequency and the oscillation of the lift is more severe than the thrust with different cowl position. Thirdly, as the cowl angle increases, the amplitude of the vibration increases.%为了获得高超声速飞行器非设计点上较好的性能,包括单边膨胀喷管(SERN)在内的几何可调方案成为了目前研究的热点,针对单边膨胀喷管开展了流固耦合的研究,重点分析流固耦合中的动态载荷问题,不考虑结构传热及重力的影响,对不同几何调节位置上的SERN开展了计算分析.结果表明在不同位置上,SERN唇口板均出现了超声速颤振.通过进一步分析,获得结论如下:(1)唇口板振动特点主要由材料属性和结构决定;(2)唇口板在不同调节位置上,振动频率大致均为结构的一阶振动频率,喷管升力的振荡范围较喷管推力的振荡范围大;(3)随着唇口板角度的增加,唇口板振幅增大.

  6. 社会互动视角下女村官的角色困惑和调适%Female Village Officers’ role Confusion and Adjustment from Social Interaction Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仲秋; 谭咏梅

    2016-01-01

    After humans entering patriarchal society,women have been gradually kept out of the threshold of politics, and drifted further away from "politics". Since 20th century, women's liberation movement has helped tear down barriers to politics for women, providing opportunities for women to enter political arena. However, deeply-rooted historical factors still affect the real world. The superimposition of tradition and reality makes women feel confused about their roles when they participate in politics, particularly the female village officers in the governance at grass-root level in vast rural areas. They get lost in the cultural whirlpool and identity dilemma in the isolated and hierarchical rural society of a high degree of acquaintance and conformity. In this case, role adjustment is the only way to build a team of new female village officers, and promote the autonomy at grass-root level in rural China.%自从人类进入父系社会,女性就被逐步排斥在政治门槛外,与“政治领域”渐行渐远。20世纪以来的妇女解放运动冲击了女性参政壁垒,为女性进入政治领域提供了机遇。然而,悠久的历史因袭仍作用于现实社会,传统与现实叠加导致女性在参政过程中易出现角色困惑问题,广大农村地区的女村官在参与基层社会治理实践中尤甚,在封闭化、熟人化、从众化、差序化的乡土社会里陷入文化漩涡、认同困境。在此情形下,角色调适是打造新型女村官队伍,推进中国农村基层群众自治实践的必由之路。

  7. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Conversation analytic research on clinical encounters shows that interactional conduct can be consequential for diagnosis, treatment and compliance. Problems reported for doctor-patient interaction can also be identified in Danish audiological encounters. There are, however, also specific aspects...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices.......Conversation analytic research on clinical encounters shows that interactional conduct can be consequential for diagnosis, treatment and compliance. Problems reported for doctor-patient interaction can also be identified in Danish audiological encounters. There are, however, also specific aspects...... to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...

  8. Dynamic conformations of nucleophosmin (NPM1 at a key monomer-monomer interface affect oligomer stability and interactions with granzyme B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei D Duan-Porter

    Full Text Available Nucleophosmin (NPM1 is an abundant, nucleolar tumor antigen with important roles in cell proliferation and putative contributions to oncogenesis. Wild-type NPM1 forms pentameric oligomers through interactions at the amino-terminal core domain. A truncated form of NPM1 found in some hepatocellular carcinoma tissue formed an unusually stable oligomer and showed increased susceptibility to cleavage by granzyme B. Initiation of translation at the seventh methionine generated a protein (M7-NPM that shared all these properties. We used deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS to perform a detailed structural analysis of wild-type NPM1 and M7-NPM, and found dynamic conformational shifts or local "unfolding" at a specific monomer-monomer interface which included the β-hairpin "latch." We tested the importance of interactions at the β-hairpin "latch" by replacing a conserved tyrosine in the middle of the β-hairpin loop with glutamic acid, generating Y67E-NPM. Y67E-NPM did not form stable oligomers and further, prevented wild-type NPM1 oligomerization in a dominant-negative fashion, supporting the critical role of the β-hairpin "latch" in monomer-monomer interactions. Also, we show preferential cleavage by granzyme B at one of two available aspartates (either D161 or D122 in M7-NPM and Y67E-NPM, whereas wild-type NPM1 was cleaved at both sites. Thus, we observed a correlation between the propensity to form oligomers and granzyme B cleavage site selection in nucleophosmin proteins, suggesting that a small change at an important monomer-monomer interface can affect conformational shifts and impact protein-protein interactions.

