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Sample records for adjustment disorder epidemiology

  1. [Epidemiology of mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouillon, Frédéric

    2008-02-29

    The 12 months and lifetime prevalence of is respectively 5 and 9% in the general population; moreover 10 to 20% of general practice patients are depressed. Depression is involved in about 40 to 80% of suicide and induces one of the greatest social burden. Mood disorders are more frequent in women, individual living alone and people with low socio-economic level. Risk factors are stressfull life events, biological vulnerability (genetic factors), somatic diseases, psychiatric comorbidity including personality disorders and addictions. Depressive disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated despite efficacious pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies in their treatment. It's the reason why public health programs to prevent depression have been promoted by many countries like European Alliance against Depression. Their efficacy must be evaluated as their cost-efficiency.

  2. Evaluation of an adjustable epidemiologic information system.

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    Jiunn-Shyan Julian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate public health response and to achieve early control of infectious disease epidemics, an adjustable epidemiologic information system (AEIS was established in the Taiwan public health network in February 2006. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The performance of AEIS for the period 2006 through 2008 was evaluated based on a number of response times (RT and the public health impact. After implementation of the system, the apparent overall shortened RT was mainly due to the shortening of personnel response time (PRT and the time needed to draft a new questionnaire that incurred as personnel-system interface (PSI; PRT dropped from a fluctuating range of 9.8 ∼28.8 days in the first four months to <10 days in the following months and remained low till 2008 (0.88±1.52 days. The PSIs for newly emerged infectious diseases were 2.6 and 3.4 person-hours for H5N1 in 2007 and chikungunya in 2008, respectively, a much improvement from 1142.5 person-hours for SARS in 2003. The duration of each rubella epidemic cluster was evaluated as public health impact and showed a shortening trend (p = 0.019 that concurred with the shortening of PRT from 64.8±47.3 to 25.2±38.2 hours per cluster (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first evaluation of the novel instrument AEIS that had been used to assist Taiwan's multi-level government for infectious diseases control demonstrated that it was well integrated into the existing public health infrastructure. It provided flexible tools and computer algorithms with friendly interface for timely data collection, integration, and analysis; as a result, it shortened RTs, filled in gaps of personnel lacking sufficient experiences, created a more efficient flow of response, and identified asymptomatic/mild cases early to minimize further spreading. With further development, AEIS is anticipated to be useful in the application of other acute public health events needing immediate

  3. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified' (ED

  4. Seasonal affective disorder, grief reaction, and adjustment disorder.

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    Osborn, Justin; Raetz, Jacqueline; Kost, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a subtype of other affective disorders. The most studied treatment is light therapy, although second-generation antidepressants are also an option. Grief reactions are normal for patients experiencing loss, and primary care providers (PCPs) should be aware of both the expected course of grief and the more severe symptoms that indicate complex grief. Adjustment disorder is a time-limited abnormal response to a stressor. PCPs can manage patients with adjustment disorder by arranging counseling, screening for suicidality, assessing for substance abuse, and ruling out other psychiatric diagnoses. At present there are no reliable data to suggest medication management.

  5. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including

  6. Epidemiology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

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    Caner Mutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder diagnosis has been increasing recently. Since studies evaluating attempted suicide rates in children and adolescents have shown bipolarity to be a significant risk factor, diagnosis and treatment of bipolarity has become a very important issue. Since there is a lack of specific diagnostic criteria for especially preadolescent samples and evaluations are made mostly symptomatically, suspicions about false true diagnosis and increased prevalence rates have emerged. This situation leads to controversial data about the prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. The aim of this article is to review the prevalence of childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder in community, inpatient and outpatient based samples in literature.

  7. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders.

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    Fombonne, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Is the incidence of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) increasing? Recent epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and other PDDs have heightened awareness of and concern about the prevalence of these disorders; however, differences in survey methodology, particularly changes in case definition and case identification over time, have made comparisons between surveys difficult to perform and interpret. Recent surveys suggest that the rate of all PDDs is about 60 per 10,000. The prevalence of autism today is estimated at 13 per 10,000, Asperger's disorder is approximately 3 per 10,000, and childhood disintegrative disorder is very rare at about 0.2 per 10,000. The assessment process, sample size, publication year, and geographic location of studies all have an effect on prevalence estimates. In addition, data from many of these surveys indicate correlates of autistic disorder and other PDDs with IQ, gender, and other medical disorders.

  8. Thyroid disorders in India: An epidemiological perspective

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    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid diseases are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. According to a projection from various studies on thyroid disease, it has been estimated that about 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases. This review will focus on the epidemiology of five common thyroid diseases in India: (1 hypothyroidism, (2 hyperthyroidism, (3 goiter and iodine deficiency disorders, (4 Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, and (5 thyroid cancer. This review will also briefly cover the exciting work that is in progress to ascertain the normal reference range of thyroid hormones in India, especially in pregnancy and children.

  9. An epidemiological study of histrionic personality disorder.

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    Nestadt, G; Romanoski, A J; Chahal, R; Merchant, A; Folstein, M F; Gruenberg, E M; McHugh, P R

    1990-05-01

    In conjunction with the Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) survey conducted in Baltimore, MD, a two-stage probability sample of community subjects was developed with a full psychiatric examination employing DSM-III criteria. This report details the observations on those subjects diagnosed with the DSM-III diagnosis Histrionic Personality Disorder. The results indicate that this condition can be diagnosed reliably and that it is a valid construct. It has a prevalence of 2.1% in a general population. Males and females are equally affected, suggesting that prior reports of an increased prevalence in females was an expression of ascertainment bias found in hospital-based studies. The diagnosis is associated with clear evidence of disturbance in the emotional, behavioural, and social realms. Individuals with this disorder tend to use health care facilities more frequently than others.

  10. The Perils of "Adjustment Disorder" as a Diagnostic Category

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    Daniels, John

    2009-01-01

    "Adjustment disorder" occupies a peculiar position in the diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) straddling the boundary between normal and abnormal psychology. A more human-centered approach in counseling offers a defense of "normal" adjustment as…

  11. Epidemiology of DSM-5 Drug Use Disorder

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    Grant, Bridget F.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Smith, Sharon M.; Pickering, Roger P.; Huang, Boji; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Current information on the prevalence and sociodemographic and clinical profiles of individuals in the general population with DSM-5 drug use disorder (DUD) is limited. Given the present societal and economic context in the United States and the new diagnostic system, up-to-date national information is needed from a single uniform data source. OBJECTIVE To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, disability, and treatment of DSM-5 DUD diagnoses overall and by severity level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In-person interviews were conducted with 36 309 adults in the 2012–2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III, a cross-sectional representative survey of the United States. The household response rate was 72%; person-level response rate, 84%; and overall response rate, 60.1%. Data were collected April 2012 through June 2013 and analyzed from February through March 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Twelve-month and lifetime DUD, based on amphetamine, cannabis, club drug, cocaine, hallucinogen, heroin, nonheroin opioid, sedative/tranquilizer, and/or solvent/inhalant use disorders. RESULTS Prevalences of 12-month and lifetime DUD were 3.9% and 9.9%, respectively. Drug use disorder was generally greater among men, white and Native American individuals, younger and previously or never married adults, those with lower education and income, and those residing in the West. Significant associations were found between 12-month and lifetime DUD and other substance use disorders. Significant associations were also found between any 12-month DUD and major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.09–1.64), dysthymia (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.09–2.02), bipolar I (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.06–2.05), posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.27–2.10), and antisocial (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.11–1.75), borderline (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.41–2.24), and schizotypal (OR, 1

  12. Parental bonding in males with adjustment disorder and hyperventilation syndrome

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    Lung For-Wey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to identify the style of parental bonding and the personality characteristics that might increase the risk of hyperventilation and adjustment disorder. Methods A total of 917 males were recruited, 156 with adjustment disorder and hyperventilation syndrome (AD + HY, 273 with adjustment disorder without hyperventilation syndrome (AD–HY, and 488 healthy controls. All participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Chinese Health Questionnaire. Results Analysis using structural equation models identified a pathway relationship in which parental bonding affected personality characteristics, personality characteristics affected mental health condition, and mental health condition affected the development of hyperventilation or adjustment disorder. Males with AD–HY perceived less paternal care, and those with AD + HY perceived more maternal protection than those with adjustment disorder and those in the control group. Participants with AD–HY were more neurotic and less extroverted than those with AD + HY. Both groups showed poorer mental health than the controls. Conclusions Although some patients with hyperventilation syndrome demonstrated symptoms of adjustment disorder, there were different predisposing factors between the two groups in terms of parental bonding and personality characteristics. This finding is important for the early intervention and prevention of hyperventilation and adjustment disorder.

  13. Disordered Gambling in Finland : Epidemiology and a Current Treatment Option

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Disordered gambling is a multifaceted phenomenon, and consequently many factors have a role in its development and maintenance. Adverse consequences of disordered gambling can be mental, social and legal. Only a few epidemiological studies of disordered gambling have previously been conducted in Finland, and none of these studies have been published internationally. Gambling research in Finland has increased during the past years, especially the investigation of treatment options for disorder...

  14. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults

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    Jojić Boris R.; Leposavić Ljubica M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Autogenic training is a widely recognised psychotherapy technique. The British School of Autogenic Training cites a large list of disorders, states, and changes, where autogenic training may prove to be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adults. Our sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 35 individuals, with an average age of 39.3±1.6 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accord...

  15. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents

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    Jojić Boris R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3±0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2, in accordance with ICD 10 search criteria. OBJECTIVE The aim of our work was to figure out the influence of autogenic training on adjustment disorder, through biophysical and biochemical indicators, and to research the efficacy of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. METHOD We observed adjustment disorder indicators and their changes in three phases, using initial, final, and control values, which we measured immediately before the beginning, immediately after the completion, and six months after the completion, of the practical course in autogenic training. We measured systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, brachial pulse rates, cortisol levels in plasma, cholesterol levels in blood, as well as glucose concentrations. During that period, autogenic training was employed as the sole therapy. RESULTS The study confirmed our preliminary assumptions. The measurements we performed showed that arterial blood pressure, pulse rates, cholesterol and cortisol concentrations, after the application of autogenic training among adolescents suffering from adjustment disorder, were lower than the initial values. They remained lower even six months after the completion of the practical course in autogenic training. CONCLUSION We concluded that autogenic training significantly decreases the values of physiological indicators of adjustment disorder, diminishes the effects of stress in an individual, and eases the adaptation of

  16. Autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jojić Boris R.; Leposavić Ljubica M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Autogenic training is a widespread technique used in psychotherapy. The British school of autogenic training cites a large list of diseases, health states, and life changes, in which autogenic training can be of help. We wanted to explore the application of autogenic training as a therapy for adjustment disorder in adolescents. The sample consisted of a homogeneous group of 31 individuals, with an average age of 17.3±0.2 years, who were diagnosed with adjustment disorder, F 43.2,...

  17. [Dream quality, trauma and suicide in in adjustment disorder].

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    Kovács, Ildikó; Vargha, András; Ali, István; Bódizs, Róbert

    2010-01-01

    In adjustment disorder (ICD: F43.2) the danger of suicide is greater, and specific dream quality may be characteristic of this state, too. Moreover adjustment disorder, suicide and quality of dream can be related to different types of trauma the patient had during life. Considering these aspects we examined with questionnaires 41 patients with adjustment disorder and 41 control persons with no diagnosed psychiatric disorder. Our results suggest that in adjustment disorder the danger of suicide is significant, nightmare and dreams with negative affect often occur. If these patients went through physical agression, it proved to be more serious than with members of the control panel. Besides, suicide attempt, dream quality, recurring dreams and different traumas also are in relation with each other. From the point of view of clinical practice the result is very important that the risk of suicide and the occurance of nightmares--in accordance with results of other researches--go together strongly. Our study's conclusion is--agreeing with hypothesis of Tanansken et al. 2001--this correlation can occur with the trauma the patient went through.

  18. Recent Stressful Life Events among Bahraini Adolescents with Adjustment Disorder.

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    Al-Ansari, Ahmed; Matar, Ali M.

    1993-01-01

    Retrospectively examined adolescents from two time periods, diagnosed with adjustment disorder (n=72), for type of life stressors that initiated referrals to child psychiatry unit and compared them to control group of 42 referred adolescents with no psychopathology. Disappointment in relationships with family member or friend of opposite sex was…

  19. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of temporomandibular disorders.

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    Liu, Frederick; Steinkeler, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a multifactorial disease process caused by muscle hyperfunction or parafunction, traumatic injuries, hormonal influences, and articular changes. Symptoms of TMD include decreased mandibular range of motion, muscle and joint pain, joint crepitus, and functional limitation or deviation of jaw opening. Only after failure of noninvasive options should more invasive and nonreversible treatments be initiated. Treatment can be divided into noninvasive, minimally invasive, and invasive options. Temporomandibular joint replacement is reserved for severely damaged joints with end-stage disease that has failed all other more conservative treatment modalities.

  20. [From crisis to adjustment disorder: a medicalization of a concept?].

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    Gil, Tsvi

    2013-01-01

    This review aimed to compare two concepts in the psychiatric literature: crisis and adjustment disorder. The two concepts stem from different theoretical perspectives, rely upon different (though relatively loose) bodies of data, and may serve different purposes. The concept of crisis originated from an approach that could be considered psychodynamic, humanistic, and community oriented. Treatment, according to this approach, is known as crisis intervention and is characterized as being principally psychological, social, humanistic, and systemic. The generic approach to crisis calls for immediate aid rather than for a diagnosis and regular appointments, as is customary in psychiatric practice. The concept of adjustment disorder, on the other hand, is a rather medical nosological approach, which strives to achieve a phenomenological and objective description of the patient, and which may lead to ordinary psychiatric treatment, such as pharmacotherapy. Herein we present a review of literature on both approaches, with an emphasis on theoretical and empirical data. The findings appear to provide rather weak empirical support for both concepts. Some theoretical resolutions are proposed in an attempt to link the two concepts, such as a continuum of severity. We conclude that practitioners should decide for themselves, according to one's own theoretical framework and purpose of usage. Nonetheless, as formal psychiatric diagnosis demands more extensive scientific support and bears further implications (such as stigma), the current use of the diagnosis of adjustment disorder may seems less justified.

  1. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

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    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  2. Epidemiological aspects of studying work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

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    Driscoll, Tim

    2011-02-01

    There are many challenges to conducting valid epidemiological research of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and interpreting reports describing the results. In particular, these concern the basic study design, selection of subjects, measurement of exposure and outcome, control of confounding and the limitations of workers' compensation data systems. Researchers and people interested in the research results need to be aware of the major potential problems and pay careful attention to them when designing, conducting and using the results of such research.

  3. An epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders in Iran

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    Razzaghi Emran

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nation-wide epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders in term of lifetime prevalence is not adequately known in Iran. The prevalence of lifetime psychiatric disorders was estimated among the population of aged 18 and over on gender, age group, educational level, occupational status, marital status, and residential area. Methods The subjects were 25,180 individuals selected through a clustered random sampling method. The psychiatric disorders were diagnosed on the bases of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. It is the first study in which the structured psychiatric interview administered to a representative sample of the Iranian population age 18 and over by the 250 trained clinical psychologist interviewers. The data was entered through EPI-Info software twice in an attempt to prevent any errors and SPSS-11 statistical software was also used for analyses. The odds ratios and their confidence intervals estimated by using logistic regression. Results and Discussion The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 10.81%. It was more common among females than males (14.34% vs. 7.34%, P Conclusion The mental health pattern in Iran is similar to the western countries, but it seems that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iran may be lower than these countries. It is estimated that at least about 7 millions of Iranian population suffer from one or more of the psychiatric disorders. It shows the importance of the role of the psychiatric disorders in providing preventive and management programs in Iran.

  4. The epidemiology and genetics of binge eating disorder (BED).

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    Davis, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    This narrative review provides an overview of the epidemiology of binge eating disorder (BED), highlighting the medical history of this disorder and its entry as an independent condition in the Feeding and Eating Disorders section of the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Estimates of prevalence are provided, as well as recognition that the female to male ratio is lower in BED than in other eating disorders. Evidence is also provided of the most common comorbidities of BED, including mood and anxiety disorders and a range of addiction disorders. In addition, discussion of the viewpoint that BED itself may be an addiction - at least in severe cases - is presented. Although the genetic study of BED is still in its infancy, current research is reviewed with a focus on certain neurotransmitter genes that regulate brain reward mechanisms. To date, a focal point of this research has been on the dopamine and the μ-opioid receptor genes. Preliminary evidence suggests that a predisposing risk factor for BED may be a heightened sensitivity to reward, which could manifest as a strong dopamine signal in the brain's striatal region. Caution is encouraged, however, in the interpretation of current findings, since samples are relatively small in much of the research. To date, no genome-wide association studies have focused exclusively on BED.

  5. Autism spectrum disordersepidemiology, symptoms, comorbidity and diagnosis

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    Filip Rybakowski,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the new classification of American Psychiatric Association – DSM-5 – a category of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD was introduced, which replaced autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. ASD are defined by two basic psychopathological dimensions: communication disturbances and stereotyped behaviors, and the diagnosis is complemented with the assessment of language development and intellectual level. In successive epidemiological studies conducted in 21 century the prevalence of ASD has been rising, and currently is estimated at 1% in general population. The lifetime psychiatric comorbidity is observed in majority of patients. The most common coexisting diagnoses comprise disorders of anxiety-affective spectrum, and in about 1/3 of patients attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorders could be diagnosed. Prodromal symptoms of ASD may emerge before 12 months of life, however reliability of diagnosis at such an early age is poor. Several screening instruments, based on the parental and/or healthcare professional assessments may be helpful in ASD detection. However, structured interviews and observation schedules remain the gold standard of diagnosis.

  6. Attachment insecurity and psychological resources associated with adjustment disorders.

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    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders.

  7. An epidemiological study of mental disorders at Pune, Maharashtra

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    Balbir S Deswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The WHO Global Burden of Disease study estimates that mental and addictive disorders are among the most burdensome in the world, and their burden will increase over the next decades. The mental and behavioral disorders account for about 12% of the global burden of disease. However, these estimates and projections are based largely on literature review rather than cross-national epidemiological surveys. In India, little is known about the extent, severity and unmet need of treatment mental disorders. Thus, there was a need to carry out rigorously implemented general population surveys that estimate the prevalence of mental disorders among urban population at Pune, Maharashtra. The study attempted to address unmet need and to form a basis for formulating the mental health need of the community. Objective: The study was undertaken to estimate the lifetime prevalence and 12 month prevalence of specific mental disorders in urban population, socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders and to assess the service utilization in individuals with mental disorders. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken among adults aged 18 years and above living in house hold and in geographical area of Pune , Maharashtra. A minimum sample of 3000 completed interviews was planned using representative probabilities to population size (PPS sampling method which ensured equal probability for every eligible member. Data listing was obtained from Census Office from recent census of 2001 data. The face to face interviews were undertaken in homes using fully structured interview schedule of World Mental Health Survey Initiative duly revised Version of WHO- Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0 by trained investigators. Clinical reappraisal was carried out using Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN among ten percent of diagnosed cases selected randomly. Data were entered into DDE (Blaize Software and analyzed using

  8. Epidemiology of headache disorders in the Asia-pacific region.

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    Peng, Kuan-Po; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorder is a major public health issue and is a great burden for the person, the health care system, and society. This article reviews epidemiological surveys of primary headache disorders including migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) among adults in the Asia-Pacific region using the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD), first or second edition. Chronic daily headache (CDH), which is not an official diagnosis in the ICHD, was also reviewed. In the Asia-Pacific region, the median (range) 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders was 9.1% (1.5-22.8%) for migraine, 16.2% (10.8-33.8%) for TTH, and 2.9% (1.0-3.9%) for CDH. The 1-year prevalence of migraine and TTH were rather consistent; however, the extremes in the 1-year prevalence of migraine in earlier studies from Hong Kong (1.5%) and South Korea (22.3%) were not repeated in later surveys (Hong Kong: 12.5%; South Korea: 6%). According to the United Nations, the estimated population of the Asia-Pacific region was 3.85 billion in 2010, equaling to headache suffers of 350 million patients with migraine, 624 million with TTH, and 112 million with CDH; many remain to be treated. The prevalence of headache disorders has remained stable over the last 2 decades in this region, where the diversity of geography, race, and development is wide. Thus, the pursuit of better headache care in this region might be our next challenge.

  9. The epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the Arab world: a review.

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    Tanios, Christine Y; Abou-Saleh, Mohammad T; Karam, Aimée N; Salamoun, Mariana M; Mneimneh, Zeina N; Karam, Elie G

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies are quite rare in the Arab world. The Institute for Development Research Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC) has conducted a systematic review of all epidemiologic research on anxiety disorders in the Arab world up to 2006. Specific keywords were used in the search for affective disorders, namely anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, GAD, panic, separation anxiety disorder, SAD, overanxious disorder, OAD, phobia, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS), obsession, compulsion, obsessive, compulsive. All results were screened and categorized. Epidemiological data on prevalence, gender differences, age of onset, comorbidity, risk factors and treatment of anxiety disorders in the Arab world were found in clinical and community samples. There is an evident need for national data on anxiety disorders in the Arab world in order to identify the magnitude of these diseases and their burden on the individual and community.

  10. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

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    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  11. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

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    A. K. Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month, and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90% and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840 at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP 12%, reticular abscess (RA 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%. ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years

  12. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  13. Interventions to facilitate return to work in adults with adjustment disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; Bruinvels, David J.; Rebergen, David S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Madan, Ira; Neumeyer-Gromen, Angela; Bultmann, Ute; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adjustment disorders are a frequent cause of sick leave and various interventions have been developed to expedite the return to work (RTW) of individuals on sick leave due to adjustment disorders. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions facilitating RTW for workers with acute or

  14. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchison D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs in adults. Method: A keyword search was entered into Scopus (SciVerse, Elsevier to identify relevant articles published in English up until June 2013. Articles were assessed against a range of a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: A total of 149 full-text articles were found to be eligible for the review and included 86 articles with data on sociodemographic correlates, 57 on environmental correlates, and 13 on genetic correlates. Female sex, younger age, sexual and physical abuse, participation in esthetic or weight-oriented sports, and heritability were found to be most consistently associated with higher ED prevalence and incidence. Conversely, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and urbanicity did not appear to have strong associations with ED epidemiology. Conclusion: More community-based research, with an equal representation of males, needs to be conducted to confirm the current findings and provide evidence for emerging factors that may be related to EDs. Keywords: demographic, environment, abuse, prevalence, socioeconomic status, heritability

  15. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Spiess, Alexandra; Kostev, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders in patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Germany. Methods: This study included 7,580 patients between the ages of 40 and 90 diagnosed with AMD between January 2011 and December 2014 in 1,072 primary care practices (index date). The last follow-up was in July 2016. We also included 7,580 controls without AMD, which were matched (1:1) to the AMD cases by age, sex, type of health insurance (private or statutory), physician, and Charlson comorbidity score as a generic marker of comorbidity. The outcome of the study was the prevalence of depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders recorded in the database between the index date and the end of follow-up. Results: The mean age among subjects was 75.7 years (SD=10.1 years), 34.0% were men, and 7.8% had private health insurance coverage. The Charlson comorbidity index was 2.0 (SD=1.8). Depression was the most frequent disease (33.7% in AMD patients versus 27.3% in controls), followed by somatoform disorders (19.6% and 16.7%), adjustment disorders (14.8% and 10.5%), and anxiety disorders (11.7% and 8.2%). Depression (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.27–1.47), anxiety (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.35–1.67), adjustment disorders (OR=1.50, 95% CI: 1.36–1.65), and somatoform disorders (OR=1.22, 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) were all positively associated with AMD. Conclusion: Overall, a significant association was found between AMD and depression, anxiety, adjustment disorders, and somatoform disorders.

  16. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  17. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...... and deaths in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies...... to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4-14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23-26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic...

  18. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms rela

  19. Epidemiology and natural progression of articular temporomandibular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBont, LGM; Dijkgraaf, LC; Stegenga, B

    1997-01-01

    The reported prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) differs from study to study, probably because of methodologic errors and lack of standardized definitions of TMDs and their characteristics. Classification of TMDs should be in accordance with classification of synovial joint disorders as

  20. Understanding the Impact of Brain Disorders: Towards a 'Horizontal Epidemiology' of Psychosocial Difficulties and Their Determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcos Cieza

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis of 'horizontal epidemiology', i.e. that psychosocial difficulties (PSDs, such as sleep disturbances, emotional instability and difficulties in personal interactions, and their environmental determinants are experienced in common across neurological and psychiatric disorders, together called brain disorders.A multi-method study involving systematic literature reviews, content analysis of patient-reported outcomes and outcome instruments, clinical input and a qualitative study was carried out to generate a pool of PSD and environmental determinants relevant for nine different brain disorders, namely epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, dementia, depression, schizophrenia and substance dependency. Information from these sources was harmonized and compiled, and after feedback from external experts, a data collection protocol including PSD and determinants common across these nine disorders was developed. This protocol was implemented as an interview in a cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of persons with one of the nine brain disorders. PSDs endorsed by at least 25% of patients with a brain disorder were considered associated with the disorder. PSD were considered common across disorders if associated to 5 out of the 9 brain disorders and if among the 5 both neurological and psychiatric conditions were represented.The data collection protocol with 64 PSDs and 20 determinants was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 722 persons in four specialized health care facilities in Europe.57 of the PSDs and 16 of the determinants included in the protocol were found to be experienced across brain disorders.This is the first evidence that supports the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology in brain disorders. This result challenges the brain disorder-specific or vertical approach in which clinical and epidemiological research about psychosocial difficulties experienced in daily

  1. Compulsive buying disorder: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W

    2001-01-01

    Compulsive buying disorder is characterised by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding shopping and spending, which lead to adverse consequences. Compulsive buying disorder has been estimated to affect from 2 to 8% of the general adult population in the US; 80 to 95% of those affected are female. Onset occurs in the late teens or early twenties, and the disorder is generally chronic. Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particularly mood, anxiety, substance use, eating and personality disorders. Treatment has not been well delineated, but individual and group psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy and 12-step programmes may be helpful. Debt consolidation and credit counselling will be appropriate for many individuals who have compulsive buying disorder. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) re- uptake inhibitors may help some patients regulate their buying impulses. Self-help books are also available.

  2. HIV-related movement disorders: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    Clinically relevant movement disorders are identified in 3% of patients with HIV infection seen at tertiary referral centres. In the same setting, prospective follow-up shows that 50% of patients with AIDS develop tremor, parkinsonism or other extrapyramidal features. Hemiballism-hemichorea and tremor are the most common hyperkinesias seen in patients who are HIV positive, but other movement disorders diagnosed in these patients include dystonia, chorea, myoclonus, tics, paroxysmal dyskinesias and parkinsonism. Patients with movement disorders usually present with other clinical features such as peripheral neuropathy, seizures, myelopathy and dementia. In the vast majority of patients, hyperkinesias result from lesions caused by opportunistic infections, particularly toxoplasmosis, which damage the basal ganglia connections. On the other hand, parkinsonism and tremor can result from dopaminergic dysfunction resulting from HIV itself or the use of antidopaminergic drugs. The management of patients who are HIV positive who present with movement disorders involves recognition and treatment of opportunistic infections, symptomatic treatment of the movement disorder and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The most effective treatment of cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with HIV infection is the combination of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. Symptomatic treatment of the movement disorder is often disappointing: hemiballism improves with antipsychotics, but tremor, parkinsonism and other phenomena usually fail to respond to available therapies. Preliminary data suggest that HAART may be helpful in the symptomatic control as well as prevention of movement disorders in patients who are HIV positive.

  3. Adjustment disorders as a stress-related disorder: a longitudinal study of the associations among stress, resources, and mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüya-Daniela Kocalevent

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adjustment disorders are re-conceptualized in the DSM-5 as a stress-related disorder; however, besides the impact of an identifiable stressor, the specification of a stress concept, remains unclear. This study is the first to examine an existing stress-model from the general population, in patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders, using a longitudinal design. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 108 patients consecutively admitted for adjustment disorders. Associations of stress perception, emotional distress, resources, and mental health were measured at three time points: the outpatients' presentation, admission for inpatient treatment, and discharge from the hospital. To evaluate a longitudinal stress model of ADs, we examined whether stress at admission predicted mental health at each of the three time points using multiple linear regressions and structural equation modeling. A series of repeated-measures one-way analyses of variance (rANOVAs was performed to assess change over time. RESULTS: Significant within-participant changes from baseline were observed between hospital admission and discharge with regard to mental health, stress perception, and emotional distress (p<0.001. Stress perception explained nearly half of the total variance (44% of mental health at baseline; the adjusted R2 increased (0.48, taking emotional distress (i.e., depressive symptoms into account. The best predictor of mental health at discharge was the level of emotional distress (i.e., anxiety level at baseline (β= -0.23, R2corr=0.56, p<0.001. With a CFI of 0.86 and an NFI of 0.86, the fit indices did not allow for acceptance of the stress-model (Cmin/df=15.26; RMSEA=0.21. CONCLUSIONS: Stress perception is an important predictor in adjustment disorders, and mental health-related treatment goals are dependent on and significantly impacted by stress perception and emotional distress.

  4. Prevalence of anxiety disorders: a population-based epidemiological study in metropolitan area of Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrada Soumia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Morocco, no epidemiological study has been conducted to show the current prevalence of mental disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and comorbidity of anxiety disorders in Moroccan subjects. Methods We used cross-sectional study, with a representative sample of Casablanca city. Direct interviews used the Mini International Neurpsychiatric Interview in its validated Moroccan Arabic version Results Among 800 subjects, 25.5% met criteria of at least one current anxiety disorder: Panic Disorder (2%, Agoraphobia (7.6% Social phobia (3.4, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (6.1%, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (3.4%, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (4.3% Conclusion The results are generally similar to those of Western countries. Future studies need to replicate these results and to concentrate on their impact on the quality of life and the cost of such conditions in the community.

  5. Epidemiology of temporomandibular disorders: implications for the investigation of etiologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeResche, L

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution, determinants, and natural history of disease in populations. Epidemiology has several uses in addition to its traditional role of documenting the public health significance of a condition. Notably, epidemiologic methods and data can be used to identify and verify causes of disease. This article reviews the epidemiologic data on pain in the temporomandibular region, and on signs and symptoms associated with specific subtypes of temporomandibular disorders, with the aim of identifying possible etiologic factors for these conditions that deserve further study. Despite methodologic and population differences, several consistencies are apparent in the epidemiologic literature. Pain in the temporomandibular region appears to be relatively common, occurring in approximately 10% of the population over age 18; it is primarily a condition of young and middle-aged adults, rather than of children or the elderly, and is approximately twice as common in women as in men. This prevalence pattern suggests that etiologic investigations should be directed at biologic and psychosocial factors that are more common in women than in men, and diminish in older age groups. Most signs and symptoms associated with particular temporomandibular disorders (e.g., joint sounds, pain in the joint) also appear to be more prevalent in women than in men, although age patterns for these signs and symptoms are not as clear as for temporomandibular pain. The available data highlight the need for further research on etiologic factors associated with temporomandibular pain and with specific diagnostic subtypes of temporomandibular disorders.

  6. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in a Bimanual Load-Lifting Task in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jover, Marianne; Schmitz, Christina; Centelles, Laurie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Assaiante, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Postural control is a fundamental component of action in which deficits have been shown to contribute to motor difficulties in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in children with DCD in a bimanual load-lifting task. Method: Sixteen children…

  7. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…

  8. The association between adjustment disorder diagnosed at psychiatric treatment facilities and completed suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Qin, Ping; Lincoln, Alisa K;

    2010-01-01

    is associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. However the association between adjustment disorder and completed suicide has yet to be examined. The current study is a population-based case control study examining this association in the population of Denmark aged 15 to 90 years. All suicides...

  9. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  10. Trauma, comorbidity, and mortality following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Antonsen, Sussie; Svensson, Elisabeth; Lash, Timothy L; Resick, Patricia A; Hansen, Jens Georg

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal outcomes following stress or trauma diagnoses are receiving attention, yet population-based studies are few. The aims of the present cohort study were to examine the cumulative incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses following diagnoses of severe stress and adjustment disorders categorized using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes and to examine associations of these diagnoses with all-cause mortality and suicide. Data came from a longitudinal cohort of all Danes who received a diagnosis of reaction to severe stress or adjustment disorders (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code F43.x) between 1995 and 2011, and they were compared with data from a general-population cohort. Cumulative incidence curves were plotted to examine traumatic experiences and psychiatric diagnoses during the study period. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the associations of the disorders with mortality and suicide. Participants with stress diagnoses had a higher incidence of traumatic events and psychiatric diagnoses than did the comparison group. Each disorder was associated with a higher rate of all-cause mortality than that seen in the comparison cohort, and strong associations with suicide were found after adjustment. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of stress disorders with a variety of outcomes, and we found that stress diagnoses may have long-lasting and potentially severe consequences.

  11. Epidemiology, Comorbidity, and Behavioral Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Few, Lauren R; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2015-04-01

    Psychopathy is theorized as a disorder of personality and affective deficits while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis is primarily behaviorally based. While ASPD and psychopathy are similar and are highly comorbid with each other, they are not synonymous. ASPD has been well studied in community samples with estimates of its lifetime prevalence ranging from 1-4% of the general population.(4,5) In contrast, psychopathy is almost exclusively investigated within criminal populations so that its prevalence in the general population has been inferred by psychopathic traits rather than disorder (1%). Differences in etiology and comorbidity with each other and other psychiatric disorders of these two disorders are also evident. The current article will briefly review the epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidity of ASPD and psychopathy, focusing predominately on research completed in community and clinical populations. This paper aims to highlight ASPD and psychopathy as related, but distinct disorders.

  12. Epidemiological Findings of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in a Venezuelan Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Pena, Joaquin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) for children receiving services in Maracaibo County, Venezuela. Children aged 3-9 with diagnosis of any ASD were recruited. We ascertained area, referral process, and definitions of ASD for each patient. A total of 430 children were identified, and 76.5 percent were…

  13. The epidemiology of eating disorders: genetic, environmental, and societal factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchison D; Hay PJ

    2014-01-01

    Deborah Mitchison,1 Phillipa J Hay2,3 1School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville City, QLD, Australia Background: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature to date regarding the sociodemographic, environmental, and genetic correlates of eating disorders (EDs) in adults. Method: A keyword sear...

  14. Psychiatric disorders associated with Cushing's syndrome. Epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, N; Fava, G A

    2001-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by a chronic excess of glucocorticoids. A number of psychiatric and psychological disturbances may be associated with the condition, regardless of its aetiology. Major depression is the most common comorbid disorder. Other psychopathological aspects of Cushing's syndrome in adults include mania, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction. The presence of depression connotes a severe clinical presentation and, in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary forms of Cushing's syndrome, is prognostically useful. Inhibitors of corticosteroid production (e.g. ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide), rather than antidepressant drugs, are generally successful in relieving depressive symptoms, as well as other disabling symptoms. These drugs can be used to control symptoms prior to surgical treatment of Cushing's syndrome. Long-standing hypercortisolism may cause some degree of irreversible pathological damage and induce highly individualised affective responses based on each patient's psychological assets and liabilities. As a result, upon normalisation of cortisol levels, treatment may still be required, and should encompass both psychotherapeutic strategies (particularly cognitive-behavioural therapies that have been found to be effective in affective disorders) and psychotropic drug treatment [antidepressants such as tricyclic agents and selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors]. In patients with severe anxiety, benzodiazepines (e.g. clonazepam in small doses) may also be helpful.

  15. The Epidemiology of Pelvic Floor Disorders and Childbirth: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Jennifer L; Handa, Victoria L

    2016-03-01

    Using a lifespan model, this article presents new scientific findings regarding risk factors for pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), focusing on the role of childbirth in the development of single or multiple coexisting PFDs. Phase I of the model includes predisposing factors, such as genetic predisposition and race. Phase II includes inciting factors, such as obstetric events. Prolapse, urinary incontinence (UI), and fecal incontinence (FI) are more common among vaginally parous women, although the impact of vaginal delivery on risk of FI is less dramatic than prolapse and UI. Phase III includes intervening factors, such as age and obesity.

  16. Epidemiological and clinical characterization following a first psychotic episode in major depressive disorder: Comparisons with Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder in the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owoeye, Olabisi

    2013-05-28

    While recent research on psychotic illness has focussed on the nosological, clinical, and biological relationships between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, little attention has been directed to the most common other psychotic diagnosis, major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP). As this diagnostic category captures the confluence between dimensions of psychotic and affective psychopathology, it is of unappreciated heuristic potential to inform on the nature of psychotic illness. Therefore, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of MDDP were compared with those of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder within the Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (n = 370). Epidemiologically, the first psychotic episode of MDDP (n = 77) was uniformly distributed across the adult life span, while schizophrenia (n = 73) and bipolar disorder (n = 73) were primarily disorders of young adulthood; the incidence of MDDP, like bipolar disorder, did not differ between the sexes, while the incidence of schizophrenia was more common in males than in females. Clinically, MDDP was characterized by negative symptoms, executive dysfunction, neurological soft signs (NSS), premorbid intellectual function, premorbid adjustment, and quality of life similar to those for schizophrenia, while bipolar disorder was characterized by less prominent negative symptoms, executive dysfunction and NSS, and better quality of life. These findings suggest that what we currently categorize as MDDP may be more closely aligned with other psychotic diagnoses than has been considered previously. They indicate that differences in how psychosis is manifested vis-à-vis depression and mania may be quantitative rather than qualitative and occur within a dimensional space, rather than validating categorical distinctions.

  17. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2016-01-01

    that this increased risk was driven by any specific disorder. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The current epidemiological evidence is compatible with a small increased risk of male reproductive disorders following prenatal and postnatal exposure to some persistent environmental chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors...... but the evidence is limited. Future epidemiological studies may change the weight of the evidence in either direction. No evidence of distortion due to publication bias was found, but exposure-response relationships are not evident. There are insufficient data on rapidly metabolized endocrine disruptors...... was to systematically synthesize published data on the risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts and testicular cancer following in utero or infant exposure to chemicals that have been included on the European Commission's list of Category 1 endocrine disrupting chemicals defined as having documented...

  18. Immigration and changes in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy : an emerging public health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cataldo Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years Italy is confronting with massive migratory movements from developing countries where hemoglobinopathies are widespread. This is causing a large diffusion and a changing spectrum in the epidemiology of hemoglobin disorders in Italy. Methods Investigations recently published in Italy on hemoglobinopathies among immigrants were revised in order to appreciate the impact of immigration from developing countries on epidemiology of these pathologies and to outline adequate guidelines of prevention. Results Although in Italy there is a limited number of investigations regarding the relation between immigration and hemoglobin disorders, published data show that in our Nation there is a changing and increasing spectrum of hemoglobinopathies linked to immigration. Conclusions Prospective and retrospective actions of public healthy preventive policy are requested, based upon information (health educational programs for immigrants and caregivers, screenings among immigrants (school screening, pre-marital, preconception and early pregnancy screening, newborn screening, counseling for foreign at-risk couples and healthy carriers.

  19. Cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders: a systematic review of population-based, epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moylan Steven

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies have demonstrated that rates of smoking and nicotine dependence are increased in individuals with anxiety disorders. However, significant variability exists in the epidemiological literature exploring this relationship, including study design (cross-sectional versus prospective, the population assessed (random sample versus clinical population and diagnostic instrument utilized. Methods We undertook a systematic review of population-based observational studies that utilized recognized structured clinical diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM or International Classification of Diseases (ICD for anxiety disorder diagnosis to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence and anxiety disorders. Results In total, 47 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria, with 12 studies providing prospective information and 5 studies providing quasiprospective information. The available evidence suggests that some baseline anxiety disorders are a risk factor for initiation of smoking and nicotine dependence, although the evidence is heterogeneous and many studies did not control for the effect of comorbid substance use disorders. The identified evidence however appeared to more consistently support cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence as being a risk factor for development of some anxiety disorders (for example, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, although these findings were not replicated in all studies. A number of inconsistencies in the literature were identified. Conclusions Although many studies have demonstrated increased rates of smoking and nicotine dependence in individuals with anxiety disorders, there is a limited and heterogeneous literature that has prospectively examined this relationship in population studies using validated diagnostic criteria. The most consistent evidence supports smoking and nicotine dependence as

  20. Musculoskeletal disorders: Epidemiology and treatment seeking behavior of secondary school students in a Nigerian community

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbehingbe Olayinka; Fatusi Adesegun; Adegbenro Caleb; Adeitan Opeyemi; Abass Ganiyu; Akintunde Akintomiwa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information paucity exists on musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among secondary school students in Nigeria. We aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and treatment seeking behaviors (TSB) of MSD in Southwest, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in 2007. All the students were screened for MSD using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and physical examina...

  1. Clinical epidemiology of comorbid dysthymia and substance disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, J; Eames, S E

    1997-01-01

    The authors sought to determine the 1-year-period prevalence and demographic characteristics of comorbid substance-related disorder (SRD) and dysthymia, as well as the demographic characteristics of SRD-dysthymia patients as compared with SRD-only patients. Patients being treated at two university medical centers and abstinent less than 2 years were followed prospectively for 6 months to establish the diagnosis of dysthymia. A total of 642 patients were assessed, of whom 39 had SRD-dysthymia and 308 had SRD only. Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire and assessment of DSM Axis I psychiatric diagnoses. The 1-year prevalence rate was lower than noted in previous studies where there were less stringent criteria for dysthymia. The rate of dysthymia among these SRD patients closely resembled that observed in a general population study. SRD-dysthymia patients and SRD-only patients did not differ on most demographic characteristics. SRD-dysthymia is not easily detected among recovering SRD patients because of the need for lengthy observation and the absence of special demographic characteristics.

