WorldWideScience

Sample records for adjusted skew information

  1. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...

  2. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  3. An uncertainty relation in terms of generalized metric adjusted skew information and correlation measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Jing; Cao, Huai-Xin; Meng, Hui-Xian; Chen, Liang

    2016-09-01

    The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics is a fundamental relation with different forms, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation and Schrödinger's uncertainty relation. In this paper, we prove a Schrödinger-type uncertainty relation in terms of generalized metric adjusted skew information and correlation measure by using operator monotone functions, which reads, U_ρ ^{(g,f)}(A)U_ρ ^{(g,f)}(B)≥ f(0)^2l/k| {Corr}_ρ ^{s(g,f)}(A,B)| ^2 for some operator monotone functions f and g, all n-dimensional observables A, B and a non-singular density matrix ρ . As applications, we derive some new uncertainty relations for Wigner-Yanase skew information and Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information.

  4. Inequalities for quantum skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audenaert, Koenraad; Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We study quantum information inequalities and show that the basic inequality between the quantum variance and the metric adjusted skew information generates all the multi-operator matrix inequalities or Robertson type determinant inequalities studied by a number of authors. We introduce an order...... relation on the set of functions representing quantum Fisher information that renders the set into a lattice with an involution. This order structure generates new inequalities for the metric adjusted skew informations. In particular, the Wigner-Yanase skew information is the maximal skew information...

  5. Sum uncertainty relations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-06-01

    We study sum uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite N quantum mechanical observables. Some uncertainty inequalities are presented by using skew information introduced by Wigner and Yanase. These uncertainty inequalities are nontrivial as long as the observables are mutually noncommutative. The relations among these new and existing uncertainty inequalities have been investigated. Detailed examples are presented.

  6. Quantifying Correlations via the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson Skew Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yajing; Cao, Huaixin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, based on a discussion about the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson (WYD) skew information, the measure F a, α ( ρ a b ) for correlations in terms of the WYD skew information is introduced and discussed. The following conclusions are obtained. For a classical-quantum state ρ a b , F a, α ( ρ a b )=0 if and only if ρ a b is a product state; F a, α ( ρ a b ) is locally unitary invariant and convex on the set of states with the fixed marginal ρ a ; F a, α ( ρ a b ) decreases under local random unitary operation on H b ; For a quantum-classical state ρ a b , F a, α ( ρ a b ) decreases under local operation on H b ; Lastly, F a, α ( ρ a b ) is computed for the pure states and the Bell-diagonal states, respectively.

  7. Shannon Entropy and Mutual Information for Multivariate Skew-Elliptical Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.

    2012-02-27

    The entropy and mutual information index are important concepts developed by Shannon in the context of information theory. They have been widely studied in the case of the multivariate normal distribution. We first extend these tools to the full symmetric class of multivariate elliptical distributions and then to the more flexible families of multivariate skew-elliptical distributions. We study in detail the cases of the multivariate skew-normal and skew-t distributions. We implement our findings to the application of the optimal design of an ozone monitoring station network in Santiago de Chile. © 2012 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  8. Vision Based Extraction of Nutrition Information from Skewed Nutrition Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Tanwir

    2016-01-01

    An important component of a healthy diet is the comprehension and retention of nutritional information and understanding of how different food items and nutritional constituents affect our bodies. In the U.S. and many other countries, nutritional information is primarily conveyed to consumers through nutrition labels (NLs) which can be found in all packaged food products. However, sometimes it becomes really challenging to utilize all this information available in these NLs even for consumers...

  9. Analyzing Fish Condition Factor Index Through Skew-Gaussian Information Theory Quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.

    2016-06-01

    Biological-fishery indicators have been widely studied. As such the condition factor (CF) index, which interprets the fatness level of a certain species based on length and weight, has been investigated, too. However, CF has been studied without considering its temporal features and distribution. In this paper, we analyze the CF time series via skew-gaussian distributions that consider the asymmetry produced by extreme events. This index is characterized by a threshold autoregressive model and corresponds to a stationary process depending on the shape parameter of the skew-gaussian distribution. Then we use the Jensen-Shannon (JS) distance to compare CF by length classes. This distance has mathematical advantages over other divergences such as Kullback-Leibler and Jeffrey’s, and the triangular inequality property. Our results are applied to a biological catalogue of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) from the northern coast of Chile, for the period 1990-2010 that consider monthly CF time series by length classes and sex. We find that for high values of shape parameter, JS distance tends to be more sensible to detect discrepancies than Jeffrey’s divergence. In addition, the body condition of male anchovies with higher lengths coincides with the ending of the moderate-strong El Niño event 91-92 and for both males and females, the smaller lengths coincide with the beginning of the strong El Niño event 97-98.

  10. Quantum skew divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R., E-mail: koenraad.audenaert@rhul.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, S9, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  11. Categorical skew lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kinyon, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Categorical skew lattices are a variety of skew lattices on which the natural partial order is especially well behaved. While most skew lattices of interest are categorical, not all are. They are characterized by a countable family of forbidden subalgebras. We also consider the subclass of strictly categorical skew lattices.

  12. Evaluation of an adjustable epidemiologic information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Shyan Julian Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate public health response and to achieve early control of infectious disease epidemics, an adjustable epidemiologic information system (AEIS was established in the Taiwan public health network in February 2006. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The performance of AEIS for the period 2006 through 2008 was evaluated based on a number of response times (RT and the public health impact. After implementation of the system, the apparent overall shortened RT was mainly due to the shortening of personnel response time (PRT and the time needed to draft a new questionnaire that incurred as personnel-system interface (PSI; PRT dropped from a fluctuating range of 9.8 ∼28.8 days in the first four months to <10 days in the following months and remained low till 2008 (0.88±1.52 days. The PSIs for newly emerged infectious diseases were 2.6 and 3.4 person-hours for H5N1 in 2007 and chikungunya in 2008, respectively, a much improvement from 1142.5 person-hours for SARS in 2003. The duration of each rubella epidemic cluster was evaluated as public health impact and showed a shortening trend (p = 0.019 that concurred with the shortening of PRT from 64.8±47.3 to 25.2±38.2 hours per cluster (p<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first evaluation of the novel instrument AEIS that had been used to assist Taiwan's multi-level government for infectious diseases control demonstrated that it was well integrated into the existing public health infrastructure. It provided flexible tools and computer algorithms with friendly interface for timely data collection, integration, and analysis; as a result, it shortened RTs, filled in gaps of personnel lacking sufficient experiences, created a more efficient flow of response, and identified asymptomatic/mild cases early to minimize further spreading. With further development, AEIS is anticipated to be useful in the application of other acute public health events needing immediate

  13. Data Mining with Skewed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gadi, Manoel Fernando Alonso; Lago, Alair Pereira do; Mehnen, Jorn

    2010-01-01

    This work provided a brief introduction to pratical problem solving for machine learning with skewed data sets. Classification methods are generally not designed to cope with skewed data, thus, various action have to be taken when dealing with imbalanced data sets. For a reader looking for more information about the field we can recommend a nice editorial by Chawla et al. ? and three conference proceedings Chawla et al. (2003); Dietterich et al. (2000); Japkowicz (2000). In addition, good a...

  14. Is a Brownian skew?

    CERN Document Server

    Lejay, Antoine; Torres, Soledad

    2011-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of the maximum likelihood estimator corresponding to the observation of a trajectory of a Skew Brownian motion, through a uniform time discretization. We characterize the speed of convergence and the limiting distribution when the step size goes to zero, which in this case are non-classical, under the null hypothesis of the Skew Brownian motion being an usual Brownian motion. This allows to design a test on the skewness parameter. We show that numerical simulations that can be easily performed to estimate the skewness parameter, and provide an application in Biology.

  15. From Skews to a Skewed-t

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel); R. Huisman (Ronald)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we present a new methodology to infer the implied risk-neutral distribution function from European-style options. We introduce a skewed version of the Student-t distribution, whose main advantage is that its shape depends on only four parameters, of which two directly contr

  16. Skewness preference across countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prospect theory implies that assets with positively skewed returns should be traded at premium to assets with negative skewness. We hypothesize that in the integrated financial markets this concept should also hold for the entire country equity portfolios. This article examines the linkages between the country-level expected returns and past skewness. We evidence a robust negative relationship between skewness and future returns. The phenomenon is most significant within large, liquid, developed, and open stock markets. Additional sorts on skewness can improve performance of both cross-country value and momentum strategies. The study is based on the sorting and cross-sectional tests conducted within a sample of 78 country equity markets for years 1999-2014.

  17. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  19. ADJUSTMENT OF LEVELING NETWORK BY INFORMATION SPREAD ESTIMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In practical parameter estimation,we have always chosen eitherLeast Squares Estimation(LSE) or Robust Estimation.Since the distribution of observations is unknown,to select a correct estimation method is very difficult.It is well known that if observations include gross errors,the result of LSE will be badly containinated.On the other hand,if observations do not include any gross errors,the result of robust estimation is not as good as that of LSE.To solve this problem,Wang (1999) developed an estimation method called Information Spread Estimation (ISE) based on the information spread principle.The ISE is a very good method for estimating one parameter which is very robust.However, most of instances in surveying data processing are multi-parameters' estimation,owing to the inherent restrictions of ISE,it can not be applied to the surveying data processing directly.To apply the good method to the field of surveying data processing widely,the author has done the research deeply.This paper applies ISE successfully to the adjustment of leveling network by using the specialties of leveling.

  20. Measuring Skewness: A Forgotten Statistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, David P.; Seward, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses common approaches to presenting the topic of skewness in the classroom, and explains why students need to know how to measure it. Two skewness statistics are examined: the Fisher-Pearson standardized third moment coefficient, and the Pearson 2 coefficient that compares the mean and median. The former is reported in statistical…

  1. Einstein manifolds with skew torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Agricola, Ilka; Ferreira, Ana Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the first systematic investigation of manifolds that are Einstein for a connection with skew symmetric torsion. We derive the Einstein equation from a variational principle and prove that, for parallel torsion, any Einstein manifold with skew torsion has constant scalar curvature; and if it is complete of positive scalar curvature, it is necessarily compact and it has finite first fundamental group. The longest part of the paper is devoted to the systematic constructi...

  2. Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker

    OpenAIRE

    Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or “transactional,” models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding,...

  3. 77 FR 38650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Services Statistical Data for Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status; OMB Control No.1615-0070. The Department of.../Collection: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable component...

  4. Multivariate extended skew-t distributions and related families

    KAUST Repository

    Arellano-Valle, Reinaldo B.

    2010-12-01

    A class of multivariate extended skew-t (EST) distributions is introduced and studied in detail, along with closely related families such as the subclass of extended skew-normal distributions. Besides mathematical tractability and modeling flexibility in terms of both skewness and heavier tails than the normal distribution, the most relevant properties of the EST distribution include closure under conditioning and ability to model lighter tails as well. The first part of the present paper examines probabilistic properties of the EST distribution, such as various stochastic representations, marginal and conditional distributions, linear transformations, moments and in particular Mardia’s measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis. The second part of the paper studies statistical properties of the EST distribution, such as likelihood inference, behavior of the profile log-likelihood, the score vector and the Fisher information matrix. Especially, unlike the extended skew-normal distribution, the Fisher information matrix of the univariate EST distribution is shown to be non-singular when the skewness is set to zero. Finally, a numerical application of the conditional EST distribution is presented in the context of confidential data perturbation.

  5. Skew quantum Murnaghan-Nakayama rule

    CERN Document Server

    Konvalinka, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we extend recent results of Assaf and McNamara on skew Pieri rule and skew Murnaghan-Nakayama rule to a more general identity, which gives an elegant expansion of the product of a skew Schur function with a quantum power sum function in terms of skew Schur functions. We give two proofs, one completely bijective in the spirit of Assaf-McNamara's original proof, and one via Lam-Lauve-Sotille's skew Littlewood-Richardson rule. We end with some conjectures for skew rules for Hall-Littlewood polynomials.

  6. Dimensions of attractors in pinched skew products

    CERN Document Server

    Gröger, M

    2011-01-01

    We study dimensions of strange non-chaotic attractors and their associated physical measures in so-called pinched skew products, introduced by Grebogi and his coworkers in 1984. Our main results are that the Hausdorff dimension, the pointwise dimension and the information dimension are all equal to one, although the box-counting dimension is known to be two. The assertion concerning the pointwise dimension is deduced from the stronger result that the physical measure is rectifiable. Our findings confirm a conjecture by Ding, Grebogi and Ott from 1989.

  7. Cooperation in a dynamical adjustment of duopoly game with incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the output competition of Cournot game, the adjustment of output is considered under the circumstances that participants have incomplete information. In this paper, two strategies with output's adjustment are mainly discussed: the tit-for-tat strategy and the tit-for-tat strategy with cooperative intention and their dynamic systems, respectively. The result shows that the tit-for-tat strategy may lead to the cooperation of them, but the stability of adjustment system is sensitive to the parameters; while the tit-for-tat strategy with cooperative intention can make the Pareto Optimality stable within the parameters' certain scope.