  9. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Reetu; Sastry, G Narahari

    2015-01-01

    Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant's functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies.

  10. Deciphering the Dynamics of Non-Covalent Interactions Affecting Thermal Stability of a Protein: Molecular Dynamics Study on Point Mutant of Thermus thermophilus Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetu Sharma

    Full Text Available Thermus thermophilius isopropylmalate dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation and dehydrogenation of isopropylmalate. Substitution of leucine to alanine at position 172 enhances the thermal stability among the known point mutants. Exploring the dynamic properties of non-covalent interactions such as saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions to explain thermal stability of a protein is interesting in its own right. In this study dynamic changes in the non-covalent interactions are studied to decipher the deterministic features of thermal stability of a protein considering a case study of a point mutant in Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. A total of four molecular dynamic simulations of 0.2 μs were carried out on wild type and mutant's functional dimers at 300 K and 337 K. Higher thermal stability of the mutant as compared to wild type is revealed by root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuations and Cα-Cα distance with an increase in temperature from 300 K to 337 K. Most of the regions of wild type fluctuate higher than the corresponding regions of mutant with an increase in temperature. Cα-Cα distance analysis suggests that long distance networks are significantly affected in wild type as compared to the mutant. Short lived contacts are higher in wild type, while long lived contacts are lost at 337 K. The mutant forms less hydrogen bonds with water as compared to wild type at 337 K. In contrast to wild type, the mutant shows significant increase in unique saltbridges, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts at 337 K. The current study indicates that there is a strong inter-dependence of thermal stability on the way in which non-covalent interactions reorganize, and it is rewarding to explore this connection in single mutant studies.

  11. Couples' patterns of adjustment to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northouse, L L; Mood, D; Templin, T; Mellon, S; George, T

    2000-01-01

    The objectives for this longitudinal study were to: (a) compare colon cancer patients' and their spouses' appraisal of illness, resources, concurrent stress, and adjustment during the first year following surgery; (b) examine the influence of gender (male vs female) and role (patient vs spouse caregiver) on study variables; (c) assess the degree of correlation between patients' and spouses' adjustments; and (d) identify factors that affect adjustment to the illness. Fifty-six couples were interviewed at one week post diagnosis, and at 60 days and one year post surgery. Based on a cognitive-appraisal model of stress, the Smilkstein Stress Scale was used to measure concurrent stress; the Family APGAR, Social Support Questionnaire, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale were used to measure social resources; the Beck Hopelessness Scale and Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scales were used to measure appraisal of illness; and the Brief Symptom Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale were used to measure psychosocial adjustment. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance indicated that spouses reported significantly more emotional distress and less social support than patients. Gender differences were found, with women reporting more distress, more role problems, and less marital satisfaction, regardless of whether they were patient or spouse. Both patients and spouses reported decreases in their family functioning and social support, but also decreases in emotional distress over time. Moderately high autocorrelations and modest intercorrelations were found among and between patients' and spouses' adjustment scores over time. The strongest predictors of patients' role adjustment problems were hopelessness and spouses' role problems. The strongest predictors of spouses' role problems were spouses' own baseline role problems and level of marital satisfaction. Interventions need to start early in the course of illness, be family-focused, and identify the couples at risk of

  12. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way......Conversation analytic research on clinical encounters shows that interactional conduct can be consequential for diagnosis, treatment and compliance. Problems reported for doctor-patient interaction can also be identified in Danish audiological encounters. There are, however, also specific aspects...

  13. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs...... attention to the transformative implications of conscious strategic maneuvering by incumbent regime actors, when confronting regime structurations. This article provides insight to processes of regime enactment performed by local governments by applying a flow-oriented perspective on regime dynamics...

  14. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  15. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  16. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...