  2. The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Potter, David

    2002-01-01

    For decades after Kanner's original paper on the subject was published in 1943, autism was generally considered to be a rare condition with a prevalence of around 2-4 per 10,000 children. Then, studies carried out in the late 1990s and the present century reported annual rises in incidence of autism in pre-school children, based on age of diagnosis, and increases in the age-specific prevalence rates in children. Prevalence rates of up to 60 per 10,000 for autism and even more for the whole autistic spectrum were reported. Reasons for these increases are discussed. They include changes in diagnostic criteria, development of the concept of the wide autistic spectrum, different methods used in studies, growing awareness and knowledge among parents and professional workers and the development of specialist services, as well as the possibility of a true increase in numbers. Various environmental causes for a genuine rise in incidence have been suggested, including the triple vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR]. Not one of the possible environmental causes, including MMR, has been confirmed by independent scientific investigation, whereas there is strong evidence that complex genetic factors play a major role in etiology. The evidence suggests that the majority, if not all, of the reported rise in incidence and prevalence is due to changes in diagnostic criteria and increasing awareness and recognition of autistic spectrum disorders. Whether there is also a genuine rise in incidence remains an open question.

  3. Epidemiological surveys of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric

    2003-08-01

    This paper was commissioned by the committee on the Effectiveness of Early Education in Autism of the National Research Council (NRC). It provides a review of epidemiological studies of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) which updates a previously published article (The epidemiology of autism: a review. Psychological Medicine 1999; 29: 769-786). The design, sample characteristics of 32 surveys published between 1966 and 2001 are described. Recent surveys suggest that the rate for all forms of PDDs are around 30/10,000 but more recent surveys suggest that the estimate might be as high as 60/10,000. The rate for Asperger disorder is not well established, and a conservative figure is 2.5/10,000. Childhood disintegrative disorder is extremely rare with a pooled estimate across studies of 0.2/10,000. A detailed discussion of the possible interpretations of trends over time in prevalence rates is provided. There is evidence that changes in case definition and improved awareness explain much of the upward trend of rates in recent decades. However, available epidemiological surveys do not provide an adequate test of the hypothesis of a changing incidence of PDDs.

  4. Suicidal intent and the HPA-axis characteristics of suicide attempters with major depressive disorder and adjustment disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Vang, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis characteristics in relation to suicidal intent among suicide attempters with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Adjustment Disorders (AD). The relationship between suicidal intent, assessed by means of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), and serum cortisol after a Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST) was investigated in 78 suicide attempters, divided into diagnostic subgroups. There was a significant negative correlation between suicidal intent and post DST cortisol in patients with MDD. Our findings may be attributed to pathophysiological processes, where a high suicidal intent is revealed during a potential chronic course of MDD, which in turn results in a seemingly normal stress system.

  5. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Riha, R L

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the community (up to 20%). A subset of these patients has concurrent symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness attributable to their nocturnal breathing disorder and is classified as having obstructive sleep...... apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (4-5% of the middle-aged population). There is strong evidence for an association of sleep apnoea with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, as well as adverse public health consequences. Treatment and diagnosis have remained largely unchanged over the past 25 yrs....... In moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure has been shown to be effective. Questions remain as to how to screen patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Should time-consuming diagnostic procedures with high sensitivity and specificity...

  6. BEHAVIOURAL, EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT IN SIBLINGS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER. A THEORETICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ruiz Aparicio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD have unique characteristics and very little is known about how these characteristics may influence the family and the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of their siblings. The purpose of the current study is to focus on the siblings and to review the literature related to the behavioural, social and emotional adjustment of siblings of individuals with ASD. We have identified and analysed 24 articles to find the relevant results that may help us to understand the needs of these siblings. The findings suggest mixed results but they also bring to light a number of risk factors that could have an impact on the entire family and particularly on the siblings of children with ASD.

  7. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  8. [Epidemiology of illnesses and musculoskeletal disorders in grocery stores and catering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzini, Matteo; Battevi, Natale; Stucchi, Giulia; Vitelli, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Large scale retail industry and catering industry are characterized by the widespread presence of several risk factors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD): repetitive movements, incongruous postures and manual handling tasks. We reviewed current epidemiological evidence related to musculoskeletal disorders within these two sectors, distinguishing between symptoms and clinically documented disorders. In retail industry cashier is the most investigated figure, regarding upper limbs disorders as a consequence of repetitive tasks. In the catering sector there are few studies, mostly focused only on the job as a cook. The majority of studies showed a high prevalence of WMSD and, to a lesser extent, a high frequency ofmusculoskeletal alterations; suggesting the presence of a not negligible risk. These findings, however, are affected by a number of methodological limitations: they derive from cross-sectional studies, are based on voluntary self-selected workers, are focused on not unequivocally defined health outcomes, and are usually lacking a proper comparison. with the prevalence in less exposed/reference working groups. In order to achieve an effective control of the workers' risk, it is therefore necessary to design and conduct prospective studies that compare the risk of developing disorders and/or diseases in workers exposed to different levels of biomechanical load. It appears essential to involve occupational physicians in active health surveillance programs in order to identify critical areas and to develop effective preventive measures.

  9. El papel de la epidemiología en la investigación de los trastornos mentales The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research

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    Guilherme Borges

    2004-10-01

    , esta epidemiología también se orienta hacia un dominio particular de determinantes (como el uso, abuso o dependencia hacia las drogas y cómo estas variables independientes afectan determinados procesos y enfermedades (como los accidentes, el homicidio, el suicidio, la cirrosis hepática, etc. Por último, la epidemiología de los trastornos mentales se ha caracterizado también por su interés en una serie de procesos que no parecen constituir síndromes propiamente dichos, pero que son a todas luces de interés sanitario, siendo el ejemplo más claro de esto el problema de la violencia. La epidemiología de los trastornos mentales se enfrenta a enormes retos en el nuevo milenio. Debe hacer frente a un panorama epidemiológico complejo y cambiante. Los aspectos más importantes de su desarrollo futuro se vinculan con los siguientes puntos: medición de los trastornos mentales y de los factores de riesgo, el diseño y métodos de muestreo más eficientes, la relación entre la investigación biológica, la genética, las disciplinas sociales y la epidemiología, y la interfase entre la epidemiología y la evaluación de los tratamientos y los servicios.Mental disorders, including substance abuse, are part of the Mexican epidemiologic scenario and will remain so during several decades. They may even become more prominent as causes of disease, disability, and death in our country. It is thus imperative to frame appropriate management strategies to curb these problems without delay. This paper aims at outlining epidemiology of mental diseases as a field of study, and to identify its limitations. Emphasis is made on common elements shared with other more traditional fields of epidemiology, as well as on the specific contributions made by this particular field to epidemiology and to psychiatry in general. This paper describes the main study designs and problems in this field of epidemiology, its usefulness in prevention actions, and future challenges. A unique

  10. Combining directed acyclic graphs and the change-in-estimate procedure as a novel approach to adjustment-variable selection in epidemiology

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    Evans David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs are an effective means of presenting expert-knowledge assumptions when selecting adjustment variables in epidemiology, whereas the change-in-estimate procedure is a common statistics-based approach. As DAGs imply specific empirical relationships which can be explored by the change-in-estimate procedure, it should be possible to combine the two approaches. This paper proposes such an approach which aims to produce well-adjusted estimates for a given research question, based on plausible DAGs consistent with the data at hand, combining prior knowledge and standard regression methods. Methods Based on the relationships laid out in a DAG, researchers can predict how a collapsible estimator (e.g. risk ratio or risk difference for an effect of interest should change when adjusted on different variable sets. Implied and observed patterns can then be compared to detect inconsistencies and so guide adjustment-variable selection. Results The proposed approach involves i. drawing up a set of plausible background-knowledge DAGs; ii. starting with one of these DAGs as a working DAG, identifying a minimal variable set, S, sufficient to control for bias on the effect of interest; iii. estimating a collapsible estimator adjusted on S, then adjusted on S plus each variable not in S in turn (“add-one pattern” and then adjusted on the variables in S minus each of these variables in turn (“minus-one pattern”; iv. checking the observed add-one and minus-one patterns against the pattern implied by the working DAG and the other prior DAGs; v. reviewing the DAGs, if needed; and vi. presenting the initial and all final DAGs with estimates. Conclusion This approach to adjustment-variable selection combines background-knowledge and statistics-based approaches using methods already common in epidemiology and communicates assumptions and uncertainties in a standardized graphical format. It is probably best suited to

  11. Can executive functions explain the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and social adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the Primarily Inattentive Subtype (ADHD-I; n = 33), and non-ADHD controls (n = 36) participated. EF did not mediate the relationship between ADHD status and parent or teacher report of social adjustment. EF accounted for about 40-50% of the variance between ADHD status and the ability of children to detect subtle verbal cues as well as memory for the conversation in the chat room task, but did not mediate the relationship between ADHD and the number of prosocial, hostile, or on-topic statements that were made. Results are consistent with other recent reports, and suggest that the role of EF deficits in the production of social skill deficits in ADHD may not be as prominent as is typically assumed. The implications for the development of intervention programs designed to target core cognitive etiologic factors are discussed.

  12. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Cuoco, Valentina; Quartini, Adele; Urso, Stefania; Rinaldi, Raffaella; Bersani, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although adjustment disorder (AD) is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing) often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD. Methods A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy), was performed. Results The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females), aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%), a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%), was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%), family problems (23.70%), and/or somatic disease (22.60%) with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records. Conclusion Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results suggest that AD may have a distinct profile in demographic and clinical terms. Increased scientific attention is hoped, particularly focused on addressing a better definition of diagnostic criteria, whose correctness and accuracy are critical, especially in situations with medicolegal implications. PMID:27099504

  13. Social epidemiology of mental disorders. A review of Latin-American studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Filho, N

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about the relationships between cultural change and psychopathology produced by Latin American researchers. With the analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, the author shows how culture has been traditionally viewed by social psychiatric research in Latin America as an independent variable associated with the prevalence of mental disorders. Two basic approaches have been analyzed: one of anthropological origin and the other based on sociological explanations. The hypotheses of cultural shock, stress of acculturation and cultural marginalization belong to the first approach, while the second one is manifested by the notions of urban stress, life change, social support and goal-striving stress. Methodological issues were brought about to evaluate the results on the association of cultural processes and psychopathology available in contemporary socio-psychiatric research in Latin America.

  14. OA01.45. Study of manas prakriti as a risk factor in mental adjustment disorders of young adults and role of sattvavajaya chikitsa (rational emotive behavioural therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhe, Ganesh Sheshrao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In Ayurveda, physical and mental status of a person is described in terms of Prakriti. Manas prakriti is divided in three types as Satvik, Rajasik, Tamasik. Further these manas prakritis are divided as Satvik 7 types, Rajasik 6 & Tamasik of 3 types. (Su.sha.4/63). Though considerable body of research work is available on Deha prakriti, not much research work is available on Manas Prakriti. Rational Emotive Education is a preventive-interventionist approach by which a person can be taught sane mental health concepts and skills. REBT is based on a valid educational model which emphasises positive self-acceptance, critical thinking, the application of the scientific method to self-understanding, and behavioural change. Experiments with the program have shown that person can be taught to guide their actions through positive directed thought. Method: Phase I: Literary search - carried out by compiling & analysing work done on Mental Adjustment disorders. PHASE II: Nidanatmaka (Epidemiological) study. Survey based on the CRF prepared on the basis of phase one compilations incorporating Nidan, samrapti. More than 500 subjects were studied and analysed for pattern of Nidana Panchaka of Mental adjustment in Young Adults w.s.r. to Manas prakriti. PHASE III: UPASHYATMAKA (CLINICAL STUDY): About 100 Patients identified as suffering from Mental Adjustment Disorders in the Nidanatmaka study to be selected for the upashayatmaka Study after due process of Informed consent. These Patients to be divided into two groups: Group A (Rajasika): - Sattvavajaya Chikitsa (REBT), Counselling as per the guide-lines of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy along with Yashtimadhu Ghan Vati. Group B (Tamasika): Sattvavajaya Chikitsa (REBT), Counselling as per the guide-lines of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy along with Tagar Ghan Vati. Result: Sattvavajaya chikitsa and drugs taken for trial were found to be effective. Conclusion: Manas prakriti has definite role in mental health

  15. Learning, Adjustment and Stress Disorders: With Special Reference to Tsunami Affected Regions. Beitrage zur Padagogischen und Rehabilitationspsychologie. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witruk, Evelin, Ed.; Riha, David, Ed.; Teichert, Alexandra, Ed.; Haase, Norman, Ed.; Stueck, Marcus, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book contains selected contributions from the international workshop Learning, "Adjustment and Stress Disorders--with special reference to Tsunami affected Regions" organised by Evelin Witruk and the team of Educational and Rehabilitative Psychology at the University of Leipzig in January 2006. The book contains new results and the…

  16. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  17. Adjustment Difficulties and Caregiving Burdens Faced by College Students with a Parent with Bipolar or Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Erin K.; Ruggero, Camilo J.; Bain, Kathleen; Kilmer, Jared

    2014-01-01

    College campuses often host students who come from families where one or more parent has been affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder. The present study sought to determine whether these students face unique challenges in college, including increased adjustment difficulties as well as greater caregiving burden associated with their…

  18. Treatment of Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety: A September 11, 2001, Case Study with a 1-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Shawn; McCone, Dave

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of a 20-year-old White male manifesting an adjustment disorder with anxiety, who initially presented on September 11, 2001, following the terrorist attacks. The initial treatment regime lasted 8 weeks. In addition, follow-up sessions at 6, 11, and 12 months…

  19. A pedigree-analysis approach to the descriptive epidemiology of autosomal-recessive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, W Y N; Nicholas, F W; James, J W

    2007-03-17

    We describe a pedigree-analysis approach to estimating descriptive epidemiological parameters for autosomal-recessive disorders when the ancestral source of the disorder is known. We show that the expected frequency of carriers in a cohort equals the gene contribution of the ancestral source to that cohort, which is equivalent to the direct (additive) genetic relationship of that ancestor to the cohort. Also, the expected incidence of affected foetuses ranges from (1/2)F* to F*, where F* is the mean partial inbreeding coefficient (due to the ancestor) of the cohort. We applied this approach to complex vertebral malformation (CVM) in Holstein-Friesians in Australia, for which the ancestral source is a USA-born bull, Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell. The estimated frequency of carriers was 2.47% for the 1992-born and 4.44% for the 1997-born cohort of Holstein-Friesian cows in Australia. The estimated incidence of affected foetuses/calves was considerably less than one per thousand, ranging from 0.0024 to 0.0048% for the 1992-born cohort, and from 0.0288 to 0.0576% for the 1997-born cohort. These incidences correspond to expected numbers of affected female foetuses/calves ranging from 2 to 4 for the 1992-born cohort and from 28 to 56 for the 1997-born cohort. This approach is easy to implement using software that is readily available.

  20. Pacific paradigms of environmentally-induced neurological disorders: Clinical, epidemiological and molecular perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garruto, R.M. (Laboratory of Central Nervous System Studies, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (Unites States))

    During the past quarter century biomedical scientists have begun to recognize the unique opportunities for studying disease etiology and mechanisms of pathogenesis in non-Western anthropological populations with focal, endemic diseases. The systematic search for etiological factors and mechanisms of pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders is perhaps nowhere better exemplified than in the western Pacific. During the past three decades, the opportunistic and multidisciplinary study of hyperendemic foci of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia which occur in different cultures, in different ecological zones and among genetically divergent populations have served as natural models that have had a major impact on our thinking and enhanced our understanding of these and other neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease and the process of early neuronal aging. Our cross-disciplinary approach to these intriguing neurobiological problems and the accumulated epidemiological, genetic, cellular and molecular evidence strongly implicates environmental factors in their causation, specifically the role of aluminum and its interaction with calcium in neuronal degeneration. As a direct consequence of our studies in these Pacific populations, we have undertaken the long-term development of experimental models of neuronal degeneration, in an attempt to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which these toxicants affect the central nervous system. Our experimental studies have resulted in the establishment of an aluminum-induced chronic myelopathy in rabbits and the development of neurofilamentous lesions after low-dose aluminum administration in cell culture.

  1. Advances in epidemiological study of post-traumatic stress disorders in postwar civilian survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-yu KONG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a feeling of persecution arising from the exposure to a life-threatening event. PTSD shows three kinds of characteristic symptoms including intrusive, avoidance, and arousal syndromes. Numerous literatures had been published on the study of the PTSD epidemiology. However, research results varied due to different research subjects and evaluation methods used. A big difference exists between the studies on refugees, migrating population, and community population, because these studies are affected by different definitions of war trauma, difference in choice of samples, and application of psychological intervention. Therefore, no exact conclusions have been established on the accurate incidence of PTSD in civilians after having endured war trauma or mental torture. Currently, studies on PSTD are still inadequate. The first reason for this inadequacy is the difference existing between previous study methods. In addition, differences also exist in the statistical results between different research groups; the present study objects are all non-western ethnics or some specific population, thus selective bias existing in samples adopted. Secondly, the majority of the studies had no a control group, thus the results lacking reliability and universality. The third reason is that more attention should be paid to the impact of nationality and cultural background on the study of postwar PTSD. In summary, a large amount of work should be done in the field of PSTD epidemiology in the future. Therefore, it is very important to look for simple tools for screening and measuring PTSD in Chinese population, and investigate the incidence of PTSD after all kinds of traumatic events and its distribution for effectively preventing and treating PTSD.

  2. Specific hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in a tertiary hospital in northeastern brazil epidemiological profile

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    Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of women admitted to a tertiary hospital in Northeastern Brazil with Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out at the Hospital Geral César Cals (César Cals General Hospital, a tertiary care center of the Sistema Único de Saúde – SUS (Brazil’s National Health System in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. The study included 1,865 pregnant women admitted with HDP from January 2006 to December 2013 regardless of age, education, marital status, place of birth, place of residence and outcome (discharge, death and ongoing pregnancy. Results: Pregnant women were predominantly aged 17-35 years (n=1484, 79.6%, mixed-race (n=1464, 78.5%, single (n= 775, 41.6%, housewives (n=1269, 68.0%, lived in Fortaleza (n=1198, 64.3% and had complete elementary education (n=766, 41%. Overweight (n= 1408, 75.4%, first pregnancy (n=827, 44.3% and multiparity (n=686, 36.7% were the main risk factors for HDP. Regarding fetal status, 30.9% (n=576 were preterm. The main HDP complications were: HELLP syndrome (n=60, 3.2%, bleeding disorders (n=15, 0.8% and acute respiratory failure (n=13, 0.6%. Conclusion: The pregnant women assessed presented risk factors for HDP, reinforcing the idea that the health status and the disease and health process are directly influenced by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the population.

  3. Musculoskeletal disorders: Epidemiology and treatment seeking behavior of secondary school students in a Nigerian community

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    Adegbehingbe Olayinka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological information paucity exists on musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among secondary school students in Nigeria. We aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and treatment seeking behaviors (TSB of MSD in Southwest, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in 2007. All the students were screened for MSD using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and physical examination, which involved the use of a scoliometer and a goniometer. Affected children were recommended for follow-up treatment and a plain radiography taken. Results: A total of 133 students had 204 MSD representing a 3.0% prevalence among the 4,441students screened. Eighty-one (60.9% students had congenital disorders and 52 (39.1% were acquired. The lower limbs (93.1% were most commonly affected and 87 (65.4% students presented with a knee deformity. Other abnormalities were limb length discrepancy 6.8%, scoliosis 4.4%, Pes planus 3.9%, and poliomyelitis 2.9%. A total of 100 students (75.2% had no form of treatment, 18.8% receive treatment in the hospital, 3.7% received treatment in a traditional healing home and 2.3% received treatment in a church. Age, family, and school type were significant factors ( P < 0.05 in health-seeking behavior. The factors affecting treatment outcome were the place of treatment, hospital specific treatment, and reasons for stopping treatment. Conclusion: Treatable cases constitute a large proportion of MSD among secondary school students, but TSB was generally poor. Parental socio-economic and health services factors were related to the health-seeking behavior. Strengthening of school health services and improved linkage with orthopedic services, community education on MSD, and education of all cadres of health professionals are recommended.

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders: Epidemiology and treatment seeking behavior of secondary school students in a Nigerian community

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    Adegbehingbe Olayinka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological information paucity exists on musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among secondary school students in Nigeria. We aimed to determine prevalence, pattern, and treatment seeking behaviors (TSB of MSD in south-west Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in 2007. All the students were screened for MSD using interviewer-administered questionnaire and physical examination, which involved use of scoliometer and goniometer. Affected children were recommended for treatment and plain radiography taken. Results: A total of 133 students had 204 MSD representing 3.0% prevalence among the 4,441students screened. Eighty-one (60.9% students had congenital disorders and 52 (39.1% were acquired. The lower limbs (93.1% were most commonly affected and 87 (65.4% students presented with knee deformity. Other abnormalities were limb length discrepancy 6.8%, scoliosis 4.4%, pes planus 3.9%, and poliomyelitis 2.9%. One hundred students (75.2% had no form of treatment, 18.8% receive treatment in the hospital, 3.7% in traditional healing home and 2.3% in church. Age, family, and school type were significant factors ( P < 0.05 in health seeking behavior. The factors affecting treatment outcome were the place of treatment, hospital specific treatment, and reasons for stopping treatment. Conclusion: Treatable cases constitute a large proportion of MSD among secondary school students, but TSB was generally poor. Parental socio-economic and health services factors were related to the health seeking behavior. Strengthening of school health services and improved linkage with orthopedic services, community education on MSD, and education of all cadres of health professionals are recommended.

  5. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Alcohol Use Disorders among Young People in Northern Tanzania.

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    Joel M Francis

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global public health problem, including as a risk factor for HIV infection, but few data are available on the epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders (AUD among young people in sub-Saharan Africa.We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 groups of young people aged 15-24 years old (secondary school students, college/university students, employees of local industries and casual labourers in two regions (Kilimanjaro and Mwanza of northern Tanzania. Using a multistage stratified random sampling strategy, we collected information on demographics, alcohol use, and behavioural factors. We screened severity of alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and estimated the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption using the timeline-follow-back-calendar (TLFB method.A total of 1954 young people were surveyed. The prevalence of reported alcohol use was higher among males (47-70% ever users and 20-45% current users than females (24-54% ever users and 12-47% current users. Prevalence of use was substantially higher in Kilimanjaro than Mwanza region. In both regions, participants reported high exposure to alcohol advertisements, and wide alcohol availability. College students reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol use (45% among males; 26% among females and of heavy episodic drinking (71% among males; 27% among females followed by casual labourers. Males were more likely to have AUD (an AUDIT score ≥8 than females, with 11-28% of males screening positive for AUD. Alcohol use was associated with male gender, being in a relationship, greater disposable income, non-Muslim religion and a higher number of sexual partners.Alcohol use is a significant problem among young people in northern Tanzania. There is an urgent need to develop, pilot and deliver interventions to help young people delay initiation and reduce levels of harmful drinking, particularly among college students and casual

  6. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in the perinatal period: epidemiology, phenomenology, pathogenesis, and treatment

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    Álvaro Frías

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to describe the main theoretical findings and research conclusions about obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in the perinatal period. On one hand, epidemiological studies show that the risk of OCD onset and/or exacerbation could increase in this period, particularly in the puerperium. Phenomenologically, in this stage aggressive and contamination obsessions are very common and are related to the fetus or newborn. On the other hand, regarding OCD pathogenesis in this period, there is indirect evidence to suggest the participation of neuroendocrine (e.g. female gonadal steroids and oxytocin and cognitive behavioural variables (e.g. hyper-responsibility, threat overestimation, and mental control. In terms of research, more empirical studies are needed to contrast these specific vulnerability factors. Moreover, no empirically validated psychotherapeutic treatments (controlled trials adapted to this OCD sub-group were found, although some studies highlight the role of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT as an effective intervention in the context of selective primary prevention.

  7. Epidemiological Study of Common Dermatological Disorders in Western Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study

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    Pokhrel Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin diseases and their complications are a major burden on the health system of many nations. Since there is a paucity of data regarding the epidemiological status among the local population at the different parts of Nepal which are geographically distinct from each other, the present study was conducted to meet the need of an hour. Aim and Objectives: To identify and compare the pattern of dermatological diseases in the outpatients reporting to a medical camp that was organized at three distinct part of Nepal. Material and Methods: All cases with dermatological complaints attending the medical camp were included in the study after thorough examination. Data were collected, tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Out of 1,045 dermatological cases, who reported to the camp, 45.3% (mean age 26.3±30.3 were males and 54.7% (mean age 31.8±45.5 were females with the maximum number of disorders present in patients under the age group 16 to 30 years (33.6% for all the study groups. Non-infective conditions (55.8% outweighed infective conditions (36.8%. Conclusion: The identification of these diseases which are usually neglected by the community is important for proper diagnosis, treatment and for dermatologic education and research as well.

  8. [Post-traumatic stress disorder in Germany. Results of a nationwide epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, A; Forstmeier, S; Wagner, B; Glaesmer, H; Brähler, E

    2008-05-01

    In a representative epidemiological study (n=2426) with a broad age range of respondents (14-93 years), prevalence rates of traumatic life events, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and partial PTSD were estimated. A standardized interview using the trauma checklist of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and a DSM-IV PTSD symptom checklist (Modified PTSD Symptom Scale) were applied. One-month prevalence rates were 2.3% for DSM-IV PTSD and 2.7% for partial PTSD. There were no gender differences but age-group differences did appear: among persons older than 60, the prevalence of PTSD was 3.4%, whereas the prevalence was estimated at 1.3% among persons aged 14-29 years and 1.9% among those aged 30-59 years. Partial PTSD exhibited the same age distribution, with 3.8% in the elderly, 2.4% in the middle-aged, and 1.3% in young adults. The results correspond with those of other international studies taking war-related consequences for older age groups into account. Our representative study provides the first evidence of higher PTSD prevalence rates among older age groups in the German population, which is assumed to be related to consequences of World War II.

  9. Epidemiologia, curso e evolução dos transtornos alimentares Epidemiology, course and evolution of eating disorders

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    Vanessa Pinzon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Os transtornos alimentares costumam afetar mulheres jovens e ter curso crônico, variável e com alto grau de morbidade e mortalidade. Este artigo visa a apresentar os dados que suportam tais impressões clínicas.Eating disorders use to affect young women and have a chronic and variable course, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to demonstrate the epidemiological findings that support such clinical impressions.

  10. Epidemiology and genetics of common mental disorders in the general population: the PEGASUS-Murcia project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Tormo, MJ; Vilagut, G; Alonso, J; Ruíz-Merino, G; Escámez, T; Salmerón, D; Júdez, J; Martínez, S; Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    environmental interactions in the aetiology of common mental disorders in representative samples of the general population. A collaborative multidisciplinary research approach offers the potential to advance our knowledge of the underlying complex interactions and this opens the field for further innovative study designs in psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:24302509

  11. 'Schizoid' personality in childhood and adult life. II: Adult adjustment and the continuity with schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, S; Townshend, R; McGuire, R J; Weeks, D J

    1991-11-01

    In a controlled follow-up study into adulthood of 32 children diagnosed 'schizoid', three-quarters fulfilled DSM-III criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and two developed schizophrenia. Overall their psychosocial adjustment was somewhat, but not markedly, worse than that of other attenders at a child psychiatry clinic, although as a group they remained more solitary, lacking in empathy, oversensitive, with odd styles of communicating, and often with circumscribed interests.

  12. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on Social Adjustment and Mental Disorders in Foster Kids and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Toozandehjani; Zahra Kiafar

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of life skills training on social adjustment and mental disorders of foster kids and adolescents in Nishabur and Mashhad. A sample population of 60 participants (30 subjects through accessible sampling from fosterages in Nishabur and Mashhad and 30 subjects through multistage cluster sampling from fosterages is Mashhad) was selected and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group received life skills trai...

  13. College Adjustment as a Mediator Between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Work Self-Efficacy

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    Clarissa Tochetto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have addressed features of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in higher education, but the potential relationships between ADHD symptoms, dimensions of college adjustment and students' work self-efficacy remain scarcely explored. The aim of this study was to test a theoretical model in which the dimensions of college adjustment mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and work self-efficacy. Participants were 509 college students from two Brazilian public universities. Data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed using a path analysis model. The ADHD symptoms affected work self-efficacy exclusively through college adjustment problems. Improving students' well-being, social support networks, study habits, and feelings regarding their majors and the university may reduce the potential disadvantages in work self-efficacy caused by ADHD symptoms.

  14. An epidemiological research and risk factor analysis of functional gastroduodenal disorders in a Chinese naval force

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    Bin YAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the epidemiology and relative risk factors of functional gastroduodenal disorders (FGD in servicemen of a Chinese naval force. Methods The officers and soldiers in a Chinese naval force were surveyed by multistage stratified random cluster sampling method according to FGID Rome Ⅲ classification and diagnostic criteria. FGD was diagnosed and classified by the international harmonization evaluation method (SA for Rome Ⅲ-DQ. Results 8600 officers and soldiers were included. According to the 7574 valid questionnaires, the incidence of FGD was 16.74%(1268/7574. Among them, the incidence of functional dyspepsia (FD was 9.88%(748/7574, belching 4.48%(339/7574, functional nausea and vomiting 6.62%(501/7574, and adult rumination syndrome 2.38%(180/7574. FGD in naval force was prevalent mainly in 26-35 years old population. A higher incidence was found in persons with higher body mass index (BMI, P<0.05. The incidence in those who had been in military service over 4 years was obviously higher (P<0.05. The incidence was higher in officers than in soldiers (P<0.05. The incidence was higher in administrative staff, military professional personnel, scientific and technical workers, medical practitioners and teachers than that of students and logistic staff (P<0.05. Spicy food, avoidance of certain food, work stress, working in high temperature and extremely hot weather, drinking, noninfectious diarrhea, and history of dysentery might be the most important risk factors, and they showed higher strength of association with the incidence of FGD (P<0.01. Conclusion FGD has a relatively high morbidity rate in naval force population, and it is closely related to dietary habits, working conditions and past history, and attention should be given to this ailment.

  15. Geriatric teaching in Brazilian medical schools in 2013 and considerations regarding adjustment to demographic and epidemiological transition

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    Ana Conceição Norbim Prado Cunha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: This study aims to describe the profile of medical schools that introduced courses on Geriatrics and Elderly Health or Aging in their curriculum, and compare such information with the age distribution and health epidemiological data of the Brazilian population, using data until the year of 2013. Methods: 180 universities offering medical undergraduate courses and registered with the Ministry of Education and Culture of Brazil (MEC were found, as seen on the MEC website (www.emec.mec.gov.br in February 2013. Based on the list of institutions, the authors created a database. Results: Brazil's Southeast region is the one presenting most of the courses, both offered as core or elective subjects, in the area of Geriatrics. The Midwest region had the least offer of Geriatrics and Elderly Health and Care courses. The Southeast region presents the greater absolute number of institutions with elective subjects, followed by the South and Northeast regions, each with a single institution. The Southeast region was at the same time the one that presented the biggest absolute number of institutions offering core subjects in the area of Geriatrics, being followed by the Northeast, South, North, and Midwest regions. Conclusion: By analyzing the availability of courses that emphasize aging and Geriatrics in brazilian medical schools, the present study reveals that specialized training should be encouraged with respect to the specificities of health care given to the elderly population, which has a higher frequency of chronic and degenerative diseases.

  16. What kind of diagnosis in a case of mobbing: post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Maria Salvina; Costanzo, Maria Cristina; Cinconze, Maria; Concerto, Carmen

    2013-06-11

    Over the last decade a consistent increase in stress-related psychological consequences at the workplace, usually called 'mobbing', has been seen. It claimed physical, psychical and social distress as its victims, leading to an increased incidence of many illnesses, such as psychosomatic disorders (ache, high blood pressure, chronic fatigue and insomnia) and psychiatric disturbances (high level of anxiety, depression and suicidal attempts). It was recently demonstrated that mobbing is significantly widespread among healthcare workers, especially among female nurses. In this report, we illustrate the case of a nurse who, after a brilliant career, underwent mobbing at the workplace, showing depression, anxiety and sleep disorders that required hospitalisation and a substantial intervention.

  17. A different perspective on bipolar disorder? : epidemiology, consequences, concept, and recognition of bipolar spectrum disorder in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeer, Eline Janet

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, or manic-depressive illness, is a mood disorder in which episodes of mania, hypomania and depression occur in alternation with intervals of normal mood. Bipolar disorder is typically a recurrent illness and may have serious consequences such as poor social and occupational function

  18. Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) for Mental and Substance Use Disorders in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dohee; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the national burden of mental substance disorders on medical care utilization in Korea using National Health Insurance System (NHIS) data and updated disability weight, in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). For each of the 24 disorders, the incident years lived with disability (YLDs) was calculated, using NHIS data to estimate prevalence and incidence rates. The DisMod-II software program was used to model duration and remission. The years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death were calculated from causes of death statistics. DALYs were computed as the sum of YLDs and YLLs, and time discounting and age weighting were applied. The year examined was 2012, and the subjects were divided into 9 groups according to age. In 2012, the Korean burden of mental and substance use disorders was 945,391 DALYs. More than 98% of DALYs were from YLDs, and the burden in females was greater than that in males, though the burden in males aged less than 19 years old was greater than that in females. Unipolar depressive disorders, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders were found to be major diseases that accounted for more than 70% of the burden, and most DALYs occurred in their 30-59. Mental and substance use disorders accounted for 6.2% of the total burden of disease and were found to be the 7th greatest burden of disease. Therefore, mental and substance use disorders need to be embraced by mainstream health care with resources commensurate with the burden.

  19. 12-Month comorbidity patterns and associated factors in Europe : results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bernert, S; Bruffaerts, R; Brugha, T S; Bryson, H; de Girolamo, G; Graaf, R; Demyttenaere, K; Gasquet, I; Haro, J M; Katz, S J; Kessler, R C; Kovess, V; Lépine, J P; Ormel, J; Polidori, G; Russo, L J; Vilagut, G; Almansa, Josue; Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S; Autonell, J; Bernal, M; Buist-Bouwman, M A; Codony, M; Domingo-Salvany, A; Ferrer, M; Joo, S S; Martínez-Alonso, M; Matschinger, H; Mazzi, F; Morgan, Z; Morosini, P; Palacín, C; Romera, B; Taub, N; Vollebergh, W A M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Comorbidity patterns of 12-month mood, anxiety and alcohol disorders and socio-demographic factors associated with comorbidity were studied among the general population of six European countries. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ES

  20. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part I. Epidemiology of dual diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a review of the literature on the comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. A condition when alcohol dependence is accompanied by another mental disorder is much more common than it is commonly believed. It is estimated that more than one third of people diagnosed with mental disorders, abuses or is dependent on psychoactive substances, especially alcohol; among alcohol-dependent patients 37% suffer from other mental disorders. Alcohol dependence is associated with increased risk of mood disorders - more than three times higher, depression - almost four times higher, bipolar disorder - more than six times higher, anxiety disorders in general - more than twice, generalized anxiety disorder - more than four times higher, panic disorders - almost double, posttraumatic stress disorder - more than twice. Underestimating of comorbidity is an important problem during treatment of such population of patients. Social skills training can improve a stress management and decrease alcohol and drug use among dual diagnosed patients.

  1. Infectious, atopic and inflammatory diseases, childhood adversities and familial aggregation are independently associated with the risk for mental disorders: Results from a large Swiss epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Ajdacic-Gross, V.; A. Aleksandrowicz; Rodgers, S; Mutsch, M.; Tesic, A.; Müller, M.; Kawohl, W.; Rössler, W.; Seifritz, E; CASTELAO, E.; Strippoli, M.F.; Vandeleur, C.; von Känel, R.; Paolicelli, R.; Landolt, M A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors. METhODS: We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. They were regressed on infectious, atopic and other inflammatory diseases adjust...

  2. Occlusal adjustment using the bite plate-induced occlusal position as a reference position for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Many researchers have not accepted the use of occlusal treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). However, a recent report described a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP) and the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP) and discussed the relation of this discrepancy to TMD. Therefore, the treatment outcome of evidence-based occlusal adjustments using the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP) as a muscular reference position should be evaluated in patients with TMD. Methods The BPOP was defined as the position at which a patient voluntarily closed his or her mouth while sitting in an upright posture after wearing an anterior flat bite plate for 5 minutes and then removing the plate. Twenty-one patients with TMDs underwent occlusal adjustment using the BPOP. The occlusal adjustments were continued until bilateral occlusal contacts were obtained in the BPOP. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the subjective dysfunction index (SDI) and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI) before and after the occlusal adjustments; the changes in these two indices between the first examination and a one-year follow-up examination were then analyzed. In addition, the difference between the HOP and the BPOP was three-dimensionally measured before and after the treatment. Results The percentage of symptom-free patients after treatment was 86% according to the SDI and 76% according to the CDI. The changes in the two indices after treatment were significant (p 0.1). Conclusion Although the results of the present study should be confirmed in other studies, a randomized clinical trial examining occlusal adjustments using the BPOP as a reference position appears to be warranted. PMID:20346167

  3. Occlusal adjustment using the bite plate-induced occlusal position as a reference position for temporomandibular disorders: a pilot study

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    Chiwata Ichiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many researchers have not accepted the use of occlusal treatments for temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. However, a recent report described a discrepancy between the habitual occlusal position (HOP and the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP and discussed the relation of this discrepancy to TMD. Therefore, the treatment outcome of evidence-based occlusal adjustments using the bite plate-induced occlusal position (BPOP as a muscular reference position should be evaluated in patients with TMD. Methods The BPOP was defined as the position at which a patient voluntarily closed his or her mouth while sitting in an upright posture after wearing an anterior flat bite plate for 5 minutes and then removing the plate. Twenty-one patients with TMDs underwent occlusal adjustment using the BPOP. The occlusal adjustments were continued until bilateral occlusal contacts were obtained in the BPOP. The treatment outcomes were evaluated using the subjective dysfunction index (SDI and the Helkimo Clinical Dysfunction Index (CDI before and after the occlusal adjustments; the changes in these two indices between the first examination and a one-year follow-up examination were then analyzed. In addition, the difference between the HOP and the BPOP was three-dimensionally measured before and after the treatment. Results The percentage of symptom-free patients after treatment was 86% according to the SDI and 76% according to the CDI. The changes in the two indices after treatment were significant (p 0.1. Conclusion Although the results of the present study should be confirmed in other studies, a randomized clinical trial examining occlusal adjustments using the BPOP as a reference position appears to be warranted.

  4. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

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    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  5. Differences in adjustment by child developmental stage among caregivers of children with disorders of sex development

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    Hullmann Stephanie E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study sought to compare levels of overprotection and parenting stress reported by caregivers of children with disorders of sex development at four different developmental stages. Methods Caregivers (N = 59 of children with disorders of sex development were recruited from specialty clinics and were asked to complete the Parent Protection Scale and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form as measures of overprotective behaviors and parenting stress, respectively. Results Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs were conducted to examine differences between caregiver report of overprotection and parenting stress. Results revealed that caregivers of infants and toddlers exhibited more overprotective behaviors than caregivers of children in the other age groups. Further, caregivers of adolescents experienced significantly more parenting stress than caregivers of school-age children, and this effect was driven by personal distress and problematic parent-child interactions, rather than having a difficult child. Conclusions These results suggest that caregivers of children with disorders of sex development may have different psychosocial needs based upon their child's developmental stage and based upon the disorder-related challenges that are most salient at that developmental stage.

  6. Resilient Adolescent Adjustment among Girls: Buffers of Childhood Peer Rejection and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Examined a risk-resilience model of peer rejection and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a 5-year longitudinal study of 209 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse girls aged 6-13 at baseline and 11-18 at follow-up. Risk factors were childhood ADHD diagnosis and peer rejection; hypothesized protective factors were childhood…

  7. Epidemiology, course and outcome of acute polymorphic psychotic disorder: implications for ICD-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castagnini, Augusto; Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The proposed revision of the ICD-10 category of ‘acute and transient psychotic disorders' (ATPDs), subsuming polymorphic, schizophrenic or predominantly delusional syndromes, would restrict their classification to acute polymorphic psychotic disorder, reminiscent of the clinical conce...

  8. Psycho-trauma, psychosocial adjustment and symptomatic Post-traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

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    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment.MethodsCross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose symptomatic PTSD, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2% had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1% had poor living conditions, and only12 (4.7% had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%, been evacuated from their town (96% and witnessing violence (88%. More than half (58% of IDPs had experienced 11 – 15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were, having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]3.5, 95% CI 1.7 – 7.5; p= 0.001 and witnessing death of a family member ( 3.7, 1.2 – 11.5; p=0.0259.ConclusionWe concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.Key words Post traumatic stress disorder, psychosocial adjustment

  9. DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEMOPHILIA AND OTHER COAGULATION DISORDERS IN MANSOURA , EGYPT

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    Rasha ElAshry

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Hemophilia represent the most severe inherited bleeding  disorder (INB , it’s thought to affect inviduals from all geographical areas in equal frequency. In Egypt which has a population of approximately (80million consanguineous marriage are frequent, therefore autosomal recessive coagulation disorders reach a higher prevalence than in many other countries.