  8. Method of airborne SAR image match integrating multi-information for block adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S. C.; Huang, G. M.; Zhao, Z.; Lu, L. J.

    2015-06-01

    For the automation of SAR image Block Adjustment, this paper proposed a method of SAR image matching integrating multiinformation. It takes full advantage of SAR image geometric information, feature information, gray-related information and external auxiliary terrain information for SAR image matching. And then Image Tie Points (ITPs) of Block Adjustment can be achieved automatically. The main parts of extracting ITPs automatically include: First, SAR images were rectified geometrically based on the geometric information and external auxiliary terrain information (existed DEM) before match. Second, ground grid points with a certain interval can be get in the block area and approximate ITPs were acquired based on external auxiliary terrain information. Then match reference point was extracted for homologous image blocks with Harris feature detection operator and ITPs were obtained with pyramid matching based on gray-related information. At last, ITPs were transferred from rectified images to original SAR images and used in block adjustment. In the experiment, X band airborne SAR images acquired by Chinese airborne SAR system - CASMSAR system were used to make up the block. The result had showed that the method is effective for block adjustment of SAR data.

  9. A Pieri rule for skew shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami; Lam, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The Pieri rule expresses the product of a Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of Schur functions. We extend the classical Pieri rule by expressing the product of a skew Schur function and a single row Schur function in terms of skew Schur functions. Like the classical rule, our rule involves simple additions of boxes to the original skew shape.

  10. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Fortes, Elaine C. F. S.; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavo...

  11. The skewness of elliptic flow fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Giacalone, Giuliano; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Using event-by-event hydrodynamic calculations, we find that the fluctuations of the elliptic flow ($v_2$) in the reaction plane have a negative skew. Comparing the skewness of the $v_2$ fluctuations to that of the initial eccentricity fluctuations, we show that skewness is the main effect that separates higher-order cumulants. Furthermore, negative skew corresponds to the hierarchy $v_2\\{4\\}>v_2\\{6\\}$ observed in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. We describe how the skewness can be measured experimentally and show that hydrodynamics naturally reproduces its magnitude and centrality dependence.

  12. A proof for Rhiel's range estimator of the coefficient of variation for skewed distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhiel, G Steven

    2007-02-01

    In this research study is proof that the coefficient of variation (CV(high-low)) calculated from the highest and lowest values in a set of data is applicable to specific skewed distributions with varying means and standard deviations. Earlier Rhiel provided values for d(n), the standardized mean range, and a(n), an adjustment for bias in the range estimator of micro. These values are used in estimating the coefficient of variation from the range for skewed distributions. The d(n) and an values were specified for specific skewed distributions with a fixed mean and standard deviation. In this proof it is shown that the d(n) and an values are applicable for the specific skewed distributions when the mean and standard deviation can take on differing values. This will give the researcher confidence in using this statistic for skewed distributions regardless of the mean and standard deviation.

  13. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Dose Adjustment Recommendations: Agreement Among Four Drug Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millena Drumond Bicalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available : Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX®, UpToDate®, Medscape® and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss’ kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211–0.319 and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292–0.401, indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality.

  14. Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Dose Adjustment Recommendations: Agreement Among Four Drug Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicalho, Millena Drumond; Soares, Danielly Botelho; Botoni, Fernando Antonio; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras

    2015-09-09

    : Hospitalized patients require the use of a variety of drugs, many of which individually or in combination have the potential to cause kidney damage. The use of potentially nephrotoxic drugs is often unavoidable, and the need for dose adjustment should be evaluated. This study is aimed at assessing concordance in information on drug-induced nephrotoxicity and dose adjustment recommendations by comparing four drug information sources (DRUGDEX(®), UpToDate(®), Medscape(®) and the Brazilian Therapeutic Formulary) using the formulary of a Brazilian public hospital. A total of 218 drugs were investigated. The global Fleiss' kappa coefficient was 0.265 for nephrotoxicity (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.211-0.319) and 0.346 for recommendations (p < 0.001; CI 95%, 0.292-0.401), indicating fair concordance among the sources. Anti-infectives and anti-hypertensives were the main drugs cited as nephrotoxic by the different sources. There were no clear definitions for qualitative data or quantitative values for dose adjustments among the four information sources. There was no advice for dosing for a large number of the drugs in the international databases. The National Therapeutic Formulary offered imprecise dose adjustment recommendations for many nephrotoxic drugs. Discrepancies among information sources may have a clinical impact on patient care and contribute to drug-related morbidity and mortality.

  15. 77 FR 7243 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Post-Deployment Adjustment Among OEF and OIF Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Post-Deployment Adjustment Among OEF and OIF Veterans...'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Survey of Post-Deployment Adjustment Among OEF and OIF Veterans, VA Form...

  16. Tunable skewed edges in puckered structures

    OpenAIRE

    Grujić, Marko M.; Ezawa, Motohiko; Tadić, Milan Ž.; Peeters, Françios M.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new type of edges, arising due to the anisotropy inherent in the puckered structure of a honeycomb system such as in phosphorene. Skewed-zigzag and skewed-armchair nanoribbons are semiconducting and metallic, respectively, in contrast to their normal edge counterparts. Their band structures are tunable, and a metal-insulator transition is induced by an electric field. We predict a field-effect transistor based on the edge states in skewed-armchair nanoribbons, where the edge stat...

  17. Skew-Flavored Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fortes, Elaine C F S; Kilic, Can

    2015-01-01

    We explore a novel flavor structure in the interactions of dark matter with the Standard Model. We consider theories in which both the dark matter candidate, and the particles that mediate its interactions with the Standard Model fields, carry flavor quantum numbers. The interactions are skewed in flavor space, so that a dark matter particle does not directly couple to the Standard Model matter fields of the same flavor, but only to the other two flavors. This framework respects Minimal Flavor Violation, and is therefore naturally consistent with flavor constraints. We study the phenomenology of a benchmark model in which dark matter couples to right-handed charged leptons. In large regions of parameter space the dark matter can emerge as a thermal relic, while remaining consistent with the constraints from direct and indirect detection. The collider signatures of this scenario include events with multiple leptons and missing energy. These events exhibit a characteristic flavor pattern that may allow this cla...

  18. Portfolio optimization with skewness and kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Weng Hoe; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    Mean and variance of return distributions are two important parameters of the mean-variance model in portfolio optimization. However, the mean-variance model will become inadequate if the returns of assets are not normally distributed. Therefore, higher moments such as skewness and kurtosis cannot be ignored. Risk averse investors prefer portfolios with high skewness and low kurtosis so that the probability of getting negative rates of return will be reduced. The objective of this study is to compare the portfolio compositions as well as performances between the mean-variance model and mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model by using the polynomial goal programming approach. The results show that the incorporation of skewness and kurtosis will change the optimal portfolio compositions. The mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model outperforms the mean-variance model because the mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model takes skewness and kurtosis into consideration. Therefore, the mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis model is more appropriate for the investors of Malaysia in portfolio optimization.

  19. Skewed factor models using selection mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoung-Moon

    2015-12-21

    Traditional factor models explicitly or implicitly assume that the factors follow a multivariate normal distribution; that is, only moments up to order two are involved. However, it may happen in real data problems that the first two moments cannot explain the factors. Based on this motivation, here we devise three new skewed factor models, the skew-normal, the skew-tt, and the generalized skew-normal factor models depending on a selection mechanism on the factors. The ECME algorithms are adopted to estimate related parameters for statistical inference. Monte Carlo simulations validate our new models and we demonstrate the need for skewed factor models using the classic open/closed book exam scores dataset.

  20. Angular Distribution of Clustersin Skewed CDM Models

    CERN Document Server

    Borgani, S; Plionis, M

    1994-01-01

    We perform a detailed investigation of the statistical properties of the projected distribution of galaxy clusters obtained in Cold Dark Matter (CDM) models with both Gaussian and skewed primordial density fluctuations. We use N-body simulations to construct a set artificial Lick maps. An objective cluster--finding algorithm is used to identify clusters of different richness. For Gaussian models, the overall number of clusters is too small in the standard CDM case, but a model with higher normalisation fares much better; non--Gaussian models with negative skewness also fit faily well. We apply several statistical tests to compare real and simulated cluster samples, such as the 2-point correlation function, the minimal spanning tree construction, the multifractal analysis and the skewness of cell counts. The emerging picture is that Gaussian models, even with a higher normalization, are in trouble. Skew-positive models are also ruled out, while skew-negative models can reproduce the observed clustering of gala...

  1. Reproductive skew in the polygynandrous acorn woodpecker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydock, Joseph; Koenig, Walter D

    2002-05-14

    Reproductive skew models, which focus on the degree to which reproduction is shared equally (low skew) or monopolized by a single individual (high skew) within groups, have been heralded as providing a general unifying framework for understanding the factors determining social evolution. Here, we test the ability of optimal skew, or "transactional," models, which predict the level of skew necessary to promote stable associations of dominants and subordinates, rather than independent breeding, to predict reproductive partitioning in the acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus). This species provides a key test case because only a few vertebrates exhibit polygynandry (multiple breeders of both sexes within a group). Contrary to the predictions of the models, joint-nesting females share reproduction more equitably than expected, apparently because egg destruction and the inability of females to defend their eggs from cobreeders eliminate any possibility for one female to control reproduction. For males, however, reproductive skew is high, with the most successful male siring over three times as many young as the next most successful male. Although this result is consistent with optimal skew models, other aspects of male behavior are not; in particular, the reproductively most successful male frequently switches between nests produced by the same set of cobreeders, and we were unable to detect any phenotypic correlate of success. These results are consistent with an alternative null model in which cobreeder males have equal chance of paternity, but paternity of offspring within broods is nonindependent as a consequence of female, rather than male, control.

  2. A Simple Class of Measures of Skewness

    OpenAIRE

    ALTINAY, Galip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple class of measures for detecting skewness in samples is introduced. The new class of measures is based on a new definition of skewness that takes midrange into consideration. The proposed coefficients of skewness can be computed easily with only three of the summary statistics, i.e., the minimum value, the maximum value and the median (or the mode, or the mean). Another advantage of the new statistics is that they are bounded by -1 and +1, hence, the coefficients of ske...

  3. Automatic Time Skew Detection and Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Korchagin, Danil

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach for the automatic time skew detection and correction for multisource audiovisual data, recorded by different cameras/recorders during the same event. All recorded data are successfully tested for potential time skew problem and corrected based on ASR-related features. The core of the algorithm is based on perceptual time-quefrency analysis with a precision of 10 ms. The results show correct time skew detection and elimination in 100% of cases for a rea...

  4. Skewness of the standard model possible implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider combinations of gauge algebra and set of rules for quantization of gauge charges. We show that the combination of the algebra of the standard model and the rule satisfied by the electric charges of the quarks and leptons has an exceptional high degree of a kind of asymmetry which we call skewness. Assuming that skewness has physical significance and adding two other rather plausible assumptions, we may conclude that space time must have a non simply connected topology on very small distances. Such topology would allow a kind of symmetry breakdown leading to a more skew combination of gauge algebra and set of quantization rules. (orig.)

  5. Tunable skewed edges in puckered structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujić, Marko M.; Ezawa, Motohiko; Tadić, Milan Ž.; Peeters, François M.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a type of edges arising due to the anisotropy inherent in the puckered structure of a honeycomb system such as in phosphorene. Skewed-zigzag and skewed-armchair nanoribbons are semiconducting and metallic, respectively, in contrast to their normal edge counterparts. Their band structures are tunable, and a metal-insulator transition is induced by an electric field. We predict a field-effect transistor based on the edge states in skewed-armchair nanoribbons, where the edge state is gapped by applying arbitrary small electric field Ez. A topological argument is presented, revealing the condition for the emergence of such edge states.

  6. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kaichang; Zhao, Qiang; Wan, Wenhui; Wang, Yexin; Gao, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy. PMID:27529256

  7. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaichang Di

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy.

  8. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kaichang; Zhao, Qiang; Wan, Wenhui; Wang, Yexin; Gao, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy. PMID:27529256

  9. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kaichang; Zhao, Qiang; Wan, Wenhui; Wang, Yexin; Gao, Yunjun

    2016-08-13

    In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy.

  10. 76 FR 72242 - Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Post-Deployment Adjustment Among OEF and OIF Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Post-Deployment Adjustment Among OEF and OIF Veterans... necessary for the proper performance of VHA's functions, including whether the information will have... information; (3) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and...

  11. On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the Mean of a Skewed Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W.; Kibria, B. M. Golam

    2007-01-01

    A number of methods are available in the literature to measure confidence intervals. Here, confidence intervals for estimating the population mean of a skewed distribution are considered. This note proposes two alternative confidence intervals, namely, Median t and Mad t, which are simple adjustments to the Student's t confidence interval. In…

  12. Right Skewed Distribution of Activity Times in PERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Ravi Shankar,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A usual supposition in project management is that the distribution for most activities in a project network is right skewed. The prime objective of this paper is to find new path float in Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT for right skewed distribution of activity times in a project network. The new path float concept will bring useful planning information to the decision managers and the planners in the project construction. Our new path float in PERT are compared with normal, lognormal approximations with two parameters and also with beta approximations with three parameters. The comparison reveals that beta approximations with three parameters performs better than normal and lognormal approximations suggested.