  17. Effect of Protein-Lipid-Salt Interactions on Sodium Availability in the Mouth and Consequent Perception of Saltiness: As Affected by Hydration in Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Umut; Peterson, Devin G

    2015-09-01

    There is a broad need to reformulate lower sodium food products without affecting their original taste. The present study focuses on characterizing the role of protein-salt interactions on the salt release in low-moisture systems and saltiness perception during hydration. Sodium release from freeze-dried protein powders and emulsion powders formulated at different protein/lipid ratios (5:0 to 1:4) were characterized using a chromatography column modified with a porcine tongue. Emulsion systems with protein structured at the interface were found to have faster initial sodium release rates and faster hydration and were perceived to have a higher initial salt intensity with a lower salty aftertaste. In summary, exposure of the hydrophilic segments of the interface-structured proteins in emulsions was suggested to facilitate hydration and release of sodium during dissolution of low-moisture powder samples.

  18. Warmth in affective mediated interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Christian J.A.M.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Erp, van Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that physical warmth activates perceptions of metaphorical interpersonal warmth and closeness, and increases pro-social behavior. These effects are grounded in our earliest intimate experiences: being held by our loving caregivers. These findings provide reasons to incorpora

  19. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  20. Adult attachment, hostile conflict, and relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crangle, Cassandra J; Hart, Tae L

    2017-07-12

    Couples facing multiple sclerosis (MS) report significantly elevated rates of relationship distress, yet the effects of attachment have never been examined in this population. We examined whether hostile conflict mediated the dyadic effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in couples facing MS and whether these associations were moderated by gender or role. We also explored whether dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between attachment and hostile conflict. The study was cross-sectional and included 103 couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with MS. Participants completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Aversive Interactions Scale, as well as demographic variables. We used the actor-partner interdependence model for data analysis. There were significant actor and partner effects of greater anxious attachment and worse dyadic adjustment. Actor and partner effects of anxious attachment were significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Gender significantly moderated the effects between avoidant attachment and dyadic adjustment. The actor effect was significant for males and females; the partner effect was only significant for females. The actor effect for females but not males was significantly mediated by greater hostile conflict. Role was not a significant moderator. Exploratory analyses also showed that dyadic adjustment mediated the relationship between anxious and avoidant attachment and hostile conflict. Findings highlight the important effects of attachment on relationship adjustment in MS couples. Both hostile conflict and dyadic adjustment appear to be mechanisms through which insecure attachment has a detrimental effect. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Despite higher-than-normal rates of marital distress and separation/divorce, the effects of attachment on relationship adjustment among couples facing multiple sclerosis have never been examined

  1. Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-interacting Kinase (MNK) Preferentially Affects Translation of mRNAs Containing Both a 5'-Terminal Cap and Hairpin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneeva, Nadejda L; Song, Anren; Gram, Hermann; Edens, Mary Ann; Rhoads, Robert E

    2016-02-12

    The MAPK-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) are activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or p38 in response to cellular stress and extracellular stimuli that include growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Modulation of MNK activity affects translation of mRNAs involved in the cell cycle, cancer progression, and cell survival. However, the mechanism by which MNK selectively affects translation of these mRNAs is not understood. MNK binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and phosphorylates the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Using a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes programmed with mRNAs containing different 5'-ends, we show that an MNK inhibitor, CGP57380, affects translation of only those mRNAs that contain both a cap and a hairpin in the 5'-UTR. Similarly, a C-terminal fragment of human eIF4G-1, eIF4G(1357-1600), which prevents binding of MNK to intact eIF4G, reduces eIF4E phosphorylation and inhibits translation of only capped and hairpin-containing mRNAs. Analysis of proteins bound to m(7)GTP-Sepharose reveals that both CGP and eIF4G(1357-1600) decrease binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. These data suggest that MNK stimulates translation only of mRNAs containing both a cap and 5'-terminal RNA duplex via eIF4E phosphorylation, thereby enhancing the coupled cap-binding and RNA-unwinding activities of eIF4F.