    The primary aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of hemophilia in Mansoura, Egypt ,as based on retrospective analysis of clinical records Mansoura University Children Hospital between years 2000 and 2008. The second aim was to assess the orthopedic complications and occurrence of hepatitis C in those patients and relate this status to the type of replacement therapy received prior to the study.

    The study included 72 children with hematological disorders registered from 2000 to 2008 in MUCH. The hemophilic patient was defined as a person with physician-diagnosed hemophilia A or B and a measured factor VIII or IX activity level of 30% or less. Persons with acquired inhibitors of FVIII or FIX excluded. Severity level was categorized as mild if the factor activity level was 6

  10. Alexithymia and low cooperativeness are associated with suicide attempts in male military personnel with adjustment disorder: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Oh, Sei-Joong; Jung, Han-Yong; Irene Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Ko, Young-Hoon; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kim, Shin-Gyeom

    2013-02-28

    Subpopulations of patients with adjustment disorder are at increased risk for suicide. The current study investigated whether personality traits, including alexithymia, temperament, and character, are associated with an increased risk of suicide in individuals with adjustment disorder. Age- and sex-matched patients meeting the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for adjustment disorder with (n=92) and without (n=92) a history of suicide attempts were recruited for the present study. Ninety-two healthy individuals who did not meet diagnostic criteria for Axis I or II diagnoses were used as controls. The Toronto alexithymia scale-20 (TAS-20) and the temperament and character inventory (TCI) were used to assess personality traits. Significantly higher total and subscale scores on the TAS-20, including on the difficulty-identifying-feelings (DIF) and difficulty-describing-feelings (DDF) subscales, and lower scores on the TCI cooperativeness subscale were noted in adjustment-disorder patients with previous suicide attempts. In the multivariate regression analysis, high DDF and DIF and low cooperativeness increased the risk of suicide attempts in adjustment-disorder patients. A subsequent path analysis revealed that high DDF had a direct effect on suicide attempts, whereas high DIF had an indirect effect on suicide attempts via low cooperativeness.

  11. A follow-up study of academic functioning and social adjustment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Jasmin Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD persists in a majority of adolescents. It has been reported that ADHD patients have poor social functioning and risk for developing co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Aims: To determine the retention of diagnosis of ADHD and to assess social adjustment, academic functioning and co-morbidities at follow-up. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: ADHD patients of 5-14 years of age who came to the out-patient department from 2005 to 2008 were contacted telephonically. Fifty one patients could be contacted. Parents of patients were interviewed using Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale for diagnosing ADHD and co-morbidities. Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescent was administered for assessing their academic and social functioning. Chi square test, Mann-Whitney Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Pearson′s product moment correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results: At current assessment, out of 51 patients, 38 were still fulfilling diagnosis of ADHD. Of these, 21 were of inattention type, 3 were hyperactive, and 14 were of combined type. Social functioning and academic functioning were significantly better in those who currently did not fulfill the criteria for ADHD ( N=13. Twelve patients developed features of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD/conduct disorder (CD at follow-up. Conclusions: ADHD persists in the majority of adolescents. Decline with age is seen more in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms than inattentive symptoms. Several adolescents also develop features of ODD/CD in addition to poorer functioning. Continuation of treatment is crucial to prevent such consequences.

  12. Eating disorders behaviours and diagnoses: epidemiology and comorbidity in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Solmi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Studies investigating prevalence and comorbidity of eating disorders (ED) and disordered eating in large general population samples are limited. This thesis adds to the existing literature by employing general population studies to investigate prevalence and comorbidity of disordered eating and ED in adults and adolescents. Secondary aims were to explore occurrence of ED in relation to ethnicity and patterns of service use. Methods: The studies included in this thesis employed t...

  13. Successful interventions on an organisational level to reduce violence and coercive interventions in in-patients with adjustment disorders and personality disorders

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    Goeser Ulla

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-directed and other violence as well as subsequent coercive interventions occur in a substantial proportion of patients with personality disorders during in-patient treatment. Different strategies may be required to reduce coercive interventions for patients of different diagnostic groups. Methods We specialised one of our acute admission wards in the treatment of personality disorders and adjustment disorders (ICD-10 F4 and F6. Patients are not transferred to other acute wards in case of suicidal or violent behaviour. Violent behaviour and coercive interventions such as seclusion or restraint were recorded in the same way as in the rest of the hospital. We recorded the percentage of subjects affected by diagnostic group and average length of an intervention in the year before and after the change in organisational structure. Results The total number of coercive interventions decreased by 85% both among patients with an F4 and those with an F6 primary diagnosis. Violent behaviours decreased by about 50%, the proportion of involuntary committed patients decreased by 70%. Conclusion The organisational change turned out to be highly effective without any additional cost of personnel or other resources.

  14. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Latin America : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolar, David R.; Mejia Rodriguez, Dania L.; Mebarak Chams, Moises; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewEating disorders are currently not considered to be limited to Western culture. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the prevalence of eating disorders in Latin America.Recent findingsOf 1583 records screened, 17 studies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexi

  15. Concordance between gambling disorder diagnoses in the DSM-IV and DSM-5: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Blanco, Carlos; Jin, Chelsea; Grant, Bridget F

    2014-06-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) eliminates the committing illegal acts criterion and reduces the threshold for a diagnosis of gambling disorder to 4 of 9 criteria. This study compared the DSM-5 "4 of 9" classification system to the "5 of 10" DSM-IV system, as well as other permutations (i.e., just lowing the threshold to 4 criteria or just eliminating the illegal acts criterion) in 43,093 respondents to the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Subgroups were analyzed to ascertain whether changes will impact differentially diagnoses based on gender, age, or race/ethnicity. In the full sample and each subpopulation, prevalence rates were higher when the DSM-5 classification system was employed relative to the DSM-IV system, but the hit rate between the two systems ranged from 99.80% to 99.96%. Across all gender, age, and racial/ethnic subgroups, specificity was greater than 99% when the DSM-5 system was employed relative to the DSM-IV system, and sensitivity was 100%. Results from this study suggest that eliminating the illegal acts criterion has little impact on diagnosis of gambling disorder, but lowering the threshold for diagnosis does increase the base rate in the general population and each subgroup, even though overall rates remain low and sensitivity and specificity are high.

  16. Clustering of symptoms of mental disorder in the medium-term following conflict: an epidemiological study in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Ivancic, Lorraine; Rees, Susan; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary

    2014-10-30

    It is important to define subpopulations with mental health and psychosocial reactions in the medium-term following conflict to ensure that an appropriate array of services are provided to meet the diversity of needs. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on epidemiological data drawn from an urban and rural sample of 1221 adults (581 men and 640 women, response 82%) in post-conflict Timor Leste 4 years after the cessation of violence. The prevalence of PTSD was 4.9%; severe distress 4.8%; anger attacks 38.3%; and paranoid-like symptoms 10.9%. The best fitting LCA yielded three classes comprising those with no or minimal symptoms (86%), a class with anger-paranoia (13%) and a comorbid mental disorder class (1.5%) characterized by PTSD (100%) and severe distress (98%). The comorbid mental disorder class had an over-representation of men, the unemployed, residents in the urban area and persons with the greatest exposure to human rights trauma, murder and health stress. The anger-paranoia class experienced moderate levels of trauma and had an over-representation of urban dwellers, women, and those with higher levels of education. The analysis assists in clarifying the populations with mental disorder and adverse psychosocial reactions in need of intervention in the medium-term following conflict.

  17. Epidemiology and treatment of mood disorders in a day hospital setting from 1996 to 2007: an Italian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca M

    2013-02-01

    utilization of noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants, which remained basically low. There was no significant difference in prescribing of first-generation antipsychotic agents, although a reduction was found. There was a significant increase in utilization of second-generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers.Conclusion: Our epidemiological findings are consistent with data reported in the literature regarding the high prevalence of major depression among the mood disorders, as well as the impact of familiality and comorbidity. Analysis of prescribing patterns for antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers in the treatment of mood disorders shows a shift from older to newer drugs, and wider use of mood stabilizers.Keywords: antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, prescribing patterns, mood disorders, treatment

  18. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  19. Interrater agreement for the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia epidemiological version for school-age children (K-SADS-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanczyk Guilherme V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the interrater agreement for the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiological version for School-Age Children (K-SADS-E. METHODS: Four interviewers being trained with the K-SADS-E scored independently 29 videotaped interviews performed with psychiatric outpatients in the ADHD Outpatient Clinic at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Interrater agreement analysis was performed using the kappa coefficient (k. RESULTS: Kappa coefficients were .93 (p<.001 for affective disorders, .9 (p<.001 for anxiety disorders, .94 (p<.001 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and disruptive behavior disorders. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an excellent interrater agreement for the diagnosis of several mental disorders in childhood and adolescence by the Brazilian Portuguese version of the K-SADS-E.

  20. Determinants of Psychosocial Difficulties Experienced by Persons with Brain Disorders: Towards a 'Horizontal Epidemiology' Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    Full Text Available Persons with brain disorders experience significant psychosocial difficulties (PSD in daily life, e.g. problems with managing daily routine or emotional lability, and the level of the PSD depends on social, physical and political environments, and psychologic-personal determinants. Our objective is to determine a brief set of environmental and psychologic-personal factors that are shared determinants of PSD among persons with different brain disorders.Cross-sectional study, convenience sample of persons with either dementia, stroke, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, depression, schizophrenia, substance dependence or Parkinson's disease. Random forest regression and classical linear regression were used in the analyses.722 subjects were interviewed in four European countries. The brief set of determinants encompasses presence of comorbidities, health status appraisal, stressful life events, personality changes, adaptation, self-esteem, self-worth, built environment, weather, and health problems in the family.The identified brief set of common determinants of PSD can be used to support the implementation of cross-cutting interventions, social actions and policy tools to lower PSD experienced by persons with brain disorders. This set complements a recently proposed reliable and valid direct metric of PSD for brain disorders called PARADISE24.

  1. Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of axis I epidemiologic findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Guarda-Nardini, L.; Winocur, E.; Piccotti, F.; Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to summarize and systematically review the literature on the prevalence of different research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD) version 1.0 axis I diagnoses in patient and in the general populations. Study design. For each of the rele

  2. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  3. Longitudinal course of panic disorder with and without agoraphobia using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, William; Brown, Ruth; Roberson-Nay, Roxann

    2013-06-30

    Few naturalistic, longitudinal studies of panic disorder with and without agoraphobia (PD/PDA) exist, limiting our knowledge of the temporal rates of incidence, relapse, and chronicity, or the factors that predict category transition. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 1 (n=43,093) and wave 2 (n=34,653) were utilized to determine transitional rates, and predictors of category transitions, over a 3-year period. Analyses revealed very high 3-year remission rates for PD and PDA (75% and 67%, respectively), although relapse also was relatively frequent (PD=12%; PDA=21%). Logistic regression revealed previous history of panic attacks, generalized anxiety disorder/major depression (GAD/MDD), nicotine dependence, female sex, younger age, and major financial crises to be reliable predictors of incidence and relapse. The direction and magnitude of association of many predictor variables were similar for PD and PDA, with notable exceptions for social anxiety and romantic relationship factors. Clinicians should be aware of the relapsing-remitting nature of PD and PDA and, thus, take caution to not reduce or eliminate effective treatments prematurely. Similarly, the current study suggests clinicians pay particular attention to concurrent factors relevant to relapse in PD/PDA that may also be clinically addressed (e.g., co-morbid MDD/GAD and nicotine dependence).

  4. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  5. The British Sign Language Versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…

  6. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings: a meta-analysis of 94 interview-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Chan, M.; Bhatti, H.;

    2011-01-01

    . Methods We searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Knowledge for studies that examined well-defined depression, anxiety, and adjustment disorder in adults with cancer in oncological, haematological, and palliative-care settings. We restricted studies to those using psychiatric interviews. Studies...

  7. Sibling Adjustment and Maternal Well-Being: An Examination of Families with and without a Child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Nicole; McIntyre, Laura Lee

    2010-01-01

    Differences in sibling social, behavioral, and academic adjustment and maternal well-being in families with (n = 20) and without (n = 23) a preschooler with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were explored. Results are interpreted to suggest that mothers of children with autism report more daily hassles, life stress, and depression than mothers…

  8. Epidemiologic profile of otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders in a tertiary hospital unit in Greece: a challenge for general practitioners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachiotis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Greece, primary care is still developing. The aim of this study was to define the epidemiologic profile of common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders in order to help general practitioners to deal with them in a primary care future. Methods A total of 6771 patients attended the Otorhinolaryngology emergency department of the University General Hospital of Heraklion (Crete, between January and December 2004. All cases were included in this retrospective study. The registry of the Otorhinolaryngology emergency department was analysed and age, sex, seasonality and clinical diagnosis were tabulated. All patients were evaluated by Otorhinolaryngologists. The classification of the cases was based on the main symptom or clinical sign that conditioned the reason for seeking care. Diagnoses were also coded according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results The male to female ratio was 1:1. The mean age for females was 36.3 years standard deviation (SD: 21.1 and for males was 36.8 years (SD = 22.0. Eight hundred eighty six patients (13.1% formed the paediatric sub-group. Over 60% of the cases were classified in ten major groups of diagnosis. Acute tonsillitis (12.3% and acute pharyngitis (9.0% were the most common causes of all medical visits, followed by otitis media (7.6% and external ear canal obstruction by ear wax (6.2%. Oedema of the larynx was detected in 0.4%. A negative diagnosis of otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorder was formulated in 553 patients (8.2%. Hospitalization rate was 5.2%. The highest rate of visits was registered in March. Conclusion Most patients used the facility as a primary care service. Real emergencies were a minority. Recovering data about which areas of Otorhinolaryngology deserve more emphasis might help primary health care providers to diagnose and manage the common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders properly.

  9. DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEMOPHILIA AND OTHER COAGULATION DISORDERS IN MANSOURA , EGYPT

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    Youssef Al Tonbary

    2010-08-01

    The study included 72 children with hematological disorders registered from 2000 to 2008 in MUCH. The hemophilic patient was defined as a person with physician-diagnosed hemophilia A or B and a measured factor VIII or IX activity level of 30% or less. Persons with acquired inhibitors of FVIII or FIX excluded. Severity level was categorized as mild if the factor activity level was 6–30%, moderate if 1–5% and severe if

  10. Epidemiological Analysis on 3614 Patients with Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD Basic Statistical Aspects

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    Jurkemik J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to present data from a large sample of patients with Temporo-Mandibular Disorders (TMD in order to clarify some aspects of the development of pathological conditions that affect large parts of the population. In the past years there was a rapid growth of the incidence of the temporomandibular dissorders. The ethiopathogenesis is in most cases unclear. Based on the latest information supposed are the biopsychosocial factors.

  11. Chronic neck pain : An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplash-associated disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of tra...

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of prenatal and perinatal risk factors in a Chinese population with reading disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfei Liu; Jia Wang; Shanshan Shao; Xiu Luo; Rui Kong; Xiaohui Zhang; Ranran Song

    2016-01-01

    Several prenatal and perinatal factors have been found to be associated with developmental dyslexia (reading disorder) in alphabetic language. Given the absence of relevant studies of Chinese children, the present study tries to investigate these risk factors. A total of 45,850 students were recruited from grades three to six, from seven cities of Hubei province. Dyslexia in Chinese was diagnosed based on children’s clinical symptoms. The clinical symptoms of children’s reading performance we...

  13. An epidemiological study of sexual disorders in south Indian rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where ‘kamasutra’ (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural populati...

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Craig L; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric condition in childhood and adolescence. Rates vary widely depending upon the type of trauma exposure. Interpersonal traumas, such as rape or physical abuse, are more likely to result in PTSD than exposure to natural or technological disaster. Clinical presentations are exceedingly complex and children with PTSD are at increased risk of having comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Because of its complexity and frequent occurrence with other disorders, assessment of PTSD necessitates a broad-based evaluation utilizing multiple informations and structured instruments specific to the symptoms of PTSD in youth. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of first choice. Pharmacological agents for PTSD treatment have received little empirical investigation in childhood. Pharmacological treatment is used to target disabling symptoms of the disorder, which limit psychotherapy or life functioning, by helping children to tolerate working through distressful material in therapy and life. Pharmacological treatment should be based on a stepwise approach utilizing broad spectrum medications such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as first-line agents. Comorbid conditions should be identified and treated with appropriate medication or psychosocial interventions. Treatment algorithms are provided to guide rational medication strategies for children and adolescents with PTSD, subsyndromal PTSD, and in PTSD that is comorbid with other psychiatric conditions of childhood. Reduction in even one debilitating symptom of PTSD can improve a child's overall functioning across multiple domains.

  15. THERAPEUTIC EVALUATION OF YASHTIMADHU GHANA VATI AND TAGARA GHANA VATI ALONG WITH PSYCHOTHERAPY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MENTAL ADJUSTMENT DISORDER OF YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Godatwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Being a health science with holistic approach, Ayurveda looks the mind as integral part of life and health. It advocates the inter-relationship between mind, body and spirit as a whole. It means an imbalance of mental level is equally reflected and re-enforced at physical level and vice versa. When allowed to persist for long time, the psychic and somatic disorders get combined with each other. Ayurveda recommends certain practices to control mind in a view of achieving mental health. So for that purpose present study includes both Drug and Psychotherapy. 112 patients were screened from the survey study (367 and were randomly divided into two groups by Chit method. After completion of trial it was observed that Yashtimadhu & Tagara both are equally effective in a Mental Adjustment disorders though their mode of actions are different.Keywords: Ayurveda, Yashtimadhu, Tagara, mental adjustment disorder, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Valeriana wallichii

  16. Epidemiology of social behavioral disorders in male teenagers of Bushehr port 2005

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    Amer Yazdanparast

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social Behavioral Disorders (SBD is significantly widespread among teenagers in such a way that psychologists called it as “the new hidden morbidity”. Therefore, screening of teenagers, finding out the related demographic factors and introducing them to consultation centers are very important points for therapeutic interventions. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 400 male teenagers aged 13-18 years old were randomly selected in two stages, from a population in Bushehr in November 2005. Pediatric Symptoms Checklist 35-items Questionnaire (PSC/35 was used for their parents or their close relatives. The PSC/35 has 93% and 71% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The cut off point of 28 was considered as the state of having SBD using this Questionnaire. Results: Overall 148 (37% male teenagers were recognized to have SBD. SBD was more prevalent in boys with an annual educational average score of 14 (out of 20 in comparison with those with 14-17 or >17. Father’s job (labor, farmer or multiple job, predisposed his teenager children to SBD more than when he was employee or businessman. These behavioral abnormalities were more common if they were living with a single parent (death or divorce. SBD was more prevalent in those with externalized personality than both inter-externalized and internalized personalities. Less social behavioral disorders had a positive correlation with leisure time activities. Increase of age in male teenagers, number or order of children, being single, parents’ level of education, mother's occupation and the total income rate of the family had no significant correlation with SBD. Conclusions: The prevalence of social behavioral disorders in male teenagers of Bushehr port is more than industrial countries. Demographic factors such as father’s job (labor, farmer or multiple jobs, living with a single parent (death or divorce, no leisure time activity, and internalized personality were

  17. Temporal associations between physical illnesses and mental disorders--results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S Patricia; Huang, Boji; Goldstein, Risë; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-08-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic evidence has documented the significant associations between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders. However, extensive research has focused on the comorbidity of medical conditions and depression, and most were cross sectional, focused on clinical samples, and grounded in DSM-III or DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. The current prospective investigation examined associations among medical conditions at baseline and incident psychiatric disorders over a 3-year follow-up, using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Overall, the 3-year incidence rates of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders ranged from 0.65% (bipolar II) to 5.2% (alcohol abuse). Multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the prospective physical-mental associations, while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, psychological stress and health-related risk factors, and comorbid physical and psychiatric disorders. The present study represents, to our knowledge the largest population-based prospective study examining the physical-mental associations. Our results showed distinctly different patterns of comorbidity of medical illnesses with substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders. Stomach ulcer/gastritis, hypertension and arthritis emerged to be significant predictors of incident psychiatric disorders.

  18. The Epidemiology of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Mexico: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio López-Colombo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs in the general population of Mexico is unknown. Methods. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs, associated depression, and health care utilization, a population-based sampling strategy was used to select 500 households in the State of Tlaxcala, in central Mexico. Household interviews were conducted by two trained physicians using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, a health-care and medication used questionnaire and the CES-D depression scale. Results. The most common FGIDs were IBS: 16.0% (95% CI: 12.9–19.5; functional bloating: 10.8% (8.2–13.9; unspecified functional bowel disorder: 10.6% (8.0–13.6; and functional constipation (FC: 7.4% (5.3–10.1. Uninvestigated heartburn was common: 19.6% (16.2–23.4. All FGIDs were equally prevalent among both genders, except for IBS (P=0.001, IBS-C (P<0.001, IBS-A/M (P=0.049, and FC (P=0.039 which were more frequent in women. Subjects with FGIDs reported higher frequencies of medical visits: 34.6 versus 16.8%; use of medications: 40.7 versus 21.6%; (both P<0.001; and reported depression: 26.7 versus 6.7%, (P<0.001. Conclusion. In this first population-based study of FGIDs in Mexico, heartburn, IBS, functional distension, and FC were common. Only IBS, IBS-C, IBS-A/M, and FC were more frequent in women. Finally, FGIDs in Mexico had an increased burden of health care utilization and depression.

  19. The epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders in Mexico: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Colombo, Aurelio; Morgan, Douglas; Bravo-González, Dalia; Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro; Méndez-Martínez, Socorro; Schmulson, Max

    2012-01-01

    Aims. The frequency of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in the general population of Mexico is unknown. Methods. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs, associated depression, and health care utilization, a population-based sampling strategy was used to select 500 households in the State of Tlaxcala, in central Mexico. Household interviews were conducted by two trained physicians using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire, a health-care and medication used questionnaire and the CES-D depression scale. Results. The most common FGIDs were IBS: 16.0% (95% CI: 12.9-19.5); functional bloating: 10.8% (8.2-13.9); unspecified functional bowel disorder: 10.6% (8.0-13.6); and functional constipation (FC): 7.4% (5.3-10.1). Uninvestigated heartburn was common: 19.6% (16.2-23.4). All FGIDs were equally prevalent among both genders, except for IBS (P = 0.001), IBS-C (P < 0.001), IBS-A/M (P = 0.049), and FC (P = 0.039) which were more frequent in women. Subjects with FGIDs reported higher frequencies of medical visits: 34.6 versus 16.8%; use of medications: 40.7 versus 21.6%; (both P < 0.001); and reported depression: 26.7 versus 6.7%, (P < 0.001). Conclusion. In this first population-based study of FGIDs in Mexico, heartburn, IBS, functional distension, and FC were common. Only IBS, IBS-C, IBS-A/M, and FC were more frequent in women. Finally, FGIDs in Mexico had an increased burden of health care utilization and depression.

  20. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF GYNAECOLOGICAL DISORDERS IN GER IATRIC POPULATION: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Ramprasad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVES: Geriatric gynaecology deals with gynaecological pat hology encountered in postmenopausal women at and above 60 y ears of age with an intention of early diagnosis and management . A major challenge for th e world in the 21st century is the ageing of its population. As the life expectancy of postmenopau sal women has risen dramatically, hence this study was taken up to analyze incidence, diagno sis, treatment of gynaecological disorders in females aged 60 years and above. METHODS: It is an retrospective observational study of female patients aged 60 years and above, admitted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, IPGMER and SSKM Hospital, Kolkata over a period of one year. Data was collected from admission and OT register. Age distribution, s pectrum of gynaecological disorder, type of surgeries performed, were noted and analyzed. RESULTS: In our study ninety patients were aged 60 years or more amongst total admission of 81 1 comprising age related incidence of 11.09%. The mean average age of admission was 64.19 years. Uterovaginal prolapse(51.1% was the commonest clinical problem followed by malig nancy (26.7%. Among the gynaecological malignancies (24 patients ovarian ca rcinoma was the most common (50% followed by endometrial carcinoma(33.3%.Total 36 p atients of uterovaginal prolapse were managed surgically. All patients of malignancy were treated surgically. Among Nine cases of stress urinary incontinence, seven managed by TVT/T OT. CONCLUSION: Uterovaginal prolapse and malignancy were the major gynaecological problem s in older women. In future geriatric gynaecology will play an important role in India, as the size of elderly population is increasing over time KEY WORDS: Geriatric population, Geriatric gynaecological dis orders.

  1. Understanding and preventing childhood obesity and related disorders--IDEFICS: a European multilevel epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, W; Bammann, K; de Henauw, S; Halford, J; Palou, A; Pigeot, I; Siani, A; Sjöström, M

    2006-05-01

    The environment of children has drastically changed in Europe during the last decades as reflected in unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. Nutrition obviously plays a part in the development of overweight in childhood. However, dietary factors and physical activity are also involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and postural deformities like scoliosis, effects related in part to excessive weight gain. To stop the resulting epidemic of diet- and lifestyle-induced morbidity, efficient evidence-based approaches are needed. These issues are the focus of IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants), a five-year project proposed under the sixth EU framework. The IDEFICS consortium comprises 25 research centres and SMEs across Europe. The planned prospective study will identify risk profile inventories for children susceptible to any of these disorders with emphasis on obesity and its co-morbid conditions. Genetic and non-genetic factors, psychosocial factors and social settings will be considered. The project will devise tailored prevention strategies that are effective, easy to implement and that account for the needs of different social groups. Population-based studies will investigate the impact of sensory perception and provide results concerning internal and external triggers of food choices and children's consumer behaviour. The ethical implications of a "right not to know" of genetic factors will be addressed. We will propose knowledge-based guidelines on dietary and lifestyle activities for health promotion and disease prevention in children for health professionals, stakeholders and consumers.

  2. Chronic neck pain. An epidemiological, psychological and SPECT study with emphasis on whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Michel

    2006-02-01

    Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of traumatic and non-traumatic origin and compared the prevalence of, sociodemographic data, self-perceived health, workload and chronic low-back pain in these groups. In a ready-made questionnaire (MONICA study), we added questions about cervical spine and low-back complaints. 6,000 (72%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. 43% reported neck pain: 48% of women and 38% of men. Women of working age had more neck pain than retired women, a phenomenon not seen in men. 19% of the studied population suffered from chronic neck pain and it was more frequent in women. A history of neck trauma was common in those with chronic neck pain. Those with a history of neck trauma perceived their health worse and were more often on sick-leave. About 50% of those with traumatic and non-traumatic chronic neck pain also had chronic low-back pain. We assessed the subjective and objective neuropsychological functioning in 42 patients with chronic neck pain, 21 with a whiplash trauma, and 21 without previous neck trauma. Despite cognitive complaints, the WAD patients had normal neuropsychological functioning, but the WAD group especially had deviant MMPI results-indicating impaired coping ability and somatization. WAD patients had no alterations in cerebral blood-flow pattern, as measured by rCBF-SPECT and SPM analysis, compared to healthy controls. This contrasts with the non-traumatic group with chronic neck pain, which showed marked blood-flow changes. The blood-flow changes in the non

  3. El papel de la epidemiología en la investigación de los trastornos mentales The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Los trastornos mentales, incluyendo los trastornos del uso de sustancias, hacen ya parte del panorama epidemiológico de México y seguirán en el escenario nacional por las próximas décadas, incrementando incluso su presencia como causa de enfermedad, discapacidad y muerte en nuestro país. Por lo tanto, el manejo epidemiológico de estos problemas se hace urgente. Este trabajo busca plantear el campo de estudio de la epidemiología de los trastornos mentales y sus limitaciones, haciendo énfasis e...

  4. Prevalence of mental disorders, psychosocial distress and need for psychosocial support in cancer patients – study protocol of an epidemiological multi-center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehnert Anja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Empirical studies investigating the prevalence of mental disorders and psychological distress in cancer patients have gained increasing importance during recent years, particularly with the objective to develop and implement psychosocial interventions within the cancer care system. Primary purpose of this epidemiological cross-sectional multi-center study is to detect the 4-week-, 12-month-, and lifetime prevalence rates of comorbid mental disorders and to further assess psychological distress and psychosocial support needs in cancer patients across all major tumor entities within the in- and outpatient oncological health care and rehabilitation settings in Germany. Methods/Design In this multicenter, epidemiological cross-sectional study, cancer patients across all major tumor entities will be enrolled from acute care hospitals, outpatient cancer care facilities, and rehabilitation centers in five major study centers in Germany: Freiburg, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig and Würzburg. A proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide incidence of all cancer diagnoses in Germany is used. Patients are consecutively recruited in all centers. On the basis of a depression screener (PHQ-9 50% of the participants that score below the cutoff point of 9 and all patients scoring above are assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for Oncology (CIDI-O. In addition, all patients complete validated questionnaires measuring emotional distress, information and psychosocial support needs as well as quality of life. Discussion Epidemiological data on the prevalence of mental disorders and distress provide detailed and valid information for the estimation of the demands for the type and extent of psychosocial support interventions. The data will provide information about specific demographic, functional, cancer- and treatment-related risk factors for mental comorbidity and psychosocial distress, specific

  5. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  6. Psychological Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Environmental Stressors and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…

  7. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children and adolescents in Spain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalá-López Ferrán

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood, but the frequency of the condition is not well established in many countries. The aim of the present study was to quantify the overall prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in Spain by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods PubMed/MEDLINE, IME, IBECS and TESEO were comprehensively searched. Original reports were selected if they provided data on prevalence estimates of ADHD among people under 18 years old in Spain and were cross-sectional, observational epidemiological studies. Information from included studies was systematically extracted and evaluated. Overall pooled-prevalence estimates of ADHD were calculated using random-effects models. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by means sub-groups analyses and univariate meta-regressions. Results Fourteen epidemiological studies (13,026 subjects were selected. The overall pooled-prevalence of ADHD was estimated at 6.8% [95% confidence interval (CI 4.9 – 8.8%] representing 361,580 (95% CI 260,550 – 467,927 children and adolescents in the community. There was significant heterogeneity (P Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of ADHD among children and adolescents in Spain is consistent with previous studies conducted in other countries and regions. This study represents a first step in estimating the national burden of ADHD that will be essential to building evidence-based programs and services.

  8. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Miodrag; Lakić, Aneta; Ilić, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child's socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today's prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  9. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today’s prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  10. Psychiatric disorders in Norwegian 8- to 10-year-olds: an epidemiological survey of prevalence, risk factors, and service use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiervang, Einar; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J;

    2007-01-01

    %) were assessed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment in the second phase. The weighted prevalence for any DSM-IV psychiatric disorder was 7.0% (95% confidence interval 5.6%-8.5%). Disorders were associated with age, gender, learning difficulties, family type, and poverty. Although 75...

  11. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; De Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Browne, M.A.O.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  12. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries : epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de, Girolamo G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Oakley Browne, M.A.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D.R.; Kessler, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part i

  13. A register based epidemiological description of risk factors and outcomes for major psychiatric disorders, focusing on a comparison between bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2006-01-01

    of schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. The studies were based on four Danish registers: the Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Cause of Death Register, and the Danish Medical Birth Register. From the registers, large population based cohorts were identified...... and followed over several decades. Survival analysis techniques were applied to identify risk factors and mortality rates. The results demonstrated an overlap in risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Excess mortality (compared to persons never admitted with a psychiatric disorder...

  14. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  15. The epidemiology of eating disorders in six European countries: Results of the ESEMeD-WMH project

    OpenAIRE

    Preti, Antonio; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Vilagut, Gemma; Alonso, Jordi; de Graaf, Ron; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Demyttenaere, Koen; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Haro, Josep Maria; Morosini, Piero

    2009-01-01

    Few data are available to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) and their correlates in the community. This paper reports data on EDs obtained in the framework of the ESEMeD project, aimed at investigating the prevalence of non-psychotic mental disorders in six European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain), using a new version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The ESEMeD study was a general population cross-sectional household s...

  16. How could Theory of Mind contribute to the differentiation of social adjustment profiles of children with externalizing behavior disorders and children with intellectual disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Houssa, Marine; Mazzone, Stéphanie

    2013-09-01

    This study compared Theory of Mind (ToM) emotion and belief abilities in 43 children with externalized behavior (EB) disorders presenting low intelligence, 40 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and 33 typically developing (TD) preschoolers (as a control group), matched for developmental age. The links between their ToM abilities, their level in seven self-regulation strategies as displayed in social problem-solving tasks and their social adjustment profiles (assessed by the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation, completed by their teachers) were examined. Children with EB presented lower comprehension of causes of emotions and lower self-regulation of joint attention and of attention than children with ID and TD children. In comparison with TD children, lower social adjustment was observed in nearly all dimensions of profiles in both atypical groups. Specifically, children with EB were significantly angrier than children with ID. Although variable patterns of positive correlations were obtained in atypical groups between self-regulation strategies and ToM abilities, the most numerous positive links were obtained in the group with EB. Regression analyses showed that developmental age predicted ToM abilities and certain dimensions of social adjustment profiles in atypical groups. In the ID group, ToM emotions predicted general adaptation, affective adaptation, interactions with peers and with adults and low internalizing problems. In the EB group, general adaptation was predicted by ToM emotions and self-regulation, interactions with peers by ToM beliefs, and a low level of externalizing problems by ToM emotions. Some implications for intervention and perspectives for research are suggested.

  17. Epidemiologic and etiologic features of pigmentation disorders observed during consultation at the Dermatology Center of Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoboue, Pauline; Sangare, A; Kaloga, M; Kouadio, A; Djedje, M A

    2005-10-01

    Skin color is important to people in many societies. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the causes of skin disorders in patients presenting for consultation over a period of 5 years were assessed and identified. A total of 4,510 dyschromia cases were recorded, representing 9% of the total number of patients attending for consultations at the Dermatology Center of Abidjan over this period. Pigmentation disorders were more often found in female patients (53.56%; sex ratio female:male=1.44) and were predominant in patients 20--30 years old (50%). All socio-professional categories were represented. However, students and service professionals (hairdressers, dressmakers, traders and switchboard operators) represented 50% of the patients with pigmentation disorders. Hyperchromia was common (48.49%) and was found in exposed areas of the skin. Most of the pigmentation disorders (60.94%) were of post-inflammation origin. Vitiligo was the most frequent etiology of systemic or endocrine dyschromia (92.63%). Among the hereditary pigmentation disorders, pigmented naevus was the most commonly found (41.5%). Dyschromic chemical eruptions appeared most frequently in the form of fixed pigmented erythema (84.55%). This study demonstrates that pigmentation disorders are still a frequent reason for consultation due to their distressing consequences.

  18. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie; Glazer, Clara Helene; Giwercman, Aleksander; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Rylander, Lars; Specht, Ina Olmer; Toft, Gunnar; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 20 years ago, it was hypothesized that exposure to prenatal and early postnatal environmental xenobiotics with the potential to disrupt endogenous hormone signaling might be on the causal path to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm count and testicular cancer. Several consensus statements and narrative reviews in recent years have divided the scientific community and have elicited a call for systematic transparent reviews. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge in the field of male reproductive disorders. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize published data on the risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts and testicular cancer following in utero or infant exposure to chemicals that have been included on the European Commission's list of Category 1 endocrine disrupting chemicals defined as having documented adverse effects due to endocrine disruption in at least one intact organism. SEARCH METHODS A systematic literature search for original peer reviewed papers was performed in the databases PubMed and Embase to identify epidemiological studies reporting associations between the outcomes of interest and exposures documented by biochemical analyses of biospecimens including maternal blood or urine, placenta or fat tissue as well as amnion fluid, cord blood or breast milk; this was followed by meta-analysis of quantitative data. OUTCOMES The literature search resulted in 1314 references among which we identified 33 papers(28 study populations) fulfilling the eligibility criteria. These provided 85 risk estimates of links between persistent organic pollutants and rapidly metabolized compounds (phthalates and Bisphenol A) and male reproductive disorders. The overall odds ratio (OR) across all exposures and outcomes was 1.11 (95% CI 0.91–1.35). When assessing four specific chemical subgroups with sufficient data for meta-analysis for all outcomes, we found that exposure to one of the four

  19. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were

  20. Epidemiology of neurological disorders in India: review of background, prevalence and incidence of epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson's disease and tremors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourie-Devi, M

    2014-01-01

    Growth and development of neuroepidemiology in India during the last four decades has been documented highlighting the historical milestones. The prevalence rates of the spectrum of neurological disorders from different regions of the country ranged from 967-4,070 with a mean of 2394 per 100,000 population, providing a rough estimate of over 30 million people with neurological disorders (excluding neuroinfections and traumatic injuries). Prevalence and incidence rates of common disorders including epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson's disease and tremors determined through population-based surveys show considerable variation across different regions of the country. The need for a standardized screening questionnaire, uniform methodology for case ascertainment and diagnosis is an essential requiste for generating robust national data on neurological disorders. Higher rates of prevalence of neurological disorders in rural areas, 6-8 million people with epilepsy and high case fatality rates of stroke (27-42%) call for urgent strategies to establish outreach neurology services to cater to remote and rural areas, develop National Epilepsy Control Program and establish stroke units at different levels of health care pyramid.

  1. La epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia: una revisión Epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorder in adolescence: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Portela de Santana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En la actualidad, existe la mayor ocurrencia de enfermedades de origen biopsicosocial, en especial los trastornos alimentarios, que involucran diferentes sistemas del cuerpo y los aspectos inherentes a la persona y sus relaciones sociales. Objetivo: Abordar temas actuales y relevantes acerca de la prevalencia, la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de anorexia y bulimia nerviosa en la adolescencia. Métodos: Búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE, SciELO y LILACS de estudios publicados sobre la epidemiología y los factores de riesgo de trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia. Resultados: La mayor incidencia de la anorexia y bulimia nerviosa se presenta entre las niñas en la fase media y final de la adolescencia. Entre los factores que aumentan el riesgo para la aparición de los trastornos alimentarios en la adolescencia se encuentran: la genética, los cambios corporales en la pubertad, la vulnerabilidad de los adolescentes a los ideales de delgadez, la presión social por ser delgada, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal, la dieta restrictiva, la depresión y la baja autoestima. Sin embargo, se sugiere que en las diferentes culturas los trastornos del comportamiento alimentario pueden venir de una serie de condiciones no relacionadas con las conductas compensatorias o con el peso, pero con la forma del cuerpo o parte de lo mismo. Conclusiones: Varios factores determinan la aparición de la anorexia y la bulimia en la adolescencia, sin embargo, no hay consenso en cómo interactúan estos factores en este complejo proceso, lo que indica la necesidad de más investigaciones.Introduction: Currently, there is a higher occurrence of biopsychosocial diseases, especially eating disorders, involving different body systems and aspects related to the individual and their social relations. Objective: Addressing current and relevant issues about the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for anorexia and bulimia nervosa in

  2. Psychiatric disorders in Norwegian 8- to 10-year-olds: an epidemiological survey of prevalence, risk factors, and service use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiervang, Einar; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J

    2007-01-01

    %) were assessed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment in the second phase. The weighted prevalence for any DSM-IV psychiatric disorder was 7.0% (95% confidence interval 5.6%-8.5%). Disorders were associated with age, gender, learning difficulties, family type, and poverty. Although 75......OBJECTIVE: The Bergen Child Study is a longitudinal study of child mental health from the city of Bergen, Norway. We present methods and results from the first wave of the study, focusing on prevalence of disorders, associations with risk factors, and the use of services. METHOD: The target...... risk factors and service use was also obtained in this second stage. RESULTS: In the first phase, the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was obtained for 9,155 (97%) of the target children and the matching parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 6,297 (67%); 1,011 children (11...

  3. Sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, B F; Goldstein, R B; Chou, S P; Huang, B; Stinson, F S; Dawson, D A; Saha, T D; Smith, S M; Pulay, A J; Pickering, R P; Ruan, W J; Compton, W M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to present nationally representative findings on sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn (DSM-IV) substance, mood and anxiety disorders using the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. One-year incidence rates of DSM-IV substance, mood and anxiety disorders were highest for alcohol abuse (1.02), alcohol dependence (1.70), major depressive disorder (MDD; 1.51) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 1.12). Incidence rates were significantly greater (Pdisorders and greater among women for mood and anxiety disorders except bipolar disorders and social phobia. Age was inversely related to all disorders. Black individuals were at decreased risk of incident alcohol abuse and Hispanic individuals were at decreased risk of GAD. Anxiety disorders at baseline more often predicted incidence of other anxiety disorders than mood disorders. Reciprocal temporal relationships were found between alcohol abuse and dependence, MDD and GAD, and GAD and panic disorder. Borderline and schizotypal personality disorders predicted most incident disorders. Incidence rates of substance, mood and anxiety disorders were comparable to or greater than rates of lung cancer, stroke and cardiovascular disease. The greater incidence of all disorders in the youngest cohort underscores the need for increased vigilance in identifying and treating these disorders among young adults. Strong common factors and unique factors appear to underlie associations between alcohol abuse and dependence, MDD and GAD, and GAD and panic disorder. The major results of this study are discussed with regard to prevention and treatment implications.