  13. A New Method to Minimize the Clock Skew to Enhance Performance of Digital System

    OpenAIRE

    N. Suresh Kumar,; J. Anitha; M.S.S. Praveen,; N. Asok Kumar,; R. Ajay Suresh Babu

    2010-01-01

    A Pipe line technology is used in any digital system to perform multiple tasks simultaneously and to reduce the data losses in data transactions. But the conventional pipeline system is facing problems due to improper synchronization of clock pulses. This is a universal problem in all the digital systems mostly called jitter or skew. Inmost of the digital systems the propagation of information mainly controlled on the basis of clock pulses. In most of the digital systems the clock skew decrea...

  14. Modification of QUICK scheme by skew points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Malekzadeh, M. [K.N. Toosi Univ. of Technology, Aerospace Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Mirzaei@kntu.ac.ir

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a new method for convective flux approximation based on inclusions of skew points. The scheme uses the truncated terms of QUICK scheme and with the aid of an equation extracted from momentum equations, the skew points will appear in the convective flux formula. The results show that the presented scheme has better accuracy than the other schemes. Diffusion fluxes are approximated using power law scheme and for evaluation of the performance of the presented method several test cases were carried out and the results are compared with the results of other numerical works and experimental data. (author)

  15. Objective Bayesian Analysis of Skew- t Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    BRANCO, MARCIA D'ELIA

    2012-02-27

    We study the Jeffreys prior and its properties for the shape parameter of univariate skew-t distributions with linear and nonlinear Student\\'s t skewing functions. In both cases, we show that the resulting priors for the shape parameter are symmetric around zero and proper. Moreover, we propose a Student\\'s t approximation of the Jeffreys prior that makes an objective Bayesian analysis easy to perform. We carry out a Monte Carlo simulation study that demonstrates an overall better behaviour of the maximum a posteriori estimator compared with the maximum likelihood estimator. We also compare the frequentist coverage of the credible intervals based on the Jeffreys prior and its approximation and show that they are similar. We further discuss location-scale models under scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions and show some conditions for the existence of the posterior distribution and its moments. Finally, we present three numerical examples to illustrate the implications of our results on inference for skew-t distributions. © 2012 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  16. Adjusting the information service strategies according to users’ requirements—A survey of the library users’ information requirements in the four library systems of Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Puying

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey of the circumstances of the information requirements in social science from more than 3,800 library users in 48 libraries of the four major library systems in Zhejiang Province,this paper analyzes the present main characteristics of the users’requirements to the social science document information and puts forward some proposals for adjusting the document information service strategies for the library and information institutions.

  17. Minimal Residual Methods for Complex Symmetric, Skew Symmetric, and Skew Hermitian Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sou-Cheng; Choi

    2013-01-01

    While there is no lack of efficient Krylov subspace solvers for Hermitian systems, there are few for complex symmetric, skew symmetric, or skew Hermitian systems, which are increasingly important in modern applications including quantum dynamics, electromagnetics, and power systems. For a large consistent complex symmetric system, one may apply a non-Hermitian Krylov subspace method disregarding the symmetry of $A$, or a Hermitian Krylov solver on the equivalent normal equation or an augmente...

  18. Skew Pieri Rules for Hall-Littlewood Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Konvalinka, Matjaz

    2012-01-01

    We produce skew Pieri Rules for Hall--Littlewood functions in the spirit of Assaf and McNamara. The first two were conjectured by the first author. The key ingredients in the proofs are a q-binomial identity for skew partitions and a Hopf algebraic identity that expands products of skew elements in terms of the coproduct and the antipode.

  19. Maximal Subgroups of Skew Linear Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi

    2002-01-01

    Let D be an infinite division algebra of finite dimension over its centre Z(D) = F, and n a positive integer. The structure of maximal subgroups of skew linear groups are investigated. In particular, assume N is a normal subgroup of GLn(D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N containing Z(N). It is shown that if M/Z(N) is finite, then N is central.

  20. Study on the Distribution of Networked Devices’ Clock Skew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Chengbo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Clock skews of devices on the Internet are viewed as one way delay noise, but their distribution is unknown. We explore the distribution of clock skews to see the conflict probability. In this paper, we introduce an accurate clock skew estimation algorithm to filter inaccurate clock skew estimation by comparing the results between linear programming method and least square fitting. Delay jitter and other noises affect the estimation result. When the difference of two methods is large, the estimation result is unstable and inaccurate, so the estimation result should be dropped. Based on this algorithm, we use traces of real Internet measurements to collect 1825 accurate clock skews of different devices to establish a fingerprint database. Furthermore, we show the distribution of clock skews and comparing conflict probability with different number of devices. The distribution shows that clock skews are diverse, and most of clock skews are in the region of [-100, 100] PPM. The results indicate that when the number of devices is small (<5, clock skews won’t be conflict with each other, so clock skews are good tools to detect faked devices or NAT; When the number of devices increases, the conflict probability increases linearly, so clock skews of different devices can not distinguish each devices effectively.

  1. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  2. Bayesian modeling growth curves for quail assuming skewness in errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Rossi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian modeling growth curves for quail assuming skewness in errors - To assume normal distributions in the data analysis is common in different areas of the knowledge. However we can make use of the other distributions that are capable to model the skewness parameter in the situations that is needed to model data with tails heavier than the normal. This article intend to present alternatives to the assumption of the normality in the errors, adding asymmetric distributions. A Bayesian approach is proposed to fit nonlinear models when the errors are not normal, thus, the distributions t, skew-normal and skew-t are adopted. The methodology is intended to apply to different growth curves to the quail body weights. It was found that the Gompertz model assuming skew-normal errors and skew-t errors, respectively for male and female, were the best fitted to the data.

  3. SKEWNESS OF RETURN DISTRIBUTION AND COEFFICIENT OF RISK PREMIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenghua WEN; Xiaoguang YANG

    2009-01-01

    The skewness of the return distribution is one of the important features of the security price. In this paper, the authors try to explore the relationship between the skewness and the coefficient of risk premium. The coefficient of the risk premium is estimated by a GARCH-M model, and the robust measurement of skewness is calculated by Groeneveld-Meeden method. The empirical evidences for the composite indexes from 33 securities markets in the world indicate that the risk compensation requirement in the market where the return distribution is positively skewed is virtually zero, and the risk compensation requirement is positive in a significant level in the market where the return distribution is negative skewed. Moreover, the skewness is negatively correlated with the coefficient of the risk premium.

  4. Modelling Scalar Skewness in Cloudy Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Dmitrii; Machulskaya, Ekaterina; Naumann, Ann Kristin; Seifert, Axel; Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Following the pioneering work of Sommeria and Deardorff (1977), statistical cloud schemes are widely used in numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models to parameterize the effect of shallow clouds on turbulent mixing and radiation fluxes. Statistical cloud schemes compute the cloud fraction, the amount of cloud condensate and the effect clouds on the buoyancy flux in a given atmospheric-model grid box. This is done with due regard for the sub-grid scale (SGS) fluctuations of temperature and humidity (and possibly the vertical velocity), thus providing an important coupling between cloudiness and the SGS mixing processes. The shape of the PDF of fluctuating fields is assumed, whereas the PDF moments should be provided to the cloud scheme as an input. For non-precipitation clouds, the mixing schemes are usually formulated in terms of quasi-conservative variable, e.g. the liquid (total) water potential temperature and the total water specific humidity. Then, the cloud schemes are conveniently cast in terms of the linearized saturation deficit, referred to as the "s" variable (Mellor 1977), that accounts for the combined effect of the two scalars. If a simple two-parameter single-Gaussian PDF is used, the only "turbulence" parameter to be provided to the cloud scheme is the variance of s. The single-Gaussian PDF ignores the skewed nature of SGS motions and fails to describe many important regimes, e.g. shallow cumuli. A number of more flexible skewed PDFs have been proposed to date. A three-parameter PDF, based on a double-Gaussian distribution and diagnostic relations between some PDF parameters derived from LES and observational data (Naumann et al. 2013), appears to be a good compromise between physical realism and computational economy. A crucial point is that the cloud schemes using non-Gaussian PDFs require the scalar skewness as an input. Using rather mild non-restrictive assumptions, we develop a transport equation for the s-variable triple

  5. Skewed norms under peer pressure: Formation and collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Michaeli, Moti; Spiro, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that peer pressure may lead to dynamic convergence to a norm that is skewed with respect to preferences in society, yet is endogenously upheld by the population. Moreover, a skewed norm will often be more sustainable than a representative norm. This may explain the skewness of various social and religious norms. By furthermore interpreting a norm as a political regime, we show that biased regimes can be sustained even without the existence of a powerful group with coherent in...

  6. Coefficient of variation calculated from the range for skewed distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhiel, G Steven

    2006-02-01

    In this research a coefficient of variation (CVS(high.low)) is developed that is calculated from the highest and lowest values in a set of data for samples from skewed distributions. A correction factor is determined such that CVS(high-low) is a dose estimate of the population coefficient of variation when sampling from three skewed chi-squared distributions and three skewed empirical distributions. The empirical distributions are from "real-world" data sets in psychology and education.

  7. Skew Detection for Binary Document Images Using Mathematical Morphyology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The input document images with skew can be a serious problem in the optical character recognition system. A method is proposed for skew detection in binary document images using mathematic morphology. The basic process of our approach consists of three steps: Firstly, a dilation operation is applied to the binary image; Secondly, the dilated image is thinned; Finally, the skew angle is detected using the Hough transform. The proposed approach with high precision can detect skew with large angle (-90°-90°). The experimental result shows this method is applicable and efficient.

  8. ON SKEW-NORMAL MODEL FOR ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLOSUNDE AKINLOLU A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature related to skew-symmetric distribution have grown rapidly in recent years but at the moment no publication on its applications concerning the description of economically active data with this type of probability models. In this paper, we provided an extension to this skew-normal distribution, which is also part of the family of skewed class of normal but with additional shape parameters δ. Some properties of this distribution are presented and finally, we considered fitting it to economically active population data. The model exhibited a better behaviour when compared to normal and skew normal distributions.

  9. Robust skew estimation using straight lines in document images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung Il; Cho, Nam Ik

    2016-05-01

    A skew-estimation method using straight lines in document images is presented. Unlike conventional approaches exploiting the properties of text, we formulate the skew-estimation problem as an estimation task using straight lines in images and focus on robust and accurate line detection. To be precise, we adopt a block-based edge detector followed by a progressive line detector to take clues from a variety of sources such as text lines, boundaries of figures/tables, vertical/horizontal separators, and boundaries of textblocks. Extensive experiments on the datasets of skewed images and competition results reveal that the proposed method works robustly and yields accurate skew-estimation results.

  10. Skew t distribution and its moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saralees NADARAJAH; Arjun K.GUPTA

    2006-01-01

    A random variable X is said to have the skew- t distribution if its pdf is f (x) = 2g (x) G (λx), where g (·) and G(·), respectively, denote the pdf and the cdf of the Student's t distribution with degrees of freedom ν. The moments of this distribution appear not to have been studied in detail. In this paper, we derive general expressions for the nth moment of X by considering the cases ν odd and ν even separately. These expressions turn out to involve sums of the Gauss hypergeometric function. We also provide closed form expressions for the moments of X for the particular cases ν = 2, …, 10.

  11. Category Dynamical Systems and Skew Category Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Öinert, Johan

    2010-01-01

    We introduce category dynamical systems as functors $s$ from a category $G$ to $\\Top^{\\rm op}$ and show that they define what we call skew category algebras $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$. We study the connection between topological freeness of $s$ and, on the one hand, ideal properties of $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$ and, on the other hand, maximal commutativity of $A$ in $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$. In particular, we show that if $G$ is a groupoid and for each $e \\in \\ob(G)$ the group of all morphisms $e \\rightarrow e$ is countable and the topological space $s(e)$ is Tychonoff and Baire, then the following statements are equivalent: (i) $s$ is topologically free; (ii) if $I$ is a nonzero ideal of $A \\ltimes^{\\sigma} G$, then $I \\cap A \

  12. Mutation classes of skew-symmetrizable 3x3 matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Seven, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we determine representatives for the mutation classes of skew-symmetrizable 3x3 matrices and associated graphs using a natural minimality condition, generalizing and strengthening results of Beineke-Brustle-Hille and Felikson-Shapiro-Tumarkin. Furthermore, we obtain a new numerical invariant for the mutation operation on skew-symmetrizable matrices of arbitrary size.

  13. Random skew plane partitions with a piecewise periodic back wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutillier, Cedric; Mkrtchyan, Sevak; Reshetikhin, Nicolai;

    Random skew plane partitions of large size distributed according to an appropriately scaled Schur process develop limit shapes. In the present work we consider the limit of large random skew plane partitions where the inner boundary approaches a piecewise linear curve with non-lattice slopes. Much...