  2. Attachment and Family Processes in Children's Psychological Adjustment in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demby, Kimberly P; Riggs, Shelley A; Kaminski, Patricia L

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the links between parent-child attachment, whole family interaction patterns, and child emotional adjustment and adaptability in a sample of 86 community families with children between the ages of 8 and 11 years. Family interactions were observed and coded with the System for Coding Interactions and Family Functioning (SCIFF; Lindahl, 2001). Both parents and each target child completed the appropriate form of the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Target children also completed the Children's Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CCSQ; Yunger, Corby, & Perry, 2005). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that Secure mother-child attachment was a robust predictor of children's emotional symptoms, but father-child attachment strategies were not significant independent predictors. Positive Affect in family interactions significantly increased the amount of variance accounted for in children's emotional symptoms. In addition, Family Cohesion and Positive Affect moderated the relationship between father-child attachment and children's emotional symptoms. When data from all BASC-2 informants (mother, father, child) were considered simultaneously and multidimensional constructs were modeled, mother-child security directly predicted children's adjustment and adaptive skills, but the influence of father-child security was fully mediated through positive family functioning. Results of the current study support the utility of considering dyadic attachment and family interaction patterns conjointly when conceptualizing and fostering positive emotional and behavioral outcomes in children.

  3. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  4. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    CERN Document Server

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037

    2011-01-01

    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  5. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  6. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  7. Premorbid adjustment in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Friis, Svein; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives.......Knowledge about premorbid development in psychosis can shed light upon theories about aetiology and schizophrenic heterogeneity, and form a basis for early detection initiatives....

  8. Training affects the development of postural adjustments in sitting infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HaddersAlgra, M; Brogren, E; Forssberg, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study addressed the question of whether daily balance training 2. Postural responses during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed in twenty healthy infants at 5-6, 7-8 and 9-10 months of age. Multiple surface EMGs and kinematics were recorded while the infants were exposed to s

  9. Does worry affect adjustment to bereavement? A longitudinal investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.; Boelen, Paul A.; Schut, Henk A W; Stroebe, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Repetitive thought is a trans-diagnostic risk-factor for development of psychopathology. Research on repetitive thought in bereaved individuals has focused primarily on clarifying the role of rumination, repetitive thinking about past negative events and/or negative emotio

  10. Conversations with God: Prayer and Bargaining in Adjustment to Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Valerie J.; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Blanco, E. Lisette

    2013-01-01

    The role of religiosity and spirituality in the process of adjustment to disability is of increasing interest to rehabilitation professionals. Beginning with the Kubler-Ross models of grief and adjustment to disability and terminal illness, a number of stage models have included spiritual and religious interactions as a part of the adjustment…

  11. Frequency adjustable MEMS vibration energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, P.; Constantinou, P.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient mechanical vibrations offer an attractive solution for powering the wireless sensor nodes of the emerging “Internet-of-Things”. However, the wide-ranging variability of the ambient vibration frequencies pose a significant challenge to the efficient transduction of vibration into usable electrical energy. This work reports the development of a MEMS electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the resonance frequency of the oscillator can be adjusted or tuned to adapt to the ambient vibrational frequency. Micro-fabricated silicon spring and double layer planar micro-coils along with sintered NdFeB micro-magnets are used to construct the electromagnetic transduction mechanism. Furthermore, another NdFeB magnet is adjustably assembled to induce variable magnetic interaction with the transducing magnet, leading to significant change in the spring stiffness and resonance frequency. Finite element analysis and numerical simulations exhibit substantial frequency tuning range (25% of natural resonance frequency) by appropriate adjustment of the repulsive magnetic interaction between the tuning and transducing magnet pair. This demonstrated method of frequency adjustment or tuning have potential applications in other MEMS vibration energy harvesters and micromechanical oscillators.

  12. 47 CFR 61.46 - Adjustments to the API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the API. 61.46 Section 61.46... Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.46 Adjustments to the API. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and... carrier must calculate an API for each affected basket pursuant to the following methodology: APIt =...