  4. Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe : results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bernert, S; Bruffaerts, R; Brugha, T S; Bryson, H; de Girolamo, G; Graaf, R; Demyttenaere, K; Gasquet, I; Haro, J M; Katz, S J; Kessler, R C; Kovess, V; Lépine, J P; Ormel, J; Polidori, G; Russo, L J; Vilagut, G; Almansa, Josue; Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S; Autonell, J; Bernal, M; Buist-Bouwman, M A; Codony, M; Domingo-Salvany, A; Ferrer, M; Joo, S S; Martínez-Alonso, M; Matschinger, H; Mazzi, F; Morgan, Z; Morosini, P; Palacín, C; Romera, B; Taub, N; Vollebergh, W A M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mood, anxiety and alcohol disorders in six European Countries. Method: A representative random sample of non-institutionalized inhabitants from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain aged 18 or older (n = 21425)

  5. Disability and quality of life impact of mental disorders in Europe : results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bernert, S; Bruffaerts, R; Brugha, T S; Bryson, H; de Girolamo, G; Graaf, R; Demyttenaere, K; Gasquet, I; Haro, J M; Katz, S J; Kessler, R C; Kovess, V; Lépine, J P; Ormel, J; Polidori, G; Russo, L J; Vilagut, G; Almansa, Josue; Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S; Autonell, J; Bernal, M; Buist-Bouwman, M A; Codony, M; Domingo-Salvany, A; Ferrer, M; Joo, S S; Martínez-Alonso, M; Matschinger, H; Mazzi, F; Morgan, Z; Morosini, P; Palacín, C; Romera, B; Taub, N; Vollebergh, W A M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This manuscript examines the impact of mental health state and specific mental and physical disorders on work role disability and quality of life in six European countries. Method: The ESEMeD study was conducted in: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. Individuals a

  6. The Genetics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome: An Epidemiological and Pathway-Based Approach for Gene Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grados, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a contemporary perspective on genetic discovery methods applied to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: A review of research trends in genetics research in OCD and TS is conducted, with emphasis on novel approaches. Results: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now in progress in OCD…

  7. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  8. Association of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders With Diagnosed Versus Undiagnosed Diabetes : An Epidemiological Study of 90,686 Participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Maaike; Roest, Annelieke M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; de Jonge, Peter; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the odds of depressive and anxiety disorders for participants with diagnosed diabetes, participants with diabetes but unaware of this, and participants without diabetes. Such knowledge might improve etiological insight into psychopathology in diabetes. Methods Data of 90,686 par

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders According to "DSM-IV-TR" and Comparison with "DSM-5" Draft Criteria: An Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joseph, Robert M.; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The latest definitions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were specified in "DSM-IV-TR" in 2000. "DSM-5" criteria are planned for 2013. Here, we estimated the prevalence of ASDs and autism according to "DSM-IV-TR," clarified confusion concerning diagnostic criteria, and evaluated "DSM-5" draft criteria for ASD posted by the American…

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Reclassified: A Second Look at the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith S.; Bilder, Deborah; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Jenson, William; Rice, Catherine E.; Fombonne, Eric; Pingree, Carmen B.; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; McMahon, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to re-examine diagnostic data from a state-wide autism prevalence study (n = 489) conducted in the 1980s to investigate the impact of broader diagnostic criteria on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case status. Sixty-four (59%) of the 108 originally "Diagnosed Not Autistic" met the current ASD case definition.…

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders According to "DSM-IV-TR" and Comparison with "DSM-5" Draft Criteria: An Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Marja-Leena; Kielinen, Marko; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Jussila, Katja; Ebeling, Hanna; Bloigu, Risto; Joseph, Robert M.; Moilanen, Irma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The latest definitions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were specified in "DSM-IV-TR" in 2000. "DSM-5" criteria are planned for 2013. Here, we estimated the prevalence of ASDs and autism according to "DSM-IV-TR," clarified confusion concerning diagnostic criteria, and evaluated "DSM-5" draft…

  12. Israeli acute paralysis virus: epidemiology, pathogenesis and implications for honey bee health and Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus that was linked with honey bee Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), the sudden and massive die-off of honey bee colonies in the U.S. in 2006-2007. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence and genetic diversity of IAPV, host transcripti...

  13. 孤独症谱系障碍流行病学研究现状%Current study on epidemiology of autism spectrum disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪华; 杜琳; 单玲; 冯俊燕; 贾飞勇

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with onset before the age of 3 years old, and is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorder. It has been classified as autism spectrum disorder in DSM-Ⅴ. Before 1980, autism was considered as a rare disease, in recent years, the epidemiological studies show that the incidence of autism tends to rise. In 2014, from the site of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of America, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1 000 children, which is equivalent to 68 cases of children that have one case for children with autism, we reviewed the study of epidemiology of ASD and analyzed the differences of gender, race, intelligence and regions of them, so as to provide a theoretical basis for its early detection and intervention.%儿童孤独症是一类起病于3岁以前的神经系统发育障碍,属于广泛性发育障碍的一个亚型。精神障碍诊断与统计手册第五版(DSM-Ⅴ)已将其归类为孤独症谱系障碍(ASD)。1980年以前,孤独症被认为是一种罕见性疾病,而近些年有关孤独症及ASD的流行病学研究表明,其发病率日趋上升,2014年美国疾病控制与预防中心对11个州8岁儿童的监测数据发现,ASD患病率高达14.7/1000,即相当于68例儿童中即有1例为ASD患儿,本文综述了目前ASD流行病学研究现状,并分析患儿性别、种族、智力、地域间的差异,为ASD的早期发现与早期干预提供理论依据。

  14. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  15. An item response theory analysis of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: findings from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Hasin, Deborah S; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of DSM-IV symptom criteria for assessing personality disorders (PDs) in a national population and to compare variations in proposed symptom coding for social and/or occupational dysfunction. Data were obtained from a total sample of 34,653 respondents from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). For each personality disorder, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established a 1-factor latent factor structure for the respective symptom criteria. A 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model was applied to the symptom criteria for each PD to assess the probabilities of symptom item endorsements across different values of the underlying trait (latent factor). Findings were compared with a separate IRT model using an alternative coding of symptom criteria that requires distress/impairment to be related to each criterion. The CFAs yielded a good fit for a single underlying latent dimension for each PD. Findings from the IRT indicated that DSM-IV PD symptom criteria are clustered in the moderate to severe range of the underlying latent dimension for each PD and are peaked, indicating high measurement precision only within a narrow range of the underlying trait and lower measurement precision at lower and higher levels of severity. Compared with the NESARC symptom coding, the IRT results for the alternative symptom coding are shifted toward the more severe range of the latent trait but generally have lower measurement precision for each PD. The IRT findings provide support for a reliable assessment of each PD for both NESARC and alternative coding for distress/impairment. The use of symptom dysfunction for each criterion, however, raises a number of issues and implications for the DSM-5 revision currently proposed for Axis II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2010).

  16. Self-help interventions for adjustment disorder problems: a randomized waiting-list controlled study in a sample of burglary victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachem, Rahel; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Adjustment disorders (AjD) are among the most frequent mental disorders yet often remain untreated. The high prevalence, comparatively mild symptom impairment, and transient nature make AjD a promising target for low-threshold self-help interventions. Bibliotherapy represents a potential treatment for AjD problems. This study investigates the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral self-help manual specifically directed at alleviating AjD symptoms in a homogenous sample of burglary victims. Participants with clinical or subclinical AjD symptoms following experience of burglary were randomized to an intervention group (n = 30) or waiting-list control group (n = 24). The new explicit stress response syndrome model for diagnosing AjD was applied. Participants received no therapist support and assessments took place at baseline, after the one-month intervention, and at three-month follow-up. Based on completer analyses, group by time interactions indicated that the intervention group showed more improvement in AjD symptoms of preoccupation and in post-traumatic stress symptoms. Post-intervention between-group effect sizes ranged from Cohen's d = .17 to .67 and the proportion of participants showing reliable change was consistently higher in the intervention group than in the control group. Engagement with the self-help manual was high: 87% of participants had worked through at least half the manual. This is the first published RCT of a bibliotherapeutic self-help intervention for AjD problems. The findings provide evidence that a low-threshold self-help intervention without therapist contact is a feasible and effective treatment for symptoms of AjD.

  17. 糖尿病胃动力障碍的症状流行病学调查分析%Epidemiological Survey of Gastric Motility Disorder of Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万方; 黄伟文; 熊玉冰

    2009-01-01

    目的 通过调查分析糖尿病胃动力障碍症状流行病学调查中的诸因素与胃动力障碍发生的关系.方法 2003年3月至2004年1月从广州医学院附属第二医院糖尿病中心2万名门诊病人中随机选取符合入选条件的2 36)1名糖尿病患者作为调查对象.采用统一的流行病学调查表对患者进行问卷调查.根据调查结果将患者分为试验组与对照组.对糖尿病胃动力障碍的患病率及年龄、病史、消化道症状等与糖尿病胃动力障碍发生的关系进行分析.结果 (1)糖尿病胃动力障碍的患病率为53.65%;(2)试验组与对照组在胃纳不佳、早饱、嗳气、上腹痛、恶心、呕吐、餐后腹胀、便秘等症状方面均有显著性差异(P<0.01);(3)餐后腹胀这一因素对胃动力障碍发生的影响最大,其次为便秘、嗳气、胃纳不佳、旱饱、上腹痛,影响最小的是呕吐.结论 胃纳不佳、早饱、餐后腹胀、嗳气、上腹痛、恶心、呕吐、便秘这些症状与糖尿病胃动力障碍的发生密切相关,在排除消化道病史及酮症酸中毒的情况下,应考虑并重视胃动力障碍这一并发症.%Objective To study the relationship between gastric motility disorder and various factors through the epidemiological survey of diabetes with gastric motility disorder.Methods 236 diabetics consistent with the condition are selected randomly from 20 thousand outpatients in Diabetes center of Second hospital affiliated Guangzhou Medical College from March,2003 to January,2OO4.Adopting unified epidemiological questionnaire to survey the diabetics who are divided into test group and control group according to research outcome.Analysing the relationship between gastric motility disorder and various factors,such as incidence of the disease,age,history and gastrointestinal symptoms through the epidemiological study of gastric motility disorder of diabetes.Results (1)The incidence of gastric motility disorder of

  18. Association of tinnitus and hearing loss in otological disorders: a decade-long epidemiological study in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoshi Kumari Manche

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Tinnitus is a common disorder that occurs frequently across all strata of population and has an important health concern. Tinnitus is often associated with different forms of hearing loss of varying severity. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the association of tinnitus with hearing loss in various otological disorders of a South Indian population. Methods: A total of 3255 subjects referred to the MAA ENT Hospital, Hyderabad, from 2004 to 2014, affected with various otological diseases have been included in the present cross-sectional study. Diagnosis of the diseases was confirmed by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT specialist using detailed medical and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and binary logistic regression. Results: Tinnitus was observed in 29.3% (956 of the total study subjects that showed an increased prevalence in greater than 40 years of age. There was a significant increase in risk of tinnitus with middle (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.02-3.16 and inner (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.65-5.45 inner ear diseases. It was noted that 96.9% (n = 927 of the tinnitus subjects was associated with hearing loss. Otitis media (60.9%, presbycusis (16.6% and otosclerosis (14.3% are the very common otological disorders leading to tinnitus. Tinnitus was significantly associated with higher degree of hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM subjects. Conclusion: The present study could identify the most prevalent otological risk factors leading to development of tinnitus with hearing loss in a South Indian population.

  19. The British Sign Language versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties.

  20. Associação entre síndrome metabólica e transtornos mentais Epidemiologic studies about association of mental disorders and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Ribeiro Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A síndrome metabólica (SM é um transtorno de alta prevalência na população geral. Estudos que demonstram haver associação positiva entre doenças mentais e diabetes melito e a constatação dos efeitos adversos metabólicos dos psicofármacos levantam a hipótese de que a prevalência seja ainda maior em pacientes psiquiátricos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta revisão é avaliar os estudos epidemiológicos sobre a associação entre os transtornos mentais e a SM ou seus componentes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada busca nas bases Medline e Lilacs, com a inclusão no estudo de artigos que apresentaram dados epidemiológicos sobre SM ou seus componentes em populações psiquiátricas. RESULTADOS: Indivíduos com esquizofrenia ou transtornos esquizoafetivos apresentaram prevalência de SM variando entre 28,4% e 62,5%; um estudo com indivíduos esquizofrênicos mais jovens apresentou prevalência menor, de 19,4%, porém 3,7 vezes maior que a do grupo-controle. Um estudo avaliou pacientes com transtorno afetivo bipolar e verificou prevalência de 30%. Prevalência elevada foi encontrada em mulheres com história de depressão, mas não em homens. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de SM é elevada em pacientes com esquizofrenia e transtornos esquizoafetivos e em mulheres com história de depressão.BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS is a very prevalent condition. Studies that show a positive association between mental diseases and diabetes mellitus and the existence of adverse metabolic effects caused by psychotropic drugs allow the presumption that the occurrence of MS is even greater in psychiatric patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to assess the epidemiological studies about the relationship between MS or its components and mental disorders. METHODS: Research was carried out at Medline and Lilacs, searching for articles which presented epidemiological data on the prevalence or incidence of MS and its components in psychiatric

  1. Epidemiology of Injury-Related Emergency Department Visits in the US Among Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Luther G; Vasa, Roma A; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Woods, Steven; Goldstein, Mitchell; Wilcox, Holly C

    2016-08-01

    Several reports suggest children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to be seen for injury-related ED visits; however, no nationally representative study has examined this question. Using data from the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, over a quarter of all visits among those with ASD were related to injury. In the multivariate analyses, the odds of an injury-related visit was 54 % greater among those with ASD compared to youth with intellectual disability (ID), but 48 % less compared to youth without ID or ASD. Compared to all other pediatric injury-visits in the US, visits among children with ASD were more likely to be due to self-inflicted injury and poisoning and were more likely to result in hospitalization (all p < 0.001).

  2. Gender, school and academic year differences among Spanish university students at high-risk for developing an eating disorder: An epidemiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrobles Jose A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the university population at high-risk of developing an eating disorder and the prevalence of unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviours amongst groups at risk; gender, school or academic year differences were also explored. Methods A cross-sectional study based on self-report was used to screen university students at high-risk for an eating disorder. The sample size was of 2551 university students enrolled in 13 schools between the ages of 18 and 26 years. The instruments included: a social-demographic questionnaire, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R, and the Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. The sample design is a non-proportional stratified sample by academic year and school. The prevalence rate was estimated controlling academic year and school. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate adjusted associations between gender, school and academic year. Results Female students presented unhealthy weight-control behaviours as dieting, laxatives use or self-induced vomiting to lose weight than males. A total of 6% of the females had a BMI of 17.5 or less or 2.5% had amenorrhea for 3 or more months. In contrast, a higher proportion of males (11.6% reported binge eating behaviour. The prevalence rate of students at high-risk for an eating disorder was 14.9% (11.6–18 for males and 20.8% (18.7–22.8 for females, according to an overall cut-off point on the EDI questionnaire. Prevalence rates presented statistically significant differences by gender (p Conclusion The prevalence of eating disorder risk in university students is high and is associated with unhealthy weight-control practices, similar results have been found in previous studies using cut-off points in questionnaires. These results may be taken into account to encourage early detection and a greater awareness for seeking treatment in order

  3. Neuroticism's prospective association with mental disorders halves after adjustment for baseline symptoms and psychiatric history, but the adjusted association hardly decays with time : a meta-analysis on 59 longitudinal/prospective studies with 443 313 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimus, B. F.; Kotov, R.; Riese, H.; Ormel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background This meta-analysis seeks to quantify the prospective association between neuroticism and the common mental disorders (CMDs, including anxiety, depression, and substance abuse) as well as thought disorders (psychosis/schizophrenia) and non-specific mental distress. Data on the degree of co

  4. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Suzanne

    2012-06-19

    AbstractBackgroundAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care.MethodsThe Health Improvement Network (THIN) database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD\\/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex.ResultsThe source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male). A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population) increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1) to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6); 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9) to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8); 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3) to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3); 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03) to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10); >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01) to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03). Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2.1 fold

  5. The epidemiology of pharmacologically treated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Suzanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD was once perceived as a condition of childhood only; however increasing evidence has highlighted the existence of ADHD in older adolescents and adults. Estimates for the prevalence of ADHD in adults range from 2.5–4%. Few data exist on the prescribing trends of the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamfetamine, and the non-stimulant atomoxetine in the UK. The aim of this study was to investigate the annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD in children, adolescents and adults in UK primary care. Methods The Health Improvement Network (THIN database was used to identify all patients aged over 6 years with a diagnosis of ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder and a prescription for methylphenidate, dexamfetamine or atomoxetine from 2003–2008. Annual prevalence and incidence of pharmacologically treated ADHD were calculated by age category and sex. Results The source population comprised 3,529,615 patients (48.9% male. A total of 118,929 prescriptions were recorded for the 4,530 patients in the pharmacologically treated ADHD cohort during the 6-year study. Prevalence (per 1000 persons in the mid-year THIN population increased within each age category from 2003 to 2008 [6–12 years: from 4.8 (95% CI: 4.5–5.1 to 9.2 (95% CI: 8.8–9.6; 13–17 years: from 3.6 (95% CI: 3.3–3.9 to 7.4 (95% CI: 7.0–7.8; 18–24 years: from 0.3 (95% CI: 0.2–0.3 to 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.3; 25–45 years: from 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03 to 0.08 (95% CI: 0.06–0.10; >45 years: from 0.01 (95% CI: 0.00–0.01 to 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01–0.03. Whilst male patients aged 6-12 years had the highest prevalence; the relative increase in prescribing was higher amongst female patients of the same age - the increase in prevalence in females aged 6–12 years was 2

  6. Clinical association between teeth malocclusions, wrong posture and ocular convergence disorders: an epidemiological investigation on primary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestrini-Biavati Armando

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the various systems in the body are inter-connected to form a single structural unit, a pathological condition in one area can also affect other areas. There are many known correlations between the visual and motor system. The importance of visual function, particularly the paracentral peripheral field of view, in motor coordination, ambulation and the maintenance of balance has been amply demonstrated. In line with current medical principles, which are moving towards a more holistic view of the human body, this study aims to investigate, in an interdisciplinary manner, the incidence of dental malocclusions together with posture and eye convergence disorders. Methods Six hundred and five children attending at the 3rd, 4th and 5th years of seven Genoa primary schools were examined. Each child underwent the following examinations: (i dental/occlusal; (ii orthoptic; and (iii postural. Occlusal data concerned the presence of cross-bite, midline deviation with a mandibular shift, bad habits and deep or open bite. Postural assessment involved frontal and lateral inspection, investigation during trunk flexion and ambulation, and note of any asymmetry in the lower limbs. The recorded orthoptic data included those pertaining to ocular dominance, a cover test, convergence and the Brock string test. Results A prevalence of cases with an unphysiological gait was found in patients with overjet (14.70% or overbite (14.87%, while the percentage of patients with normal occlusion that showed an unphysiological gait was 13.08%. Also, about 93.8%–94.2% of children showed normal legs without dysmetry, with no difference in respect to the type of occlusion. Subjects with an open bite or deep bite showed a slightly different distribution of right or left dominant eyes. Conclusion About 13% of children showed a pathological gait and, among them, vertical anomalies of occlusion (deep bite or open bite were prevalent with respect to the other

  7. Asking for work adjustments or initiating behavioural changes - what makes a 'problematic co-worker' score Brownie points? An experimental study on the reactions towards colleagues with a personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Fay, Doris; Seemann, Anne

    2016-10-01

    People with mental disorders, especially personality disorders, often face low acceptance at work. This is particularly problematic when returning to work after sick leave, because it impedes reintegration into the former workplace. This study explores colleagues' reactions towards a problematic worker dependent on the returning person's reintegration strategy: The returning person undertaking changes in their behaviour is compared with the person requesting adjustments of the workplace. In an experimental study, 188 employed persons read one of four vignettes that described a return-to-work-situation of a problematic co-worker. Across all vignettes, the co-worker was depicted as having previously caused problems in the work team. In the first vignette, the co-worker did not change anything (control condition) when she returned to work; in the second, she asked for workplace adjustments; in the third vignette she initiated efforts to change her own behaviour; and the fourth vignette combined both workplace adjustments and behavioural change. Study participants were asked for their reactions towards the problematic co-worker. Vignettes that included a behavioural change evoked more positive reactions towards the co-worker than vignettes without any behavioural change. Asking for workplace adjustments alone did not yield more positive reactions compared to not initiating any change. When preparing employees with interactional problems for their return to work, it is not effective to only instruct them on their statutory entitlement for workplace adjustments. Instead, it is advisable to encourage them to proactively strive for behaviour changes.

  8. Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders Among Heterosexual Identified Men and Women Who Have Same-Sex Partners or Same-Sex Attraction: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gattis, Maurice N.; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants’ reported s...

  9. Quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among regular users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis: An analysis of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hakes, Jahn K; Macatee, Richard J; Chavarria, Jesus; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Research is limited on the effects of regular substance use on mental health-related outcomes. We used a large nationally representative survey to examine current and future quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among past-year regular (weekly) users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Data on psychiatric disorders and quality of life from two waves (Wave 1 N = 43,093, Wave 2 N = 34,653) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to test study aims. In cross-sectional analyses, regular nicotine and cannabis use were associated with higher rates of psychiatric disorder, though regular alcohol use was associated with lower rates of disorders. Prospective analyses found that regular nicotine use predicted onset of anxiety, depressive, and bipolar disorders. Regular alcohol use predicted lower risk of these disorders. Regular cannabis use uniquely predicted the development of bipolar disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and social phobia. Lastly, regular alcohol use predicted improvements in physical and mental health-related quality of life, whereas nicotine predicted deterioration in these outcomes. Regular cannabis use predicted declines in mental, but not physical health. These data add to the literature on the relations between substance use and mental and physical health and suggest increased risk of mental health problems among regular nicotine and cannabis users and better mental and physical health among regular alcohol users. Examination of mechanisms underlying these relationships is needed.

  10. Chiropractic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation Don't seek chiropractic adjustment ... Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal ...

  11. How do different diagnostic criteria, age and gender affect the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults? An epidemiological study in a Hungarian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, István; Simon, Viktoria; Bálint, Sára; Mészáros, Agnes; Czobor, Pál

    2010-06-01

    The goal of the study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of different diagnostic criteria on prevalence estimates of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and (2) to provide prevalence estimates of adult ADHD for the first time in a Hungarian sample. Subjects between 18 and 60 years were included in the screening phase of the study (N = 3,529), conducted in 17 GP practices in Budapest. Adult self-report scale 6-item version was used for screening. Out of 279 positively screened subjects 161 subjects participated in a clinical interview and filled out a self-report questionnaire to confirm the diagnosis. Beside DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, we applied four alternative diagnostic criteria: 'No-onset' (DSM-IV criteria without the specific requirement for onset); full/Sx (DSM-IV "symptoms only" criteria); and reduced/Sx (DSM-IV "symptoms only" criteria with a reduced threshold for symptom count). Crude prevalence estimates adjusted for the specificity and sensitivity data of the screener were 1.35% in the 'DSM-IV' group, 1.64% in the 'No-onset' group, 3.65% in the 'Sx/full' group and 4.16% in the 'Sx/reduced' group. Logistic regression analysis showed that ADHD was significantly more prevalent with younger age and male gender [chi(2) = 14.46; P = 0.0007]. Prevalence estimates corrected for the 'not-interviewed' subsample and adjusted for specificity and sensitivity data of the screener was 2.3% in males, 0.91% in females; 2.02% in the 40 years age group, based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Prevalence rates found in this study are somewhat lower, but still are in line with those reported in the literature.

  12. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is s

  13. 安徽淮北矿区职工精神疾病流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey on mental disorders in mining areas of Huaibei city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙仲礼; 付金忠; 张继兰; 祝亚丽; 裴根仓; 范恒轩; 孙青; 于杰; 龙早; 闻祥旺; 姚献虎; 张跃乾; 吴胜; 刘庆; 陈敬兰; 关冬云; 陈华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in mining areas of Huaibei.Method:The epidemiological survey of psychiatry was carried out in mining areas of Huaibei ,with the methods and flows of epidemiological investigation manual recommended, between September 1 2009 and December 31 2009.Results:By means of multi-stage stratified random sampling of probability ratio, 177 cases were identified as mental disorders in 2 830 subjects( including 88 cases neurotic disorder) ,The lifetime prevalence of all mental disorders were 62.54‰, If excluding neurotic disorder, were 31.45‰,Compared with the result of epidemiological investigation on mental disorders in 7 areas of China in 1993 ,the prevalence rate showed a tendency to increase.Conclusion:The prevalence of Huaibei mining workers was higher, Neurotic disorders and alcohol dependence ranked the first two in their prevalence, respectively.It is needed to urge more attention for mental health in mining areas.%目的:了解安徽淮北市矿区职工各类精神障碍的患病率.方法:采用精神疾病流调手册推荐的方法和流程,于2009年9月1日至12月31日对淮北市矿区职工进行精神疾病流行病学调查.结果:通过多级分层整群概率比例,随机抽样2 830人完成调查,患有精神疾病177例(其中神经症88例),精神疾病患病率为62.54‰;若不含神经症,患病率为31.45‰,与1993年全国7个地区精神疾病流行病学调查结果相比明显升高.结论:淮北矿区职工精神疾病患病率较高,各类精神疾病患病率以神经症和酒依赖居前两位.矿区职工精神卫生防治工作亟待加强.

  14. Substance use and mental health disorders among heterosexual identified men and women who have same-sex partners or same-sex attraction: results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Sacco, Paul; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M

    2012-10-01

    This study examined sexual orientation discordance, a mismatch between self-reported sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction, by describing the characteristics, substance use disorders, and mental health risks of heterosexual identified individuals who endorsed this pattern of sexual identification, behavior, and attraction. Using data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), we created three groups based on participants' reported sexual identity and either their sexual behavior or sexual attraction: heterosexual concordant, homosexual concordant, and heterosexual discordant. Bivariate models assessed the relationship of discordant status and demographic correlates, lifetime substance use disorders, and mental health diagnoses. Logistic regression models tested associations between both behavior discordance and attraction discordance and the likelihood of having lifetime disorders of substance use, major depression, and generalized anxiety. Results of this study provided evidence of varying levels of substance use and mental health disorder risk by gender, discordance status, and discordance type. Behavioral discordance was associated with increased risk of mental health and substance use disorder among women (compared to heterosexual concordance). Findings among men were less consistent with heightened risk of alcohol and inhalant use only. Attraction discordance was notably different from behavioral discordance. The odds of substance use and mental health disorders were the same or lower compared with both the heterosexual and homosexual concordance groups. Future research should begin to test theoretical explanations for these differences.

  15. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  16. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013 : quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, Christopher J. L.; Barber, Ryan M.; Foreman, Kyle J.; Ozgoren, Ayse Abbasoglu; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F.; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Jerry P.; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Achoki, Tom; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene K.; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E.; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I.; Alegretti, Miguel A.; Alemu, Zewdie A.; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Almazroa, Mohammad A.; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Ameh, Emmanuel A.; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, H. Ross; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J.; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avila, Marco A.; Awuah, Baffour; Bachman, Victoria F.; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O.; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Bernabe, Eduardo; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Beyene, Tariku J.; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Blore, Jed D.; Blosser, Christopher D.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Bohensky, Megan A.; Bolliger, Ian W.; Basara, Berrak Bora; Bornstein, Natan M.; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Boyers, Lindsay N.; Brainin, Michael; Brayne, Carol E.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D.; Brooks, Peter M.; Brown, Jonathan C.; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey C.; Budke, Christine M.; Bulchis, Anne; Bulloch, Andrew G.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Ruben E.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Cavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K.; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy P.; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christophi, Costas A.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Coffeng, Luc E.; Coggeshall, Megan S.; Colistro, Valentina; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooke, Graham S.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Leslie T.; Coppola, Luis M.; Cortinovis, Monica; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dansereau, Emily; Dargan, Paul I.; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; Dayama, Anand; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dessalegn, Muluken; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dherani, Mukesh K.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E. Ray; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Duber, Herbert C.; Ebel, Beth E.; Edmond, Karen M.; Elshrek, Yousef M.; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P.; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F.; Feigin, Valery L.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fleming, Thomas D.; Foigt, Nataliya; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fowkes, F. Gerry R.; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C.; Fuerst, Thomas; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gankpe, Fortune G.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Peter; Gibney, Katherine B.; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez-Medina, Diego; Gosselin, Richard A.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish C.; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamavid, Hannah; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Maria Haro, Josep; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hay, Roderick J.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B.; Heuton, Kyle R.; Heydarpour, Pouria; Higashi, Hideki; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hossain, Mazeda; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa L.; Iburg, Kim M.; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jarvis, Deborah L.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B.; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine K.; Karimkhani, Chante; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazanjan, Konstantin; Kemp, Andrew H.; Kengne, Andre P.; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S.; Khalifa, Shams Eldin A.; Khan, Ejaz A.; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khang, Young-Ho; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M.; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lai, Taavi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E. B.; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levitz, Carly E.; Li, Bin; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S.; Lind, Maggie; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lofgren, Katherine T.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Ma, Stefan; Macintyre, Michael F.; Mackay, Mark T.; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J.; Margono, Christopher; Marzan, Melvin B.; Masci, Joseph R.; Mashal, Mohammad T.; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Mazorodze, Tasara T.; Mcgill, Neil W.; Mcgrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A.; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A.; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis A.; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Mohammad, Karzan A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mola, Glen L. D.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio C.; Montico, Marcella; Montine, Thomas J.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moore, Ami R.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moran, Andrew E.; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N.; Moyer, Madeline L.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Msemburi, William T.; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C.; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murray, Joseph; Murthy, Kinnari S.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P.; Newton, Charles R.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida N.; Nguyen, Grant; Nisar, Muhammad I.; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Ohno, Summer L.; Olusanya, Bolajoko O.; Opio, John Nelson; Ortblad, Katrina; Ortiz, Alberto; Pain, Amanda W.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A.; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pavlin, Boris I.; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B.; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R.; Phillips, Bryan K.; Phillips, David E.; Piel, Frederic B.; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polinder, Suzanne; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Pullan, Rachel L.; Qato, Dima M.; Quistberg, D. Alex; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahman, Sajjad U.; Raju, Murugesan; Rana, Saleem M.; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K. Srinath; Refaat, Amany; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikoff, Serge; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Richardson, Lee; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Roberts, D. Allen; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rothstein, David H.; Rowley, Jane T.; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Saha, Sukanta; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sampson, Uchechukwu K. A.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S.; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Scarborough, Peter; Schneider, Ione J.; Schoettker, Ben; Schumacher, Austin E.; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Serina, Peter T.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Silberberg, Donald H.; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Lavanya; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Soreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stevens, Antony; Stewart, Andrea; Stovner, Lars J.; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabb, Karen M.; Takahashi, Ken; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taylor, Hugh R.; Te Ao, Braden J.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Temesgen, Awoke M.; Templin, Tara; Ten Have, Margreet; Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Terkawi, Abdullah S.; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tillmann, Taavi; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X.; Trillini, Matias; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin M.; Uchendu, Uche S.; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uzun, Selen B.; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Van De Vijver, Steven; van Gool, Coen H.; Van Os, Jim; Vasankari, Tommi J.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasiliy V.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Wagner, Joseph; Waller, Stephen G.; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Linhong; Warouw, Tati S.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Wang Wenzhi, [Unknown; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wilkinson, James D.; Williams, Thomas N.; Wolfe, Charles D.; Wolock, Timothy M.; Woolf, Anthony D.; Wulf, Sarah; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yentur, Goekalp K.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E.; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zonies, David; Zou, Xiaonong; Salomon, Joshua A.; Lopez, Alan D.; Vos, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex grou

  17. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murray, C.J.; Barber, R.M.; Foreman, K.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex grou

  18. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  19. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INDICATORS OF SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS AND A POSSIBLE BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER (BAD IN FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS IN A SITUATION OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN THE CITY OF ARMENIA IN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to identify the relationship between social adjustment problems and the possible emergence of a TAB in 30 women heads of household in condition of forced displacement in the city of Armenia, for the scale was used with adaptive social (SASS and the Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ. According to the results of the SAS, the main indicators of social adjustment problems were: low interest in work (31% and leisure (43% in addition, the presence of unsatisfactory relationships at the family level (30 % and social (20%. These adaptive difficulties can directly influence the emergence of a TAB and consequently, the joint probability of finding the population in social adjustment problems, while presenting a risk of emergence of a TAB is 6.8% and, if indicators of social adjustment problems are not treated properly, the possible emergence of a TAB in a 3.2% increase, causing increased psychosocial vulnerability to the MCH population in conditions of forced displacement.

  1. Effect of vertical pressing and adjusting method on the joint disorder of thoracic vertebra%垂直按调法治疗胸椎小关节紊乱的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程豫; 汤春红; 诸光花; 李剑; 李宏宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of vertical pressing and adjusting method on chest stufifness caused by the joint disorder of the thoracic vertebra. Methods: Fifty patients with the chest stuffiness caused by joint disorder of the thoracic vertebra were treated with the vertical pressing and adjusting method and their changes and effects of the integration of the symptoms and signs before and after treatment were compared. Results:The score of the main symptoms and signs of the patients was 13.08±0.66 before treatment and 4.58±0.51 after treatment, and their difference had the statistic signiifcance (P<0.01). The effective rate was 88%. Conclusion:The effect of vertical pressing and adjusting method on the chest stufifness caused by joint disorders of thoracic vertebra is precise and stable.%目的:观察垂直按调法治疗胸椎小关节紊乱引起胸闷的疗效。方法:选择50例胸椎小关节紊乱引起的胸闷患者,采用垂直按调法治疗,比较治疗前后主要症状体征积分的变化及疗效。结果:治疗前患者主要症状体征积分为13.08±0.66,治疗后为4.58±0.51,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),有效率为88%。结论:垂直按调法治疗胸椎小关节紊乱所引起的胸闷疗效确切、稳定。

  2. Study of Epidemiological Survey of Mental Disorders in China%我国60年精神障碍流行病学调查研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖震华; 丁丽君; 温程

    2012-01-01

    通过对文献复习了解我国60年来关于精神障碍流行病学调查的研究类型、调查方法、调查工具、统计分析方法等研究方法,以及调查各个时期的患病率及相应的疾病谱研究.此外,对近年来除患病率研究以外的领域进行总结.%In this paper we understand the types of research, survey methodology, survey instruments and statistical analysis on the epidemiological survey of mental disorders through literature review in past 60 years in China, as well as describe the prevalence of various periods and the corresponding spectrum of disease. In addition we summarize the aspects other than the study of prevalence on epidemiological survey of mental disorders in recent years.

  3. Relationship between personality disorder dimensions and verbal memory functioning in a community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Hochang B; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Chung, Hye Yoon; Eaton, William W; Costa, Paul T; Nestadt, Gerald

    2012-03-30

    Based on the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) follow-up survey, we examined relationships between dimensions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) personality disorders and both subjective and objective memory functioning in a community population. Our study subjects consisted of 736 individuals from the ECA follow-up study of the original Baltimore ECA cohort, conducted between 1993 and 1996 and available for assessment in the Hopkins Epidemiology Study of Personality Disorders from 1997 to 1999. Subjects were assessed for DSM-IV personality disorders using a semi-structured instrument, the International Personality Disorder Examination, and were asked about a subjective appraisal of memory. Verbal memory function, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition, were also evaluated. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine associations between personality dimensions of DSM-IV Axis II traits and subjective and objective memory functioning. Scores on schizoid and schizotypal personality dimensions were associated with subjective and objective memory dysfunction, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. Borderline, antisocial, avoidant, and dependent personality disorder scores were associated with subjective memory impairment only, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions.

  4. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  5. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  6. Rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Weinstock, L B; Thyssen, E P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common inflammatory facial skin condition. Recent genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested pathogenic links between rosacea and gastrointestinal disorders, but data are limited. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate the association between rosacea...... and coeliac disease (CeD), Crohn disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), Helicobacter pylori infection (HPI), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), respectively. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study. A total of 49 475 patients with rosacea and 4 312 213...... with rosacea. RESULTS: The prevalence of CeD, CD, UC, HPI, SIBO and IBS, respectively, was higher among patients with rosacea when compared with the control subjects. Adjusted HRs revealed significant associations between rosacea and CeD (HR 1·46, 1·11-1·93), CD (HR 1·45, 1·19-1·77), UC (HR 1·19, 1...

  7. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  8. Neuroticism moderates the effect of maximum smoking level on lifetime panic disorder: a test using an epidemiologically defined national sample of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Feldner, Matthew T; Schmidt, Norman B; Bowman, Carrie J

    2006-03-30

    The present study evaluated a moderational model of neuroticism on the relation between smoking level and panic disorder using data from the National Comorbidity Survey. Participants (n=924) included current regular smokers, as defined by a report of smoking regularly during the past month. Findings indicated that a generalized tendency to experience negative affect (neuroticism) moderated the effects of maximum smoking frequency (i.e., number of cigarettes smoked per day during the period when smoking the most) on lifetime history of panic disorder even after controlling for drug dependence, alcohol dependence, major depression, dysthymia, and gender. These effects were specific to panic disorder, as no such moderational effects were apparent for other anxiety disorders. Results are discussed in relation to refining recent panic-smoking conceptual models and elucidating different pathways to panic-related problems.

  9. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  10. Epidemiology of neurological disorders in India: Review of background, prevalence and incidence of epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson′s disease and tremors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gourie-Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and development of neuroepidemiology in India during the last four decades has been documented highlighting the historical milestones. The prevalence rates of the spectrum of neurological disorders from different regions of the country ranged from 967-4,070 with a mean of 2394 per 100000 population, providing a rough estimate of over 30 million people with neurological disorders (excluding neuroinfections and traumatic injuries. Prevalence and incidence rates of common disorders including epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson′s disease and tremors determined through population-based surveys show considerable variation across different regions of the country. The need for a standardized screening questionnaire, uniform methodology for case ascertainment and diagnosis is an essential requiste for generating robust national data on neurological disorders. Higher rates of prevalence of neurological disorders in rural areas, 6-8 million people with epilepsy and high case fatality rates of stroke (27-42% call for urgent strategies to establish outreach neurology services to cater to remote and rural areas, develop National Epilepsy Control Program and establish stroke units at different levels of health care pyramid.

  11. Epidemiology chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, J H; Butaev, M K; Duysheev, A; Gabbasova, A R; Khasanov, O S; Kulakov, Yu K; Mkrtchyan, A R; Myrzabekov, A M; Nurgaziev, R Z; Tsirel'son, L E; Willer, R D; Yaraev, R G; Zheludkov, M M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still burdened with the human cost of brucellosis. The final summary of this section provides an example of the successful transboundary cooperative efforts between Arizona and Mexico, which could be applied to the situation between Russia and the bordering independent republics.

  12. Epidemiological survey of mental disorder in Fujian province%福建省精神障碍流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方向; 翁赛峥; 欧文前; 邓泓; 邓俊琦; 王进义; 黄运坤; 李尤拉; 马周; 丁丽君; 张海涛; 陈元生; 田俊; 李文燕; 陈旭先; 熊端华; 纪家武; 施光锖; 郑景涛; 陈彬; 陈涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解福建省年龄≥15岁人群各类精神障碍的患病率、分布特点和规律,为制定全省精神卫生规划提供科学依据.方法 2009年2-6月,采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法,抽取10个县(市)中1万名年龄≥15岁的个体为调查对象,先由护士用扩展的一般健康问卷12项将调查对象分为患精神疾病高危险人群、中危险人群、低危险人群,然后由精神科医生以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-IV)轴I障碍临床定式检查患者版,依次对100%高危险人群、40%中危险人群、10%低危险人群进行调查,使用DSM-IV对各类精神障碍进行诊断.结果 (1)共有9986人完成调查,精神障碍的总时点患病率为17.44%(95%可信区间为16.70%~18.19%);最常见的特定精神障碍为重性抑郁障碍(major depressive disorder,3.35%)、酒精依赖性和滥用性障碍(2.93%)、未特定抑郁障碍(2.29%).(2)女性精神障碍总时点患病率高于男性(17.60%vs 17.32%),差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 福建省精神障碍患病率较高,女性高于男性,其中重性抑郁障碍、酒精依赖性和滥用性障碍以及未特定抑郁障碍是我省最常见的精神障碍;加强对常见精神障碍的防治,关注女性精神障碍患者,应成为福建省精神卫生工作的重点.%Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of mental disorders in adults 15 years of age and older in Fujian province.Methods From Feb.2009 to June 2009,stratified multistage cluster randomization sampling was used to identify 10 000 individuals≥15 years of age from 10 counties (cities).Subjects were classified as high,moderate or low risk of having a mental disorder based on assessment with the expanded version of the General Health Questionnaire(GHQ)(as administered by psychiatric nurses),and then psychiatrists determined their diagnoses by administering the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCID)to 100%of the high-,40% of

  13. Epidemiology and care of female sexual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    McCool, Megan Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction can have a negative impact on the well-being of an individual. For women, sexual dysfunction encompasses sexual interest / arousal disorder, female orgasmic disorder and genitopelvic pain / penetration disorder. Although sexual dysfunction has been identified as a significant public health problem, research on sexual dysfunction has primarily focused on men rather than women. Comprehensive epidemiological data on female sexual dysfunction and information on current levels o...