  14. Learning a Novel Pattern through Balanced and Skewed Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of balanced and skewed input at facilitating the acquisition of the transitive construction in Esperanto, characterized by the accusative suffix "-n" and variable word order (SVO, OVS). Thai university students (N = 98) listened to 24 sentences under skewed (one noun with high token frequency) or…

  15. Skewness as a probe of baryon acoustic oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juszkiewicz, Roman; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we show that the skewness S-3 of the cosmic density field contains a significant and potentially detectable and clean imprint of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs). Although the BAO signal in the skewness has a lower amplitude than second-order measures like the two-point correlati

  16. Market skewness risk and the cross section of stock returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, B.Y.; Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, K.

    2013-01-01

    exposure to innovations in implied market skewness exhibit low returns on average. The results are robust to various permutations of the empirical setup. The market skewness risk premium is statistically and economically significant and cannot be explained by other common risk factors such as the market...

  17. Skew Littlewood-Richardson rules from Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Thomas; Sottile, Frank

    2009-01-01

    We use Hopf algebras to prove a version of the Littlewood-Richardson formula for skew Schur functions, which implies a conjecture of Assaf and McNamara. We also establish a similar skew Littlewood-Richardson formula for Schur P- and Q-functions.

  18. Characteristic functions of scale mixtures of multivariate skew-normal distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoung-Moon

    2011-08-01

    We obtain the characteristic function of scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions both in the univariate and multivariate cases. The derivation uses the simple stochastic relationship between skew-normal distributions and scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions. In particular, we describe the characteristic function of skew-normal, skew-t, and other related distributions. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  20. 77 FR 64119 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee Adjusting Status, Form Number I-643...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee..., at 77 FR 38650, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS did not receive any comment(s) in...: Extension, Without Change, of a Currently Approved Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection:...

  1. DWT Domain Information Hiding Approach Using Detail Sub-band Feature Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiudong Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many algorithms based on HVS and DWT had been proposed for watermarking. But most of them aimed at the binary iconic watermark. So they are unsuitable for embedding other format watermarks such as the text file, the gray image or even the color image. This paper proposed a multi-format data source file supporting algorithm for watermarking and information hiding. Firstly, the algorithm transformed a source file into a binary watermark sequence and put redundant encoding and random scrambling on it. Then, the algorithm selected two neighboring blocks each time from the Hilbert scanning sequence of the host image blocks, and transformed them by DWT. Lastly, according to the different codes of each two sequential watermark bits, the algorithm chose one of two thresholds of just noticeable difference (JND to modify the average value features of two corresponding detail sub-bands to insert the watermark into the host image. Extracting hidden information only to need the embedded image without the original host images and the data source file, implemented the blind extraction to improve the security of secret information. The experimental results show that the embedded watermark is invisible, and the algorithm is robust to common image processing operations.

  2. Skewed RAPD markers in linkage maps of Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of RAPD markers with skewed segregation on genetic linkage maps. Segregation data for 123 Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck cv. Pêra markers and 53 C. reticulata Blanco cv. Cravo markers in F1 progeny composed of 94 hybrids were used. Genetic linkage maps of the two varieties were constructed with non-skewed markers (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 using the program MAPMAKER 3.0 and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The maps were compared to those constructed with all markers. Alterations in the genetic distances were observed based on the location of the skewed markers within the linkage groups. Generally, the skewed markers were located at the end of the linkage groups, sometimes forming entire linkage groups, without causing significant distance modifications. However, skewed markers located between non-skewed markers caused significant distance modifications and, in some cases, altered the order of the markers. Most of the skewed markers can be included in linkage maps, but in each case the degree of distance modification caused by each marker needs to be assessed.

  3. Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti; Gokhan Pekcan

    2008-01-01

    It is critical to ensure the functionality of highway bridges after earthquakes to provide access to important facilities.Since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake,there has been a better understanding of the seismic performance of bridges.Nonetheless,there are no detailed guidelines addressing the performance of skewed highway bridges.Several parameters affect the response of skewed highway bridges under both service and seismic loads which makes their behavior complex.Therefore,there is a need for more research to study the effect of skew angle and other related factors on the performance of highway bridges.This paper examines the seismic performance of a three-span continuous concrete box girder bridge with skew angles from 0 to 60 degrees,analytically.Finite element (FE) and simplified beam-stick (BS) models of the bridge were developed using SAP2000.Different types of analysis were considered on both models such as:nonlinear static pushover,and linear and nonlinear time history analyses.A comparison was conducted between FE and BS,different skew angles,abutment support conditions,and time history and pushover analysis.It is shown that the BS model has the capability to capture the coupling due to skew and the significant modes for moderate skew angles.Boundary conditions and pushover load profile are determined to have a major effect on pushover analysis.Pushover analysis may be used to predict the maximum deformation and hinge formation adequately.

  4. Delivering Left-Skewed Portfolio Payoff Distributions in the Presence of Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek B Krawczyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For pension-savers, a low payoff is a financial disaster. Such investors will most likely prefer left-skewed payoff distributions over right-skewed payoff distributions. We explore how such distributions can be delivered. Cautious-relaxed utility measures are cautious in ensuring that payoffs don’t fall much below a reference value, but relaxed about exceeding it. We find that the payoff distribution delivered by a cautious-relaxed utility measure has appealing features which payoff distributions delivered by traditional utility functions don’t. In particular, cautious-relaxed distributions can have the mass concentrated on the left, hence be left-skewed. However, cautious-relaxed strategies prescribe frequent portfolio adjustments which may be expensive if transaction costs are charged. In contrast, more traditional strategies can be time-invariant. Thus we investigate the impact of transaction costs on the appeal of cautious-relaxed strategies. We find that relatively high transaction fees are required for the cautious-relaxed strategy to lose its appeal. This paper contributes to the literature which compares utility measures by the payoff distributions they produce and finds that a cautious-relaxed utility measure will deliver payoffs that many investors will prefer.

  5. Utility functions predict variance and skewness risk preferences in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Wilfried; Stauffer, William R; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-26

    Utility is the fundamental variable thought to underlie economic choices. In particular, utility functions are believed to reflect preferences toward risk, a key decision variable in many real-life situations. To assess the validity of utility representations, it is therefore important to examine risk preferences. In turn, this approach requires formal definitions of risk. A standard approach is to focus on the variance of reward distributions (variance-risk). In this study, we also examined a form of risk related to the skewness of reward distributions (skewness-risk). Thus, we tested the extent to which empirically derived utility functions predicted preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk in macaques. The expected utilities calculated for various symmetrical and skewed gambles served to define formally the direction of stochastic dominance between gambles. In direct choices, the animals' preferences followed both second-order (variance) and third-order (skewness) stochastic dominance. Specifically, for gambles with different variance but identical expected values (EVs), the monkeys preferred high-variance gambles at low EVs and low-variance gambles at high EVs; in gambles with different skewness but identical EVs and variances, the animals preferred positively over symmetrical and negatively skewed gambles in a strongly transitive fashion. Thus, the utility functions predicted the animals' preferences for variance-risk and skewness-risk. Using these well-defined forms of risk, this study shows that monkeys' choices conform to the internal reward valuations suggested by their utility functions. This result implies a representation of utility in monkeys that accounts for both variance-risk and skewness-risk preferences.

  6. Differences of Skew Schur Functions of Staircases with Transposed Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Morin, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We consider the skew diagram $\\Delta_n$, which is the $180^\\circ$ rotation of the staircase diagram $\\delta_n = (n,n-1,n-2,...,2,1)$. We create a staircase with bad foundation by augmenting $\\Delta_n$ with another skew diagram, which we call the \\textit{foundation}. We consider pairs of staircases with bad foundation whose foundations are transposes of one another. Among these pairs, we show that the difference of the corresponding skew Schur functions is Schur-positive in the case when one of the foundations consists of either a one or two row diagram, or a hook diagram.

  7. Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.

  8. URANS COMPUTATION OF CAVITATING FLOWS AROUND SKEWED PROPELLERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; ZHAO Peng-fei; WANG Qiang; CHEN Zhao-hui

    2012-01-01

    Cavitating flows around skewed propellers are investigated numerically by means of the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equation method.The standard k-ε turbulence and the modified Z-G-B cavitation models are employed.A measured nominal wake is used for the inlet velocity boundary condition.Predicted cavitating evolution processes and tip cavity patterns are compared with experimental observations.In addition,the influence of the skew angles on the cavitation and unsteadiness performances of propellers operating in a non-uniform wake is also studied Results show that the modified Z-G-B cavitation model performs better to simulate the cavitating flow cases studied in this paper.Comparisons demonstrate that the skewed propeller with a skew angle of 20° is the best choice for a given stern wake with a assigned thrust and the minimum force fluctuations.

  9. PRINCIPLE OF SKEW QUADRUPOLE MODULATION TO MEASURE BETATRON COUPLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUO.Y.PILAT,F.ROSER,T.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    The measurement of the residual betatron coupling via skew quadrupole modulation is a new diagnostics technique that has been developed and tested at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) as a very promising method for the linear decoupling on the ramp. By modulating the strengths of different skew quadrupole families the two eigentunes are precisely measured with the phase lock loop system. The projections of the residual coupling coefficient onto the skew quadrupole coupling modulation directions are determined. The residual linear coupling could be corrected according to the measurement. An analytical solution for skew quadrupole modulation based on Hamiltonian perturbation approximation is given, and simulation code using smooth accelerator model is also developed. Some issues concerning the practical applications of this technique are discussed.

  10. Maximal supports and Schur-positivity among connected skew shapes

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, Peter R W

    2011-01-01

    The Schur-positivity order on skew shapes is defined by B \\leq A if the difference s_A - s_B is Schur-positive. It is an open problem to determine those connected skew shapes that are maximal with respect to this ordering. A strong sufficient condition for the Schur-positivity of s_A - s_B is that the support of B is contained in that of A, where the support of B is defined to be the set of partitions lambda for which s_lambda appears in the Schur expansion of s_B. We show that to determine the maximal connected skew shapes in the Schur-positivity order and this support containment order, it suffices to consider a special class of ribbon shapes. We explicitly determine the support for these ribbon shapes, thereby determining the maximal connected skew shapes in the support containment order.

  11. Kumaraswamy Normal and Azzalini's skew Normal modeling asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle A Correa; Denismar Alves Nogueira; Eric Batista Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of two probability distributions with specific parameters for modelling asymmetry. Kum-normal and Azzalini's skew normal distributions were chosen because they turn, in special case, into the normal distribution. The quality of the fit, flexibility and amount of asymmetry parameters were factors used for comparison. Researches state that the Azzalini's skew normal distribution has limitations regarding the flexibility of the tail, presenting certain resistan...

  12. Skew polynomial rings over abelian and idempotent reflexive rings

    OpenAIRE

    Louzari, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Let $R$ be a ring and $\\sigma$ an endomorphism of $R$. In this note, we study skew polynomial rings and skew power series rings over idempotent reflexive rings and abelian rings. Also, we introduce the concept of right (resp., left) $\\sigma$-idempotent reflexive rings which generalizes right (resp., left) idempotent reflexive rings and $\\sigma$-abelian rings. Certain results are obtained as corollaries from our results.

  13. Staircase skew Schur functions are Schur P-positive

    CERN Document Server

    Ardila, Federico

    2011-01-01

    We prove Stanley's conjecture that, if delta_n is the staircase shape, then the skew Schur functions s_{delta_n / mu} are non-negative sums of Schur P-functions. We prove that the coefficients in this sum count certain fillings of shifted shapes. In particular, for the skew Schur function s_{delta_n / delta_{n-2}}, we discuss connections with Eulerian numbers and alternating permutations.

  14. Skein Modules from Skew Howe Duality and Affine Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Queffelec, Hoel

    2013-01-01

    We show that we can release the rigidity of the skew Howe duality process for ${\\mathfrak sl}_n$ knot invariants by rescaling the quantum Weyl group action, and recover skein modules for web-tangles. This skew Howe duality phenomenon can be extended to the affine ${\\mathfrak sl}_m$ case, corresponding to looking at tangles embedded in a solid torus. We investigate the relations between the invariants constructed by evaluation representations (and affinization of them) and usual skein modules,...

  15. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  16. Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Melissa Burns

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

  17. Skewness and Kurtosis as Indicators of Non-Gaussianity in Sky Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-David, Assaf; Jackson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Observational cosmology is entering an era in which high precision will be required in both measurement and data analysis. Accuracy, however, can only be achieved with a thorough understanding of potential sources of contamination from foreground effects. Our primary focus will be on non- Gaussian effects in foregrounds. This issue will be crucial for coming experiments to determine B-mode polarization. We propose a novel method for investigating a data set in terms of skewness and kurtosis in locally defined regions that collectively cover the entire sky. The method is demonstrated on two sky maps: (i) the SMICA map of Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations provided by the Planck Collaboration and (ii) a version of the Haslam map at 408 MHz that describes synchrotron radiation. We find that skewness and kurtosis can be evaluated in combination to reveal local physical information. In the present case, we demonstrate that the local properties of both maps are predominantly Gaussian. This result was expected...