  13. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  14. Ionome and expression level of Si transporter genes (Lsi1, Lsi2, and Lsi6) affected by Zn and Si interaction in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Boris; Bokorová, Silvia; Ondoš, Slavomír; Švubová, Renáta; Lukačová, Zuzana; Hýblová, Michaela; Szemes, Tomáš; Lux, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in various plant physiological processes. However, in excess, Zn becomes toxic and represents serious problem for plants resulting in Zn toxicity symptoms and decreasing biomass production. The effect of high Zn and its combination with silicon (Si) on ionome and expression level of ZmLsi genes was investigated in maize (Zea mays, L; hybrid Novania). Plants were cultivated hydroponically in different treatments: control (C), Zn (800 μM ZnSO4 · 7H2O), Si5 (5 mM of sodium silicate solution), and Si5 + Zn (combination of Zn and Si treatments). Growth of plants cultivated for 10 days was significantly inhibited in the presence of high Zn concentration and also by Zn and Si interaction in plants. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and mineral element concentration in tissues, root ionome was significantly altered in both Zn and Si5 + Zn treatments in comparison to control. Mineral elements Mn, Fe, Ca, P, Mg, Ni, Co, and K significantly decreased, and Se increased in Zn and Si5 + Zn treatments. Shoot ionome was less affected than root ionome. Concentration of shoot Cu, Mn, and P decreased, and Mo increased in Zn and Si5 + Zn treatments. The PCA also revealed that the responsibility for ionome changes is mainly due to Zn exposure and also, but less, by Si application to Zn stressed plants. Expression level of Lsi1 and Lsi2 genes for the Si influx and efflux transporters was downregulated in roots after Si supply and even more downregulated by Zinc alone and also by Zn and Si interaction. Expression level of shoot Lsi6 gene was differently regulated in the first and second leaf. These results indicate negative effect of high Zn alone and also in interaction with Si on Lsi gene expression level and together with ionomic data, it was shown that homeostatic network of mineral elements was disrupted and caused negative alterations in mineral nutrition of young maize plants.

  15. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Furthermore, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims' daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to subtypes of female rape victims.

  16. Which stage of the process of apotransketolase interaction with thiamine diphosphate is affected by the regulatory activity of the donor substrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakova, O A; Meshalkina, L E; Golbik, R; Brauer, J; Hübner, G; Kochetov, G A

    2007-02-01

    The interaction of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) with transketolase (TK) involves at least two stages: [formula: see text] During the first stage, an inactive intermediate complex (TK...ThDP) is formed, which is then transformed into a catalytically active holoenzyme (TK* - ThDP). The second stage is related to conformational changes of the protein. In the preceding publication (Esakova, O. A., Meshalkina, L. E., Golbik, R., Hübner, G., and Kochetov, G. A. Eur. J. Biochem. 2004, 271, 4189 - 4194) we reported that the affinity of ThDP for TK considerably increases in the presence of the donor substrate, which may be a mechanism whereby the activity of the enzyme is regulated under the conditions of the coenzyme deficiency. Here, we demonstrate that the substrate affects the stage of the reverse conformational transition, characterized by the constant k(-1): in the presence of the substrate, its value is decreased several fold, whereas K(d) and k(+1) remain unchanged.

  17. Interaction between mercury (Hg, arsenic (As and selenium (Se affects the activity of glutathione S-transferase in breast milk: possible relationship with fish and shellfish intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Gaxiola-Robles

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is regarded as an ideal source of nutrients for the growth and development of neonates, but it can also be a potential source of pollutants. Mothers can be exposed to different contaminants as a result of their lifestyle and environmental pollution. Mercury (Hg and arsenic (As could adversely affect the development of fetal and neonatal nervous system. Some fish and shellfish are rich in selenium (Se, an essential trace element that forms part of several enzymes related to the detoxification process, including glutathione S-transferase (GST. The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between Hg, As and Se and analyze its effect on the activity of GST in breast milk. Milk samples were collected from women between day 7 and 10 postpartum. The GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically; total Hg, As and Se concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. To explain the possible association of Hg, As and Se concentrations with GST activity in breast milk, generalized linear models were constructed. The model explained 44% of the GST activity measured in breast milk. The GLM suggests that GST activity was positively correlated with Hg, As and Se concentrations. The activity of the enzyme was also explained by the frequency of consumption of marine fish and shellfish in the diet of the breastfeeding women.