  14. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  15. 桂林市农村地区精神疾病流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey of mental disorders in rural areas in Guilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶领钢; 黄峰; 周云; 李启斌; 梁皓明; 李广林; 韦红日; 周丽君; 冯启明

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To investigate the prevalence and distribution of mental disorders among people aged more than 15 in rural areas in Guilin. Method; From July,2007 to December,2007, 2 800 subjects aged more than 15 were randomly selected for 3 counties by stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects were investigated by face to face interview. The Chinese version of composite international diagnostic interview provided by the Chinese Center for Disease Prevention and Control was used as the screening tool and the diagnoses were made with the 10th edition of international classfication of disease critemia. Results:2 628 subjects completed the screening,the completion rate was 93. 9%. The general point prevalence was 23. 59‰ and the general lifetime prevalence was 29. 30‰. Ordered by lifetime prevalence rate, the most common specific disorders were major alcohol dependence disorder( 11.42‰) ,schizophrenia(8. 37‰) , and depression disorder(7.61‰). The general lifetime prevalence was lower in female (20.56‰) than in male(38. 70‰) , and the result showed significant difference(x2MH =6.969, P = 0.008 ). The prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder was higher in 55 -74 age group and Zhuang people. Conclusion; Alcohol dependence disorder, schizophrenia , depression disorder are the most common mental disorders, and targeted research of prevention and rehabilitation should be carried out.%目的:了解桂林市15岁以上农村居民各类精神疾病的患病水平和分布特征. 方法:2007年7月至12月采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法随机抽取桂林市3个县2 800名15岁以上农村居民为对象进行入户调查.以中国疾病预防控制中心精神卫生中心提供的中文版复合性国际诊断问卷为筛查工具,以国际疾病及相关健康问题分类第10版为诊断标准. 结果:完成调查2 628人,调查完成率93.9%.桂林农村15岁以上人群精神疾病的总时点患病率23.59‰,总终生患病率29

  16. The epidemiology of injuries in epilepsy and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and young people using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and linked data

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Vibhore

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and young people (CYP) throughout the world and in the UK. Detailed estimates of the risk of specific injuries, namely fractures, thermal injuries and poisonings, are not available for CYP with specific medical conditions, such as epilepsy or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the English primary care population. To date there has been no description of the recording of ADHD by general practitio...

  17. Epidemiological survey of generalized anxiety disorder in Yunfu City%云浮市广泛性焦虑障碍流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟书铭; 肖垚南; 陈妙扬; 郑洪波; 张璐璐; 陈丁玲; 卢冬艳

    2015-01-01

    目的:了结云浮市15岁以上人群广泛性焦虑障碍的患病率及分布特点。方法采用初级单位含量比例分层整体随机抽样方法,以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)轴障碍定式临床检查患者版(SCID-Ⅰ/P)对全市5县区2373人进行入户面访调查。结果广泛性焦虑障碍的时点患病率为0.46%,其中男性为0.30%,女性为0.69%,该疾病与无业或失业状态关系密切,精神科就诊率为18.18%。结论广泛性焦虑障碍在云浮市患病率较高,就诊率较低,健全社区精神卫生服务有利于降低其发生发展。%Objective To describe the prevalence and distribution of generalized anxiety disorder among people aged above 15 years in Yunfu city. Methods A total of 2 373 subjects were randomly selected from 5 rural and rural-urban fringe zone by the elementary unit stratified cluster sampling method. They were assessed by face to face interview with United States Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) AxisⅠDisorders-style version of the clinical examination of patients (SCID-Ⅰ/P). Results The current prevalence of gen-eralized anxiety disorder was 0.46%. It was 0.30%of male and 0.69%of female. The disease was closely associated with unemployed status, and its rate of visiting the doctors was 18.8%. Conclusion The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder in Yunfu city was relatively high, while the visiting rate was low. Occurrence and development of the disease could be reduced by improving mental health service.

  18. Premorbid Adjustment Profiles in Psychosis and the Role of Familial Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J.; Meijer, Julia H.; Islam, Md Atiqul; Aleman, Andre; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Meijer, Carin J.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2014-01-01

    Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and th

  19. Premorbid adjustment profiles in psychosis and the role of familial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, Piotr J; Meijer, Julia H; Islam, Md Atiqul; Aleman, André; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Meijer, Carin J; van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2014-01-01

    Disease heterogeneity in patients with psychotic disorder may be explained by distinct profiles of premorbid adjustment. The current study explored premorbid adjustment profiles in patients with psychotic disorders, associations with cognitive and clinical characteristics after disease onset, and th

  20. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  1. Epidemiology of gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Quinn T; Gittleman, Haley; Stetson, Lindsay; Virk, Selene M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary intracranial tumors. Some glioma subtypes cause significant mortality and morbidity that are disproportionate to their relatively rare incidence. A very small proportion of glioma cases can be attributed to inherited genetic disorders. Many potential risk factors for glioma have been studied to date, but few provide explanation for the number of brain tumors identified. The most significant of these factors includes increased risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation, and decreased risk with history of allergy or atopic disease. The potential effect of exposure to cellular phones has been studied extensively, but the results remain inconclusive. Recent genomic analyses, using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have identified several inherited risk variants that are associated with increased glioma risk. The following chapter provides an overview of the current state of research in the epidemiology of intracranial glioma.

  2. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health.

  3. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  4. 徐州市大学生抑郁障碍的流行病学特点%Epidemiological survey of depression disorder in college students in Xuzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相华; 耿德勤; 周勤; 王亚萍; 李群; 王成东; 乔娟; 梁光利; 赵后锋; 杨永杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence and distribution of depression disorder in college students in Xuzhou city. Method:Through cluster sampling, 1 541 college students from 2 colleges in Xuzhou city were screened by Beck depression rating scale (BDI) , self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and suicide ideation scale ( SIS). Subjects were classified as high or low risk of having a mental disorder and then psychiatrists determined their diagnoses by administering the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-RT( SCID-I/P). The estimated prevalence was adjusted by sample characteristic. Results: Totally 1 527 individuals completed the screening. The overall prevalence of depression disorder was 5. 63% (95% CI;4. 47 ~ 6. 79). The prevalence rates of diagnostic groups of disorders were as follows:major depressive disorder 3.11% (95% C/;2. 24 ~ 3. 98) , dysthymic disorder 0. 38% (95% CI:0. 07 ~0. 69) .unspecific depression disorder 2.15% (95% CI:1. 42 ~ 2. 88). The prevalence of depression disorder was much lower in females than in males(4.67% vs 7.29% ,OR = 0.64,95% CI:0.43 -0.96) ,and was much lower in polytechnic students than in medical students(4. 58% vs 7. 11% ,OR =0.64,95% CI:0. 42 -0.98). Conclusion:The prevalence of depression disorder in college students in Xuzhou city is close to the same kind survey abroad and the domestic s. Depression disorder is a common psychological problem among college students.%目的:了解徐州市在校大学生抑郁障碍的患病率及其分布特点. 方法:采用整群抽样方法,在徐州市选取某两所高校的在校大学生1 541人,使用贝克抑郁自评问卷(BDI)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)以及自杀意念量表进行筛查,由精神科医生采用美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查患者版对危险人群进行调查,作出有无精神障碍及具体诊断. 结果:完成调查1 527人,调整后抑郁障碍的总患病率为5.63%(95% CI:4.47 ~ 6.79),

  5. 汉唐时期产前焦虑症的原因及调节方法%The causes and adjustment methods of prenatal anxiety disorder during the Han and Tang Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁媛; 张如青

    2016-01-01

    Though the title of prenatal anxiety disorder didn ' t mentioned in the literature of the Han and Tang Dynasties, the effect of anxiety on the fetus and its delivery were already recognized. The causes of anxiety were mainly the physical discomfort caused by pregnancy, or the worries about fetus sex, health, appearance, and its fate etc. , or the fear of delivery. Although the adjustment methods were often tainted with superstition, yet it could ease the anxiety of pregnant women to some extent.%汉唐文献中虽未提及"产前焦虑症"这一病症名,但人们已认识到焦虑对胎产的影响.焦虑的原因主要有妊娠所导致的身体不适,或对胎儿的性别、健康、外貌、命运等方面的担忧,抑或是对分娩的恐惧.汉唐时期对产前焦虑症的调节方法虽然常带有迷信色彩,但在一定程度上可以缓解孕产妇焦虑情绪.

  6. Effect of group psychotherapy on remission of adjustment disorder in college freshmen%团体心理疗法缓解大学新生适应障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓旭阳; 郭晋林; 王小玲; 何壮湘; 李卉; 李辉; 姜婷娜

    2004-01-01

    背景:大学新生适应障碍严重影响其生活、学习和人际交往,较大样本的团体心理疗法治疗适应障碍研究未见报道.目的:探索运用团体心理疗法,缓解大学新生适应障碍的有效性.设计:回顾性研究.地点、对象和方法:采取心理测评量表(SCL-90)和心理门诊约谈,从南京某医学院1999,2000两个新生年级1 126名新生中随机抽样适应障碍新生各分一组,每组30人,运用团体疗法的基本技术,团体讨论、心理剧、放松练习等主要方法,结合自我评价表和心理量表前后对比研究.主要观察指标:大学新生在治疗前后心理健康和自我评价的变化.结果:①治疗前后,1999级新生分享经验(7.10±1.40,7.23±1.48)、信任自己(5.87±2.14,7.48±1.70)等差异有显著性或高度显著性意义(t=2.01,P<0.05,t=3.37,P<0.01);2000级新生分享经验等差异显著(t=2.41,P<0.05),喜欢参与的差异高度显著(t=3.05,P<0.01),关怀别人、信任自己等差异高度显著(t=5.01,4.12,P<0.001).②治疗前后,1999级新生躯体化、人际关系、抑郁、强迫、焦虑、恐怖和精神病性差异显著或高度显著(t=2.26~2.50,P<0.05;t=2.88~3.15,P<0.01);2000级新生躯体化、恐怖、抑郁方面差异显著或高度显著(t=2.67,2 10,P<0.05;t=2.94,P<0.01).③1999,2000级治疗前后自我评价同时比较,治疗前关怀别人、有责任感、了解别人的差异显著或高度显著(t=2.09,P<0.05;t=2.80,P<0.01;t=3.82,P<0.001);治疗后关怀别人、信任自己等4方面差异显著(t=2.47,2.17,P<0.01);心理健康同时相互比较,治疗前差异不显著,治疗后精神病性差异显著(t=2.09,P<0.05).结论:团体心理疗法是缓解大学新生适应障碍的有效途径,有助于大学新生心理健康状况和自我评价的积极改变.%BACKGROUND: Adjustment disorder of freshmen severely affeeted their lives, studies and interpersonal communications, but reports about the effect

  7. Methodology improvements in China mental disorder epidemiological surveys from 1950 to 2008%中国精神疾病流行病学调查进展的分析和评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝亮; 张建芳; 何民富; 黄悦勤; 陈红辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the advances of methodology in China mental disorder epidemiological surveys from 1950 to 2008. Methods Using bibliometrics approach, a number of English (PubMed, EMBASE) and Chinese databases (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Database Disc and Wanfang Database), related reports and literature reviews' references list were comprehensively searched between Jan. 1, 1950 and Dec. 22, 2008, Chinese Journal of Neurology & Psychiatry (from 1955 to 1996) was also searched by hand, and the large-scale regional mental disorder epidemiological surveys were collected. Taking time as clue, the methodological characteristics in study design, sample size calculation, sampling method, diagnostic evaluation tool, field work quality control,etc., was analyzed. Results Totally 39 surveys, including 1 children and adolescents mental disorder epidemiological survey, were searched out. All the surveys from 1958 to 1981 were censuses without diagnostic evaluation tool. In the surveys from 1982 to 2000 compared to the ones from 2001 to 2008, 0(0/16) and 25.0% (4/16) of the studies reported the sample size estimation method, 0.0% (0/20) and 12.5% (2/16) of them reported the implementation of informed consent, 5.0% (1/20) and 31.2% (5/16)of them reported the adoption of field work quality control approaches, respectively. Conclusions The methodological quality has been increasing in recent years, but the overall methodological level is irregular and uneven. More attention must be attached to the methodological design. There is a pressing need to conduct mental disorder epidemiological survey among children and adolescents.%目的 分析我国精神疾病流行病学调查(以下简称流调)的进展和不足.方法 采用文献计量学方法,计算机检索英文数据库(PubMed,EMBASE)和中文数据库[中国知网(CNKI)中文期刊全文数据库,中国生物医学文献光盘数据库和万方数据库]中1950年1月1日至2008年12

  8. Does routine child health surveillance contribute to the early detection of children with pervasive developmental disorders? – An epidemiological study in Kent, U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Jane

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently changed guidelines for child health surveillance in the United Kingdom (U.K. suggest targeted checks only, instead of the previously conducted routine or universal screening at 2 years and 3.5 years. There are concerns that these changes could lead to a delay in the detection of children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. Recent U.K. studies have suggested that the prevalence of PDD is much higher than previously estimated. This study establishes to which extent the routine checks contributed to the early detection and assessment of cases of PDD. Simultaneously we have evaluated the process involved and estimate the prevalence of PDD in our district. Methods Retrospective study design utilising community medical files. Headteachers of schools (n = 75 within Maidstone district (Kent were asked to report all children with an established diagnosis of autism or PDD attending year 4 (born '91 and '92 / n = 2536 in October 2000 based on educational records. Results 59 schools (78.7% took part in the study. A total of 33 children were reported. 21 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (12 falsely reported. The prevalences were (per 10,000: PDD 82.8 (male to female ratio 6:1, childhood autism 23.7, Asperger's syndrome 11.8 and autistic spectrum disorder 47.3. Co-existing medical conditions were noted in 14.3%; 52.4% were attending mainstream schools. In 63.2% of cases concerns – mainly in the area of speech and language development (SLD – had been documented at the 2 year check. At the 3.5 year check concerns were noted in 94.1% – the main area was again SLD (76.5%, although behavioural abnormalities were becoming more frequent (47.1%. A total of 13 children (68.4% were referred for further assessment as a direct result of the checks. Conclusions The prevalences for different types of PDD were similar to figures published recently, but much higher than reported a few years ago. Analysis of our

  9. The epidemiology of acne vulgaris in late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn DD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Darren D Lynn,1 Tamara Umari,1 Cory A Dunnick,2,3 Robert P Dellavalle2–4 1Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Department of Dermatology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, 3Dermatology Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver, 4Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA Importance: Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition affecting late adolescents across the globe. Although prior studies have evaluated epidemiologic patterns of acne vulgaris in various ethnicities and regions, adequate understanding of the worldwide burden of the disease associated with patients in their late adolescence (15–19-year olds remains lacking. Objective: To assess the global burden of the disease associated with acne vulgaris for late adolescents (15–19-year olds and provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for acne in this population. Design: Database summary study. Setting: Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 database. Participants: Global Burden of Disease regions comprised countries with prevalence of acne vulgaris between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Main outcomes and measures: Geographic region-level disability-adjusted life year rates (per 100,000 persons associated with acne vulgaris in years 1990 through 2010. Median percentage change in disability-adjusted life year rates was estimated for each region across the specified study period. Conclusion and relevance: Acne vulgaris-associated disease burden exhibits global distribution and has continued to grow in prevalence over time within this population. This continued growth suggests an unmet dermatologic need worldwide for this disorder and potential opportunities for improved access and delivery of dermatologic care. Our analysis of the literature reveals numerous

  10. 济南市18岁及以上人群精神障碍流行病学抽样调查%Epidemiological sampling survey of mental disorders in populations aged 18 years and above in Jinan.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广彦; 吕静; 史守月; 窦秀云; 赵长英; 陈贞娥; 孟淑贤; 侯庆香; 郝宝利; 刘俊; 王守丽; 宁静

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解济南市18岁及以上人群精神障碍的患病率及分布特点.方法 采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法,随机抽取≥18岁人群4 800人,由精神科护士用扩展的一般健康问卷(GHQ-12)进行筛查,将调查对象分为精神障碍高、中、低危险组,然后由精神科医生用美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册(DSM-Ⅳ)轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查患者版对不同比例的高、中和低危人群进行调查,做出有无精神障碍的判断及具体诊断.结果 完成调查4 774人,调整后精神障碍总的现患率23.14%.各类精神障碍现患率由高到低依次为焦虑障碍(7.39%)、心境障碍(7.29%)、物质使用(酒精)精神障碍(3.73%)、精神分裂症和其他精神病性障碍(1.47%).城市居民精神障碍的现患率(21.06%)较农村(15.16%)为高.男性(27.87%)较女性(18.51%)为高.济南(23.14%)较同时参加本次调查的山东省内其他城市青岛(21.96%)、潍坊(17.03%)、枣庄(12.02%)为高.结论 精神卫生问题,特别是焦虑障碍、重性抑郁障碍、心境恶劣障碍、酒精使用障碍和精神分裂症,已成为城市突出的公共卫生问题.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and distribution of mental disorders in adults aged 18 years and above in Jinan.Methods Stratified, multi - stage randomized cluster sampling was used to identify 4800 individuals aged 18 years and above in Jinan.Subjects were classified as high, moderate and low risk of having mental disorders based on an expanded version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ -12) administered by psychiatric nurses, and then investigated by psychiatrists to determine whether they were suffering mental disorders and to make the diagnosis using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM - Ⅳ Axis I Disorders - Patient Edition (SCID -I/P).Results Among the 4774 who completed the screening, the global prevalence of current mental disorder was 23.14% after the adjustment.The prevalence of each

  11. Epidemiological survey of major depressive disorder in Fujian province%福建省重性抑郁障碍流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方向; 纪家武; 陈元生; 陈旭先

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the point prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in Fujian prov ince and its possible influence factors. Method: 10 000 persons more than 15 years old were randomly select ed as investigation subjects by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling approach. A modified version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as the screen tool and structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis Ⅰdisorder-Patient edition (SCID-I/P) was used as the diagnosis tool. Results:The point prevalence of MDD was 3.35% (95% CI = 2.99% ~ 3.70% ), with female and male 4.34% and 2.42%, respectively ( x2 = 18.65,P<0.01). The point prevalence in urban areas was higher than rural areas (5.13% vs. 2.41% ,x2 = 11.86,P < 0.01 ) ,among them mainly aged between 50 and 59 with point prevalence 10.08%. Conclusion: The prevalence prevalent trend and distribution feature of MDD in Fujian province were similar to the most other areas in China. It had its own characteristics which should be paid more attention to when making programs for mental health prophylaxis and treatment.%目的:了解福建省重性抑郁障碍患病率,探讨可能的影响因素.方法:采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法,随机抽取10 000名≥15岁的个体为调查对象,以改编后的一般健康问卷12项(GHQ-12)为筛选工具;以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版轴I障碍定式临床检查患者版(SCID-I/P)为调查的诊断工具.结果:福建省重性抑郁障碍时点患病率为3.35%(95%CI=2.99%~3.70%);女性患病率(4.34%)高于男性(2.42%)(χ2=18.65,P<0.01);城市患病率(5.13%)高于农村(2.41%)(χ2=11.86,P<0.01).其中以50~59岁年龄段患病率(10.08%)最高.结论:福建省重性抑郁障碍的患病率、流行趋势和分布规律与中国大多数地区的结果相似,危险因素有自身特点,今后在制定精神卫生防治规划时需予以重视.

  12. 寒区军人功能性肠病的调查报告%Epidemiological investigation of functional intestinal disorders in Chinese soldiers under severe cold condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 郭晓钟; 李宏宇; 赵佳钧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of functional intestinal disorders( FID) among the soldiers under severe cold condi-tion and contribute to the precention of medical support. Methods According to cluster sampling,650 soldiers stationed in latitude 45°to 50°garrison were recruited. The standard questionnaire of RomeⅢ,Self-Rating Anxiety Scale(SAS),and Self-Rating Depression Scale(SDS)were used. Results Totally 622 valid questionnaires were returned. The incidence of FID was 29. 9%,which includes ir-ritable bowel syndrome was 10. 1%(63 cases),functional bloating was 5. 3%(33 cases),functional constipation was 6. 1%(38 ca-ses),functional diarrhea was 4. 5%(28 cases),nonspecific bowel dysfunction was 3. 8%(24 cases). Bloating,constipation,diarrhea were the most frequent symptoms. Under -20℃,the number of the soldiers suffered bloating and diarrhea was significantly increased than under -10℃,and-20℃(P40分者分别占13.4%和54.3%,高于非 FID 组官兵的6.65%和41.1%,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论寒区官兵FID发病率较高,以肠易激综合征最常见。腹痛、腹胀等功能性肠病的常见症状随温度的降低,发生率升高。寒冷诱发的FID对官兵有明显的心理影响。因此,现有的卫勤保障措施对寒区官兵FID的防治仍有待改善。

  13. [Affective disorders and eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakra, Eric; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J M; Adida, M

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies show a frequent co-occurence of affective and eating disorders. The incidence of one disorder in patients suffering from the other disorder is well over the incidence in the general population. Several causes could explain this increased comorbidity. First, the iatrogenic origin is detailed. Indeed, psychotropic drugs, and particularly mood stabilizers, often lead to modification in eating behaviors, generally inducing weight gain. These drugs can increase desire for food, reduce baseline metabolism or decrease motor activity. Also, affective and eating disorders share several characteristics in semiology. These similarities can not only obscure the differential diagnosis but may also attest of conjoint pathophysiological bases in the two conditions. However, genetic and biological findings so far are too sparse to corroborate this last hypothesis. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that comorbidity of affective and eating disorders worsens patients'prognosis and is associated with more severe forms of affective disorders characterized by an earlier age of onset in the disease, higher number of mood episodes and a higher suicidality. Lastly, psychotropic drugs used in affective disorders (lithium, antiepileptic mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants) are reviewed in order to weigh their efficacy in eating disorders. This could help establish the best therapeutic option when confronted to comorbidity.

  14. Fraser syndrome : epidemiological study in a European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barisic, Ingeborg; Odak, Ljubica; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Calzolari, Elisa; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Bianca, Sebastiano; Boyd, Patricia A; Draper, Elizabeth S; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; McDonnell, Bob; Pierini, Anna; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; Stone, David; Tenconi, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Fraser syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, cutaneous syndactyly, laryngeal, and urogenital malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network of bi

  15. Quantifying psychiatric comorbidity - Lessions from chronic disease epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Bos, EH; Neeleman, J

    2002-01-01

    Background Comorbidity research in psychiatric epidemiology mostly uses measures of association like odds or risk ratios to express how strongly disorders are linked. In contrast, chronic disease epidemiologists increasingly use measures of clustering, like multimorbidity (cluster) coefficients, to

  16. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  17. 广州市番禺区精神障碍流行病学调查%The epidemiologic survey of the mental disorder in Panyu district of Guangzhou.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟薇; 刘伟锋; 王立; 全东明; 林海程; 林勇强; 贾福军; 王文菁; 杜全新; 张卫敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解广州市番禺区精神障碍的患病率及分布特点.方法 2007年6月1日至30日,整群抽样番禺区3个镇共20个村(居委会)1000户为调查对象,由具有5年以上精神科临床经验的医生采用1982年精神疾病流行病学调查协作组编写的《精神疾病流行学调查手册》进行逐户筛选,以CCMD - Ⅲ对可疑精神障碍者进行诊断与分类.结果 3752人完成筛选,251人完成诊断,精神障碍时点患病率66.63,终生患病率66.90‰,15岁以上人口时点患病率79.31‰,终生患病率79.63‰.男性患病率是女性的2倍(P<0.05),55岁以上人群的器质性精神障碍和45岁以上人群的心境障碍分别是年轻人群的3.4倍和7倍.结论 与1982年全国流调数据相比,精神障碍的患病率呈升高趋势,各类精神障碍有其相应的年龄分布特点.%Objective To survey the incidence of the mental disorder in Panyu district of Guangzhou. Methods One thousand families participated in the survey from 20 villages of the three towns in Panyu district from 1 June 2007 to 30 June 2007, the epiderniologic diagnosis instruments of mental illness was used, which was compiled 12 provinces psychosis epidemiology survey 1982. CCMD - 3 was used to diagnose the suspected patients. Results 3752 people were screened and 251 people were diagnosed. The time prevalence of the mental disorder was 66.63 ‰, and the lifetime prevalence was 66. 90‰. The time prevalence of 15 years older people was 79. 31‰ and the lifetime prevalence was 79. 63‰. The male morbidity rate was two times than the female's (P < 0. 05). The organic mental disorder of 55 years older people was more than 3.4 times than young people, and the mood disorder of 45 older people was more than 7 times than young people. Conclusion The incidence of the mental disorder is higher than 1982 national survey data.

  18. 基诺族精神与行为障碍流行病学调查%Epidemiological study of mental and behavior disorders in Jin-uo nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蔼迎; 李四新; 周勇; 周云; 陈邑洪; 易晓玲; 王桂芬; 李文辉; 刘晓迎

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解基诺族精神与行为障碍流行病学状况,为开展有针对性的健康教育提供依据。方法抽取景洪市基诺族乡基诺族村民4934人,采用《精神现状检查》诊断工具进行调查,采用《国际疾病分类》第10版对线索病例进行诊断分类。结果精神疾病总时点患病率17.35%,终生患病率19.09%。烟草依赖及有害使用时点患病率10.92%,终生患病率11.88%;酒精依赖及有害时点患病率4.11%,终生患病率4.40%;睡眠障碍时点患病率0.53%,终生患病率0.63%;精神分裂症时点患病率0.36%,终生患病率0.43%;精神发育迟滞时点患病率0.28%,终生患病率0.36%;焦虑障碍时点患病率0.24%,终生患病率0.30%;情感障碍时点患病率0.14%,终生患病率0.22%;癫痫终生患病率0.08%。结论基诺族精神疾病谱较广,烟、酒问题仍很突出,罹患精神疾病后主动就医率低,精神卫生知识的普及和心理健康教育工作亟待加强。%Objective To survey the epidemiological situations of mental and behavior disorders in Jinuo nationality in order to provide basis for developing purposeful health education .Methods Surveys were carried out using the diagnosis instrument of Present State Examination (PSE) among 4 ,934 Jinuo village peoples ,Jinuo tow nship ,Jinghong city ,and clue cases diagnosed and classified according to ICD‐10 .Re‐sults Total point prevalence of mental disorders was 17 .35% and lifetime prevalence 19 .09% .The point prevalence of tobacco dependence and harmful use was 10 .92% and lifetime prevalence 11 .88% ;the point prevalence of alcohol dependence and harmful use was 4 .11% and lifetime prevalence 4 .40% ;the point prevalence of sleep disorders was 0 .53% and lifetime prevalence 0 .63% ;the point prevalence of schizo‐phrenia was 0 .36% and lifetime prevalence 0 .43% ;the point prevalence of

  19. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  20. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  1. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  2. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  3. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  5. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  6. Epidemiology of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raherison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is responsible for early mortality, high death rates and significant cost to health systems. The projection for 2020 indicates that COPD will be the third leading cause of death worldwide (from sixth in 1990 and fifth leading cause of years lost through early mortality or handicap (disability-adjusted life years (12th in 1990. Active smoking remains the main risk factor, but other factors are becoming better known, such as occupational factors, infections and the role of air pollution. Prevalence of COPD varies according to country, age and sex. This disease is also associated with significant comorbidities. COPD is a disorder that includes various phenotypes, the continuum of which remains under debate. The major challenge in the coming years will be to prevent onset of smoking along with early detection of the disease in the general population.

  7. Epidemiology and burden of alopecia areata: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villasante Fricke AC

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra C Villasante Fricke, Mariya MitevaDepartment of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USABackground: Alopecia areata (AA is an autoimmune disorder characterized by patches of non-scarring alopecia affecting scalp and body hair that can be psychologically devastating. AA is clinically heterogenous, and its natural history is unpredictable. There is no preventative therapy or cure.Objective: The objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based systematic review on the epidemiology and the burden of AA.Methods and selection criteria: A search was conducted of the published, peer-reviewed literature via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Studies published in English within the last 51 years that measured AA’s incidence, prevalence, distribution, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, quality of life, and associated psychiatric and medical comorbidities were included. Two authors assessed studies and extracted the data.Results: The lifetime incidence of AA is approximately 2% worldwide. Both formal population studies found no sex predominance. First onset is most common in the third and fourth decades of life but may occur at any age. An earlier age of first onset corresponds with an increased lifetime risk of extensive disease. Global DALYs for AA were calculated at 1,332,800 in 2010. AA patients are at risk for depression and anxiety, atopy, vitiligo, thyroid disease, and other autoimmune conditions.Conclusion: AA is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder and the second most prevalent hair loss disorder after androgenetic alopecia, and the lifetime risk in the global population is approximately 2%. AA is associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and several autoimmune disorders, and an increased global burden of disease.Keywords: hair loss, hair, prevalence, incidence, burden of disease

  8. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  9. 宜宾地区18岁及以上人群心境障碍现患病率调查%Epidemiological survey of mood disorder among adults aged≥18 years in Yibin city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣珍; 李洪梅; 林俊; 杨永和; 王志青; 刘冬梅; 向道华; 廖华; 王世禹; 冯翼; 杨成敏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and distribution of mood disorder among adults in Yibin city. Methods A total of 12000 subjects aged ≥18 years from Yibin city was recruited in this study using muti-stage stratified cluster sampling. The subjects were first screened using the expanded version of General Health Questionnaire and were then classified as high, moderate or low risk of having a mental disorder based on the screening results. Different proportions of the three groups were assessed with the Structured Clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID). Results Totally 11,227 subjects completed the survey. The adjusted current prevalence of mood disorder was 2.48% (95% 67: 1.87% ~ 3.28%). The prevalence rates of specific mood disorder were 1.4% for not-specified depression (95% 67: 0.98% to 1.99%), 0.81% for major depression (95% 67: 0.47% ~ 1.38%), 0.17% for dysthymic disorder (95% 67: 0.09% ~ 0.33%) and 0.11% for bipolar type I disorder (95% 67: 0.02% ~ 0.68%). The current prevalence of mood disorder was significantly higher in women than in men (2.97% vs 1.83%, RR = 1.62, 95% 67: 1.27% ~ 2.11%). The current prevalence of mood disorder was significantly higher in urban residents than in rural residents (3.60% vs 2.40%, RR = 1.50, 95% 67: 1.13% ~ 2.05%). Among those with mood disorder, only 5.9% received any type of medical treatment, 2.2% received mental health treatment and 0.7% received psychiatric in-patient treatment. Conclusion Mood disorder is a major public health problem in Yibin city. The low proportion of patients seeking help from mental health institutes should receive special attention.%目的 了解宜宾地区成年人群心境障碍的现患病率及分布特点.方法 采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法抽取宜宾地区≥18岁人群12000人,用扩展的一般健康问卷筛查将调查对象分为精神障碍高、中、低危险组,然后用(Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Ⅳ-TR,SCID)对不同比例的三

  10. Racial-ethnic related clinical and neurocognitive differences in adults with gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R.; Leppink, Eric; Redden, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggest that the lifetime prevalence of gambling problems differs depending on race-ethnicity. Understanding variations in disease presentation in blacks and whites, and relationships with biological and sociocultural factors, may have implications for selecting approp...... memory task. These findings suggest that the clinical and neurocognitive presentation of gambling disorder different between racial-ethnic groups....... appropriate prevention strategies. 62 non-treatment seeking volunteers (18-29 years, n=18 [29.0%] female) with gambling disorder were recruited from the general community. Black (n=36) and White (n=26) participants were compared on demographic, clinical and cognitive measures. Young black adults with gambling...... disorder reported more symptoms of gambling disorder and greater scores on a measure of compulsivity. In addition they exhibited significantly higher total errors on a set-shifting task, less risk adjustment on a gambling task, greater delay aversion on a gambling task, and more total errors on a working...

  11. 10年间酒精所致精神障碍住院患者流行病学变迁%Epidemiological changes of hospitalized patients with mental disorders due to use of alcohol in ten years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任季冬; 罗明; 余佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨酒精所致精神障碍患者的流行病学及临床特征。方法对2005年1月-2014年12月在攀枝花市第三人民医院诊断为酒精所致精神障碍/酒相关障碍(符合 ICD -10诊断标准)的住院病历档案进行回顾性调查分析。结果10年间共收治酒精所致精神障碍患者986例,住院构成比10年增长约1.5倍,男性961例(97.46%),女性25例(2.54%),男女比例约为38:1,平均发病年龄(46.16±11.92)岁;农民285例(28.9%),工人337例(34.2%),二者占酒精所致精神障碍住院患者的63.1%;病理分型中依赖综合症占33%,精神病性症状占48.1%;伴发躯体疾病中,肝损害142例(14.4%),心血管系统疾病121例(12.3%);平均初饮年龄(25.31±11.07)岁,平均嗜酒年限(21.08±10.91)年。结论酒精中毒导致的精神和躯体障碍逐渐增加,已是一个日趋严重的社会问题,应提倡早期干预,酒精所致精神障碍患者宜尽早戒酒。%Objective To explore the epidemiology and clinical features of patients with mental disorder due to use of alcohol. Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosised with mental disorders due to use of alcohol/ alcohol related disorders (ICD - 10 diagnosis standard)were retrospective survey analysised in January 2005 to December 2014 in the No. 3 People’s Hospital of Panzhihua. Results During the ten years,a total of 986 patients with mental disorders due to use of alcohol were treated and hospitali-zation constituent ratio of the patients grew about 1. 5 times. Among these patients,there were 961 male cases(97. 46% )and 25 women cases(2. 53% ),the sex ratio was about 38:1. The average age was(46. 16 ± 11. 92). Distribution of professional,there were 285 cases(28. 9% )of farmers,337 cases(34. 2% )of workers,the two kinds of professional accounted for 63. 1% of hospitalized patients with mental disorders due to use of alcohol. The dependence

  12. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  13. Genetics and epidemiology of haematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensson, O.

    1980-01-01

    Two main types of hereditary haemolytic anaemias have been studied in Iceland for the last 20 years, hereditary elliptocytosis and hereditary spherocytosis. The findings as to the number of families involved and the individuals diagnosed and their ethnic orgin are summarized. Three families with hereditary elliptocytosis containing over 90 affected individuals have been examined more closely. The largest of these, with over 80 affected members, is Icelandic, another is of Algerian origin, and the third, which is currently under investigation for a gene for elliptocytosis, is from one of three possible sources, Icelandic, Danish or Eskimo.

  14. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  15. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  16. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  17. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    .5% in blood donors. Age-adjusted prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) among females was almost the same in students and blood donors (68.8% and 66.7%) but female workers had a lower prevalence of TTH (57%). Age-adjusted prevalence of TTH among males did not differ significantly between students and blood...... prevalence was high and differed markedly among the three social groups. It is important that headache epidemiology also focus on socially defined groups in order to target future preventive efforts.......BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...

  18. Investigation of epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders and their related factors%某地区功能性胃肠病流行病学及其相关因素调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小平; 陈建平; 张中平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in Changzhou, Jiangsu, in order to discuss their related factors. Methods 2323 cases of observation object were investigated by three-stage sampling method, and the different age, sex and psychological state and prevalence were compared. Results Among the residents surveyed, 54.5%were diagnosed with FGIDs. The prevalence of the complaints showed that functional dyspepsia (19.7%), irritable bowel syndrome (7.6%), functional bloating(9.4%), functional constipation(3.8%), functional diarrhea (9.2%), functional dyspepsia combined other gastroenteropathy (4.9%) ranked the highest in above order. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of different sex (P>0.05). There was significant difference in the prevalence of different age (P<0.05). The prevalence rate of FGID reached the peak in the people with age from 50 to 59 years (67.5%). There was significant difference in anxiety and depression between FGIDs and non-functional gastrointestinal disorders (χ2=17.562, 22.562, P<0.05). Conclusion In Changzhou of Jiangsu, patients of FGIDs in 50 to 59 years old are high-risk groups and unhealthy emotions have an effect on the disease.%目的:对江苏常州地区功能性胃肠病流行情况进行调查,以探讨其相关危险因素。方法以三级抽样法对常州2323例观察对象进行调查,并对不同年龄、性别、心理状态、患病情况进行比较。结果常州地区功能性胃肠病患病率54.5%,其中,功能性消化不良患者患病率19.7%,肠易激综合7.6%,功能性腹胀9.4%,功能性便秘3.8%,功能性腹泻9.2%,功能性消化不良合并其他胃肠病4.9%;不同性别间患病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);不同年龄间患病率具有统计学意义(P<0.05),以50~59岁年龄患病率为最高,为67.5%;功能性胃肠病与无功能性胃肠病者中,焦虑、

  19. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions.

  20. 西藏自治区四类常见神经精神障碍的流行病学调查%Epidemiological Survey on Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Tibet of China: Neuroses, Alcohol-related Disorders, Mental Retardation and Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘善明; 苏晓凡; 旺加; 次仁平措; 白玛卓嘎; 次普; 扎桑; 刘协和; 魏赓; 张伟; 向云; 黄晓琦; 杨闯; 黄文军; 谢维爵; 何侠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of four common neuropsychiatric disorders in Tibet, with an aim to providing information support to health planning. Methods The survey was carried out in four regions of Tibet. The sampling strategy was adapted from that of a national psychiatric epidemiological survey in China in 1982 and 1993. The Neurosis Screening Inventory, Screening Inventory for Alcohol Dependence and Related Problems, Child Intelligence Screening Inventory, and a questionnaire for the Detection of Epileptic Seizures were administered to the respondents through face to face interview. Those with a positive response and 10% of those with a negative response were further interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (research version) (SCID-1 ). Anxiety disorders and alcohol used disorders were diagnosed according to the American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) (DSM-IV). Hysteria and mental retardation were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD10), and the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition (CCMD-3). Results The point prevalence of neuroses, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation and epilepsy was 2. 56%, 4. 06%, 0. 28% and 0. 68%, respectively. The lifetime prevalence of neuroses, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation and epilepsy was 2. 62% , 4. 24% , 0. 28% and 0. 72% , respectively. Conclusion Alcohol-related disorders and neuroses are the two common mental health problems in Tibet. Mental retardation and epilepsy are the two serious neuropsychiatric disorders affecting Tibetan children and adolescence. These disorders should be identified as priorities in the reginonal health planning in Tibet.%目的 了解神经症、酒使用障碍、精神发育迟滞和癫痫这4类常见的神经精神障碍在西藏的流行情况,为政府制订卫生

  1. [Epidemiology and public policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita Barradas

    2013-03-01

    The present essay deals with the relation between epidemiology and public policies, highlighting the epidemiology position in the public health field, analyzing the impact of public policies over epidemiological profile and contributions from epidemiology to the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public health policies. In the first title, the essay debates the links between the epidemiology and public health field, the social determinants and political action framework proposed by the WHO's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, and different approaches of health policies. In the second title the essay analyses the reduction of child stunting in Brazil as an example of public policies that impact epidemiological profile. The third title presents three strategic topics for the application of public health policies: reduction of social inequalities in health, health promotion and regulation of products and services that have impact over health. The fourth title discusses the possibilities and difficulties to combine the epidemiological knowledge in the lay down, implementation and evaluation of public policies and, finally, material examples of such relation between epidemiology and public policies are presented.

  2. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  3. [Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, Gemma

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology of acromegaly in Spain does not differ from that reported in other published series. Prevalence rate is approximately 60 cases per million, peak incidence occurs in middle age, more women are affected (61%), and there is a substantial delay between occurrence of the first symptoms and diagnosis. Studies REA (Spanish Acromegaly Registry) and OASIS analyzed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of the disease in Spain. Surgery, performed in more than 80% of patients, has been (and continues to be) the main treatment for the past four decades. In the past decade, however, more patients have received somatostatin analogs (SSAs) as first-line treatment. Use of radiation therapy has significantly decreased in recent decades. Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are the most commonly used drugs, administered to 85% of patients; however, only 12%-15% continue on drug treatment alone. The surgical remission rate was 38.4% in the last decade, with a significant improvement over decades. Preoperative treatment with SSAs has no influence on surgical cure rates. Second-line therapies used after surgical failure in the past decade included SSAs in 49% of patients, repeat surgery in 27%, radiotherapy in 11%, pegvisomant in 15%, and dopamine agonists in 5%. Mean cost of acromegaly treatment was 9.668€ (data estimated in 2009 and adjusted in 2010), of which 71% was due to the cost of SSAs. Patients treated with pegvisomant have a more aggressive form of the disease and higher comorbidity rates.

  4. Premorbid adjustment and previous personality in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Rodríguez Solano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial adjustment and premorbid personality are two factors that are frequently studied in order to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Premorbid adjustment alterations and personality disorders (principally those of the schizophrenia spectrum have been considered vulnerability elements or have been linked with the early manifestations of a disease that is still underdeveloped (hypothesis of neurodevelopment. In this paper we review the literature. We also studied the relationship between premorbid adjustment (PAS scale and previous personality disorders (SCID-II in a sample of 40 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, CIE-10, and statistically correlated them. The results show that premorbid adjustment correlates with avoidant, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders: the more personality pathology found, the poorer is the premorbid psychosocial adjustment. Premorbid adjustment positively correlates with histrionic personality traits. The pathological traits of schizotypal and schizoid personalities account for up to 77% of the variance of the total premorbid adjustment in schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The degrees of premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia are related to the different premorbid personality disorders of schizophrenic patients, which are mainly those most genetically related with schizophrenia, that is, the spectrum of the schizophrenia.

  5. Fast adjustments of ongoing movements in spastic hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, E. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Hulstijn, W.