  18. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    CERN Document Server

    Brogioli, D; Croccolo, F; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called "skewed coherence beam", i.e., a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. When applied to quite turbid samples, the technique has the remarkable advantage of suppressing the multiple scattering contribution of the scattering signal. The phenomenon presented here represents a very effective method for measuring the coherence skewness of either a continuous wave or a pulsed beam. Another field of applicat...

  19. Skew Schur Functions of Sums of Fat Staircases

    CERN Document Server

    Morin, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We define a fat staircase to be a Ferrers diagram corresponding to a partition of the form $(n^{\\alpha_n}, {n-1}^{\\alpha_{n-1}},..., 1^{\\alpha_1})$, where $\\alpha = (\\alpha_1,...,\\alpha_n)$ is a composition, or the $180^\\circ$ rotation of such a diagram. If a diagram's skew Schur function is a linear combination of Schur functions of fat staircases, we call the diagram a sum of fat staircases. We prove a Schur-positivity result that is obtained each time we augment a sum of fat staircases with a skew diagram. We also determine conditions on which diagrams can be sums of fat staircases, including necessary and sufficient conditions in the special case when the diagram is a fat staircase skew a single row or column.

  20. Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2015-11-24

    Determining collective barrier operation skew in a parallel computer that includes a number of compute nodes organized into an operational group includes: for each of the nodes until each node has been selected as a delayed node: selecting one of the nodes as a delayed node; entering, by each node other than the delayed node, a collective barrier operation; entering, after a delay by the delayed node, the collective barrier operation; receiving an exit signal from a root of the collective barrier operation; and measuring, for the delayed node, a barrier completion time. The barrier operation skew is calculated by: identifying, from the compute nodes' barrier completion times, a maximum barrier completion time and a minimum barrier completion time and calculating the barrier operation skew as the difference of the maximum and the minimum barrier completion time.

  1. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account. PMID:27230477

  2. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  3. Effect of Phase Response Curve Skew on Synchronization with and without Conduction Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eCanavier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in cortical processing including sensory binding and attentional gating is how neurons can synchronize their responses with zero or near-zero time lag. For a spontaneously firing neuron, an input from another neuron can delay or advance the next spike by different amounts depending upon the timing of the input relative to the previous spike. This information constitutes the phase response curve (PRC. We present a simple graphical method for determining the effect of PRC shape on synchronization tendencies and illustrate it using type 1 PRCs, which consist entirely of advances (delays in response to excitation (inhibition. We obtained the following generic solutions for type 1 PRCs, which include the pulse coupled leaky integrate and fire model. For pairs with mutual excitation, exact synchrony can be stable for strong coupling because of the stabilizing effect of the causal limit region of the PRC in which an input triggers a spike immediately upon arrival. However, synchrony is unstable for short delays, because delayed inputs arrive during a refractory period and cannot trigger an immediate spike. Right skew destabilizes antiphase and enables modes with time lags that grow as the conduction delay is increased. Therefore, right skew favors near-synchrony at short conduction delays and a gradual transition between synchrony and antiphase for pairs coupled by mutual excitation. For pairs with mutual inhibition, zero time lag synchrony is stable for conduction delays ranging from zero to a substantial fraction of the period for pairs. However, for right skew there is a preferred antiphase mode at short delays. In contrast to mutual excitation, left skew destabilizes antiphase for mutual inhibition so that synchrony dominates at short delays as well. These pairwise synchronization tendencies constrain the synchronization properties of neurons embedded in larger networks.

  4. The Dark Triad of personality in adolescence: Psychometric properties of a concise measure and associations with adolescent adjustment from a multi-informant perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimstra, T.A.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Henrichs, J.; Cima, M.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the Dark Triad of personality (i.e., Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) is useful in explaining individual differences in adult adjustment. The present study is among the first to examine unique effects of these traits on multi-informant ratings of ado

  5. Parameterizing unconditional skewness in models for financial time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Changli; Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper we consider the third-moment structure of a class of time series models. It is often argued that the marginal distribution of financial time series such as returns is skewed. Therefore it is of importance to know what properties a model should possess if it is to accommodate...... unconditional skewness. We consider modelling the unconditional mean and variance using models that respond nonlinearly or asymmetrically to shocks. We investigate the implications of these models on the third-moment structure of the marginal distribution as well as conditions under which the unconditional...

  6. Skew-orthogonal polynomials, differential systems and random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study skew-orthogonal polynomials with respect to the weight function exp[-2V (x)], with V (x) = ΣK=12d (uK/K)xK, u2d > 0, d > 0. A finite subsequence of such skew-orthogonal polynomials arising in the study of Orthogonal and Symplectic ensembles of random matrices, satisfy a system of differential-difference-deformation equation. The vectors formed by such subsequence has the rank equal to the degree of the potential in the quaternion sense. These solutions satisfy certain compatibility condition and hence admit a simultaneous fundamental system of solutions. (author)

  7. Power and Skew Aware Point Diffusion Clock Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gunok; Kim, Chunghee; Chae, Kyoungkuk; Park, Giho; Park, Sung Bae

    This letter presents point diffusion clock network (PDCN) with local clock tree synthesis (CTS) scheme. The clock network is implemented with ten times wider metal line space than typical mesh networks for low power and utilized to nine times smaller area CTS execution for minimized clock skew amount. The measurement results show that skew amount of PDCN with local CTS is reduced to 36% and latency is shrunk to 45% of the amount in a 4.81mm2 CortexA-8 core with 65nm Samsung process.

  8. Bayesian inference for a nonlinear mixed-effects Tobit model with multivariate skew-t distributions: application to AIDS studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagne, Getachew; Huang, Yangxin

    2016-01-01

    Censored data are characteristics of many bioassays in HIV/AIDS studies where assays may not be sensitive enough to determine gradations in viral load determination among those below a detectable threshold. Not accounting for such left-censoring appropriately can lead to biased parameter estimates in most data analysis. To properly adjust for left-censoring, this paper presents an extension of the Tobit model for fitting nonlinear dynamic mixed-effects models with skew distributions. Such extensions allow one to specify the conditional distributions for viral load response to account for left-censoring, skewness and heaviness in the tails of the distributions of the response variable. A Bayesian modeling approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to estimate model parameters. The proposed methods are illustrated using real data from an HIV/AIDS study. PMID:22992288

  9. Bayesian inference for a nonlinear mixed-effects Tobit model with multivariate skew-t distributions: application to AIDS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagne, Getachew; Huang, Yangxin

    2012-01-01

    Censored data are characteristics of many bioassays in HIV/AIDS studies where assays may not be sensitive enough to determine gradations in viral load determination among those below a detectable threshold. Not accounting for such left-censoring appropriately can lead to biased parameter estimates in most data analysis. To properly adjust for left-censoring, this paper presents an extension of the Tobit model for fitting nonlinear dynamic mixed-effects models with skew distributions. Such extensions allow one to specify the conditional distributions for viral load response to account for left-censoring, skewness and heaviness in the tails of the distributions of the response variable. A Bayesian modeling approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to estimate model parameters. The proposed methods are illustrated using real data from an HIV/AIDS study. PMID:22992288

  10. An 8-bit 100-MS/s digital-to-skew converter embedded switch with a 200-ps range for time-interleaved sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Xiaoshi; Chen Chixiao; Xu Jialiang; Ye Fan; Ren Junyan

    2013-01-01

    A sampling switch with an embedded digital-to-skew converter (DSC) is presented.The proposed switch eliminates time-interleaved ADCs' skews by adjusting the boosted voltage.A similar bridged capacitors' charge sharing structure is used to minimize the area.The circuit is fabricated in a 0.18μm CMOS process and achieves sub-1 ps resolution and 200 ps timing range at a rate of 100 MS/s.The power consumption is 430 μW at maximum.The measurement result also includes a 2-channel 14-bit 100 MS/s time-interleaved ADCs (TI-ADCs) with the proposed DSC switch's demonstration.This scheme is widely applicable for the clock skew and aperture error calibration demanded in TI-ADCs and SHA-less ADCs.

  11. An 8-bit 100-MS/s digital-to-skew converter embedded switch with a 200-ps range for time-interleaved sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sampling switch with an embedded digital-to-skew converter (DSC) is presented. The proposed switch eliminates time-interleaved ADCs' skews by adjusting the boosted voltage. A similar bridged capacitors' charge sharing structure is used to minimize the area. The circuit is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and achieves sub-1 ps resolution and 200 ps timing range at a rate of 100 MS/s. The power consumption is 430 μW at maximum. The measurement result also includes a 2-channel 14-bit 100 MS/s time-interleaved ADCs (TI-ADCs) with the proposed DSC switch's demonstration. This scheme is widely applicable for the clock skew and aperture error calibration demanded in TI-ADCs and SHA-less ADCs. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. On Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Linear System with Skew Circulant Coefficient Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhaolin; Shen, Nuo; Zhou, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    We first give the style spectral decomposition of a special skew circulant matrix C and then get the style decomposition of arbitrary skew circulant matrix by making use of the Kronecker products between the elements of first row in skew circulant and the special skew circulant C. Besides that, we obtain the singular value of skew circulant matrix as well. Finally, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the linear system with skew circulant coefficient matrix on the base of its style spectral decomposition. PMID:24369488

  13. An Identity with Skew Derivations on Lie Ideals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng-ping; Rehman Ur Nadeem; Huang Shu-liang

    2016-01-01

    Let R be a 2-torsion free prime ring and L a noncommutative Lie ideal of R. Suppose that (d,σ) is a skew derivation of R such that xsd(x)xt = 0 for all x∈L, where s, t are fixed non-negative integers. Then d=0.

  14. Modules over Double Crossproducts of Skew-Hopf Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘庆年; 郝志峰

    2002-01-01

    The purpose is to study modules of double crossproducts D( X, A ) of Skew-Hopf pairs (X,A). A sufficient and necessary condition for M to be D( X,A )-mod is shown. Relations between D( X, A ) -mod and quantam Yang-Baxter A-mod or X-mod are revealed.

  15. Asymmetric skew Bessel processes and their applications to finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Decamps; M.J. Goovaerts; W. Schoutens

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the Harrison and Shepp's construction of the skew Brownian motion (1981) and we obtain a diffusion similar to the two-dimensional Bessel process with speed and scale densities discontinuous at one point. Natural generalizations to multi-dimensional and fractional order Besse

  16. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one ...

  17. Thermocline Feedback Influence on Indian Ocean Dipole Skewness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, B.; Cai, W.; Walsh, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. These impacts from positive IODs range from drought over Australia and Indonesia, to flooding over East Africa and India. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming.

  18. On Bayesian Modelling of Fat Tails and Skewness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, C.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a Bayesian analysis of linear regression models that can account for skewed error distributions with fat tails.The latter two features are often observed characteristics of empirical data sets, and we will formally incorporate them in the inferential process.A general procedure for intro

  19. Heteroscedastic nonlinear regression models based on scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachos, Victor H; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Garay, Aldo M

    2011-08-01

    An extension of some standard likelihood based procedures to heteroscedastic nonlinear regression models under scale mixtures of skew-normal (SMSN) distributions is developed. We derive a simple EM-type algorithm for iteratively computing maximum likelihood (ML) estimates and the observed information matrix is derived analytically. Simulation studies demonstrate the robustness of this flexible class against outlying and influential observations, as well as nice asymptotic properties of the proposed EM-type ML estimates. Finally, the methodology is illustrated using an ultrasonic calibration data.

  20. Joint IQ Skew and Chromatic Dispersion Estimation for Coherent Optical Communication Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Porto da Silva, Edson; Piels, Molly;

    2016-01-01

    A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment....

  1. Experimental and Finite Element Studies on Free Vibration of Skew Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa C.V.; Suresh Y.J.; Prema Kumar W.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with the experimental studies carried out on free vibration of isotropic and laminated composite skew plates. The natural frequencies were also determined using QUAD8 finite element of MSC/NASTRAN and a comparison was made between the experimental values and the finite element solution. The effects of the skew angle and aspect ratio on the natural frequencies of isotropic skew plates were studied. The effects of the skew angle, aspect ratio, fiber orientation angle and...

  2. The equity premium and the volatility spread: The role of risk-neutral skewness

    OpenAIRE

    Feunou, Bruno; Fontaine, Jean-Sébastien; Tedongap, Roméo

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the Homoscedastic Gamma [HG] model where the distribution of returns is characterized by its mean, variance and an independent skewness parameter under both measures. The model predicts that the spread between historical and risk-neutral volatilities is a function of the risk premium and of skewness. In fact, the equity premium is twice the ratio of the volatility spread to skewness. We measure skewness from option prices and test these predictions. We find that conditioning on s...