  18. Postharvest stilbenes and flavonoids enrichment of table grape cv Redglobe (Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by interactive UV-C exposure and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Pasquale; Pichierri, Arianna; Basile, Teodora; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and stilbenes are secondary metabolites produced in plants that can play an important health-promoting role. The biosynthesis of these compounds generally increases as a response to biotic or abiotic stress; therefore, in order to achieve as high phenolic accumulation as possible, the interactive effects of storage conditions (temperature and time) and UV-C radiation on polyphenols content in postharvest Redglobe table grape variety were investigated. During a storage time longer than 48h, both cold storage (4°C) and UV-C exposure of almost 3min (2.4kJm(-2)) positively enhanced the content of cis- and trans-piceid (34 and 90μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) together with quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (15 and 140μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) up to three fold respect to control grape samples. Conversely, catechin was not significantly affected by irradiation and storage treatments. With regard anthocyanins, the highest concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-Oglucoside were observed in Redglobe, stored at both room temperature and 4°C, after 5min (4.1kJm(-2)) of UV-C treatment and 24h of storage. Gathered findings showed that combined postharvest treatments can lead to possible "functional" grapes, within normal conditions of market commercialization, responding to the rising consumers demand to have foods that support and promote health.

  19. Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raihani, Nichola J; Pinto, Ana I; Grutter, Alexandra S; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-22

    Punishment is an important deterrent against cheating in cooperative interactions. In humans, the severity of cheating affects the strength of punishment which, in turn, affects the punished individual's future behaviour. Here, we show such flexible adjustments for the first time in a non-human species, the cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), where males are known to punish female partners. We exposed pairs of cleaners to a model client offering two types of food, preferred 'prawn' items and less-preferred 'flake' items. Analogous to interactions with real clients, eating a preferred prawn item ('cheating') led to model client removal. We varied the extent to which female cheating caused pay-off reduction to the male and measured the corresponding severity of male punishment. Males punished females more severely when females cheated during interactions with high value, rather than low value, model clients; and when females were similar in size to the male. This pattern may arise because, in this protogynous hermaphrodite, cheating by similar-sized females may reduce size differences to the extent that females change sex and become reproductive competitors. In response to more severe punishment from males, females behaved more cooperatively. Our results show that punishment can be adjusted to circumstances and that such subtleties can have an important bearing on the outcome of cooperative interactions.

  20. Facets of Spirituality as Predictors of Adjustment to Cancer: Relative Contributions of Having Faith and Finding Meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Yanez, Betina; Edmondson, Donald; Annette L. Stanton; Park, Crystal L.; Kwan, Lorna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Blank, Thomas O.

    2009-01-01

    Spirituality is a multidimensional construct, and little is known about how its distinct dimensions jointly affect well-being. In longitudinal studies (Study 1, N = 418 breast cancer patients; Study 2, N = 165 cancer survivors), we examined two components of spiritual well-being (i.e., meaning/peace and faith) and their interaction, as well as change scores on those variables, as predictors of psychological adjustment. In Study 1, higher baseline meaning/peace, as well as an increase in meani...

  1. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  2. Combined expectancies: electrophysiological evidence for the adjustment of expectancy effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münte Thomas F

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When subjects use cues to prepare for a likely stimulus or a likely response, reaction times are facilitated by valid cues but prolonged by invalid cues. In studies on combined expectancy effects, two cues can independently give information regarding two dimensions of the forthcoming task. In certain situations, cueing effects on one dimension are reduced when the cue on the other dimension is invalid. According to the Adjusted Expectancy Model, cues affect different processing levels and a mechanism is presumed which is sensitive to the validity of early level cues and leads to online adjustment of expectancy effects at later levels. To examine the predictions of this model cueing of stimulus modality was combined with response cueing. Results Behavioral measures showed the interaction of cueing effects. Electrophysiological measures of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP and the N200 amplitude confirmed the predictions of the model. The LRP showed larger effects of response cues on response activation when modality cues were valid rather than invalid. N200 amplitude was largest with valid modality cues and invalid response cues, medium with invalid modality cues, and smallest with two valid cues. Conclusion Findings support the view that the validity of early level expectancies modulates the effects of late level expectancies, which included response activation and response conflict in the present study.

  3. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144).