    2002-01-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of participants with spastic hemiparesis caused by cerebral palsy to adjust an ongoing movement. Typical symptoms associated with the disorder would lead one to expect that people with spastic hemiparesis would be unable to adjust their movements quickly and

  6. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  7. Estudo epidemiológico dos sintomas do transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade e transtornos de comportamento em escolares da rede pública de Florianópolis usando a EDAH Epidemiological study on symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavior Disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC using the EDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Schilling Poeta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH é uma patologia caracterizada por desatenção, hiperatividade e impulsividade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um estudo epidemiológico dos sintomas do transtorno do déficit de atenção e do transtorno de conduta em escolares da rede pública de Florianópolis usando a Escala para la evaluación del trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperatividad (EDAH. MÉTODOS: Fizeram parte do estudo 1.898 escolares (1.001 do sexo masculino e 897 do sexo feminino, matriculados em cinco escolas da rede pública de Florianópolis, de 1ª a 4ª série do ensino fundamental, com idades entre 6 e 12 anos. O instrumento utilizado foi a Escala de Farré e Narbona, preenchida pelos professores e pais, que classifica a criança com o predomínio dos sintomas de hiperatividade, déficit de atenção, transtorno de conduta,hiperatividade com déficit de atenção e TDAH associado com transtorno de conduta (global. RESULTADOS: Dentre os 1.898 escolares, 95 (5% apresentaram os sintomas do transtorno do déficit de atenção/hiperatividade associado ao transtorno de conduta. Em relação ao sexo, a freqüência foi maior nos meninos, na proporção de 3:1. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados encontrados nesta pesquisa corroboram os da literatura. A distribuição dos subtipos do TDAH por sexo é similar à informada na literatura.OBJECTIVE: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pathology characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The purpose of this article is to conduct an epidemiological study on symptoms of ADHA and behavior disorders in public schools of Florianopolis/SC. METHOD: The study involved 1.898 students (1.001 males and 897 females enrolled in five public schools of Florianópolis, from the 1st up to the 4th grades, aged 6 to 12. The instrument used was the EDAH, filled out by teachers and parents, which classifies children with predominance of the

  8. Welcome to epidemiology and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Youl

    2009-10-29

    The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.In 2009, the editorial board has decided to publish the journal in English to contribute internationally, and change the journal's name. The new name of the journal is 'Epidemiology and Health'.The abstract and full text of articles will be published as an open access online journal, which will be posted onto the homepage (http://www.e-epih.org/) in real time for anyone in the world to access free of charge. Our editorial policy is that 'Epidemiology and Health' is open to every researcher in fields related to epidemiology, regardless of membership, his or her major and nationality.Editorials, lectures, review papers, original articles, epidemic and case investigations, brief communications and letters will be published to generate active discussion through the journal along with the publication of the papers.'Epidemiology and Health' welcomes articles from various fields of epidemiology, such as 1) infectious diseases epidemiology, 2) chronic diseases epidemiology, 3) nutritional epidemiology, 4) clinical epidemiology, 5) pharmacoepidemiology, 6) genetic or molecular epidemiology, 7) social epidemiology, 8) environmental or occupational epidemiology, 9) epidemiological methods and biostatistics, 10) disease prevention and control, 11) health promotion and, 12) all other fields related to epidemiology.

  9. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies.

  10. 战后平民幸存者创伤后应激障碍的流行病学研究进展%Advances in epidemiological study of post-traumatic stress disorders among survivors of war trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥毓; 肖立宁; 黄文; 李兆申

    2012-01-01

    创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)是由暴露于生命威胁事件而产生的一种受迫害的感觉,其呈现出的三大特征性症候群包括侵害性症状、逃避症状及易于唤醒症状.关于PTSD流行病学研究的文献很多,但其结果因各自研究对象和评价方法的不同而有所差异.针对难民、迁徙人群及社区人群的研究受到对战争创伤的定义不同、样本选择的不同以及是否进行心理干预等因素的影响而存在较大差异.因此,对战争创伤或精神折磨后平民中PTSD的发病率尚无准确结论.目前针对PTSD的研究存在的不足:一是既往研究分析方法存在差异,不同研究小组间的统计结果也存在差异;现有研究均针对非西方种族及某些特定人群,采用的样本尚存在选择性偏倚.二是绝大多数研究未设置对照组,所得结果缺乏可靠性及通用性.三是战后PTSD的研究应重视国籍及文化背景的影响.PTSD流行病学研究领域还有大量工作要做,建立适合中国人群的简易PTSD筛查和测量工具,开展各类创伤性事件后PTSD发病率及其分布特征的调研,对于PTSD的有效防治具有重要意义.%Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a feeling of persecution arising from the exposure to a life-threatening event. PTSD shows three kinds of characteristic syndrome including invasive, evading, and easy-to-wake up syndromes. Numerous literature had been published on the study of the PTSD epidemiology. However, research results varied due to different research subjects and evaluation methods used. A big difference exists among studies on refugees, migrating people, and community population, because these studies are affected by different definition of war trauma, difference in choice of samples, and application of psychological intervention. Therefore, no exact conclusions have been established on the accurate incidence of PTSD in civilians after having endured the trauma of war or mental

  11. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  12. Examining the Relationship between Autistic Traits and College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  14. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  15. Epidemiology and treatment of mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon but aggressive opportunistic fungal infection that afflicts patients with severe underlying immunosuppression, uncontrolled hyperglycemia and/or ketoacidosis, patients with iron overload resulting from frequent blood transfusions or blood disorders and occasionally healthy patients who are inoculated with fungal spores through traumatic injuries. The clinical presentation of mucormycosis is initially indistinguishable from other common infections, and if not diagnosed early and aggressively treated, it is almost always fatal. In this article we summarize recent changes in the epidemiology of mucormycosis, discuss diagnostic and clinical clues suggestive of the infection and provide a general strategy for managing the infection in the absence of data from well-controlled, prospective clinical trials.

  16. [Hospital Infection Epidemiology Nederland (ZIEN): from club to study group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M; Kluytmans, J A; Voss, A

    1997-08-09

    Medical care is increasingly a technical business, and hospitalised patients are more and more susceptible to infections, notably due to the application of aggressive therapies for all kinds of disorders. As a consequence the epidemiology of hospital infections requires serious attention. Following the initiative of some medical microbiologists in the Netherlands, a study group was established to tackle this epidemiology and to initiate relevant research (Working party on Hospital Infections and Epidemiology of the Netherlands; WHEN). Recent subjects include fungemia in hospitalised patients, risk factors for acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during a stay abroad, and prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

  17. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  18. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  19. Redox Dysregulation in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Anita; Steullet, Pascal; Cabungcal, Jan-Harry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are classified as two distinct diseases. However, accumulating evidence shows that both disorders share genetic, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. Based on genetic and functional findings, redox dysregulation due...

  20. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  1. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  2. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  3. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  4. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  5. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, G A; Henningfield, J E; Tomar, S L; Escobedo, L G; Slade, J

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence can be used to guide research initiatives, intervention programs, and policy decisions. Both the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among US adults and black adolescents and the decline in per capita consumption are encouraging. These changes have probably been influenced by factors operating at the individual (e.g., school-based prevention programs and cessation programs) and environmental (e.g., mass media educational strategies, the presence of smoke-free laws and policies, and the price of tobacco products) levels (for a discussion of these factors, see, e.g., refs. 2, 48, 52, 183, and 184). The lack of progress among adolescents, especially whites and males, and the high risk for experimenters of developing tobacco dependence present cause for great concern (48, 183-186). In addition to those discussed above, several areas of research can be recommended. 1. Better understanding of the clustering of tobacco use with the use of other drugs, other risk behaviors, and other psychiatric disorders could better illuminate the causal processes involved, as well as the special features of the interventions needed to prevent and treat tobacco dependence. 2. To better understand population needs, trend analyses of prevalence, initiation, and cessation should, whenever possible, incorporate standardized measures of these other risk factors. Future research should compare the effect of socioeconomic status variables on measures of smoking behavior among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. 3. For reasons that may be genetic, environmental, or both, some persons do not progress beyond initial experimentation with tobacco use (2, 48, 183, 187-192), but about one-third to one-half of those who experiment with cigarettes become regular users (48, 193, 194). Factors, both individual and environmental, that can influence the susceptibility of individuals to tobacco dependence need further attention. 4. To

  6. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  7. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  8. Outpatient Mental Health and the Dual-Diagnosis Patient: Utilization of Services and Community Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lucy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Differences in service utilization and community adjustment between community mental health clients with and without substance abuse disorders were studied for 144 outpatients, 37 percent of whom had dual diagnoses (substance abuse and another disorder). The association of dual diagnosis with poor service use and adjustment is discussed. (SLD)

  9. National prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, R; Andersen, PS; Chivato, T; Valovirta, E; De Monchy, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: Many epidemiological studies have assessed the prevalence of respiratory allergic disorders in confined geographical locations. However, no study has yet established nationally prevalence data in a uniform manner representing whole countries and, thus, enabling cross-national comparisons

  10. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  11. The cross-national epidemiology of specific phobia in the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, K J; Lim, C C W; Al-Hamzawi, A O; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bunting, B; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Florescu, S E; Gureje, O; Hisateru, T; Hu, C; Huang, Y; Karam, E; Kiejna, A; Lepine, J P; Navarro-Mateu, F; Oakley Browne, M; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Ten Have, M L; Torres, Y; Xavier, M; Zarkov, Z; Kessler, R C; Scott, K M; de Jonge, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data

  12. Estimating the Epidemiology and Quantifying the Damages of Parental Separation in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Dolores; Fariña, Francisca; Corras, Tania; Novo, Mercedes; Arce, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Parental separation is linked to multiple negative outcomes for children in all spheres of life. A field study was designed to estimate the epidemiology and to quantify the outcomes on the wellbeing of children from separated parents. Thus, data on socio-economic status, psychological adjustment, behavioral disorders, social relations, self-concept, and academic achievement were gathered from 346 children and adolescents, 173 separated parents, and 173 parents from intact families in the paediatric catchment area of Galicia (Spain). The results showed that parental separation had a significant negative impact on the children’s and adolescents’ family income (increasing the probability of falling below the poverty line); psychological adjustment (i.e., higher scores in anxiety, depression, hostility, paranoid ideation, and interpersonal alienation); social relations (i.e., less self-control in social relations; higher social withdrawal); self-concept (lower levels of academic, emotional, physical, and family self-concept), and academic achievement (lower academic achievement with higher school dropout rates). Moreover, children from separated families had a higher probability of being exposed to gender violence. Epidemiologically, parental separation is associated to the probability of falling below the poverty line 33.9%; being exposed to gender violence 43.2%; and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoid ideation interpersonal alienation, and social withdrawal, i.e., 20, 17, 27, 20, 19, and 35.5%, respectively. Inversely, self-control in social relations, and academic, emotional, physical, and family self-concept fell to 16, 32, 27, 22, and 37%, respectively. The interrelationship among these variables and the implications of these results for interventions are discussed. PMID:27826265

  13. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  14. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  15. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  16. Tongue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  17. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  18. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  19. Molecular epidemiology of ascariasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Halstead, Fennella; Nejsum, Peter;

      We are using molecular epidemiology techniques to study the population structure of Ascaris obtained from humans and pigs. Worms were obtained from human hosts on Zanzibar and in Uganda, Bangladesh, Guatemala and Nepal and Ascaris from pigs were collected from in Uganda, Tanzania, Denmark...

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burisch, Johan; Munkholm, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, yet the reasons remain unknown. New therapeutic approaches have been introduced in medical IBD therapy, but their impact on the natural history of IBD remains uncertain. This review will summarize the recent findings in t...... in the epidemiology of IBD....

  1. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  2. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcourt, Cécile; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S

    2016-01-01

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000 Euro...

  3. Epidemiology of burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the epidemiology, treatment and outcomes of specialized burn care in The Netherlands. This thesis is mainly based on historical data of the burn centre in Rotterdam from 1986, combined with historical data from the burn centres in Groningen and Beverwijk from

  4. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-08-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies.

  5. Emotional Intelligence and Personality in Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie P. Lizeretti; María Vázquez Costa; Ana Gimeno-Bayón

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (AD) are by far the most frequent psychiatric disorders, and according to epidemiologic data their chronicity, comorbidities, and negative prognostic constitute a public health problem. This is why it is necessary to continue exploring the factors which contribute to the incidence, appearance, and maintenance of this set of disorders. The goal of this study has been to analyze the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and personality disorders (PersD) in ...

  6. 云浮市15岁以上人群焦虑障碍流行病学调查%Epidemiologic survey of anxiety disorders in community population aged 15 and older in Yunfu City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢冬艳; 郑洪波; 肖垚南; 张璐璐; 钟书铭

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解云浮市15岁以上人群焦虑障碍的患病率和分布特点。方法:采用分层整群随机抽样的方法,以美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版( DSM-IV)为诊断标准,用DSM-IV-TR轴I障碍用临床定式检查患者版( SCID-I/P)进行调查。结果:2373人完成调查,诊断为焦虑障碍有14例,粗时点患病率0.55%,粗终生患病率0.59%,该市检出的焦虑障碍包括广泛性焦虑障碍和未特定焦虑障碍。其中,焦虑障碍在失业/无业人群患病率高于在职人群。结论:焦虑障碍是云浮市常见的一类精神障碍,有必要针对其开展防治与康复研究工作。%Objective:To describe the prevalence and distribution of anxiety disorder among people aged above 15 in Yunfu city. Method:Elementary unit ratio stratified cluster randomized sampling method was used to investigate subjects in Yunfu city. The psychiatrists made diagnoses according to DSM-Ⅳcriteria after conducting structured clinical interview for DSM-IV -text revision-patient edition( SCID-I/P). Results:The screening collected 2 373 subjects,14 of whom were diagnosed as anxiety disorders. The overall lifetime and cur-rent prevalence of anxiety disorders were 0. 55% and 0. 59%. Generalized anxiety disorder and unspecified anx-iety disorder had been found in Yunfu city. The prevalence of anxiety disorder in unemployed group was higher than that of employed group. Conclusion:Anxiety disorders is a kind of common mental disorders in Yunfu city. It is necessary to carry out targeted research in prevention and rehabilitation.

  7. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  8. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  9. Spatial implications of covariate adjustment on patterns of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, Clive Eric; Wilson, Jeff Gaines; Kingham, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies that examine the relationship between environmental exposures and health often address other determinants of health that may influence the relationship being studied by adjusting for these factors as covariates. While disease surveillance methods routinely control for cova......Epidemiological studies that examine the relationship between environmental exposures and health often address other determinants of health that may influence the relationship being studied by adjusting for these factors as covariates. While disease surveillance methods routinely control......), then for a deprivation index, and finally for both PM10 and deprivation. Spatial patterns of risk, disease clusters and cold and hot spots were generated using a spatial scan statistic and a Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. In all disease groups tested (except the control disease), adjustment for chronic PM10 exposure...... area to a mixed residential/industrial area, possibly introducing new environmental exposures. Researchers should be aware of the potential spatial effects inherent in adjusting for covariates when considering study design and interpreting results. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, respiratory outcomes and atopy in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Seif O; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Lawlor, Debbie A; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies have investigated the role of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in the aetiology of childhood respiratory and atopic outcomes.In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children we examined associations of maternal gestational hypertension, hypertension before pregnancy and pre-eclampsia with wheezing at 18 months, wheezing and asthma at 7 years and lung function at 8-9 years, after controlling for potential confounders (n=5322-8734, depending on outcome).Gestational hypertension was not associated with any of the outcomes. There was weak evidence for a positive association between pre-eclampsia and early wheezing (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.94-1.82, compared to normotensive pregnancies) and for negative associations between pre-eclampsia and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (adjusted mean difference in sd score -0.14, 95% CI -0.33-0.06) and maximal mid-expiratory flow (-0.15, 95% CI -0.34-0.04). Hypertension before pregnancy was positively associated with wheezing (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.16-2.31) and asthma (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00-1.79).Gestational hypertension is unlikely to be a risk factor for childhood respiratory disorders; hypertension before pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood wheezing and asthma, but this finding needs replication. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether pre-eclampsia is associated with impaired childhood lung function.

  11. Genetic aspects and genetic epidemiology of parasomnias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Christer; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2003-10-01

    Parasomnias are undesirable phenomena associated with sleep. Many of them run in families, and genetic factors have been long suggested to be involved in their occurrence. This article reviews the present knowledge of the genetics of the major classical behavioral parasomnias as well as present results from genetic epidemiological studies. The level and type of evidence for genetic effects varies much from parasomnia to parasomnia. The genetic factors are best established in enuresis, with several linkages to chromosomal loci, but their functions are not so far known. Environmental causes and gene-environment interactions are most probably also of great importance in the origin of complex traits or disorders such as parasomnias.

  12. 厦门市18岁及以上人群精神障碍现况调查%Epidemiological survey of mental disorders in people aged 18 years and older in Xiamen city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文强; 丁丽君; 温程; 廖震华; 洪旭; 陈莹; 张锦黎; 蔡佳; 吴素英

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and distribution of all type of mental disorders among people aged 18 years and older in Xiamen City.Methods Using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling,12 071 subjects aged 18 years and older were identified in Xiamen City.The subjects were screed with the expanded version of GHQ-12 and classified as high,moderate or low risk of having a mental disorder based on the results.Different proportions of the three groups (100% of the high-,40% of the moderate-,10% of the low-risk) were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR,and made a determintation that whether they had mental disorder and specific diagnosis.Results A total of 10 764 subjects completed the screening,the completion was 89.17%.The 1-month overall prevalence of any mental disorder was 3.46% (95%CI:3.13%-3.82%),and the overall lifetime prevalence was 6.35% (95% CI:5.90%-6.83%).The prevalence rates of single disorders were as following:major depressive disorder (0.83%),dysthymic disorder (0.55%),anxiety disorder NOS (0.51%),mood disorder NOS (0.44%),mental retardation (0.40%).The prevalence was higher in rural than in urban (5.99% vs.2.79%) people,higher in Xiamen household register than non-Xiamen household register (4.19% vs.2.21%).higher in ones aged 40-54 years (4.55%) and aged 55 years and older (5.05%) than ones aged 18-39 years (2.30%).Among 226 subjects with a disorder,30.53% were moderately to severely affected due to the disorder,but only 9.30% had ever received any type of mental health treatment.Conclusions Major depressive disorder,dysthymic disorder,non-specific anxiety disorder,nonspecific mood disorder and mental retardation are the most mommon mental disorders in Xiamen.Persons in rural or ones aged 55 years and older or household register have higher prevalence rate.%目的 了解厦门市年龄≥18岁人群各类精神障碍的患病率及分布特点.方法 采用多阶段

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  14. 烟台市18岁及以上人群精神疾病流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey of mental disorders in adults aged 18 years and above in Yantai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶东; 赵军; 李爱华; 郭淑凤; 李涛; 董洪波; 刘丰团; 张桂铭; 邹旭明; 高吉竹; 高世伟; 范圣祝

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and distribution of mental disorders in adults aged 18 years and above in Yantai city. Methods Multistage stratified cluster randomization was used to identify 4800 individuals aged 18 years and above in4 neighborhood committees (randomly selected from 2 sub-districts in 1 urban districts) and 12 rural villages ( randomly selected from 6 rural townships in 3 counties). Subjects were classified as high, moderate or low risk of having a mental disorder based on an expanded version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) administered by psychiatric nurses, and then were diagnosed by psychiatrists by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results Among 4458 who completed the screening, the current prevalence of mental disorder was 18. 57% and the top three were mood disorder (6. 84% ), anxiety disorder (5. 59% ), alcohol use disorder (5.41% ). The prevalence of mental disorders was significantly higher in males than that in females ( 21. 80% vs. 16. 18% , P (DSM-IV)轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查患者版对不同比例的高、中和低危人群进行调查,做出有无精神障碍及具体诊断.结果:完成调查4458人,调整后精神障碍总的现患率(最近一个月)为18.57%.心境障碍(6.84%)、焦虑障碍(5.59%)和酒精使用障碍(5.41%)分列前三位.男性精神障碍现患率明显高于女性(21.80%vs 16.18%,P<0.01).农村精神障碍的现患率明显高于城市(19.58%vs 14.92%,P<0.01).结论:烟台市精神疾病的患病率较高,心境障碍、焦虑障碍和酒精使用障碍已成为突出的公共卫生问题.

  15. ICU脓毒症患者合并意识障碍的流行病学研究%Epidemiologic study of consciousness disorder in sepsis patients in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鸿雁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the causes, clinical features, risk factors and outcome of sepsis patients with consciousness disorder. Methods A retrospective study including 232 sepsis patients from 2008 to 2011 was conducted in our ICU. The baseline data of patients, the causes for consciousness disorder, vital signs, biochemical indicators, risk factors and outcome were analyzed in the study. Results The incidence of consciousness disorder in sepsis was 47. 4%. The causes led to consciousness disorder were internal environment disorder encephalopathy (41. 8%) , sepsis - related encephalopathy( 37. 3% ) , pancreatic encephalopathy (11. 8% ) , hepatic encephalopathy (3. 6% ) , uremia - related encephalopathy(0. 9% ) , cerebral hemorrhage( 1. 8% ) , cerebral infarction(0. 9% ) , alcohol encephalopathy ( 0. 9% ) and immune - related encephalopathy ( 0. 9% ) . The main clinical feature was inhibition performance(77/110). APACHE II score and mortality rate were obviously higher in consciousness disorder group than in normal consciousness group. Conclusion The main causes for consciousness disorder in sepsis are internal environment disorder and sepsis - related encephalopathy. Disorder of consciousness increases the mortality rate of sepsis patients, and APACHE II score is the only risk factor.%目的 探讨脓毒症患者合并意识障碍的原因、临床表现、危险因素及预后.方法 回顾性分析2008~2011年大庆油田总医院ICU收治的232例严重脓毒症患者的临床资料,分析其合并意识障碍的原因、临床表现、危险因素及预后.结果 脓毒症患者出现意识障碍的发生率为47.4%,原因分别为内环境紊乱性脑病(41.8%)、脓毒性脑病(37.3%)、胰性脑病(11.8%)、肝性脑病(3.6%)、尿毒症相关性脑病(0.9%)、脑出血(1.8%)、脑梗死(0.9%)、酒精性脑病(0.9%)、免疫相关性脑病(SLE脑病)(0.9%).意识障碍的临床表现以抑制症状表现为主(77/110).脓毒症合并意识障碍组与非意

  16. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies.

  17. 浦东新区社区老人焦虑障碍流行病学特征调查分析%Epidemiological characteristics of anxiety disorders in elderly in Pudong New District, Shanghai: A community-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿正万; 闵婕; 刘旻佳; 陆伟; 秦虹云; 裴瑜; 王红; 杨振东; 江琦; 袁杰; 秦金; 唐强; 卢瑛; 孙一颖; 奚玥

    2011-01-01

    目的 开展老年焦虑障碍流行病学调查,观察其患病率及其易感因素,为防治疾病提供重要依据.方法 随机抽样调查浦东新区43 个村(居)委会在册常住3311 例老人,应用美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4 版(DSM-Ⅳ)轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查患者版"SCID-Ⅰ/P"诊断工具进行调查.结果 焦虑障碍时点患病率为2.57%(85/3311),其中广泛性焦虑最高(1.27%),且城市(1.54%)高于农村(0.72%).男性为2.51%,女性为2.59%.该疾病与家庭居住条件差、患躯体疾病、家庭经济困难及遭遇明显精神压力等易感因素关系密切.患者的诊治率很低(9.41%).结论 老年焦虑障碍患病有逐年增高趋势,预防易感因素有利于降低其发生发展.%Objective To observe the prevalence and risk factors of anxiety disorders in elderly in community setting to provide countermeasures for this disorder. Methods In Pudong New Area, 3311 elderly residents were randomly selected in 43 villages ( neighhorhood ) , it was applied with United States Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition ( DSMlV ) Axis Ⅰ Disorders-style version of the clinical examination of patients ( SCID- I /P) diagnostic tool for investigation . Results The point prevalence of anxiety disorders was 2. 57% ( 85 cases) , generalized anxiety was the highest ( 1. 27% ) and was higher( 1. 54% )in urban than rural ( 0. 72% ). It was 2. 51% of male, 2. 59% of women. The disease was associated with a poor family living condition. suffering from physical illness , family financial difficulties and suffered significant mental stress . The patients to be diagnosed and treated were very low (9. 41% ) . Conclusions Prevalence of anxiety disorders are increasing year by year in elderly,the prevention of the risk factors helps to reduce the occurrence and development of the disease.

  18. Epigenetic epidemiology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Timothy M; Michels, Karin B

    2014-12-05

    Epigenetic epidemiology includes the study of variation in epigenetic traits and the risk of disease in populations. Its application to the field of cancer has provided insight into how lifestyle and environmental factors influence the epigenome and how epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has the potential to bring benefit to patients through the identification of diagnostic markers that enable the early detection of disease and prognostic markers that can inform upon appropriate treatment strategies. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the conduct of such studies, and with the identification of biomarkers that can be applied to the clinical setting. In this review, we delineate the challenges faced in the design of epigenetic epidemiology studies in cancer, including the suitability of blood as a surrogate tissue and the capture of genome-wide DNA methylation. We describe how epigenetic epidemiology has brought insight into risk factors associated with lung, breast, colorectal and bladder cancer and review relevant research. We discuss recent findings on the identification of epigenetic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for these cancers.

  19. [Air pollution and the lung: epidemiological approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Dab, William

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence has concurred with clinical and experimental evidence to correlate current levels of ambient air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, with respiratory effects. In this respect, the use of specific epidemiological methods has been crucial. Common outdoor pollutants are particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and ozone. Short-term effects of outdoor air pollution include changes in lung function, respiratory symptoms and mortality due to respiratory causes. Increase in the use of health care resources has also been associated with short-term effects of air pollution. Long-term effects of cumulated exposure to urban air pollution include lung growth impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and probably the development of asthma and allergies. Lung cancer and COPD have been related to a shorter life expectancy. Common indoor pollutants are environmental tobacco smoke, particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds and biological allergens. Concentrations of these pollutants can be many times higher indoors than outdoors. Indoor air pollution may increase the risk of irritation phenomena, allergic sensitisation, acute and chronic respiratory disorders and lung function impairment. Recent conservative estimates have shown that 1.5-2 million deaths per year worldwide could be attributed to indoor air pollution. Further epidemiological research is necessary to better evaluate the respiratory health effects of air pollution and to implement protective programmes for public health.

  20. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  1. Women, anxiety and mood: a review of nomenclature, comorbidity and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Kotz, Krista; Richardson, Gregg

    2007-11-01

    Women experience a high prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders is highly prevalent. Both mood and anxiety disorders disturb sleep, attention and, thereby, cognitive function. They result in a variety of somatic complaints. The mood disorder continuum includes minor depression, dysthymia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Chronobiological disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder as well as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, occur in some women, with comorbid seasonal affective disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in just under half of these individuals [1] . Early life experience, heritability, gender, other psychiatric illness, stress and trauma all interact dynamically in the development of mood and anxiety disorders. The epidemiology, nomenclature and clinical diagnostic issues of these illnesses in midlife woman are reviewed.

  2. Introduction to the use of regression models in epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Regression modeling is one of the most important statistical techniques used in analytical epidemiology. By means of regression models the effect of one or several explanatory variables (e.g., exposures, subject characteristics, risk factors) on a response variable such as mortality or cancer can be investigated. From multiple regression models, adjusted effect estimates can be obtained that take the effect of potential confounders into account. Regression methods can be applied in all epidemiologic study designs so that they represent a universal tool for data analysis in epidemiology. Different kinds of regression models have been developed in dependence on the measurement scale of the response variable and the study design. The most important methods are linear regression for continuous outcomes, logistic regression for binary outcomes, Cox regression for time-to-event data, and Poisson regression for frequencies and rates. This chapter provides a nontechnical introduction to these regression models with illustrating examples from cancer research.

  3. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in

  4. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of impulse control disorders in patients with movement disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre, Tiago A.; Strafella, Antonio P.; Thomsen, Teri; Voon, Valerie; Miyasaki, Janis

    2013-01-01

    Impulse control disorders are a psychiatric condition characterized by the failure to resist an impulsive act or behavior that may be harmful to self or others. In movement disorders, impulse control disorders are associated with dopaminergic treatment, notably dopamine agonists (DAs). Impulse control disorders have been studied extensively in Parkinson’s disease, but are also recognized in restless leg syndrome and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes. Epidemiological studies suggest younger age,...

  6. Epidemiology and genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjore Reena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a heart muscle disorder and is known to be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Mutations in several sarcomeric, cytoskeletal and mitochondrial genes have been reported in HCM. Though many cases of HCM are being identified, there is limited data regarding the epidemiology and genetics of HCM in India. Aim: Therefore the present study is envisaged at identifying the epidemiological variables in HCM and fitting a probability model assuming dominant mode of inheritance in HCM, which may in turn shed light on the heterogeneity of this complex disorder. Materials AND Methods: The 127 HCM cases were divided into subtypes based on pattern of hypertrophy. Chi square analysis, odds ratio, probability, relative frequency, penetrance and heritability estimates were calculated apart from epidemiological variables. Results: The HCM subtypes revealed the heterogeneous nature of the condition suggesting that the genes/mutations involved in their pathogenesis are different and this is supported by distinctive differences observed in their probability, heritability and penetrance estimates apart from epidemiological variables. An increased male preponderance was observed with the sex ratio being 3.7:1. The age at onset was found to be more than a decade early in familial cases (30 ± 10 yrs compared to non familial cases (44 ± 14 yrs. Chi square analysis revealed obstructive HCM to be following autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where as non-obstructive HCM was significantly deviating. The level of deviation was significantly high for the middle onset group compared to early and late onset groups, therefore this group may be considered as an admixture wherein genes/gene modifiers and environmental variables may be contributing to the heterogeneity and this is further supported by odds ratio. Conclusions: The study thus brings out the complexity of HCM and suggests that modes of inheritance other than

  7. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  8. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes. As a re......Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes....... As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  9. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  10. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  11. Enhancing Anticipatory Postural Adjustments: A Novel Approach to Balance Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Balance impairment is common in individuals with neurological disorders and older adults and is a major cause of falls in these populations. Evidence on the effectiveness of conventional interventions for balance restoration is limited. We describe a novel approach to balance rehabilitation that is based on enhancing anticipatory postural adjustments.

  12. Validity of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D scale in a sample of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R Quiñones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Optimal depression screening necessitates measurement tools that are valid across varied populations and in the presence of comorbidities. Methods: This study assessed the test properties of two versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale against psychiatric diagnoses established by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview among a clinical sample of US Veterans deployed during Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn. Participants (N = 359 recruited from two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals completed a clinical interview, structured diagnostic interview, and self-reported measures. Results: Based on diagnostic interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, 29.5% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder and 26.5% met diagnostic criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Both Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scales performed well and almost identically against the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-major depressive disorder in identifying Veterans with major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve 91%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 area under the ROC curve 90%. Overall, higher cut points for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales performed better in correctly identifying true positives and true negatives for major depressive disorder (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-20 cut point 18+ sensitivity 92% specificity 72%; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 cut point 10+ sensitivity 92% specificity 69%. Conclusions: The specificity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scales was poor among Veterans with co-occurring post-traumatic stress disorder (13% and 16%. Veterans with post

  13. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  14. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natthawut Kaewpitoon; Soraya Jatesadapattaya Kaewpitoon; Chutikan Philasri; Ratana Leksomboon; Chanvit Maneenin; Samaporn Sirilaph; Prasit Pengsaa

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species,and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology,Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health,Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998.In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket,Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas.

  15. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study: study design and data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsert, R. de; Heijer, M. den; Rabelink, T.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, J.A.; Jukema, J.W.; Roos, A. de; Cobbaert, C.M.; Kloppenburg, M.; Cessie, S. le; Middeldorp, S.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for many chronic diseases. Incomplete insight exists in the causal pathways responsible for obesity-related disorders and consequently, in the identification of obese individuals at risk of these disorders. The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study

  16. Epidemiology of Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katharine A

    2016-11-01

    Brain tumors are the commonest solid tumor in children, leading to significant cancer-related mortality. Several hereditary syndromes associated with brain tumors are nonfamilial. Ionizing radiation is a well-recognized risk factor for brain tumors. Several industrial exposures have been evaluated for a causal association with brain tumor formation but the results are inconclusive. A casual association between the common mutagens of tobacco, alcohol, or dietary factors has not yet been established. There is no clear evidence that the incidence of brain tumors has changed over time. This article presents the descriptive epidemiology of the commonest brain tumors of children and adults.

  17. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    : 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence...... thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact...

  18. Epidemiologia social Social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da emergência da epidemiologia social concomitantemente ao surgimento da epidemiologia como disciplina científica, destacando as condições teóricas e epistemológicas desse aparecimento. Em seguida são enfocadas as razões para o declínio dessa abordagem, assim como para seu ressurgimento na década de 60, no século XX. São apresentadas as diferentes correntes teóricas atualmente vigentes na epidemiologia social, destacando as características gerais e as limitações de cada uma delas. Especial atenção é dada às seguintes formulações: a eco-epidemiologia proposta por Mervin Susser, a teoria do capital social, a perspectiva do curso de vida, a teoria da produção social da doença e a teoria ecosocial elaborada por Nancy Krieger. O panorama traçado pretende demonstrar a vitalidade dessa abordagem, bem como indicar a diversidade de aspectos em seu interior. Para finalizar são apontados alguns dilemas e desafios.This paper reviews the latest trends in social epidemiology. It analyzes the emergence of epidemiology as a scientific discipline in the nineteenth century focusing on the main characteristics of the episteme of the period. This paper also analyzes the decline of the social approach in the beginning of the twentieth century and the resurgence of social interest in the sixties. The multiple approaches of social epidemiology currently adopted are commented. The study also emphasizes Susser's proposal of ecoepidemiology, describing its characteristics and pointing out limitations. Next, there is a discussion of the social capital theory and its potentialities for epidemiological studies. The life course perspective is also analyzed, mentioning its psychological and material versions. Latin America's social production of the health and disease process is presented along with an overview of Nancy Krieger's social ecoepidemiology. Finally, some dilemmas and challenges for the future are presented.

  19. Epidemiological Approaches to Metal Toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    to their propensity to cause chronic or delayed toxicity, epidemiological studies of metal toxicity have focused on a wide variety of organ systems, subtle effects as well as mortality, and differences in susceptibility. Toxic metals often serve as paradigms of environmental and occupational toxicity....... For these reasons, this chapter highlights the fields within epidemiology that are most relevant to toxic metals and discusses where these substances serve to illustrate important epidemiological concepts. Chapter sections include subjects such as epidemiological terms, study design, study population, exposure...

  20. 新疆库尔勒市全国第五次结核病流调点受检者疾病统计分析%Fifth National Tuberculosis Epidemiological Survey-Client’s Disease Statistical Analysis of Peacock Area Flow Adjustment Point in Xinjiang Kuerle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 刘建农

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To complete the fifth time tuberculosis epidemiology sample investigation. Method:Makes the sternum after the patients screens the doubtful pulmonary tuberculosis patient.Result:Absorbs the piece,to be quickly accurate,to be reliable,to need phlegm examining to provide the basis.Conclusion:Screens pulmonary tuberculosis and other related illness directly with the sternum,the effect nature is obviously superior.%  目的:配合国家完成第五次对结核病流行病学抽样调查。方法:对受检者拍胸片后筛选出疑似肺结核患者做痰检。结果:摄片快捷、准确、可靠,为需痰检者提供依据。结论:用胸片直接筛选出肺结核及其他相关疾患,效显质优。

  1. The broad autism phenotype: findings from an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N; Chakrabarti, S; Fombonne, E

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if relatives of children with autism and less severe pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have higher rates of various components of the broad autistic phenotype. Psychiatric and medical disorders were investigated. Parents of children with PDDs were selected from an epidemiological survey and compared with parents of control children with non-autistic developmental problems. Rates of abnormalities and disorders were compared in relatives of 79 cases and 61 controls. Medical and autoimmune disorders in both groups were endorsed by few relatives. Specific developmental disorders were commoner in parents of controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly more prevalent in mothers of children with PDDs. Significantly more PDD children had at least one first-degree relative with anxiety and one second-degree relative with OCD. PDDs were commoner in first-degree relatives. The implications of the findings for the definition of the broad phenotype of autism are discussed.

  2. Sibling number and prevalence of allergic disorders in pregnant Japanese women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakawa Masashi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an inverse relationship between number of siblings and likelihood of allergic disorders has been shown in many epidemiological studies, the biological mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been identified. There is no epidemiological research regarding the sibling effect on allergic disorders in Japanese adults. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between number of siblings and prevalence of allergic disorders among adult women in Japan. Methods Subjects were 1745 pregnant women. This study was based on questionnaire data. The definitions of wheeze and asthma were based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas those of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis were based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis, household income, and education. Results The prevalence values of wheeze, asthma, eczema, and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past 12 months were 10.4%, 5.5%, 13.0%, and 25.9%, respectively. A significant inverse exposure-response relationship was observed between the number of older siblings and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not wheeze, asthma, or eczema (P for trend = 0.03; however, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for having 2 or more older siblings was not significant although the adjusted OR for having 1 older sibling was statistically significant (adjusted OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.56-0.91]. Number of total siblings and number of younger siblings were not related to wheeze, asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. Conclusions This study found a significant inverse relationship between the number of older siblings and the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis among pregnant Japanese women. Our findings are likely to support the intrauterine programming

  3. Epidemiological Survey of Affective Disorder in Xi'an Community%西安市社区居民情感障碍的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石锦娟; 陈晓莉; 王波; 黄悦勤; 刘肇瑞; 闫永平

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨西安市社区居民情感障碍的发生情况及其影响因素。方法:采用随机抽样方法抽取西安市≥16岁的2447人,应用中文版计算机辅助复合性国际诊断交谈检查表3.0(CIDI-3.0 CAPI)作为访谈工具进行流行病学调查,调查情感障碍的患病率,分析相关因素以及与自杀的关系。结果:西安市社区居民情感障碍的30天患病率为0.57%,12个月患病率是2.37%,终生患病率是4.33%,单因素和多因素分析显示离异/分居/丧偶是情感障碍的危险因素(χ2=21.052,P=0.000)。情感障碍患者具有自杀计划(χ2=29.166,P=0.000)和自杀行为(χ2=45.377,P=0.000)的危险。结论:西安市社区居民情感障碍的患病率与国内其他研究结果相近,显著低于国外的患病率,离异/分居/丧偶人群具有较高的患病风险,对情感障碍患者采取及时有效的干预对自杀的预防具有重要意义。%Objective:To investigate the prevalence of affective disorder in Xi'an city.Methods:A representative sample of the Xi'an general population composed of 2447 individuals aged 16 years and ol-der was selected randomly by the method of probability proportional to size (PPS),and interviewed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0(CIDI 3.0).The prevalence of affective disorder was investigated .the relative factors and its relationship with suicide were also analyzed.Results:The 30-day prevalence of affective disorder was 0.57%,the 12-month preva-lence was 2.37%,and the lifetime prevalence was 4.33%.The results of the single factor analysis and multifactor analysis showed that persons who divorced , limited divorced or lost ones'spouse , were more vulnerable to depression (χ2 =21.052,P=0.000).Affective disorder was a risk factor for suicidal plan (χ2 =29.166,P=0.000)and suicidal behavior (χ2 =45.377,P=0

  4. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  5. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  6. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  7. Molecular Epidemiology and its Role in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeong Yeh Lee

    2016-01-01

    The primary deifnition of translational medicine is to develop new clinical therapeutic methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases by the therapeutic mechanism and new pathological cognition obtained in laboratory. Since the 21st century, most developed countries worldwide have made great adjustment in the strategies of translational medicine, but so far, only a few basic research results have been successfully translated into clinical practice. Research of translational medicine requires the team work of interdisciplinary groups, including medical experts, molecular biologists, and epidemiologists. With the rapid development of biological techniques and extensive application of molecular biology, epidemiology has become a real interdisciplinary discipline from conventional population survey, and stepped into genetic and molecular era, an era of molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology not only provides research ifndings to translational medicine, but also bridges between basic science and medical research, so as to improve the effective translation of basic scientiifc results. This article, focusing on molecular epidemiology and translational medicine, mainly summarized the history and current status of translational medicine and emphatically interpreted the importance of molecular epidemiology to translational medicine.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology and its Role in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Lee Yeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary definition of translational medicine is to develop new clinical therapeutic methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of diseases by the therapeutic mechanism and new pathological cognition obtained in laboratory. Since the 21st century, most developed countries worldwide have made great adjustment in the strategies of translational medicine, but so far, only a few basic research results have been successfully translated into clinical practice. Research of translational medicine requires the team work of interdisciplinary groups, including medical experts, molecular biologists, and epidemiologists. With the rapid development of biological techniques and extensive application of molecular biology, epidemiology has become a real interdisciplinary discipline from conventional population survey, and stepped into genetic and molecular era, an era of molecular epidemiology. Molecular epidemiology not only provides research findings to translational medicine, but also bridges between basic science and medical research, so as to improve the effective translation of basic scientific results. This article, focusing on molecular epidemiology and translational medicine, mainly summarized the history and current status of translational medicine and emphatically interpreted the importance of molecular epidemiology to translational medicine.