  3. Technological Inefficiency and the Skewness of the Error Component in Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper concentrates on negatively skewed one-sided distributions as an explanation of the occurence of positive (negative) skewness in the case of stochastic production (cost) frontier analysis. It takes as example the binomial distribution that can have negative or positive skew and

  4. Dimension theoretical study on skew product maps with coupled-expanding property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyon Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss on some families of skew product maps on a square. For a kind of skew product maps with coupled-expanding property, we estimate Hausdorff dimension of its attractor. And we prove that there exists an ergodic measure with full Hausdorff dimension for this kind of skew product maps.

  5. Regularized multivariate regression models with skew-t error distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianfu

    2014-06-01

    We consider regularization of the parameters in multivariate linear regression models with the errors having a multivariate skew-t distribution. An iterative penalized likelihood procedure is proposed for constructing sparse estimators of both the regression coefficient and inverse scale matrices simultaneously. The sparsity is introduced through penalizing the negative log-likelihood by adding L1-penalties on the entries of the two matrices. Taking advantage of the hierarchical representation of skew-t distributions, and using the expectation conditional maximization (ECM) algorithm, we reduce the problem to penalized normal likelihood and develop a procedure to minimize the ensuing objective function. Using a simulation study the performance of the method is assessed, and the methodology is illustrated using a real data set with a 24-dimensional response vector. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. A stochastic daily weather generator for skewed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecher, C.; Naveau, P.; Allard, D.; Brisson, N.

    2010-07-01

    To simulate multivariate daily time series (minimum and maximum temperatures, global radiation, wind speed, and precipitation intensity), we propose a weather state approach with a multivariate closed skew-normal generator, WACS-Gen, that is able to accurately reproduce the statistical properties of these five variables. Our weather generator construction takes advantage of two elements. We first extend the classical wet and dry days dichotomy used in most past weather generators to the definition of multiple weather states using clustering techniques. The transitions among weather states are modeled by a first-order Markov chain. Second, the vector of our five daily variables of interest is sampled, conditionally on these weather states, from a closed skew-normal distribution. This class of distribution allows us to handle nonsymmetric behaviors. Our method is applied to the 20 years of daily weather measurements from Colmar, France. This example illustrates the advantages of our approach, especially improving the simulation of radiation and wind distributions.

  7. Neural Network Approach to Railway Stand Lateral SKEW Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mark Benes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of an adaptive approach to lateral skew co ntrol for an experimental railway stand. The preliminary experiments with the real ex perimental railway stand and simulations with its 3-D mechanical model, indicates difficulties of model-based control of the device. Thus, use of neural networks for identification and c ontrol of lateral skew shall be investigated. This paper focuses on real-data based modelling of the railway stand by various neural network models, i.e; linear neural unit and quadratic neur al unit architectures. Furthermore, training methods of these neural architecture s as such, real-time-recurrent- learning and a variation of back-propagation-through-time are exam ined, accompanied by a discussion of the produced experimental results

  8. Adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava ...

  9. Regional skew for California, and flood frequency for selected sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, based on data through water year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrett, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea; Stedinger, J.R.; Barth, N.A.; Knifong, Donna L.; Ferris, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Improved flood-frequency information is important throughout California in general and in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin in particular, because of an extensive network of flood-control levees and the risk of catastrophic flooding. A key first step in updating flood-frequency information is determining regional skew. A Bayesian generalized least squares (GLS) regression method was used to derive a regional-skew model based on annual peak-discharge data for 158 long-term (30 or more years of record) stations throughout most of California. The desert areas in southeastern California had too few long-term stations to reliably determine regional skew for that hydrologically distinct region; therefore, the desert areas were excluded from the regional skew analysis for California. Of the 158 long-term stations used to determine regional skew, 145 have minimally regulated annual-peak discharges, and 13 stations are dam sites for which unregulated peak discharges were estimated from unregulated daily maximum discharge data furnished by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using an expected moments algorithm (EMA) program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual peak-discharge data. The Bayesian GLS regression method previously developed was modified because of the large cross correlations among concurrent recorded peak discharges in California and the use of censored data and historical flood information with the new expected moments algorithm. In particular, to properly account for these cross-correlation problems and develop a suitable regression model and regression diagnostics, a combination of Bayesian weighted least squares and generalized least squares regression was adopted. This new methodology identified a nonlinear function relating regional skew to mean basin elevation. The regional skew values ranged from -0.62 for a mean basin elevation of zero to 0.61 for a mean basin elevation

  10. [Health appraisal for work adjustment of freshmen employees--information on health checkup just after entering the corporation and condition in the next fiscal year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, M; Fukui, T; Tatemichi, M; Minowa, H; Ikegami, Y; Miyawaki, Y; Ishizuka, Y; Izuno, T

    1995-03-01

    In 1990, 365 (males: 197, females: 168) freshmen employees at the headquarters of a large corporation were examined just after being hired in order to observe their health status. We collected (1) data of physical examinations and questionnaires for symptoms as an ordinary health checkup, (2) information on work adjustment, life patterns, and personal characteristics through interviews conducted by ten public health nurses, and (3) personal records, e.g. birth year. Statistical analyses revealed some notable findings as follows: (1) subjects with higher blood pressure had higher scores of extrovert personality among males, (2) female subjects with greater body mass index had higher scores in such manifestations of personal characteristics such as aggression and discontent with superiors, (3) higher scores of personal characteristics were noted among female subjects working in technical sections, (4) positive correlation between the scores of work adjustment and personal characteristics, (5) higher scores of undesirable life patterns among males and of work maladjustment among elder females, (6) unbalanced meal quality of subjects from rural areas, (7) higher mental tension among younger males from rural areas, and (8) higher scores of dependency and lower morale among younger female subjects. Information on health problems was collected over the 1.5 yrs that followed. More problems were detected among females than among males and among younger females than among elder females. Longitudinal analysis was carried out from just after entry into the company for approximately 1.5 yrs. Health problems in females could be predicted by the data on personal characteristics and work adjustment just after entry. Risk of health problems in male freshmen employees with hobbies and unhealthy drinking habits over the 1.5 yrs that followed was higher than in others. It was concluded that a health interview for freshmen employees by public health nurses is valuable for health care

  11. Double-dimer pairings and skew Young diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard W.; Wilson, David B.

    2010-01-01

    We study the number of tilings of skew Young diagrams by ribbon tiles shaped like Dyck paths, in which the tiles are "vertically decreasing". We use these quantities to compute pairing probabilities in the double-dimer model: Given a planar bipartite graph $G$ with special vertices, called nodes, on the outer face, the double-dimer model is formed by the superposition of a uniformly random dimer configuration (perfect matching) of $G$ together with a random dimer configuration of the graph fo...

  12. "Skew" scattering of cold unpolarized neutrons in ferromagnetic crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Udalov, O. G.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of neutron scattering by the single magnetic atom is theoretically considered in the second order perturbation theory. It is demonstrated that elastic scattering of unpolarized neutron by magnetic atom is skewed, i.e. contains the term with the symmetry of mixed product of the atom magnetic moment and wave vectors of incident and scattered neutrons. The problem of dynamical diffraction of unpolarized neutrons by the perfect ferromagnetic crystal is investigated. The case is consid...

  13. Too many skew normal distributions? The practitioner’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Charemza, W.; Diaz Vela, C.; Makarova, S.

    2013-01-01

    The paper tackles the issue of possible misspecification in fitting skew normal distributions to empirical data. It is shown, through numerical experiments, that it is easy to choose a distribution which is different from this which actually generated the sample, if the minimum distance criterion is used. It is suggested that, in case of similar values of distance measures obtained for different distributions, the choice should be made on the grounds of parameters’ interpretation rather than ...

  14. Exponential speed of mixing for skew-products with singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let f : [0, 1]/{1/2} × [0, 1] → [0, 1] × [0, 1] be the C∞ endomorphism given. We prove that f is topologically mixing and if c > 1/4 then f is mixing with respect to the Lebesgue measure. Furthermore the speed of mixing is exponential. This skew-product can be seen as a toy model related to Lorenz-like attractors. (paper)

  15. Conformal string operators and evolution of skewed parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Kivel, N A

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated skewed parton distributions in coordinate space. We found that their evolution can be described in a simple manner in terms of non-local, conformal operators introduced by Balitsky and Braun. The resulting formula is given by a Neumann series expansion. Its structure resembles, for all values of the asymmetry parameter, the well-known solution of the ERBL equation in the momentum space. Performing Fourier transformation we have reproduced known results for evolution of momentum-space distributions.

  16. Cross-sectional analysis of risk-neutral skewness

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Stephen J.; Yadav, Pradeep K.; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the association of various firm-specific and market-wide factors with the riskneutral skewness (RNS) implied by the prices of individual stock options. Our analysis covers 149 U.S. firms over a four-year period. Our choice of firms is based on adequate liquidity and trading interest across different strike prices in the options market, ensuring economically meaningful RNS estimates. We also incorporate significant methodological enhancements. Consistent with earlier results, we...

  17. Kurtosis, skewness, and non-Gaussian cosmological density perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaochun; Schramm, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Cosmological topological defects as well as some nonstandard inflation models can give rise to non-Gaussian density perturbations. Skewness and kurtosis are the third and fourth moments that measure the deviation of a distribution from a Gaussian. Measurement of these moments for the cosmological density field and for the microwave background temperature anisotropy can provide a test of the Gaussian nature of the primordial fluctuation spectrum. In the case of the density field, the importance of measuring the kurtosis is stressed since it will be preserved through the weakly nonlinear gravitational evolution epoch. Current constraints on skewness and kurtosis of primeval perturbations are obtained from the observed density contrast on small scales and from recent COBE observations of temperature anisotropies on large scales. It is also shown how, in principle, future microwave anisotropy experiments might be able to reveal the initial skewness and kurtosis. It is shown that present data argue that if the initial spectrum is adiabatic, then it is probably Gaussian, but non-Gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are still allowed, and these are what topological defects provide.

  18. Tide and skew surge independence: New insights for flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanne; Horsburgh, Kevin J.; Williams, Jane A.; Proctor, Robert N. F.

    2016-06-01

    Storm surges are a significant hazard to coastal communities around the world, putting lives at risk and costing billions of dollars in damage. Understanding how storm surges and high tides interact is crucial for estimating extreme water levels so that we can protect coastal communities. We demonstrate that in a tidal regime the best measure of a storm surge is the skew surge, the difference between the observed and predicted high water within a tidal cycle. Based on tide gauge records spanning decades from the UK, U.S., Netherlands, and Ireland we show that the magnitude of high water exerts no influence on the size of the most extreme skew surges. This is the first systematic proof that any storm surge can occur on any tide, which is essential for understanding worst-case scenarios. The lack of surge generation dependency on water depth emphasizes the dominant natural variability of weather systems in an observation-based analysis. Weak seasonal relationships between skew surges and high waters were identified at a minority of locations where long-period changes to the tidal cycle interact with the storm season. Our results allow advances to be made in methods for estimating the joint probabilities of storm surges and tides.

  19. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...

  20. Light transmission for polymer fibers using skew and meridional rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekelioglu, Murat

    This dissertation is concerned with the development of a light transmission model for polymer optical fibers having application in hybrid solar lighting (HSL) systems. Conceptually, the HSL system consists of a solar collector/receiver that focuses concentrated visible solar light onto a polymer optical fiber (up to 10-m-long) that transports the solar light to an interior space. For this study, the polymer optical fiber is a large-core (0.2-40 mm diameter) plastic optical fiber (POF) comprised of various lengths of straight and bent sections. Although there has been extensive research on the transmission of monochromatic light through optical fibers for the communications industry, there are relatively few publications for visible light transmission through POFs. These publications were critically reviewed in this research. It is shown that the light transmission can be described with either skew or meridional rays. For each ray type, the HSL system light transmission was determined as a function of fiber geometrical properties (core and cladding radii, bend radius, bend angle, and fiber length) and optical properties (core and clad refractive indices, absorption and scattering coefficients, core-clad rms roughness height, and core-clad interface defects loss coefficient). To do this, first, models were developed for separate straight and bent sections for multiple skew and meridional rays. Second, the straight and bent models were combined into a FORTRAN simulation program for an arbitrary fiber with a combination of arbitrary straight and bent sections. The input condition of the rays (arrangement of rays, incident angle, and intensity profile) is user-defined. Third, the simulation results were experimentally validated using two different POFs, twelve configurations of straight and bent fiber subsystems, and two ray types. These experimental comparisons show that the transmission model using meridional rays is slightly better than that with the skew rays. But

  1. Entrepreneurship and Financial Incentives of Return, Risk, and Skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Peter; Hartog, Joop; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the role of the opportunity cost in the choice for entrepreneurship in favor of wage employment, that is, the wages given up as an employee. We argue that just like outside observers, potential entrepreneurs will face great difficulty to predict their earnings from entrepreneurship....... The focus on earnings forgone may help to solve the lack of robust empirical support for the effect of financial incentives on the decision to become an entrepreneur. We find, consistent with standard theory, that a higher mean, lower variance, and higher skew in the relevant wage distribution reduce...... the likelihood of entrepreneurship....