  4. Interações afetivas na família e na pré-escola Affective interactions in family and in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Maria Canhetti Mondin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa com crianças pré-escolares enfoca as relações afetivas como elementos indispensáveis à compreensão do crescimento da criança e os papéis da família e da escola nesse empreendimento. Assim, seu objetivo central consistiu na análise das interações afetivas de crianças na família e na pré-escola. Participaram 40 crianças de 4 a 6 anos, matriculadas em uma instituição pré-escolar municipal, localizada no interior do Estado de São Paulo, suas mães e dez professoras. Foram utilizados como instrumentos a observação, o questionário e a entrevista. O primeiro dirigiu-se ao comportamento das crianças no contexto pré-escolar, o segundo ao comportamento das professoras com as crianças e o terceiro destinou-se às mães, cujas verbalizações permitiram constatar as relações interpessoais no ambiente familiar. Os resultados revelaram que as crianças com dificuldades nas relações interpessoais na escola também as apresentavam no ambiente familiar.This research with pre-school children focused affective relations as indispensable elements to understand the growing of a child, and the role of the family and the school in such achievement. Its main goal consisted in the analysis of the affective interactions of children in the family and in pre-school. 40 children (4-6 years old from a municipal pre-school institution (in the State of São Paulo took part in the study, as well as their mothers and 10 teachers. Three instruments have been utilized: observation, questionnaire and interview. The first was used to investigate children's behavior in the pre-school context; the second one referred to the teachers' attitude toward the children, and the third one was dedicated to the mothers, whose verbalizations unveiled the personal relationships in the familiar environment. The results revealed that children with personal relationship problems at school, also presented the same problem at home.

  5. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  6. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states on a bipa......We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...

  7. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes. As a re......Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes....... As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  8. How Do I Deal with Depression and Adjustment to My Spinal Cord Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help guide you from the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is ... or negative thoughts. Depression is common in the spinal cord injury population -- affecting about 1 in 5 people. ...

  9. Social and Affective Robotics Tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Evers, Vanessa; Deisenroth, Marc; Merino, Luis; Schuller, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Social and Affective Robotics is a growing multidisciplinary field encompassing computer science, engineering, psychology, education, and many other disciplines. It explores how social and affective factors influence interactions between humans and robots, and how affect and social signals can be

  10. Palmitoylcarnitine affects localization of growth associated protein GAP-43 in plasma membrane subdomains and its interaction with Gα(o) in neuroblastoma NB-2a cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tułodziecka, Karolina; Czeredys, Magdalena; Nałęcz, Katarzyna A

    2013-03-01

    Palmitoylcarnitine was observed previously to promote differentiation of neuroblastoma NB-2a cells, and to affect protein kinase C (PKC). Palmitoylcarnitine was also observed to increase palmitoylation of several proteins, including a PKC substrate, whose expression augments during differentiation of neural cells-a growth associated protein GAP-43, known to bind phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]. Since palmitoylated proteins are preferentially localized in sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich microdomains of plasma membrane, the present study has been focused on a possible effect of palmitoylcarnitine on GAP-43 localization in these microdomains. Palmitoylcarnitine treatment resulted in GAP-43 appearance in floating fractions (rafts) in sucrose gradient and increased co-localization with cholesterol and with PI(4,5)P(2), although co-localization of both lipids decreased. GAP-43 disappeared from raft fraction upon treatment with 2-bromopalmitate (an inhibitor of palmitoylating enzymes) and after treatment with etomoxir (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor). Raft localization of GAP-43 was completely abolished by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol binding agent, while there was no change upon sequestration of PI(4,5)P(2) with neomycin. GAP-43 co-precipitated with a monomeric form of Gα(o), a phenomenon diminished after palmitoylcarnitine treatment and paralleled by a decrease of Gα(o) in the raft fraction. These observations point to palmitoylation of GAP-43 as a mechanism leading to an increased localization of this protein in microdomains of plasma membrane rich in cholesterol, in majority different, however, from microdomains in which PI(4,5)P(2) is present. This localization correlates with decreased interaction with Gα(o) and suppression of its activity-an important step regulating neural cell differentiation.