  9. 桂林市≥15岁城乡居民精神疾病流行病学调查%EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF MENTAL DISORDERS IN URBAN AND RURAL IN GUILIN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶领钢; 黄峰; 周云; 李启斌; 梁皓明; 李广林; 韦红日; 周丽君; 冯启明

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of mental disorders among people aged more than 15 in urban and rural in Guilin. Methods:From July,2007 to December,2007,4 410 subjects aged more than 15 were randomly selected for 3 urban areas and 3 counties by stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects were investigated by face to face interview. The Chinese version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI3. 0) Provided by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was used as the screening tool and the diagnoses were made with the 10th edition of international classfication of Disease Criternia. Results: A total of 3 783 subjects completed the screening, the completion rate was 85.78%. The general point prevalence was 2. 54%, and the general lifetime prevalence was 2. 96%. Ordered by lifetime prevalence rate, the most common specific disorders were major Schizophrenia (0.93%), alcohol dependence disorder(0. 90%) and depression disorder(0. 66%). The general lifetime prevalence was 3. 03% in urban and 2. 93% in rural ( P =0. 867) ,3. 56% in men and 2. 40% in women ( P = 0.037),and 6. 15% in Zhuang and 2.63% in Han( P =0.000). Conclusion: Schizophrenia, alcohol dependence disorder and depression disorder are the most common mental disorders and have become the public health problem in Guilin. To do this ,it is necessary to carry out targeted research in prevention and rehabilitation.%目的:了解桂林市≥15岁城乡居民各类精神疾病的患病水平和分布特征.方法:2007年7~12月采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法随机抽取桂林3个城区和3个县4 410名≥15岁的居民为调查对象进行入户调查.以中国疾病预防控制中心精神卫生中心提供的中文版的复合性国际诊断问卷(CIDI3.0)为筛查工具,以国际疾病及相关健康问题分类第10版(ICD-10)为诊断标准.结果:完成调查3 783人,调查完成率为85.78%.精神疾病总时点患病率和

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON THE MENTAL DISORDERS IN RURAL IN GUANGXI ZHUANG AUTONOMOUS REGION%广西壮族自治区农村地区精神疾病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦波; 陈娜萦; 陈发钦; 黎火佳; 冯启明; 陈强; 潘润德; 陈秋明; 黄国光; 唐峥华; 唐海宁; 苏莉

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the prevalence and distribution of mental disordens among people aged more than 15 in rural in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. [Methods] From July 2007 to December 2007 , 13 910 subjects aged more than 15 were randomly selected for 10 counties by stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects were investigated by face to face interview. The Chinese version of Composite Intemational Diagnostic Interview (CID13.0) Provided by the Chinese Center for Disease Control And Prevention was used aa the screening tool and the diagnoses were made with the lOth edition of intemational clasaificarion of Disease Criteria. [Results] 11 191 subjects completed the screening, the Completion rate was 80.45‰. The general point prevalence was 23.77‰ and the general lifetime prevalence was 26.81‰ in rural in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Ordered by lifetime prevalence rate, the most common specifiC disorders were major Schizophrenia (9.20‰). Alcohol dependence disorder (6.17‰) and Depression disorder (5.27‰). The general lifetime prevalence was lower in female (21.30‰) than in male (31.85‰) , and the result showed significant difference (RR=0.68, 95%Cl = 0.53- 0.84, P = 0.001). The general lifetime prevalence was higher in Zhuang (33.45‰) than in Han (21.84‰) , and the result showed significant difference (RR=1.56, 95%Cl =1.21-2.01, P = 0.001). The prevalence of depression disordera was higher in 55-64 age group and divorce people, and the 25-34 age group and the unmarried people were with high-risk population prevalence of schizophrenia, and the prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder in 25-34 age group, 65-74 age group and Primary education level and below crowds were higher than others. [ Conclusion] Schizophrenia, alcohol dependence disorder, depression disorder are the most common mental disorders, and targeted research of prevention and rehabilitation should be carried out.%[目的]

  11. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  12. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  13. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  14. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention.

  15. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  16. Overview of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders for Mental Health Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Margaret E.; Gibbard, W. Benton

    2003-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), including Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and related disorders such as Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) are the most common form of developmental disability and birth defects in the western world. Early recognition and accurate diagnosis by mental health professionals remains a key issue. This article reviews history, mechanisms of alcohol exposure, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of FASD.

  17. 成人注意力缺陷/多动障碍的流行病学研究和药物治疗进展%Epidemiology and Pharmacotherapy of Adult Attention Deifcit/Hyperactivity Disorder:Current Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘治军

    2012-01-01

    注意力缺陷/多动障碍(attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)是儿童常见的神经发育异常疾病,大多数儿童期ADHD将持续带入到成人期。2012年由美国精神病学协会颁布的DSM-5首次给出了成人ADHD的诊断,规范了成人ADHD的治疗。目前主要的治疗药物包括哌甲酯、苯丙胺类神经兴奋剂类、托莫西汀、安非他酮和三环类抗抑郁药等非兴奋剂类,其它药物如文拉法辛、瑞波西汀、莫达非尼、奥卡西平、普萘洛尔等也被尝试用于治疗成人ADHD,并取得一定疗效。%Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)is the most frequently diagnosed neuro-developmental disorder in children and most of the children ADHD cases can persist to adulthood. The DSM-5 developed and published by American Psychiatric Association(APA)at 2012 firstly gives the more appropriate diagnosis criteria and regulates pharmacotherapies for adult ADHD. The currently used medications include neural stimulants(e.g. methylphenidate and amphetamines)and non-stimulants(e.g. atomoxetine,buproprion and tricyclic antidepressants). Other medications such as venlafaxine,reboxetine,modafinil,oxcarbazepine and propranolol are also tried to treat adult ADHD and showed a certain effects.

  18. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field.

  19. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  20. Epidemiology of infections in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Jan M H; Risser, William L; Risser, Amanda L

    2008-12-01

    This article describes the epidemiologic profiles of sexually transmitted infections seen in US women. We present a brief description of the infectious agent, describe the epidemiology of the infection among women in terms of race/ethnicity and age (if those data are available), and present what is known about the behavioral risk factors associated with acquisition.

  1. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conduct disorder is often linked to attention-deficit disorder . Conduct disorder also can be an early sign of ... child or teen has a history of conduct disorder behaviors. A physical examination and blood tests can help ...

  2. Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recent significant stress or emotional trauma Being female — women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders Having ...

  3. Psychotic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychotic disorders are severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch ... is not there. Schizophrenia is one type of psychotic disorder. People with bipolar disorder may also have ...

  4. Parasomnias: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Laurel; Garcia, John

    2002-01-01

    The category of common sleep disorders known as parasomnias includes disorders of arousal, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), nocturnal seizures, rhythmic movement disorder, and tooth grinding or 'bruxism'. Parasomnias are all characterised as undesirable physical or behavioural phenomena occurring during the sleep period. Although these conditions can be distressing and, in some cases, hazardous to the sleeper and his or her bed partner, it is important to recognise that parasomnias are diagnosable and treatable in the vast majority of patients. Evaluation begins with a careful clinical interview with the sleeper and a family member to elucidate the frequency, duration, description and timing after sleep onset of these behavioural events. Disorders of arousal are the most common type of parasomnia and cover a spectrum from calm sleepwalking to emotionally agitated or complex behaviours, such as dressing or driving, for which the patient usually has no memory upon awaking. 'Sleep terrors' are quite common in young children and are often outgrown. Disorders of arousal represent a partial, as opposed to a full, awakening from deep non-REM sleep, typically occurring within the first 60 to 90 minutes after sleep onset. RBD is characterised clinically by a history of dream-enacting behaviour, and the patient may recall dream content. REM sleep periods typically occur in the latter half of the night. Physiologically, RBD results from a lack of the normal muscle atonia that is associated with REM sleep. RBD has been linked to a number of other neurological conditions; thus, a careful review of systems and a physical examination are crucial. A formal laboratory sleep study or polysomnogram with an expanded electroencephalographic montage can help distinguish among non-REM and REM parasomnias and nocturnal seizures. The latter may manifest clinically as arousals from sleep associated with vocalisation and/or complex behaviours. Rhythmic movement

  5. 深圳市小学儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍流行病学调查%An epidemiological survey of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-age children in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周克英; 文飞球; 高美好; 杨春何; 张佳楠; 陈言钊; 宋金枝; 庄艳云; 张小园; 张蔚

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查深圳市小学儿童注意力缺陷多动障碍(ADHD)的患病情况和行为问题.方法 采用Conners行为量表对深圳市小学1~6年级10553名学生的家长、教师进行问卷调查,对经问卷调查为ADHD行为阳性的儿童进一步采用美国精神病学会的精神障碍诊断和统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)进行诊断.结果 家长问卷和教师问卷均填写完整、合格的为8193份.纳入研究对象年龄为7 ~13岁.由家长问卷量表得到ADHD行为发生率为7.60%,由教师问卷量表得到ADHD行为发生率为5.59%.依据DSM-Ⅳ诊断ADHD442例,总患病率为5.39%;7~13岁各年龄组间患病率差异有统计学意义(x2=21.613,P<0.05),其中7~9岁各年龄组患病率较高,均在6%以上;男童患病率显著高于女童(6.65% vs 3.12%,P<0.05).冲动多动问题(79.6%)、学习问题(60.6%)和品行问题(52.0%)是ADHD儿童较突出的行为问题,其中女童学习问题显著高于男童(83.5% vs54.7%,P<0.01).结论 深圳市小学儿童ADHD患病率为5.39%,其中7~9岁儿童患病率较高;男童患病率显著高于女童;冲动多动问题、学习问题和品行问题是ADHD儿童常见的行为问题.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and behavior problems among school-age children in Shenzhen City of Guangdong. Methods A total of 10553 students in Grades 1-6 from different primary schools in Shenzhen City were assessed by Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire ( PSQ) and Conners Teacher Rating Scale ( TRS). Children showing abnormalities according to PSQ or TRS were further assessed according to the diagnostic standard for ADHD as laid out in the diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders- 4th edition (DSM-FV). Results A total of 8193 PSQ and TRS assessments were completed. The children were aged from 7 to 13 years. The total prevalence rate was 7. 60% by PSQ and 5. 59 % by TRS. Four

  6. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  7. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. Methods: We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results: Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. Conclusion: The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men. PMID:27383512

  8. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.

  9. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend

  10. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  11. Epidemiology of Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J White

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the epidemiology of Lyme disease depends upon information generated from several sources. Human disease surveillance can be conducted by both passive and active means involving physicians, public health agencies and laboratories. Passive and active tick surveillance programs can document the extent of tick-borne activity, identify the geographic range of potential vector species, and determine the relative risk of exposure to Lyme disease in specific areas. Standardized laboratory services can play an important role in providing data. Epidemiologists can gain a better understanding of Lyme disease through the collection of data from such programs. The interpretation of data and provision of information to the medical and general communities are important functions of public health agencies.

  12. Psychiatric epidemiology, or the story of a divided discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2014-08-01

    This article traces the historical decisions, concepts and key professional collaborations that laid the foundations for the formation of American psychiatric epidemiology during the 20th century, up to the discipline's institutional consolidation, circa 1980, when the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) was published. Thomas Kuhn's 'disciplinary matrix' is mobilized as a framework that allows the institutional and intellectual construction of a discipline to be analysed as separate but intertwined components, without assuming that the two evolve in tandem. The identification of the strengths as well as the frailties and internal divisions of the discipline as it developed reveals a paradoxical situation: a time lag between psychiatric epidemiology's institutionalization and public recognition, on the one hand; and the weak coherence of its intellectual components, on the other hand. We briefly trace the origins of split among the discipline's aetiological models of mental disorders and suggest that the lack of coherence among them has prevented psychiatric epidemiology from achieving the status of a normal scientific discipline, in the Kuhnian sense. Without a more explicit attention to the intellectual rationale of the discipline, psychiatric epidemiology will continue to maintain a strong institutional dimension and weak intellectual matrix.

  13. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  14. 急诊科护士创伤后应激障碍流行病学特点及危险因素%Epidemiology characteristic and risk factors of post traumatic stress disorder of nurses in emergency department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 何国平

    2006-01-01

    创伤后应激障碍(Post traumatic stress disorder,PTSD)是对创伤等严重应激因素的一种重度精神反应,它发生在经历过灾难性事件的人群或特殊职业人群,对PTSD的研究利于结合医学、护理学与社会心理学知识来提高疗效.综述了国内外文献中急诊科护士PTSD的流行病学特点及危险因素,认为急诊科护士PTSD发生率高于一般人群,其危险因素包括创伤性事件、与工作相关的压力源、个体易感因素、社会支持及社会历史文化因素.指出护士是护理事业的主体,其身心健康直接关系到护理服务质量,呼吁社会各界高度重视急诊科护士PTSD问题,关注护士的身心健康,促进急救护理事业的发展.

  15. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  16. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  17. Epidemiology and genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy in the Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushasree B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM still remains to be a poorly understood and less analyzed group of cardiac-muscle disorders when compared to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. Also, the vast clinical heterogeneity among the patients has rendered the small and isolated kindred studies less informative on the genetics and epidemiology of DCM. Aim of the study: The study aimed at understanding the epidemiology and genetics of DCMs in the Indian context. Materials and methods/ Statistical analysis: One hundred seven DCM patients and 105 healthy individuals were included in the study for epidemiological and genetic risk factor identification and to fit the possible mode of inheritance. Single′s ascertainment methodology for segregation analysis and Penrose frequency estimates were followed to evaluate for the role of specific epidemiological factors in the disease etiology. Chi-square analysis was carried out to interpret the results statistically. Results and Conclusion: Our study suggests that epidemiological factors like gender, age at onset and vegetarian diet in conjunction with sarcomere gene mutations may play a role in the disease expression. Similarly, segregation analysis for the possible mode of inheritance showed a deviation from the autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, strengthening the underlying genetic heterogeneity of DCM.

  18. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  19. 顺德龙江地区小学生抽动障碍流行病学调查及其与微量元素的关系%Epidemiological investigation of tic disorders among pupils in the Shunde Longjiang area, and their relationship to trace elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 江志贵; 李微; 梁惠冰; 林艳

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解顺德龙江地区小学生抽动障碍(TD)的流行病学特征及其与微量元素的关系.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,对顺德龙江地区4062名6~12岁的学龄儿童进行TD横断面调查,并检测TD患儿的血微量元素,同时取40例正常儿童作对照.结果 TD总患病率为2.98%;短暂性抽动障碍、慢性运动或发声抽动障碍、发声与多种运动联合抽动障碍的患病率分别为3.62%、2.39%、1.21%.男孩TD患病率显著高于女孩(3.92%vs 1.96%,P<0.05).TD患儿血铜、锰、镁水平与正常儿童比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),而血铅水平显著增高,血锌、铁水平则显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同临床亚型的TD患儿的血微量元素差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 TD在6~12岁的学龄儿童中较多见,男孩患病率高于女孩;高血铅及锌、铁缺乏可能是TD的病因之一,治疗时应予以考虑.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of tic disorders (TD) among pupils in the Shunde Longjiang area,and their relationship to trace elements.Methods A cross-sectional study of 4062 children aged 6-12 years,who were selected from the Shunde Longjiang area by stratified cluster sampling to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of TD,was conducted,and blood concentrations of trace elements in children with TD were determined.Forty normal children were selected as controls.Results The overall prevalence rate of TD was 2.98%; the prevalence rates of transient tic disorder,chronic motor or vocal tic disorder and Tourette's syndrome were 3.62%,2.39% and 1.21% respectively.Boys had a significantly higher prevalence rate of TD than girls (3.92% vs 1.96%; P<0.05).There were no significant differences in blood copper,manganese and magnesium levels between children with TD and normal children (P>0.05),however,children with TD had a significantly increased blood lead level and

  20. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  1. The epidemiology of depression across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Bromet, Evelyn J

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data are reviewed on the prevalence, course, socio-demographic correlates, and societal costs of major depression throughout the world. Major depression is estimated in these surveys to be a commonly occurring disorder. Although estimates of lifetime prevalence and course vary substantially across countries for reasons that could involve both substantive and methodological processes, the cross-national data are clear in documenting meaningful lifetime prevalence with wide variation in age-of-onset and high risk of lifelong chronic-recurrent persistence. A number of sociodemographic correlates of major depression are found consistently across countries, and cross-national data also document associations with numerous adverse outcomes, including difficulties in role transitions (e.g., low education, high teen childbearing, marital disruption, unstable employment), reduced role functioning (e.g., low marital quality, low work performance, low earnings), elevated risk of onset, persistence and severity of a wide range of secondary disorders, and increased risk of early mortality due to physical disorders and suicide.

  2. Epidemiological investigation on autism spectrum disorders among preschool children in Shanghai%上海市公立幼儿园4~6岁儿童孤独谱系障碍现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜凌霄; 李改智; 郝丽丽; 郭润蒲; 杨曹骅; 杜亚松

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解上海市公立幼儿园4~6岁儿童中孤独谱系障碍(ASD)的患病情况.方法 随机选取松江区与徐汇区为代表,以普查方式,采用克氏孤独症行为量表、社会交往问卷、高功能ASD筛查问卷,对调查区域的公立幼儿园中所有10 385名4~6岁儿童进行筛查,对筛查阳性者采用孤独症诊断访谈量表与DSM-5进行诊断.结果 在9 665份有效问卷中,共9名患儿确诊为ASD,男女性别比为8:1,时点患病率为0.93‰,ADI-R评估结果与DSM-5的诊断一致.其中2名患儿没有就诊记录,“语言”相关问题为家长选择就医的首要主诉,“社会交往质的障碍”为确诊患儿最显著的症状.结论 上海市学龄前儿童孤独谱系障碍的时点患病率较低,可能与一些患儿未入园有关.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) of children aged 4-6 years in public kindergartens in Shanghai.Methods Songjiang district and Xuhui district were selected randomly as the representative sample.By means of "Clancy Autism Behavior Scale","Social Communication Questionnaire" and "high-functioning Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire",all of the 33 public kindergartens in chosen area,which contained 10 385 children aged 4-6 years,were surveyed.Those who were screened as suspected cases would be further diagnosed by "Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised" and "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fifth Edition".Results Among 9 665 valid questionnaires,9 children were diagnosed with ASD.The ratio of male to female was 8:1,the point prevalence rate was 0.93‰.The results of ADI-R corresponded with that of DSM-5.There were two children who never had medical records.For others,"language" problem was the most likely reason for their parents to seek medical help,while "deficits in social communication" was the main symptom of patients.Conclusion The prevalence of ASD was lower than those recorded in literature,home and

  3. 南京市3~6岁儿童睡眠问题流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of sleep disorders for the children of 3 ~ 6 years in Nanjing city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海虹; 郭锡熔; 曲红明; 祝丽珺

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the sleep conditions and correlative factors of children 3~6 years old children in Nanjing. [Method] 1 327 children aged 3 - 6 years old were randomly selected for investigation in Nanjing. [Results] There was a higher prevalenee rate of sleep disorders in children in Nanjing city than the level of investigations in other cities,it was 52. 67%. Among their symptoms of sleep disorder,hyperhidrosis was 34. 51% ,molar teeth 14. 47% restless sleep 10. 78% , sleep snoring 10. 32% , night talking 9. 34% , mouth breathing 6. 41% , limber spasm 4. 60% , sleep long time in daytime and less in night 2. 03% ,screeching or crying during sleeping 2. 03% ,going to sleep earlyl. 96% ,choke gargling 1. 28%,night awakenings 0. 98% .limber spasm 0. 38% ,sleep apnea 0. 23%,sleep walking 0. 08%. The prevalences of hyperhidrosis,sleep long time in daytime and less in night of boys were larger than girls. The prevalence of night talking of girls was larger than boys. The main factors those affected the sleep disorders were 5 including the having diseases,feelings before sleep,sleep time,sleep posture,playing games outside. There were many factors those affected the sleep problems of children including children's age,heredity and environmental factors.%[目的]了解南京市3~6岁儿童睡眠问题发生情况、影响因素及其对儿童的危害,为防治儿童睡眠问题提供依据. [方法]随机抽取南京市1 327名3~6岁儿童进行睡眠状况的问卷调查. [结果]南京市3~6岁儿童睡眠问题发生率为52.67%,其中男童为56.10%,女童为48.60%,两者间差异有统计学意义;睡眠时各症状发生率为多汗34.51%,磨牙14.47%,辗转不安10.78%,打呼噜10.32%,说梦话9.34%,用口呼吸6.41%,肢体抽动4.60%,白天睡得多夜间清醒2.03%,睡眠中出现尖叫、哭喊2.03%,入睡过早或傍晚入睡1.96%,喉头哽咽1.28%,睡眠中轻微刺激即惊醒0.98%,有痉挛性肢体抽动0.38

  4. 汶川地震后重灾区人群重性抑郁障碍流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on major depressive disorder in the most heavily damaged areas from Wenchuan earthquake in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明金; 魏玲; 黄霞飞; 李艳; 殷岷; 熊贵芬; 刘英; 廖玉莲; 李小玲; 王东; 肖远奇; 郭兰婷; 江山; 叶敬; 李静; 孙学礼; 张炳智; 易全民; 陈亚明; 曹强; 彭谨

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence,demographic characteristics,risk factors and protective factors on major depression disorder(MDD)among the affected people in the epicenter,7 months after the 2008-earthquake in Wenchuan,China.Methods Stratified multistage cluster randomization was conducted to choose 14 503 subjects aged 15 years or over in the city of Dujiangyan,Beichuan county and Qingchuan county,Sichuan province.We used the general health questionnaire(GHQ-12)as the screening instrument,and the structured clinical interview for DSM-Ⅳ-TR axis Ⅰ disorder-patient edition(SCID-Ⅰ/P)as the tool for diagnosis.Results There were 180 persons diagnosed as MDD with other 13 asymptomatic ones.The point prevalence of MDD was 1.27% and the lifetime prevalence was 1.36%.Risk factors were including:being female(OR=1.56,95%CI:1.136~ 2.143,P<0.05),co-morbidity with somatic diseases(OR=4.02,95%CI:2.75-5.90,P<0.05),wounded in the earthquake(OR=3.29,95%CI:1.92-5.65,P<0.05),property loss up to 10 000-20 000 Yuan(OR=2.09,95%CI:1.18-3.69,P<0.05),property loss up to>20 000 Yuan(OR=2.54,95%CI:1.38-4.68,P<0.05),death or missing of family members(OR=3.79,95%CI:2.08-6.89,P<0.05)and in middle-age(OR=2.31,95%CI:1.38-3.86,P<0.05)etc.Having had a job seemed to be a protective factor(OR=0.60,95%CI:0.43-0.83,P<0.05).Conclusion Major depressive disorder appeared to be a common psychiatric disease in these quake-stricken areas,that causing serious problems.Sustained follow-up and care provided to the affected people in these areas were of extreme importance.%目的 了解中国汶川5·12地震后重灾区居民的重性抑郁障碍患病率、患者的人口学和社会文化特征及患病相关危险因素.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法随机抽取≥15岁人群14 503人,以一般健康问卷12项(GHQ-12)为筛选工具,采用美国精神障碍诊断与统计手册第4版(DSM-Ⅳ)轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查版(SCID-Ⅰ/P)为调查诊断工具.结果

  5. Epidemiological Study of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae Caused by Blast Exposure During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    and whether s/he had ever received school help for conditions such as Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder or a learning disability. These... Deficit - Hyperactivity Disorder ; TBI=Traumatic Brain Injury; CES-D=Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; PCL=Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ...mTBI late effects from other similar disorders . Pre- vious studies have found that, in comparison with other injuries, a history of mTBI seems to

  6. The dental occlusion as a suspected cause for TMDs: epidemiological and etiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türp, J C; Schindler, H

    2012-07-01

    The relationship between the dental occlusion and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) has been one of the most controversial topics in the dental community. In a large epidemiological cross-sectional survey - the Study of Health in Pomerania (Germany) - associations between 15 occlusion-related variables and TMD signs or symptoms were found. In other investigations, additional occlusal variables were identified. However, statistical associations do not prove causality. By using Hill's nine criteria of causation, it becomes apparent that the evidence of a causal relationship is weak. Only bruxism, loss of posterior support and unilateral posterior crossbite show some consistency across studies. On the other hand, several reported occlusal features appear to be the consequence of TMDs, not their cause. Above all, however, biological plausibility for an occlusal aetiology is often difficult to establish, because TMDs are much more common among women than men. Symptom improvement after insertion of an oral splint or after occlusal adjustment does not prove an occlusal aetiology either, because the amelioration may be due to the change of the appliance-induced intermaxillary relationship. In addition, symptoms often abate even in the absence of therapy. Although patients with a TMD history might have a specific risk for developing TMD signs, it appears more rewarding to focus on non-occlusal features that are known to have a potential for the predisposition, initiation or perpetuation of TMDs.

  7. The epidemiology of dizziness and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, H K

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the epidemiology of dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance, and of specific vestibular disorders. In the last decade, population-based epidemiologic studies have complemented previous publications from specialized settings and provided evidence for the high burden of dizziness and vertigo in the community. Dizziness (including vertigo) affects about 15% to over 20% of adults yearly in large population-based studies. Vestibular vertigo accounts for about a quarter of dizziness complaints and has a 12-month prevalence of 5% and an annual incidence of 1.4%. Its prevalence rises with age and is about two to three times higher in women than in men. Imbalance has been increasingly studied as a highly prevalent complaint particularly affecting healthy aging. Studies have documented the high prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and vestibular migraine (VM), as well as of comorbid anxiety at the population level. BPPV and VM are largely underdiagnosed, while Menière's disease, which is about 10 times less frequent than BPPV, appears to be overdiagnosed. Risk factor research is only at its beginning, but has provided some interesting observations, such as the consistent association of vertigo and migraine, which has greatly contributed to the recognition of VM as a distinct vestibular syndrome.

  8. Psoriasis: epidemiology, natural history, and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basko-Plluska JL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis

  9. Reactive Attachment Disorder in the General Population: A Hidden ESSENCE Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchett, R.; Pritchett, J.; Marshall, E; Davidson, C; Minnis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a severe disorder of social functioning. Previous research has shown that children with RAD may have poor cognitive and language abilities; however, findings mainly come from biased, institutionalised samples. This paper describes the characteristics of all children who were given a suspected or likely diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in an epidemiological study of approximately 1,600 children investigating the prevalence of RAD in the general ...

  10. Epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Linda; Loewy, Zvi G

    2011-06-01

    Denture stomatitis, a common disorder affecting denture wearers, is characterized as inflammation and erythema of the oral mucosal areas covered by the denture. Despite its commonality, the etiology of denture stomatitis is not completely understood. A search of the literature was conducted in the PubMed electronic database (through November 2009) to identify relevant articles for inclusion in a review updating information on the epidemiology and etiology of denture stomatitis and the potential role of denture materials in this disorder. Epidemiological studies report prevalence of denture stomatitis among denture wearers to range from 15% to over 70%. Studies have been conducted among various population samples, and this appears to influence prevalence rates. In general, where reported, incidence of denture stomatitis is higher among elderly denture users and among women. Etiological factors include poor denture hygiene, continual and nighttime wearing of removable dentures, accumulation of denture plaque, and bacterial and yeast contamination of denture surface. In addition, poor-fitting dentures can increase mucosal trauma. All of these factors appear to increase the ability of Candida albicans to colonize both the denture and oral mucosal surfaces, where it acts as an opportunistic pathogen. Antifungal treatment can eradicate C. albicans contamination and relieve stomatitis symptoms, but unless dentures are decontaminated and their cleanliness maintained, stomatitis will recur when antifungal therapy is discontinued. New developments related to denture materials are focusing on means to reduce development of adherent biofilms. These may have value in reducing bacterial and yeast colonization, and could lead to reductions in denture stomatitis with appropriate denture hygiene.

  11. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Disruption in the interaction between the central nervous system, nerves, and muscles cause movement disorders. These disorders can negatively affect quality of life. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been identified as a therapy for Parkinson disease and essential tremor that has significant advantages compared with medicinal therapies. Surgical intervention for these disorders before DBS included ablative therapies such as thalamotomy and pallidotomy. These procedures were not reversible and did not allow for treatment adjustments. The advent of DBS progressed therapies for significant movement disorders into the realm of being reversible and adjustable based on patient symptoms.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciò, Simone M; Ryan, Una

    2008-08-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. Due to its invariant morphology, investigation on aspects such as host specificity and transmission patterns requires a direct genetic characterization of cysts/trophozoites from host samples. A number of molecular assays have been developed to help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. A coherent picture has emerged from those studies, indicating the existence of seven genetic groups (or assemblages), two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining five (C-G) are host-specific. Sequence-based surveys have identified a number of genotypes within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Recently, however, molecular approaches have been complicated by the recognition of intra-isolate sequence heterogeneity (i.e., "mixed templates", that affects identification of subtypes within each assemblage), and by the unreliable assignment of isolates to G. duodenalis assemblages generated by different genetic markers. This raises concerns about previous interpretation of genotyping data, especially when single genetic markers have been used. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these findings, including allelic sequence heterozygosity and meiotic recombination, are discussed.

  14. Microtia: epidemiology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquetti, Daniela V; Heike, Carrie L; Hing, Anne V; Cunningham, Michael L; Cox, Timothy C

    2012-01-01

    Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear that ranges in severity from mild structural abnormalities to complete absence of the ear, and can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with hearing loss and patients typically require treatment for hearing impairment and surgical ear reconstruction. The reported prevalence varies among regions, from 0.83 to 17.4 per 10,000 births, and the prevalence is considered to be higher in Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and Andeans. The etiology of microtia and the cause of this wide variability in prevalence are poorly understood. Strong evidence supports the role of environmental and genetic causes for microtia. Although some studies have identified candidate genetic variants for microtia, no causal genetic mutation has been confirmed. The application of novel strategies in developmental biology and genetics has facilitated elucidation of mechanisms controlling craniofacial development. In this paper we review current knowledge of the epidemiology and genetics of microtia, including potential candidate genes supported by evidence from human syndromes and animal models. We also discuss the possible etiopathogenesis in light of the hypotheses formulated to date: Neural crest cells disturbance, vascular disruption, and altitude.

  15. Radiobiology and Epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desaintes, C; Holmstock, L

    2001-04-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of radiobiology and epidemiology performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality in nuclear workers in Belgium and to co-ordinate the Belgian contribution to the 'International Collaborative Study of Cancer Risk among Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Industry'; (2) to elucidate the molecular basis of individual susceptibility to ionizing radiation in mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (3) to assess the genetic risk of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation; (4) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (5) to monitor the early variations of gene expression induced by ionising radiation and cytokines; (6) to evaluate the use of cytokines and natural substances for improving radiotherapy protocols; (6) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are reported.

  16. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  17. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  18. TUBERCULOSIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sulis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with some where prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO has recently launched the new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035, based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

  19. Modeling Corporate Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Waber, Benjamin; Cebrian, Manuel; Crane, Riley; Danon, Leon; Pentland, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Corporate responses to illness is currently an ad-hoc, subjective process that has little basis in data on how disease actually spreads at the workplace. Additionally, many studies have shown that productivity is not an individual factor but a social one: in any study on epidemic responses this social factor has to be taken into account. The barrier to addressing this problem has been the lack of data on the interaction and mobility patterns of people in the workplace. We have created a wearable Sociometric Badge that senses interactions between individuals using an infra-red (IR) transceiver and proximity using a radio transmitter. Using the data from the Sociometric Badges, we are able to simulate diseases spreading through face-to-face interactions with realistic epidemiological parameters. In this paper we construct a curve trading off productivity with epidemic potential. We are able to take into account impacts on productivity that arise from social factors, such as interaction diversity and density, wh...

  20. Pemphigus: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Karıncaoğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus, a group of bullous diseases affecting the oral mucosa and the skin, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmogleins (Dsg, desmosomal transmembrane glycoproteins, leading to acantholysis. Pemphigus has a worldwide distribution but the incidence in patients of Jewish origin is higher. The disease has a peak incidence of occurrence between the 4th and 6th decades. While various environmental factors have been implicated as triggering agents, HLA association is probably the most important predisposing factor. Pemphigus, is caused by antibody-mediated autoimmune reaction to desmosomal cadherins, Dsg1, and Dsg3. Recent molecular studies have shown that acantholysis can occur also in the presence of antibodies against 9a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pemphigus is currently divided into three distinct varieties, i.e., pemphigus vulgaris (PV, pemphigus foliaceus (PF and other variants of pemphigus, depending on clinical features, the level of separation in the epidermis, and immunologic characteristics of auto-antigens. Blistering pathogenesis differ for each of the types of pemphigus. PV is characterized by IgG autoantibodies against Dsg 3, whereas the target of PF is Dsg1, although about 50% of PV patients also have Dsg1 autoantibodies. Lesion distribution is related to the location of the antigen (Dgs 3 and/or Dgs 1 in the epithelium and specific autoantibody production. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathogenesis of pemphigus.

  1. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  2. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in Songjiang district ,Shanghai%上海市松江区幼儿孤独谱系障碍流行病学特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆爱军; 王永飞; 姜凌霄; 王永强

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解上海市松江区公立幼儿园孤独谱系障碍(ASD)的流行现况.方法 以上海市松江区教育主管部门登记在册的33所公立幼儿园的幼儿作为调查对象,采用克氏孤独症行为量表和社会交往问卷进行筛查,对于筛查阳性者由儿少精神科医生根据美国精神疾病诊断与统计手册第五版(DSM-5)进行诊断.结果 共5704名儿童接受筛查,平均年龄(5.3±0.7)岁,其中男性2920名(51.2%),女性2784名(48.8%).6名儿童被诊断为ASD,男女比为5:1,时点患病率为1.05‰,年龄4.1~6.1岁,平均5.0岁.3名患儿的孕期及出生时存在高危因素.结论 上海市松江区公立幼儿园ASD患病率低于国内外报道,孕期保健应重视相关高危因素.%Objective To explore the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in public kin-dergartens in Songjiang District ,Shanghai.Methods Totals of 33 public kindergartens registered in the competent department of education in Songjiang District ,Shanghai were surveyed.Autism Behavior Scale and Social Communication Questionnaire were used to assess the children.For positive people ,the diagnose was made by psychiatrists according to the American psychiatric diagnosis and statistical analy-sis of manual ,5th edition (DSM -5).Results A total of 5704 children received screening ,the average age was (5.3 ± 0.7) years.Males (2920) accounted for 51.2% and females (2784) accounted for 48.8%.Six children were diagnosed with ASD ,ratio of male vs female was 5:1;point prevalence was 1.05‰ ,aged 4.1-6.1 years ,average age was 5.0 years.Three children were with high risk factors of pregnancy and birth.Conclusions The prevalence of ASD in public kindergartens in Songjiang District , Shanghai is lower than reports at home and abroad.Related risk factors should be concerned in prenatal care.

  4. 乌鲁木齐市大学生颞下颌关节紊乱病的流行病学调查分析%Study on epidemiological investigation of temporomandibular disorders among undergraduates in Urumqi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢冉; 姚志涛; 昆得孜·杜肯; 阿迪力江·赛买提; 阿地力·莫明

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解乌鲁木齐市大学生颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)的患病情况及口腔卫生保健意识,为针对性进行TMD教育及口腔保健预防工作提供理论依据。方法:对1223名乌鲁木齐市大学生进行颞下颌关节、口腔检查后根据Helkimo指数进行分析,包括既往及临床检查功能紊乱指数,评估TMD与民族、性别、学校、年级的关系,以及主要症状和不良习惯等。结果:患病率为51.10%,TMD的患病率在学校、民族间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);精神心理因素、大张口与TMD的发生呈正相关(P<0.01);在TMD症状中,关节弹响发生率最高(69.12%);大学生对口腔卫生保健、TMD认知水平较低。结论:精神因素是TMD发生的决定因素,有必要提高大学生对TMD及口腔卫生保健的认知。%Objective To study the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and awareness of oral health among undergraduates in Urumqi is to provide theoretical basis for TMD education and prevention of orally health care.Methods A sample of 1223 students was randomly selected from ifve universities in Urumqi.The subjects were adopted temporomandibular and oral inspection .we take analysis to the result according Helkimo that comprised history and clinical examination dysfunction index. To evaluate the relationship between TMD and nationality, gender, school, grade, and the main symptoms and bad habits.Results The morbility rate of TMD was 51.10%,and the difference of morbility between universities and nations (P<0.05)had statistically significant. Psychological factor and opening of the jaw were positively related to the TMD(P<0.01). Clicking of joint has higher prevalence in TMD symptoms.The college students’ knowledge of TMD and oral health was poor.Conclusion Mental factor is the decisive factor in the occurrence of TMD .It is necessary to improve the cognition of college students on TMD and oral health care.

  5. Shift work disorder in nurses--assessment, prevalence and related health problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Flo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigates the prevalence of symptoms of shift work disorder in a sample of nurses, and its association to individual, health and work variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated three different shift work disorder assessment procedures all based on current diagnostic criteria and employing symptom based questions. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed with symptoms of shift work disorder as the dependent variable. Participants (n = 1968 reported age, gender, work schedule, commuting time, weekly work hours, children in household, number of nights and number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours worked the last year, use of bright light therapy, melatonin and sleep medication, and completed the Bergen Insomnia Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire, Diurnal Scale, Revised Circadian Type Inventory, Dispositional Resilience (Hardiness Scale--Revised, Fatigue Questionnaire, questions about alcohol and caffeine consumption, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prevalence rates of symptoms of shift work disorder varied from 32.4-37.6% depending on the assessment method and from 4.8-44.3% depending on the work schedule. Associations were found between symptoms of shift work disorder and age, gender, circadian type, night work, number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours and number of nights worked the last year, insomnia and anxiety. The different assessment procedures yielded similar results (prevalence and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of symptoms indicative of shift work disorder was high. We argue that three symptom-based questions used in the present study adequately assess shift work disorder in epidemiological studies.

  6. Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  7. Epidemiologia da insônia Epidemiology of the insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores fizeram uma ampla revisão da literatura científica mundial sobre a epidemiologia da insônia, o mais prevalente dos distúrbios do sono. Foi feito um levantamento bibliográfico, no período de janeiro de 2002 a novembro de 2003, das publicações dos últimos 30 anos, nos bancos de dados MEDLINE e LILACS, sobre a definição e prevalência da insônia, além de suas conseqüências socioeconômicas. As palavras-chaves pesquisadas foram: distúrbio de iniciar o sono, distúrbio de manutenção do sono, distúrbio do despertar precoce, insônia, distúrbios do sono, prevalência da insônia, conseqüências da insônia. Observou-se uma grande variação dos critérios de definição da insônia, dos desenhos metodológicos e dos resultados dos estudos epidemiológicos, o que prejudicou as comparações dos dados das várias pesquisas. As futuras linhas de pesquisa sobre a epidemiologia da insônia devem se embasar em um consenso sobre sua definição e critérios metodológicos mais bem-definidos.A vast literature review on the insomnia epidemiology, the most common sleep disorder, using MEDLINE and LILACS last 30 years of data, was performed from January 2002 to November 2003. The key-words were: sleep initiation disorders, sleep maintenance disorders, early awakening disorder, insomnia, sleep disorders, insomnia prevalence, insomnia consequences. Several insomnia definition criteria and epidemiology researches methods, with data comparison difficulties, were noticed. In the future it will be necessary similar insomnia definition and epidemiology studies criteria.

  8. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  9. Studi Epidemiologi Deskriptif Talasemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Sarwani Sri Rejeki

    2012-10-01

    force (92,2%, b-thalassemia major (90,6%, no splenectomy (84,4%, Jamkesmas (73,4%, ferritin levels ≥ 2000 ng/mL (90,4%, sailor deferio-prone, vitamin C, and deferioksamin (81,2%, live in Banyumas (79,7%, blood transfusions in hospitals Banyumas (95,3%, the average age of diagnosis of 3,7 years, the average age of starting a blood transfusion was 3,78 years. Once a month blood transfusion (87,5%, and the frequency of iron chelation therapy by consuming vitamin C 30 times in one month (95,3%. Key words: Hemoglobin, blood disorder, thalassemia

  10. Change in binge eating and binge eating disorder associated with migration from Mexico to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sonja A; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of binge eating disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the U.S. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N = 2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mexicans with no migrant family members, Mexicans with at least one migrant family member, Mexican return-migrants, Mexican-born migrants in the U.S., and two successive generations of Mexican-Americans in the U.S. The lifetime prevalence of BED was 1.6% in Mexico and 2.2% among Mexican-Americans. Compared with Mexicans in families with migrants, risk for BED was higher in US-born Mexican-Americans with two U.S.-born parents (aHR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.12-5.93). This effect was attenuated by 24% (aHR = 1.97, 95% CI 0.84-4.62) with adjustment for prior-onset depressive or anxiety disorder. Adjustment for prior-onset conduct disorder increased the magnitude of association (aHR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.22-6.20). A similar pattern was observed for binge eating. Among respondents reporting binge eating, onset in the U.S. (vs. Mexico) was not associated with prevalence of further eating disorder symptoms. Migration from Mexico to the U.S. is associated with an increased risk for BED that may be partially attributable to non-specific influences on internalizing disorders. Among respondents reporting binge eating in either country, similar levels of further symptoms were endorsed, suggesting some cross-cultural generalizability of criteria.