  2. A Dixmier-Moeglin equivalence for skew Laurent polynomial rings

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, James William Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The work of Dixmier in 1977 and Moeglin in 1980 show us that for a prime ideal $P$ in the universal enveloping algebra of a complex finite-dimensional Lie algebra the properties of being primitive, rational and locally closed in the Zariski topology are all equivalent. This equivalence is referred to as the Dixmier-Moeglin equivalence. In this thesis we will study skew Laurent polynomial rings of the form ${mathbb{C}}[x_1,ldots,x_d][z,z^{-1};sigma]$ where $sigma$ is a ${mathbb{C}}$-algebra au...

  3. Salary adjustments

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  4. Salary adjustments

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  5. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation

  6. 78 FR 36231 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA-Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at...; telephone 202-402-3400 (this is not a toll-free number) or email at Colette.Pollard@hud.gov for a copy of the proposed forms or other available information. Persons with hearing or speech impairments...

  7. What Type of Support Do They Need? Investigating Student Adjustment as Related to Emotional, Informational, Appraisal, and Instrumental Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2003-01-01

    Examined specific types of support students perceive from their sources of support; and whether some support sources were more related to students' social, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Results found girls perceive more support of most types from classmates and friends; emotional and informational support were most highly reported support…

  8. Male reproductive skew, paternal relatedness, and female social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2008-07-01

    Female social relationships among primates are thought to be shaped by socio-ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. We suggest that patterns of paternal relatedness among females influence measures of social tolerance that have been used to classify species into different social relationship categories. As kin support and kin preference have only been measured for matrilineal kin and related individuals exchange less aggression and have a higher conciliatory tendency, the observed low nepotism levels and high tolerance levels may be an artifact of hidden paternal relatedness among the nonkin category. Using comparative data on macaques, we investigate this hypothesis using male reproductive skew as a proxy for paternal relatedness. Within the limitations of the study we show that populations classified as being less nepotistic, and more tolerant exhibit higher levels of reproductive skew. This first result and the reasoning behind may motivate future students of social relationships to take paternal relatedness into consideration. Potential implications of this finding if repeated with larger samples include that variation in aspects of macaque social relationships may be explained without considering phylogeny or the strength of between-group contest competition for food. PMID:18421769

  9. Skewed sex ratios in India: "physician, heal thyself".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Archana B; Badhoniya, Neetu; Mamtani, Manju; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2013-06-01

    Sex selection, a gender discrimination of the worst kind, is highly prevalent across all strata of Indian society. Physicians have a crucial role in this practice and implementation of the Indian Government's Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act in 1996 to prevent the misuse of ultrasound techniques for the purpose of prenatal sex determination. Little is known about family preferences, let alone preferences among families of physicians. We investigated the sex ratios in 946 nuclear families with 1,624 children, for which either one or both parents were physicians. The overall child sex ratio was more skewed than the national average of 914. The conditional sex ratios decreased with increasing number of previous female births, and a previous birth of a daughter in the family was associated with a 38 % reduced likelihood of a subsequent female birth. The heavily skewed sex ratios in the families of physicians are indicative of a deeply rooted social malady that could pose a critical challenge in correcting the sex ratios in India. PMID:23322380

  10. Shape and distribution of Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipornchai, N.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find another way to generate Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable and to construct quantile table, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis and coefficient of variation tables of Jones and Faddy's skew t distribution. Graphs of its probability density function and graphs of its distribution function are also presented. The results of this study show that Jones and Faddy's skew t random variable can be generated from a beta random variable on (-1,1. The coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the distribution depend on parameters a and b. The coefficient of variation of Jones and Faddy's skew t distribution can be calculated.

  11. Experimental and finite element studies on free vibration of skew plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, C. V.; Suresh, Y. J.; Prema Kumar, W. P.

    2014-03-01

    The present paper deals with the experimental and finite element studies carried out on free vibration of isotropic and laminated composite skew plates. The natural frequencies were determined using CQUAD8 finite element of MSC/NASTRAN and comparison made between the experimental values and the finite element solution. The effects of the skew angle and aspect ratio on the natural frequencies of isotropic skew plates were studied. The effects of skew angle, aspect ratio, fiber orientation angle and laminate stacking sequence (keeping total number of layers in the laminate constant) on the natural frequencies of antisymmetric laminated composite skew plates were also studied. The experimental values of the natural frequencies are in good agreement with the finite element solution. The natural frequencies generally increase with an increase in the skew angle for any given value of aspect ratio.

  12. Experimental and Finite Element Studies on Free Vibration of Skew Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa C.V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the experimental studies carried out on free vibration of isotropic and laminated composite skew plates. The natural frequencies were also determined using QUAD8 finite element of MSC/NASTRAN and a comparison was made between the experimental values and the finite element solution. The effects of the skew angle and aspect ratio on the natural frequencies of isotropic skew plates were studied. The effects of the skew angle, aspect ratio, fiber orientation angle and laminate sequence (keeping the number of layers constant on the natural frequencies of antisymmetric composite laminates were also studied. The experimental values of natural frequencies are in good agreement with the FE solutions. The natural frequencies are found to increase with an increase in the skew angle. The variation of natural frequencies with the aspect ratio is small and negligible both for isotropic and laminated composite skew plates.

  13. Finite element studies on free vibration of laminated composite cylindrical skew panels

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa C.V.; Suresh Y.J.; Kumar W.P. Prema

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element studies on free vibration of isotropic and laminated composite cylindrical skew panels. The analysis is performed using CQUAD4 and CQUAD8 elements of MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of the panel angle, skew angle, aspect ratio and length-to-thickness-ratio on fundamental frequency of isotropic cylindrical skew panels are studied. The effects of additional parameters such as the fiber orientation angle, numbers of layers and stacking sequence on the fundamental ...

  14. Finite Element Studies on Free Vibration of Laminated Composite Cylindrical Skew Panels

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Chikkol Venkateshappa; Suresh Yalaburgi Jayadevappa; Premakumar Wooday Puttiah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the finite element studies made on free vibration of isotropic and laminated composite cylindrical skew panels. A finite element analysis is performed using CQUAD4 and CQUAD8 elements of MSC/NASTRAN software. The effects of the panel angle, skew angle, aspect ratio, and length-to-thickness-ratio on fundamental natural frequency of vibration of isotropic cylindrical skew panels are studied. The effects of additional parameters such as fiber orientation angle, numbers of lay...

  15. Finding the Right Distribution for Highly Skewed Zero-inflated Clinical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Resmi Gupta; Marino, Bradley S; Cnota, James F.; Ittenbach, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Discrete, highly skewed distributions with excess numbers of zeros often result in biased estimates and misleading inferences if the zeros are not properly addressed. A clinical example of children with electrophysiologic disorders in which many of the children are treated without surgery is provided. The purpose of the current study was to identify the optimal modeling strategy for highly skewed, zeroinflated data often observed in the clinical setting by: (a) simulating skewed, zero-inflate...

  16. Multivariate log-skew-elliptical distributions with applications to precipitation data

    KAUST Repository

    Marchenko, Yulia V.

    2009-07-13

    We introduce a family of multivariate log-skew-elliptical distributions, extending the list of multivariate distributions with positive support. We investigate their probabilistic properties such as stochastic representations, marginal and conditional distributions, and existence of moments, as well as inferential properties. We demonstrate, for example, that as for the log-t distribution, the positive moments of the log-skew-t distribution do not exist. Our emphasis is on two special cases, the log-skew-normal and log-skew-t distributions, which we use to analyze US national (univariate) and regional (multivariate) monthly precipitation data. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Binomial Markov-Switching Multifractal model with Skewed t innovations and applications to Chinese SSEC Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufang; Zhang, Weiguo; Fu, Junhui

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the Binomial Markov-switching Multifractal (BMSM) model of asset returns with Skewed t innovations (BMSM-Skewed t for short), which considers the fat tails, skewness and multifractality in asset returns simultaneously. The parameters of BMSM-Skewed t model can be estimated by Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods, and volatility forecasting can be accomplished via Bayesian updating. In order to evaluate the performance of BMSM-Skewed t model, BMSM model with Normal innovations (BMSM-N), BMSM model with Student-t innovations (BMSM-t) and GARCH(1,1) models (GARCH-N, GARCH-t and GARCH-Skewed t) are chosen for comparison. Through empirical studies on Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index (SSEC), we find that for sample estimation, BMSM models outperform the GARCH(1,1) models through BIC and AIC rules, and BMSM-Skewed t performs the best among all the models due to its fat tails, skewness and multifractality. In addition, BMSM-Skewed t model dominates other models at most forecasting horizons for out-of-sample volatility forecasts in terms of MSE, MAE and SPA test.

  18. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  19. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  20. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L; Welsh, Janet A; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Nix, Robert L; Mathis, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games, interactive stories, and guided pretend play to use with their children. To evaluate impact, two hundred 4-year-old children in Head Start REDI classrooms were randomly assigned to REDI-P or a comparison condition (mail-home math games). Beyond the effects of the classroom program, REDI-P promoted significant improvements in child literacy skills, academic performance, self-directed learning, and social competence, demonstrating the utility of the approach in promoting gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills evident after the transition into kindergarten.

  1. Double-dimer pairings and skew Young diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    We study the number of tilings of skew Young diagrams by ribbon tiles shaped like Dyck paths, in which the tiles are "vertically decreasing". We use these quantities to compute pairing probabilities in the double-dimer model: Given a planar bipartite graph $G$ with special vertices, called nodes, on the outer face, the double-dimer model is formed by the superposition of a uniformly random dimer configuration (perfect matching) of $G$ together with a random dimer configuration of the graph formed from $G$ by deleting the nodes. The double-dimer configuration consists of loops, doubled edges, and chains that start and end at the boundary nodes. We are interested in how the chains connect the nodes. An interesting special case is when the graph is $\\varepsilon(\\Z\\times\\N)$ and the nodes are at evenly spaced locations on the boundary $\\R$ as the grid spacing $\\varepsilon\\to 0$.

  2. On skew tau-functions in higher spin theory

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, D; Morozov, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of higher spin theory in three dimensions concentrate on Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theory, which in the classical limit reduce to peculiar corner matrix elements between the highest and lowest weight states in a given representation of SL(N). Despite these "skew" tau-functions can seem very different from conventional ones, which are the matrix elements between the two highest weight states, they also satisfy the Toda recursion between different fundamental representations. Moreover, in the most popular examples they possess simple representations in terms of matrix models and Schur functions. We provide a brief introduction to this new interesting field, which, after quantization, can serve as an additional bridge between knot and integrability theories.

  3. On skew tau-functions in higher spin theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, D.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies of higher spin theory in three dimensions concentrate on Wilson loops in Chern-Simons theory, which in the classical limit reduce to peculiar corner matrix elements between the highest and lowest weight states in a given representation of SL( N ). Despite these "skew" tau-functions can seem very different from conventional ones, which are the matrix elements between the two highest weight states, they also satisfy the Toda recursion between different fundamental representations. Moreover, in the most popular examples they possess simple representations in terms of matrix models and Schur functions. We provide a brief introduction to this new interesting field, which, after quantization, can serve as an additional bridge between knot and integrability theories.

  4. Soft bounds on diffusion produce skewed distributions and Gompertz growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Lagomarsino, Marco Cosentino; Gherardi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Constraints can affect dramatically the behavior of diffusion processes. Recently, we analyzed a natural and a technological system and reported that they perform diffusion-like discrete steps displaying a peculiar constraint, whereby the increments of the diffusing variable are subject to configuration-dependent bounds. This work explores theoretically some of the revealing landmarks of such phenomenology, termed "soft bound." At long times, the system reaches a steady state irreversibly (i.e., violating detailed balance), characterized by a skewed "shoulder" in the density distribution, and by a net local probability flux, which has entropic origin. The largest point in the support of the distribution follows a saturating dynamics, expressed by the Gompertz law, in line with empirical observations. Finally, we propose a generic allometric scaling for the origin of soft bounds. These findings shed light on the impact on a system of such "scaling" constraint and on its possible generating mechanisms.

  5. Julia Sets of Skew Products for Class MAp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王升

    2004-01-01

    Let fj ∈ M (j = 1, 2, …, m; m≥ 1) and (~f) be the skew product associated with the generator system {f1, f2, …, fm}. Then F (~f) is completely invariant under (~f); J((~f) is completely invariant under (~f); J (~f) is perfect; J (~f) has interior points if and only if F (~f) = φ; if fj ∈ MAp (p ≥ 5), j =1, 2, …, m, then the set of the repelling fixed points of (~f) of all orders are dense in J (~f).