  11. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  12. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  13. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  14. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  15. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  16. Groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium in Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Rick; Ortiz, Roderick F.; Brown, Christopher R.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    2016-11-28

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas River Basin Regional Resource Planning Group, initiated a study of groundwater and surface-water interaction, water quality, and loading of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium to Fountain Creek near Pueblo, Colorado, to improve understanding of sources and processes affecting loading of these constituents to streams in the Arkansas River Basin. Fourteen monitoring wells were installed in a series of three transects across Fountain Creek near Pueblo, and temporary streamgages were established at each transect to facilitate data collection for the study. Groundwater and surface-water interaction was characterized by using hydrogeologic mapping, groundwater and stream-surface levels, groundwater and stream temperatures, vertical hydraulic-head gradients and ratios of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the hyporheic zone, and streamflow mass-balance measurements. Water quality was characterized by collecting periodic samples from groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone for analysis of dissolved solids, selenium, uranium, and other selected constituents and by evaluating the oxidation-reduction condition for each groundwater sample under different hydrologic conditions throughout the study period. Groundwater loads to Fountain Creek and in-stream loads were computed for the study area, and processes affecting loads of dissolved solids, selenium, and uranium were evaluated on the basis of geology, geochemical conditions, land and water use, and evapoconcentration.During the study period, the groundwater-flow system generally contributed flow to Fountain Creek and its hyporheic zone (as a single system) except for the reach between the north and middle transects. However, the direction of flow between the stream, the hyporheic zone, and the near-stream aquifer was variable in response to streamflow and stage. During periods of low streamflow, Fountain Creek generally gained flow from

  17. Parental bonding in males with adjustment disorder and hyperventilation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung For-Wey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to identify the style of parental bonding and the personality characteristics that might increase the risk of hyperventilation and adjustment disorder. Methods A total of 917 males were recruited, 156 with adjustment disorder and hyperventilation syndrome (AD + HY, 273 with adjustment disorder without hyperventilation syndrome (AD–HY, and 488 healthy controls. All participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Chinese Health Questionnaire. Results Analysis using structural equation models identified a pathway relationship in which parental bonding affected personality characteristics, personality characteristics affected mental health condition, and mental health condition affected the development of hyperventilation or adjustment disorder. Males with AD–HY perceived less paternal care, and those with AD + HY perceived more maternal protection than those with adjustment disorder and those in the control group. Participants with AD–HY were more neurotic and less extroverted than those with AD + HY. Both groups showed poorer mental health than the controls. Conclusions Although some patients with hyperventilation syndrome demonstrated symptoms of adjustment disorder, there were different predisposing factors between the two groups in terms of parental bonding and personality characteristics. This finding is important for the early intervention and prevention of hyperventilation and adjustment disorder.

  18. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  19. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelen, R.H. van der; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Ghareh, H.; Och, L. van; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene x Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid

  20. [Self-esteem, self-centeredness and social-emotional adjustment of gifted children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A

    2009-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate of how giftedness affects social-emotional adjustment. Self-esteem may be an indicator of social-emotional adjustment but insufficient in its explanatory capacity, especially high self-esteem which tends to produce opposite responses in regards to adjustment. A distinction between defensive and genuine high self-esteem could account for these results. In order to understand how self-esteem operates on social-emotional adjustment, it should be associated with other measurements relating to self-concern. In the Rorschach comprehensive system (CS), egocentricity index measures self-centeredness, which can be defined as the balance between self-concern and concern for others. High self-concern is associated with a neglect of the others. Operationalized here, as the interaction of high self-esteem and excessive self-concern, defensive high self-esteem should predict maladaptive outcomes. Participants were aged from 9 to 15 years old, with an IQ greater or equal to 130 on the WISC-III. They were attending regular classes and were not in counseling or psychotherapy. Children and adolescents were administrated the Rorschach CS and the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Parents completed the child behaviour checklist (CBCL) which assesses general psychopathology. Seventy-eight subjects' data satisfy the conditions of validity of the instruments used. Gifted boys present more behavior and emotional problems than gifted girls in this study. Self-esteem predicts social-emotional adjustment. There is an interaction between self-esteem and self-concern on psychopathology only for high values of self-esteem. Gifted with high self-esteem associated with high self-concern are more vulnerable to maladjustment than high self-esteem associated with low self-concern. Gifted children and adolescents with low self-esteem experience more problems anyhow. These findings reinforce the view that the gifted are a diverse group in terms of social-emotional adjustment