  11. Association between anxiety and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Y

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Yu Pan,1,2,* Wenpeng Cai,1,* Qi Cheng,3,* Wei Dong,1 Ting An,4 Jin Yan1 1Department of Psychology and Mental Health, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 2Department of Psychology, Peoples Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Behavioral Medicine, The 102 Hospital of PLA, Changzhou, 4Department of Internal Medicine, The PLA Second Artillery Force General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Epidemiological studies have repeatedly investigated the association between anxiety and hypertension. However, the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to summarize the current evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies that evaluated this association. Methods: Seven common databases were searched for articles published up to November 2014. Cross-sectional and prospective studies that reported an association between the two conditions in adults were included. Data on prevalence, incidence, unadjusted or adjusted odds ratios or hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were extracted or calculated by the authors. The pooled odds ratio was calculated separately for cross-sectional and prospective studies using random-effects models. The Q test and I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A funnel plot and modified Egger linear regression test were used to estimate publication bias. Results: The search yielded 13 cross-sectional studies (n=151,389, and the final pooled odds ratio was 1.18 (95% CI 1.02–1.37; PQ<0.001; I2=84.9%. Eight prospective studies with a total sample size of 80,146 and 2,394 hypertension case subjects, and the pooled adjusted hazard ratio was 1.55 (95% CI 1.24–1.94; PQ<0.001; I2=84.6%. The meta-regression showed that location, diagnostic criteria for anxiety, age, sex, sample size, year of publication, quality, and years of follow-up (for prospective study were not

  12. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  13. 芦山地震受灾人群创伤后应激障碍的流行病学调查%Epidemiological survey of post-traumatic stress disorder in the victims of Lushan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱昌建; 黄明金; 黄国平; 谭友果; 张英辉; 袁茵; 余成民; 罗明; 周波

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查芦山地震受灾人群PTSD的患病率及其影响因素.方法 采用横断面调查,在四川省雅安市芦山县、宝兴县两地分层随机抽取1110名成年被调查者,使用自编问卷采集一般人口学资料、芦山地震受灾情况以及芦山地震、汶川地震对被调查者影响的比较等,PTSD筛查量表平民版(PTSD Check List-Civilian Version,PCL-C)筛查被调查者对芦山地震的应激反应程度,MINI-自杀风险评估其自杀风险.PCL-C>38分者由精神科医师采用MINI中文版中的PTSD章节诊断其是否患有PTSD.采用线性回归分析方法对PTSD的影响因素进行相关分析.结果 998名被调查者纳入分析,其中男372名(37.27%,372/998),女626名(62.73%,626/998).PCL-C>38分者251名(25.15%,251/998),PTSD患者24例,PTSD患病率2.40%(24/998).自杀高风险者11名(1.10%,11/998).回归分析显示,PCL-C总分与女性(β=-2.041)、家庭低收入(β=-3.870)、地震中亲属遇难(β=0.164)、朋友遇难(β=-0.059)、地震中被掩埋(β=-14.335)、受伤(β=0.495)等因素相关(均P<0.05).女性(OR=4.304)、地震中被掩埋(OR=15.688)是罹患PTSD的危险因素(均P<0.05).家庭低收入(OR=3.147)、罹患PTSD (OR=25.101)是自杀高风险的危险因素(均P<0.05).结论 5年内连续2次遭受地震创伤的受灾人群中PTSD的患病率并不高,女性及在地震中自身生命受威胁是罹患PTSD的危险因素,应有针对性地进行干预.%Objective To investigate the prevalence and influence factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people experiencing the Lushan 4.20 earthquake in 2013.Methods By stratified random sampling,a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1 110 adult victims from the county of Lushan and Baoxing three months after the earthquake.Self-made questionnaire was adopted to collect the demographic data and the general situation of the disaster and compare with the situation of Wenchuan 5.12 earthquake.The scale of

  14. Epidemiological Investigation of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Military Personnel after Military Operation%军人军事行动创伤后应激障碍的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢家春; 呼永河; 王文春; 陈喆思; 张安仁; 卢豪; 江玥; 袁青; 庞日朝; 王倩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military personnel 3 months after a military exercise and the related factors. Methods Structured questionnaire and psychological scale assessment were applied to 690 sol-diers 3 months after a military exercise in relative factor investigation during the period from April, 2011 to July, 2014;for those with high cut-off points in the primary screen by PTSD checklist-military version (PCL-M),a one-to-one interview was carried out by psychia-trists, and the diagnosis of PTSD was confirmed based on DSM-IV;logistic regression analysis was made to the materials with the soft-ware SPSS13.0. Results 690 soldiers were enrolled in the investigation while 637 questionnaires were effective, and there were 30 cases of confirmed diagnosis of PTSD, taking up 4.71%;positive individual psychological symptoms, including somatization, obsessive-com-pulsive, depression, anxiety, interpersonal relationship, hostility, fright, paranoid idea and psychoticism, were statistically different from those of Chinese male norm (P<0.05);the factors impacting mental health were:only child, living in cities and towns, low service satis-faction, failing to get economic help when having difficulties, injury, too heavy exercise task, dissatisfied with the superior instruction;stressful events had no impact on individual character in a short time (P<0.05). Conclusions The occurrence of PTSD in military person-nel 3 months after military exercises is higher than that in norm;it is necessary to strengthen the psychological protection and crisis inter-vention.%目的:了解某部参加军事演习的官兵3个月后创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)的患病率及相关因素。方法2011年4月—2014年7月通过结构式问卷调查和心理量表测评对某部参加军事演习3个月的690名官兵进行相关因素调查。PTSD诊断采用PTSD筛查量表-军人版(PCL-M)进行初筛,再由精神科医师依

  15. Schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of schizoaffective disorder is unknown. Changes in genes and chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters) may play a role. Schizoaffective disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ...

  16. Genetic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  17. Epidemiological Investigation in the Correlation between L5S1 Disc Herniation and Sacroiliac Joint Disorder%腰5骶1椎间盘突出症与骶髂关节紊乱之间的相关性流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师宁宁; 沈国权; 何水勇; 郭汝宝

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究腰5骶1椎间盘突出症与骶髂关节紊乱之间的相关性,为慢性顽固性腰腿痛的防治提供一个新的认识理念和治疗途径.方法:流行病学调查腰5骶1椎间盘突出症的危险因子,可能的危险因素有患者的一般情况、腰5骶1椎间盘突出症的症状与体征、骶髂关节紊乱的症状与体征,以及脊柱与骨盆在X-Ray上的表现,调查资料采用单因素危险度估计和多因素Logistic回归分析.结果:60.3%的腰5骶1椎间盘突出症患者合并有骶髂关节紊乱,腰骶角异常是腰5骶1椎间盘突出症的高危险因素,单因素危险度估OR值是3.18(P<0.01),多因素Logistic回归分析OR值是14.23(P<0.01).结论:腰5骶1椎间盘突出症与骶骨倾斜紊乱是二联症,二者相互影响且有因果关系,共同存在于腰腿痛疾病中.%Objective:To study the correlation between L5S disc herniation and sacroiliac joint disorder so as to provide a new understanding concepts and therapeutic approach for prevention and treatment of chronic intractable low back pain. Methods : Epidemiological investigation was conducted in the respects of the risk factors of L5S disc herniation, possible risk factors, include the general condition of patients, symptoms and signs of L5S disc herniation as well as sacroiliac joint disorder, and the manifestations of spine and pelvis on the X-Ray. The data were analyzed by single factor risk estimates and multivariate Logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 60. 3% L5S disc herniation patients had sacroiliac joint disorders. Lumbosacral angle abnormality was high risk factor of L5S disc herniation, single factori risk estimated OR value was 3. 18 (P<0. 01) and Logistic regression analysis OR value was 14. 23 (P<0. 01). Conclusion:L5S disc herniation and sacrum tilt disorder are interactive, and have a causal relationship, both existing in low back pain.

  18. Mood disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Botter Maio Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and treatment of mood disorders in children and adolescents has grown over the last decades. Major depression is one of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, imposing a massive burden to the youth population. Bipolar disorder is being increasingly recognized as having its roots early in life, and its presentation during childhood and adolescence has been submitted to extensive research. This review aims to highlight clinical aspects of the current knowledge on mood disorders in the pediatric population, presenting updated information on epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and management strategies. Limitations of available evidence and future directions of research in the field are also discussed.

  19. An adjustable contracted CI method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  20. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  1. Psychiatric Morbidity and Work and Social Adjustment Among Earthquake Survivors Extricated from under the Rubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamaila Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This cross-sectional study examined psychiatric co-morbidity and work and social adjustment after a natural disaster among survivors who were extricated from under the rubble. Materials and Methods: Individuals (N=40 belonging to district Muzaffarabad, a severely earthquake affected area on 8 th October 2005, were interviewed. The examination included the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and questions covering background characteristics and disaster exposure. Results: The most prevalent disorders were posttaumatic stress disorder (32.5%, major depressive disorder (17.5%, dysthymia (15.0%, agoraphobia (25.0%, and panic disorder (20.0%. Moreover, 77% of the respondents have been diagnosed with at least one psychiatric disorder. Work and soical adjustment was found to have an inverse relationship with the psychiatric co-morbidity. Conclusion: Small sample size and lack of comparison group from non-earthquake struck areas may limit the generalizability of the psychatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders other than PTSD, especially depressive and anxiety disorders, are of clinical importance when considering long-term mental health effect of disasters.

  2. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND MYCOLOGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratheesh T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinea versicolor is a chronic, mild, usually asymptomatic infection of the stratum corneum. The lesions are discrete or confluent and appear as discolored or hypo pigmented areas of the skin. The affected areas are located principally on the chest, abdomen, upper extremities and back. The etiologic agent is the lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum orbiculare, part of the normal flora of the human skin. This study is undertaken to know “clinical, patterns of the disease with respect to morphology and distribution, associated conditions and epidemiological factors like age, sex distribution and seasonal variation of the disease”. METHODS: Two hundred patients of tinea versicolor were selected. Patients belonging to the age group of above 10 years and below 60 years belonging to both sexes were selected and included in the study group after taking consent. A detailed history was taken with particular reference to onset, duration, symptoms and treatment taken and were recorded. Factors like – seasonal variation, family history and presence of any associated illnesses was also noted. A thorough clinical examination was done with reference to the location, the color, the extent of the lesions, the margins, the type of lesions and the details were recorded. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination and Wood’s lamp examination were done in all the patients before therapy. RESULTS: Out of 200 patients, majority of them belong to 2nd and 3rd decade of life (72%. The Male: Female ratio was 1.5:1. There was a family history of 16%. The trunk was the most common site involved. Majority of the patients had exacerbation in summer. The most common associated dermatoses were acne vulgaris, immunosuppression and infections. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Tinea versicolor is a disease of worldwide distribution, although it is significantly more common in humid and tropical climates. The true incidence cannot be estimated precisely because the disease is

  3. Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis - epidemiology and management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Edward J; Harris, Julia G; Verbsky, James W

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a group of disorders characterized by arthritis persisting for at least 6 weeks with onset before the age of 16 years. Within this cluster of conditions, the polyarticular form (involving more than four joints within the first 6 months) is further divided based on the presence of rheumatoid factor. Children with polyarticular JIA pose unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges compared to children with involvement of fewer joints. Polyarticular JIA patients tend to have a more refractory course and therefore are at increased risk for joint damage, resulting in poorer functional outcomes and decreased quality of life. Although the ability to treat this disorder continues to improve, especially with the advent of biologic agents, there is still much about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of polyarticular JIA that is unknown. The epidemiology of polyarticular JIA varies worldwide with a vast difference in reported cases between different global regions as well as within individual countries. Several genetic risk loci have been identified conferring increased susceptibility to JIA, many within the human leukocyte antigen region. Beyond the genome, environmental factors also seem to contribute to the etiology of polyarticular JIA. This review article will focus on the epidemiology and current treatments of polyarticular JIA and briefly discuss genetic and environmental influences on the pathogenesis of JIA as well as new and emerging therapies.

  4. The epidemiology of premature aging and associated comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coppedè F

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Coppedè Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome and Werner syndrome, also known as childhood- and adulthood-progeria, respectively, represent two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. The discovery of their genetic basis has led to the identification of several gene mutations leading to a spectrum of progeroid phenotypes ranging from moderate and mild–severe to very aggressive forms. In parallel, the creation of disease registers and databases provided available data for the design of relatively large-scale epidemiological studies, thereby allowing a better understanding of the nature and frequency of the premature aging-associated signs and symptoms. The aim of this article is to review the most recent findings concerning the epidemiology of premature aging disorders, their genetic basis, and the most recent reports on the frequency of associated diseases. Keywords: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome, Werner syndrome, premature aging disorders, epidemiology, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis, genetics, sign and symptoms

  5. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  6. [The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalutskiĭ, I V; Averkin, Iu I; Artemova, N A; Mashevskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    The onco-epidemiologic situation in the Republic of Belarus over a 36-year period has been evaluated. An increase in the age-specific and age-adjusted cancer incidence rates is a clear indicator of an actual rise in morbidity. It is unrelated to aging and most probably depends on a number of environmental factors. Due to the similarity of the incidence patterns for a number of sites, it was suggested that a single or several factors might be responsible for neoplastic development. Distinct changes in malignant tumor incidence made it correlated with certain environmental changes and new approaches to primary tumor prevention were developed.

  7. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    Full Text Available In August 2014, children's hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI. In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68 in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases and those testing negative (controls. EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8% of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5-9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64. Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data.

  8. Epidemiology of Enterovirus D68 in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Warshawsky, Bryna; Booth, Tim F; Eshaghi, AliReza; Li, Aimin; Perusini, Stephen; Olsha, Romy; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Kristjanson, Erik; Gubbay, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    In August 2014, children's hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri and Chicago, Illinois notified the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) about increased numbers of pediatric patients hospitalized with severe respiratory illness (SRI). In response to CDC reports, Public Health Ontario Laboratories (PHOL) launched an investigation of patients being tested for enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) in Ontario, Canada. The purpose of this investigation was to enhance our understanding of EV-D68 epidemiology and clinical features. Data for this study included specimens submitted for EV-D68 testing at PHOL from September 1, 2014 to October 31, 2014. Comparisons were made between patients who tested positive for the virus (cases) and those testing negative (controls). EV-D68 was identified in 153/907 (16.8%) of patients tested. In the logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, setting and time to specimen collection, individuals younger than 20 years of age were more likely to be diagnosed with EV-D68 compared to those 20 and over, with peak positivity at ages 5-9 years. Cases were not more likely to be hospitalized than controls. Cases were more likely to be identified in September than October (OR 8.07; 95% CI 5.15 to 12.64). Routine viral culture and multiplex PCR were inadequate methods to identify EV-D68 due to poor sensitivity and inability to differentiate EV-D68 from other enterovirus serotypes or rhinovirus. Testing for EV-D68 in Ontario from July to December, 2014 detected the presence of EV-D68 virus among young children during September-October, 2014, with most cases detected in September. There was no difference in hospitalization status between cases and controls. In order to better understand the epidemiology of this virus, surveillance for EV-D68 should include testing of symptomatic individuals from all treatment settings and patient age groups, with collection and analysis of comprehensive clinical and epidemiological data.

  9. The Epidemiologic Evidence Linking Autoimmune Diseases and Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benros, Michael E; Eaton, William W; Mortensen, Preben B

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence linking autoimmune diseases and psychosis. The associations between autoimmune diseases and psychosis have been studied for more than a half century, but research has intensified within the last decades, since psychosis has been associated...... with genetic markers of the immune system and with excess autoreactivity and other immune alterations. A range of psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, have been observed to occur more frequently in some autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Many autoimmune......, there is some evidence of associations of psychosis with a family history of autoimmune disorders and vice versa. Additionally, several autoimmune diseases, individually and in aggregate, have been identified as raising the risk for psychotic disorders in longitudinal studies. The associations have been...

  10. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  11. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent.

  12. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  13. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  14. Epidemiología de campo y epidemiología social Field epidemiology and social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Segura del Pozo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mediante la comparación de la epidemiología de campo y la epidemiología social, se pretende reflexionar sobre los imaginarios no explícitos que operan en ambos ámbitos, necesariamente convergentes, sobre los obstáculos de la práctica epidemiológica actual para alcanzar su función social y sobre la necesidad de cambiar las bases epistemológicas, metodológicas y prácticas que operan en la epidemiología, empezando por la formación del epidemiólogo de campo. La epidemiología de campo tiende a la acción sin marco teórico. La epidemiología social, por el contrario, tiende a los desarrollos teóricos (reflexión e investigación sobre los determinantes sociales alejados de la acción, debido a los limitantes para cambiar las políticas públicas. Otras diferencias se sitúan en el nivel de intervención (micro/macroespacios, el objeto de intervención (control del brote frente a control de las desigualdades y en la forma de articular la comunicación con la sociedad. Se asemejan en la preocupación por el método, la predominancia de una orientación positivista y condicionada por la estadística, aunque en proceso de cierta apertura epistemológica, la tensión experimentada entre relacionarse con un mundo virtual de bases de datos o con la sociedad real, su situación en la periferia del sistema político-social-institucional-profesional y por estar abocadas a la frustración profesional. Finalmente, se formulan 10 interrogantes a los epidemiólogos de campo sobre su práctica actual, a través de los cuales se podría evaluar si están realizando una epidemiología social, y se sugieren cambios para introducir en la formación y práctica del epidemiólogo.Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of

  15. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population.

  16. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: epidemiology update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated that gadoli......Purpose of review The aim of this article is to outline the history of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a new and serious disease of patients with renal failure, and to give an update on its aetiology and prevalence. Recent findings Epidemiological and histochemical studies demonstrated...

  17. Epidemiological status and risk factors for hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy in a district in Changsha%长沙市某区妊娠期高血压疾病的流行状况及相关危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓庚; 蒋卫红; 李颖; 罗琼; 郭运忠; 谭丽华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To comprehend the epidemiological status and risk factors in hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy (HDCP) in a district in Changsha, and to provide epidemiological evidence for early intervention of HDCP. Methods A total of 2 148 pregnant women in a district in Changsha from 2008 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed and the related factors were evaluated by multivariate unconditional logistic analysis. Results The incidence of HDCP was 5.21% from 2008 to 2009. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that age ( >35 years old) ( OR =6.440,95% CI:2.987 - 13. 884), body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy ( OR = 2. 180,95% CI: 1. 619 - 2.936), and history of diabetes or kidney disease ( OR = 14.221,95%CI: 3. 990 -50.684) were risk factors for HDCP. Conclusion Age, BMI before pregnancy, and history of diabetes or kidney disease are risk factors for HDCP, while gravidity, parity, number of abortion and multiple gestation pregnancy have no obvious correlation with HDCP.%目的:了解长沙市某区妊娠期高血压疾病的流行状况,探讨其相关危险因素,为其早期预警及干预提供流行病学依据.方法:从长沙市某区妇幼保健所收集该区2008至2009年间的共2 148份,对其中的相关指标进行回顾性研究,并对相关因素进行多因素非条件logistic回归分析.结果:该区2008至2009年间妊娠期高血压疾病的发生率为5.21%;多因素非条件logistic回归分析显示年龄(>35岁)(OR=6.440,95%CI:2.987~13.884)、孕前体质量指数(OR=2.180,95%CI:1.619~2.936)、糖尿病或肾脏疾病史(OR=14.221,95%CI:3.990~50.684)均为妊娠期高血压疾病的危险因素.结论:年龄、孕前体质量指数、糖尿病或肾脏疾病史是妊娠期高血压疾病的危险因素;而孕次、产次、流产次数及多胎妊娠与妊娠期高血压疾病的发生无明显关联.

  18. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recommendations for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susanna H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, explores a unique counseling relationship. Examines how the quality of parent-child attachment and care of a child during the formative preschool years affects interpersonal relationship skills and school adjustment. Discusses reactive attachment disorders, the pervasiveness of attachment disorders, and recommendations for…

  19. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to methodologi

  20. Major Depressive Disorder in Adolescence: The Role of Subthreshold Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Monroe, Scott M.; Seeley, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the longitudinal association between individual subthreshold symptoms and onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. Method: Data for analysis come from the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project, a prospective epidemiological study of psychological disorders among adolescents, ages 14 to 18 years, from the…

  1. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  2. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)—Wave 1 (2001–2002), and Wave 2 (2004–2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) was designed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and their associated...

  3. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  4. Mental illness and reduction of gun violence and suicide: bringing epidemiologic research to policy

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, JW; McGinty, EE; Fazel, S.; Mays, VM

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders. METHODS: Research concerning public attitudes toward persons with mental illness is reviewed and ju...

  5. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  6. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  7. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  8. Any Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ... Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among Adults - Bulimia Nervosa Eating Disorders ...

  9. Unravelling psychosis: psychosocial epidemiology, mechanism, and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Paul

    2015-04-25

    This paper reviews a revolution in our understanding of psychosis over the last 20 years. To a major extent, this has resulted from a process of cross-fertilization between psychosocial epidemiology and cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis (CBT-p). This encouraged complementary strategies for the acquisition and analysis of data. These include the use of a range of dependent variables related to psychosis, and the exploitation of data from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological surveys, virtual reality experiments, experience sampling methodology, and treatment trials. The key element is to investigate social and psychological measures in relation to each other. This research has confirmed the role of the external social world in the development and persistence of psychotic disorder. In addition, several psychological drivers of psychotic experiences have been identified. There is now persuasive evidence that the influence of social factors in psychosis is significantly mediated by non-psychotic symptoms, particularly mood symptoms and other attributes of affect such as insomnia. Psychotic symptoms are also driven by reasoning biases such as jumping to conclusions and belief inflexibility, though little is known about social influences on such biases. It is now clear that there are many routes to psychosis and that it takes many forms. Treatment of all kinds should take account of this: the dependence of CBT-p on a detailed initial formulation in terms of psychological processes and social influences is an example of the required flexibility. Individual mediators are now being targeted in specific forms of CBT-p, with good effect. This in turn corroborates the hypothesized role of non-psychotic symptoms in mediation, and attests to the power of the approaches described.

  10. Respiratory effects of environmental pollution: epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacci, S; Viegi, G

    2002-01-01

    A recent document of the American Thoracic Society and two previous reports of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease have summarized the negative health effects due to air pollution in a list ranging from the increase of mortality to the perception of bad odors. A significant attempt to estimate, on an annual basis, the negative effects of air pollution from particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) has been carried out on data from Austria, France, and Switzerland: e.g. in France, air pollution from PM10 is responsible annually for 31,700 deaths, 36,700 new cases of chronic bronchitis and 577,000 attacks of asthma in adults, 450,000 cases of acute bronchitis and 243,000 attacks of asthma in children. Recently, a study on the long-term effects of air pollution on about 500,000 residents in metropolitan US areas evidenced that each 10 micrograms/m3 elevation in fine particulate air pollution is associated with approximately a 4%, 6% and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality, respectively. Some Italian experiences have also confirmed respiratory health damages from air pollution, namely the prospective epidemiologic studies on general population samples of the Po Delta and Pisa areas; the cross-sectional study on schoolchildren of the 'Italian study on respiratory disorders in childhood and environment' (SIDRIA); and a meta-analysis of the Italian studies on short-term effects of air pollution. In conclusion, epidemiologic studies suggest that air pollution plays an important role in the exacerbation and in the pathogenesis of chronic respiratory diseases. Thus, respiratory physicians, as well as public health professionals, should advocate for a cleaner environment.

  11. IQ and mental disorder in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Jensen, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most research investigating the relationship between IQ and risk of mental disorder has focused on schizophrenia. AIMS: To illuminate the relationship between IQ test scores in early adulthood and various mental disorders. METHOD: For 3289 men from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort......, military IQ test scores and information on psychiatric hospitalisation were available. We identified 350 men in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and compared the mean IQ test scores of nine diagnostic categories with the mean scores of 2939 unregistered cohort controls. RESULTS: Schizophrenia...... and related disorders, other psychotic disorders, adjustment, personality, alcohol and substance-use-related disorders were significantly associated with low IQ scores, but this association remained significant for the four non-psychotic disorders only when adjusting for comorbid diagnoses. For most...

  12. Epidemiology of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, I M; Rajasoorya, C

    1999-06-01

    Acromegaly is a consequence of chronic growth hormone (GH) excess, due in the majority of cases to a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, and occurring with a population prevalence of 60 per million and an incidence of 3-4 per million per year. Males and females appear to be equally affected with an average age of presentation of 44 years. Younger patients may have more aggressive tumours and higher GH concentrations. There is co-existent hyperprolactinaemia in about one third of cases, and a variable proportion of [figure: see text] tumours appear to have activating mutations of the gsp gene or other genetic abnormalities. Acute complications such as carpal tunnel syndrome, sweating and obstructive sleep apnoea are usually readily reversible with treatment of the condition, but chronic complications such as hypertension, diabetes and heart disease are less readily corrected and post-treatment GH levels of acromegaly leading to increased morbidity and mortality from the disorder, with observed-to-expected mortality ratios ranging from 1.6-3.3 and only approaching unity in those with growth hormone levels < 2.5 ug/L following treatment. Prognostic factors include in some studies the presence of diabetes and [table: see text] hypertension prior to diagnosis as well as measures of exposure to excessive growth hormone derived from the product of preoperative serum GH and the time from first symptoms to treatment. Overall, however, the most important prognostic variable appears to be the serum GH concentration achieved by treatment, with an increasing consensus that this needs to be < 2.5 ug/L (5 mU/L) to achieve cure of the condition.

  13. Functional disability of mental disorders and comparison with physical disorders : a study among the general population of six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist-Bouwman, MA; De Graaf, R; Vollebergh, WAM; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of mental and physical disorders with multiple domains of functioning and compare the two. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, a general population study in which adults (n > 21 000) from Belgium, France, Ge

  14. Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis – epidemiology and management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberle EJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Oberle, Julia G Harris, James W VerbskyDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a group of disorders characterized by arthritis persisting for at least 6 weeks with onset before the age of 16 years. Within this cluster of conditions, the polyarticular form (involving more than four joints within the first 6 months is further divided based on the presence of rheumatoid factor. Children with polyarticular JIA pose unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges compared to children with involvement of fewer joints. Polyarticular JIA patients tend to have a more refractory course and therefore are at increased risk for joint damage, resulting in poorer functional outcomes and decreased quality of life. Although the ability to treat this disorder continues to improve, especially with the advent of biologic agents, there is still much about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of polyarticular JIA that is unknown. The epidemiology of polyarticular JIA varies worldwide with a vast difference in reported cases between different global regions as well as within individual countries. Several genetic risk loci have been identified conferring increased susceptibility to JIA, many within the human leukocyte antigen region. Beyond the genome, environmental factors also seem to contribute to the etiology of polyarticular JIA. This review article will focus on the epidemiology and current treatments of polyarticular JIA and briefly discuss genetic and environmental influences on the pathogenesis of JIA as well as new and emerging therapies.Keywords: juvenile arthritis, polyarticular, epidemiology, treatment, rheumatology

  15. Which symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are associated with suicide attempts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selaman, Zeynep M H; Chartrand, Hayley K; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder are at increased risk for suicide attempts. The present study aimed to determine which of the specific DSM-IV symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are independently associated with suicide attempts. Data came from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). The NESARC has a sample size of N = 34653. The full sample size included in analyses was 2322 individuals with PTSD. Among individuals with lifetime PTSD, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, as well as any mood, substance, personality, or anxiety disorder (excluding PTSD), increasing numbers of re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms were significantly correlated with suicide attempts. Of the specific symptoms, having physical reactions by reminders of the trauma, being unable to recall some part of it, and having the sense of a foreshortened future, were all associated with suicide attempts. These findings will help extend our understanding of the elevated risk for suicide attempts in individuals with PTSD.

  16. Associations between Gender Based Violence and Personality Disorders in US Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Hasin, Deborah; Keyes, Katherine M.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2015-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent and associated with deleterious outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance use disorders. Despite substantial comorbidity between these conditions and personality disorders (PDs), few, if any, studies have examined associations between lifetime exposure to GBV and risk for a range of PDs in nationally representative U.S. samples. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and population attributable fractions (PAFs) of ten PDs by lifetime GBV exposure. Participants were 20,089 women who participated in wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Lifetime GBV and PD were reported by 25% and 20% of women, respectively. Logistic regressions indicated that women with GBV had 3.5 times the odds of lifetime PD; aORs ranged from 2.3 to 6.3 for Schizoid and Borderline PD, respectively. GBV was associated with 38% of all PD cases, and women who had experienced all three GBV types had 8.5 times the odds of PD compared to non-victims. Preventing GBV, particularly multi-type GBV, may be critical to reducing the burden of PDs. Clinicians working with GBV victims should consider assessing PDs and providing treatment targeting multiple outcomes. PMID:26569577

  17. Epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houe, H

    1995-11-01

    Prevalence studies around the world show that BVDV is widespread in most cattle raising countries. There are significant differences, however, in prevalence between areas, probably the result of differences in cattle population structure and management practice. Direct contact with PI animals is probably the most important method of transmission of infection; however, field studies have shown that some limited spread of infection also occurs in the absence of PI animals. This may be due to contact with acutely infected animals or contact with other species infected with BVDV. Different ways of indirect transmission such as contaminated needles and equipment have been proven experimentally, and indirect transmission is considered to have some importance. If a PI animal is introduced directly into a dairy herd, most animals will be infected within a few months. On many occasions, however, a herd gets infected by other means than direct introduction of PI animals. In these cases, the infection is often spread to only a few animals after which the infections stops. The infection is then reinforced when PI animals are born. Slow and hence prolonged spread of infection in herds without PI animals also has been described, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Family lines of PI animals delivering PI calves are fairly common and can cause the infection to continue for several years. The clinical manifestations, acute BVDV, reproductive disorders, birth of malformed, weak and undersized calves, unthrifty PI animals, and mucosal disease often appear within certain periods. Large variation, however, can occur between herd outbreaks due to variation in virulence of the BVDV strain, housing of the cattle, and variation in transmission patterns. The extensive transmission of infection from PI animals makes different surveillance methods possible. Thus testing of a screening sample of a few young stock of antibodies and determination of antibody titer in bulk milk will often

  18. Why does epidemiology need better questionnaires?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, S.; Ring, I.; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research.......The authors argue for the use of validated questionnaires whenever possible to improve the quality of epidemiological research....

  19. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  2. Candida infections : detection and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, A. (Annemarie)

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that the yeast Candida is the number 4 cause of bloodstream infections in the United States and ranks number 8 in Europe, adequate detection methods are lacking. Furthermore, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of Candida. Our aim was to improve the detection and ident

  3. Glossary for econometrics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, F Imlach; Carter, K; Blakely, T

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologists and econometricians are often interested in similar topics-socioeconomic position and health outcomes-but the different languages that epidemiologists and economists use to interpret and discuss their results can create a barrier to mutual communication. This glossary defines key terms used in econometrics and epidemiology to assist in bridging this gap.

  4. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  5. Epidemiology, Management, and Risk-Adjusted Mortality of ICU-Acquired Enterococcal Bacteremia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, David S Y; Bonten, Marc J M; Safdari, Khatera; Spitoni, Cristian; Frencken, Jos F; Witteveen, Esther; Horn, Janneke; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; Cremer, Olaf L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcal bacteremia has been associated with high case fatality, but it remains unknown to what extent death is caused by these infections. We therefore quantified attributable mortality of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired bacteremia caused by enterococci. METHODS: From 2011 to 201

  6. Epidemiology, Management, and Risk-Adjusted Mortality of ICU-Acquired Enterococcal Bacteremia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, David S Y; Bonten, Marc J M; Safdari, Khatera; Spitoni, Cristian; Frencken, Jos F; Witteveen, Esther; Horn, Janneke; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; Cremer, Olaf L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Enterococcal bacteremia has been associated with high case fatality, but it remains unknown to what extent death is caused by these infections. We therefore quantified attributable mortality of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired bacteremia caused by enterococci. METHODS:  From 2011 to 2

  7. Staging neurodegenerative disorders: structural, regional, biomarker, and functional progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Beninger, Richard J; Palomo, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    The notion of staging in the neurodegenerative disorders is modulated by the constant and progressive loss of several aspects of brain structural integrity, circuitry, and neuronal processes. These destructive processes eventually remove individuals' abilities to perform at sufficient and necessary functional capacity at several levels of disease severity. The classification of (a) patients on the basis of diagnosis, risk prognosis, and intervention outcome, forms the basis of clinical staging, and (b) laboratory animals on the basis of animal model of brain disorder, extent of insult, and dysfunctional expression, provides the components for the clinical staging and preclinical staging, respectively, expressing associated epidemiological, biological, and genetic characteristics. The major focus of clinical staging in the present account stems from the fundamental notions of Braak staging as they describe the course and eventual prognosis for Alzheimer's disease, Lewy Body dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Mild cognitive impairment, which expresses the decline in episodic and semantic memory performance below the age-adjusted normal range without marked loss of global cognition or activities of daily living, and the applications of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging, major instruments for the monitoring of either disease progression in dementia, present important challenges for staging concepts. Although Braak notions present the essential basis for further developments, current staging conceptualizations seem inadequate to comply with the massive influx of information dealing with neurodegenerative processes in brain, advanced both under clinical realities, and discoveries in the laboratory setting. The contributions of various biomarkers of disease progression, e.g., amyloid precursor protein, and neurotransmitter system imbalances, e.g., dopamine receptor supersensitivity and interactive propensities, await their incorporation into the existing staging

  8. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  9. World epidemiology of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasagar, Brintha; Cox, Jessica; Herion, John T; Ivanoff, Erin

    2017-03-01

    While the term "gluten" has become commonplace, the disorders associated with gluten still remain poorly understood. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), the most recently recognized of the gluten-related disorders, is arguably the most unknown. While celiac disease and wheat allergy have diagnostic algorithm, NCGS remains a diagnosis of exclusion. With no evidence-based objective diagnostic criteria or serological tests, it is difficult to diagnose and even more difficult to study epidemiologically. Studies often use varied definitions of NCGS and are difficult to compare or validate. Further complicating diagnosis, NCGS has variable and wide-ranging symptoms which overlap with a number of other diseases and changes to diet are inherently difficult to study. In fact, some have argued that NCGS does not exist as a distinct entity or that it may not be caused by the gluten portion of foods. In this review, we outline the current knowledge, hypotheses, and debates surrounding the epidemiology of NCGS in the context of the spectrum of gluten-related disorders.

  10. Epidemiology of Anorexia Nervosa in Men : A Nationwide Study of Finnish Twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Hoek, Hans W.; Susser, Ezra; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background: To examine the epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in men, we screened Finnish male twins born in 1975-79. Methods and Findings: Men (N = 2122) from FinnTwin16 birth cohorts were screened for lifetime eating disorders by a questionnaire. The screen positives (N = 18), their male co-twins (N

  11. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  12. History and philosophy of modern epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of chronic diseases began around the mid-20th century. Contrary to the infectious disease epidemiology which had prevailed at the beginning of the 20th century and which had focused on single agents causing individual diseases, the chronic disease epidemiology which emerge...

  13. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  14. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model and latent DSM-IV personality disorder dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. DSM-IV personality disorder traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and personality disorder dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor ana...

  15. Comorbid mental disorders among the patients with alcohol abuse and dependence in Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Maeng Je; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Suh, Tongwoo; Suh, Guk-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Chung Kyoon

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of alcohol disorder comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, using Korean nationwide epidemiological data. By two-stage cluster sampling, 5,176 adult household residents of Korea were interviewed using the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Psychiatric disorders strongly associated with alcohol disorders were, other drug abuse or dependence, major depression, simple phobia, antisocial personality disorder, tobacco dependence, and pat...

  16. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer in Japan and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingsong; Totsuka, Yukari; He, Yutong; Kikuchi, Shogo; Qiao, Youlin; Ueda, Junko; Wei, Wenqiang; Inoue, Manami; Tanaka, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987-2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk.

  17. Personality disorders in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lenkiewicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult personality disorders are well recognized and described in the literature. The discussion about the possibility of the presence of personality disorders in adolescents started about 20 years ago. Some authors claim the before the age of 18 it is only possible to identify precursors of future personality disorders and such a standpoint is reflected in diagnostic criteria. This is based on the assumption that personality in adolescence is still not well established. Consequently, the criterion on the persistence of symptoms for the period of time cannot be met (the persistence of symptoms of personality disorders for the period of at least two years. Other approach postulates that problems presented in adolescence should not be exclusively limited to Axis I according to DSM. The proponents of this approach claim that current diagnostic tools are not adjusted to adolescents, thus it is very difficult to measure stability and persistence of symptoms in this age group. This paper presents literature review on personality disorders in adolescence.

  18. Epidemiology and consequences of women's revictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Rachel; Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Kaminski, Amy; Baumrind, Nikki

    2007-01-01

    This study uses Kraemer's approach for nonrandom comorbidity to identify the parameters of revictimization among women, using a diverse, population-based sample. Participants (n = 11,056) are from the California Women's Health Survey. Women were asked about childhood and adult violence and current symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Logistic regressions adjusted for age, ethnicity, education, and poverty indicate that women who experienced childhood physical or sexual abuse were 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 5.2-6.4) times more likely to experience adult physical or sexual victimization. Revictimization affected 12% of women, and these women were substantially more likely to report current symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD than women exposed to violence only in childhood or only as an adult. Revictimization is a methodologically distinct concept and is a potent risk factor for adult mental health problems. Prevention should target women exposed to both physical and sexual assault.

  19. The relationship of premorbid functioning to illness course in schizophrenia and psychotic mood disorders during two years following first hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Rachel; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn

    2006-10-01

    Studies suggest that better premorbid functioning is associated with better outcomes in chronic schizophrenia. Yet first admission studies, which are more appropriate to examine this, are less conclusive. Also, little attention has been given to whether these findings hold for other psychoses. We examined the relationship of premorbid functioning using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale and outcomes in first admission psychoses (schizophrenia, N = 177; bipolar disorder, N = 106; major depression, N = 68) in the Suffolk County-wide mental health project. Poor premorbid functioning was associated with worse outcomes in all three diagnostic groups. Specifically, it was associated with more negative symptoms early in the course of illness, less improvement in negative symptoms, poorer overall clinical functioning, and poorer social functioning. Consistent with new epidemiological research, early assessment of premorbid functioning could provide an avenue for targeted interventions that might improve outcomes.

  20. Menstrual Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Menstrual Disorders in Teens Page Content Article Body Within ... test Measurement of gonadotropins, prolactin and androgens How Menstrual Disorders are treated with Drug Therapy: After exclusion ...

  1. Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  2. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  4. Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is the basis for a condition called agoraphobia. A person who has agoraphobia finds it difficult to leave home (or another ... Disorders Education Program Last Updated: April 2014 Tags: agoraphobia, Alprazolam, antidepressants, anxiety disorders, behavior therapy, clonazepam, klonopin, ...

  5. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  6. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  7. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  8. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating disorders, or problems with weight, eating, or body image. Eating disorders are more than just going on a diet to lose weight or trying to exercise every day. They represent extremes in eating behavior ...

  9. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders.

  10. A review of Indian research on co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders.

  11. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  12. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. ©2014 AACR.

  13. Bases epidemiológicas para análise das más oclusões morfológicas como fatores de risco no desenvolvimento das desordens temporomandibulares de origem articular Epidemiological basis for the analysis of morphologic malocclusion as a risk factor for the development of temporomandibular joint disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Souza Tesch

    2004-10-01

    desnecessário.Among the researches undertaken in epidemiology, a peculiar group of pathologies present either unknown or not totally understood origins. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD can be classified in this subgroup. Three basic observational strategies have been used to approach the etiologic role of malocclusion in TMD development, inside the epidemiological repertoire. They are sectional, case-control and cohort studies. Some clinical trials are conducted based on the removal of the suspect etiologic factor. Based on the literature reviewed in terms of the methodology applied in the selected studies, we can infer that: the definition of possible etiological factors related to specific sub-groups of TMD is primordial not to underestimate the role of malocclusion in the development of this kind of disorders; the characterization of a normal occlusion like the one associated with the lower risk for TMD problems development can be useful, but the application of these parameters will probably result inappropriate for the resolution of a joint problem which is already established; the concept of lower risk occlusion would involve a small slide discrepancy between RCP and ICP, small incisal overlap, positive overbite and no posterior crossbite. This concept is similar to the concept of normal occlusion supported for decades, although a deviation from the normal criterion instead of an absolute criterion must be tolerated; although it may be prudent to establish therapeutic morphologic goals that seek what is observed in untreated occlusions deemed normal or ideal, the establishment of an occlusion that reach all these gnathologic criteria, by means of orthodontic treatment, might be either impossible or probably unnecessary.

  14. Genetic epidemiology of Scheuermann's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Frank; Engell, Vilhelm; Nielsen, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    The genetic/environmental etiology of Scheuermann's disease is unclear. We estimated the heritability of the disease using an etiological model adjusted for sex and time of diagnosis, and examined whether the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease was constant over time....

  15. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  16. Theory of Work Adjustment Personality Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Loralie

    1993-01-01

    To measure Theory of Work Adjustment personality and adjustment style dimensions, content-based scales were analyzed for homogeneity and successively reanalyzed for reliability improvement. Three sound scales were developed: inflexibility, activeness, and reactiveness. (SK)

  17. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  18. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Binge-eating, which is out-of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can lead ...

  19. Preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V Been

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995-23 September 2013 epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated "dose-response" associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57-1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29-1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children. The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61-3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55-3.12. Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual

  20. Capital adjustment patterns on Dutch pig farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a generalised adjustment cost framework that explicitly accounts for zero investments on Dutch pig farms. A farm-specific flexible adjustment cost function is used to account for differences in adjustment costs between farms. Using the Generalised Method of Moments the Euler equa