  6. Likelihood Inference of Nonlinear Models Based on a Class of Flexible Skewed Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of the likelihood inference for nonlinear models with a flexible skew-t-normal (FSTN distribution, which is proposed within a general framework of flexible skew-symmetric (FSS distributions by combining with skew-t-normal (STN distribution. In comparison with the common skewed distributions such as skew normal (SN, and skew-t (ST as well as scale mixtures of skew normal (SMSN, the FSTN distribution can accommodate more flexibility and robustness in the presence of skewed, heavy-tailed, especially multimodal outcomes. However, for this distribution, a usual approach of maximum likelihood estimates based on EM algorithm becomes unavailable and an alternative way is to return to the original Newton-Raphson type method. In order to improve the estimation as well as the way for confidence estimation and hypothesis test for the parameters of interest, a modified Newton-Raphson iterative algorithm is presented in this paper, based on profile likelihood for nonlinear regression models with FSTN distribution, and, then, the confidence interval and hypothesis test are also developed. Furthermore, a real example and simulation are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness and the superiority of our approach.

  7. GC skew is a conserved property of unmethylated CpG island promoters across vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Stella R; Korf, Ian F; Chédin, Frédéric

    2015-11-16

    GC skew is a measure of the strand asymmetry in the distribution of guanines and cytosines. GC skew favors R-loops, a type of three stranded nucleic acid structures that form upon annealing of an RNA strand to one strand of DNA, creating a persistent RNA:DNA hybrid. Previous studies show that GC skew is prevalent at thousands of human CpG island (CGI) promoters and transcription termination regions, which correspond to hotspots of R-loop formation. Here, we investigated the conservation of GC skew patterns in 60 sequenced chordates genomes. We report that GC skew is a conserved sequence characteristic of the CGI promoter class in vertebrates. Furthermore, we reveal that promoter GC skew peaks at the exon 1/ intron1 junction and that it is highly correlated with gene age and CGI promoter strength. Our data also show that GC skew is predictive of unmethylated CGI promoters in a range of vertebrate species and that it imparts significant DNA hypomethylation for promoters with intermediate CpG densities. Finally, we observed that terminal GC skew is conserved for a subset of vertebrate genes that tend to be located significantly closer to their downstream neighbors, consistent with a role for R-loop formation in transcription termination. PMID:26253743

  8. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  9. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  10. Forecasting with Option-Implied Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Chang, Bo Young

    2013-01-01

    This chapter surveys the methods available for extracting information from option prices that can be used in forecasting. We consider option-implied volatilities, skewness, kurtosis, and densities. More generally, we discuss how any forecasting object that is a twice differentiable function...... of the future realization of the underlying risky asset price can utilize option-implied information in a well-defined manner. Going beyond the univariate option-implied density, we also consider results on option-implied covariance, correlation and beta forecasting, as well as the use of option......-implied information in cross-sectional forecasting of equity returns. We discuss how option-implied information can be adjusted for risk premia to remove biases in forecasting regressions....

  11. Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, M.; Sahebjameyan, M.; Moshiri, B.; Najafabadi, T. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other.

  12. On Approximating Frequency Moments of Data Streams with Skewed Projections

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ping

    2008-01-01

    We propose skewed stable random projections for approximating the pth frequency moments of dynamic data streams (01) improves previous methods based on (symmetric) stable random projections. Our proposed method is applicable to data streams that are (a) insertion only (the cash-register model); or (b) always non-negative (the strict Turnstile model), or (c) eventually non-negative at check points. This is only a minor restriction for practical applications. Our method works particularly well when p = 1+/- \\Delta and \\Delta is small, which is a practically important scenario. For example, \\Delta may be the decay rate or interest rate, which are usually small. Of course, when \\Delta = 0, one can compute the 1th frequent moment (i.e., the sum) essentially error-free using a simple couter. Our method may be viewed as a ``genearlized counter'' in that it can count the total value in the future, taking in account of the effect of decaying or interest accruement. In a summary, our contributions are two-fold. (A) Thi...

  13. Skew redundant MEMS IMU calibration using a Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel calibration procedure for skew redundant inertial measurement units (SRIMUs) based on micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is proposed. A general model of the SRIMU measurements is derived which contains the effects of bias, scale factor error and misalignments. For more accuracy, the effect of lever arms of the accelerometers to the center of the table are modeled and compensated in the calibration procedure. Two separate Kalman filters (KFs) are proposed to perform the estimation of error parameters for gyroscopes and accelerometers. The predictive error minimization (PEM) stochastic modeling method is used to simultaneously model the effect of bias instability and random walk noise on the calibration Kalman filters to diminish the biased estimations. The proposed procedure is simulated numerically and has expected experimental results. The calibration maneuvers are applied using a two-axis angle turntable in a way that the persistency of excitation (PE) condition for parameter estimation is met. For this purpose, a trapezoidal calibration profile is utilized to excite different deterministic error parameters of the accelerometers and a pulse profile is used for the gyroscopes. Furthermore, to evaluate the performance of the proposed KF calibration method, a conventional least squares (LS) calibration procedure is derived for the SRIMUs and the simulation and experimental results compare the functionality of the two proposed methods with each other. (paper)

  14. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TIP LEAKAGE VORTEX OF CIRCUMFERENTIAL SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    In the steady operation condition, the experiments and the numerical simulations are used to investigate the tip leakage flow fields in three low pressure axial flow fans with three kinds of circumferential skewed rotors, including the radial rotor, the forward-skewed rotor and the backward-skewed rotor. The three-dimensional viscous flow fields of the fans are computed. In the experiments, the two-dimensional plane particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is used to measure the flow fields in the tip region of three different pitchwise positions of each fan. The results show that the computational results agree well with the experimental data in the flow field of the tip region of each fan. The tip leakage vortex core segments based on method of the eigenmode analysis can display clearly some characteristics of the tip leakage vortex, such as the origination position of tip leakage vortex, the development of vortex strength, and so on. Compared with the radial rotor, the other two skewed rotors can increase the stability of the tip leakage vortex and the increment in the forward-skewed rotor is more than that in the backward-skewed one. Among the tip leakage vortices of the three rotors, the velocity of the vortex in the forward-skewed rotor is the highest in the circumferential direction and the lowest in the axial direction.

  15. Social and genetic structure of paper wasp cofoundress associations: tests of reproductive skew models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J; Solís, C R; Queller, D C; Strassmann, J E

    1998-06-01

    Recent models postulate that the members of a social group assess their ecological and social environments and agree a "social contract" of reproductive partitioning (skew). We tested social contracts theory by using DNA microsatellites to measure skew in 24 cofoundress associations of paper wasps, Polistes bellicosus. In contrast to theoretical predictions, there was little variation in cofoundress relatedness, and relatedness either did not predict skew or was negatively correlated with it; the dominant/subordinate size ratio, assumed to reflect relative fighting ability, did not predict skew; and high skew was associated with decreased aggression by the rank 2 subordinate toward the dominant. High skew was associated with increased group size. A difficulty with measuring skew in real systems is the frequent changes in group composition that commonly occur in social animals. In P. bellicosus, 61% of egg layers and an unknown number of non-egg layers were absent by the time nests were collected. The social contracts models provide an attractive general framework linking genetics, ecology, and behavior, but there have been few direct tests of their predictions. We question assumptions underlying the models and suggest directions for future research.

  16. Identification of Intellectual Disability Genes in Female Patients with a Skewed X-Inactivation Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieremans, Nathalie; Van Esch, Hilde; Holvoet, Maureen; Van Goethem, Gert; Devriendt, Koenraad; Rosello, Monica; Mayo, Sonia; Martinez, Francisco; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R; Vermeesch, Joris R; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous disorder with an unknown molecular etiology in many cases. Previously, X-linked ID (XLID) studies focused on males because of the hemizygous state of their X chromosome. Carrier females are generally unaffected because of the presence of a second normal allele, or inactivation of the mutant X chromosome in most of their cells (skewing). However, in female ID patients, we hypothesized that the presence of skewing of X-inactivation would be an indicator for an X chromosomal ID cause. We analyzed the X-inactivation patterns of 288 females with ID, and found that 22 (7.6%) had extreme skewing (>90%), which is significantly higher than observed in the general population (3.6%; P = 0.029). Whole-exome sequencing of 19 females with extreme skewing revealed causal variants in six females in the XLID genes DDX3X, NHS, WDR45, MECP2, and SMC1A. Interestingly, variants in genes escaping X-inactivation presumably cause both XLID and skewing of X-inactivation in three of these patients. Moreover, variants likely accounting for skewing only were detected in MED12, HDAC8, and TAF9B. All tested candidate causative variants were de novo events. Hence, extreme skewing is a good indicator for the presence of X-linked variants in female patients.

  17. FEM-based Analysis of a Hybrid Synchronous Generator with Skewed Stator Slots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a simulation study of a hybrid synchronous generator (dual excitation system - permanent magnets and electromagnets with skewed stator slots. The main goal is to establish if the skewing of the slots brings a significant improvement of the air-gap flux density and of the induced stator voltage. The skewness angle is the parameter in discussion. The study is based on finite element method analysis. Due to the particular geometry of the stator slots, a multilayer approach is employed.

  18. Inferences in Linear Mixed Models with Skew-normal Random Eff ects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Dao YE; Tong Hui WANG

    2015-01-01

    For the linear mixed model with skew-normal random eff ects, this paper gives the density function, moment generating function and independence conditions. The noncentral skew chi-square distribution is defined and its density function is shown. The necessary and suffi cient conditions under which a quadratic form is distributed as noncentral skew chi-square distribution are obtained. Also, a version of Cochran’s theorem is given, which modifies the result of Wang et al. (2009) and is used to set up exact tests for fixed eff ects and variance components of the proposed model. For illustration, our main results are applied to a real data problem.

  19. Genetic architecture of skewed X inactivation in the laboratory mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Calaway

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation (XCI is the mammalian mechanism of dosage compensation that balances X-linked gene expression between the sexes. Early during female development, each cell of the embryo proper independently inactivates one of its two parental X-chromosomes. In mice, the choice of which X chromosome is inactivated is affected by the genotype of a cis-acting locus, the X-chromosome controlling element (Xce. Xce has been localized to a 1.9 Mb interval within the X-inactivation center (Xic, yet its molecular identity and mechanism of action remain unknown. We combined genotype and sequence data for mouse stocks with detailed phenotyping of ten inbred strains and with the development of a statistical model that incorporates phenotyping data from multiple sources to disentangle sources of XCI phenotypic variance in natural female populations on X inactivation. We have reduced the Xce candidate 10-fold to a 176 kb region located approximately 500 kb proximal to Xist. We propose that structural variation in this interval explains the presence of multiple functional Xce alleles in the genus Mus. We have identified a new allele, Xce(e present in Mus musculus and a possible sixth functional allele in Mus spicilegus. We have also confirmed a parent-of-origin effect on X inactivation choice and provide evidence that maternal inheritance magnifies the skewing associated with strong Xce alleles. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 155 laboratory strains and wild mice we conclude that Xce(a is either a derived allele that arose concurrently with the domestication of fancy mice but prior the derivation of most classical inbred strains or a rare allele in the wild. Furthermore, we have found that despite the presence of multiple haplotypes in the wild Mus musculus domesticus has only one functional Xce allele, Xce(b. Lastly, we conclude that each mouse taxa examined has a different functional Xce allele.

  20. Generalized peak skew coefficients for Oklahoma, 1961-1990 base period.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital-map data set consists of a grid of generalized skew coefficients of logarithms of annual maximum streamflow for Oklahoma streams less than or equal to...

  1. CONCEPTS OF DICHOTOMY FOR SKEW-EVOLUTION SEMIFLOWS IN BANACH SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Megan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate some dichotomy concepts for skew-evolution semiflows in Banachspaces.Our main objective is to estab-lish relations between these concepts.We motivate our approach byillustrative examples.

  2. INTERNAL FLOW MECHANISM AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF LOW PRESSURE AXIAL FAN WITH FORWARD-SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIU Jie; OUYANG Hua; DU Zhao-Hui

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the flow mechanism analysis and experimental study of a forward-skewed impeller and a radial impeller in low pressure axial fan. The forward-skewed blade was obtained by the optimization design of the radial blade and CFD technique. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade has demonstrated the improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, Stable Operating Range (SOR) and less aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement and computation were performed for outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The results show the forward-skewed blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade mid-span and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at mid-span.

  3. Asymptotic performance of the quadratic discriminant function to skewed training samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebanji, Atinuke; Asamoah-Boaheng, Michael; Osei-Tutu, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the asymptotic performance of the quadratic discriminant function (QDF) under skewed training samples. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the QDF under skewed distribution considering different sample size ratios, varying the group centroid separators and the number of variables. Three populations [Formula: see text] with increasing group centroid separator function were considered. A multivariate normal distributed data was simulated with MatLab R2009a. There was an increase in the average error rates of the sample size ratios 1:2:2 and 1:2:3 as the total sample size increased asymptotically in the skewed distribution when the centroid separator increased from 1 to 3. The QDF under the skewed distribution performed better for the sample size ratio 1:1:1 as compared to the other sampling ratios and under centroid separator [Formula: see text]. PMID:27652103

  4. On nomenclature for, and the relative merits of, two formulations of skew distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Azzalini, Adelchi

    2015-12-21

    We examine some skew distributions used extensively within the model-based clustering literature in recent years, paying special attention to claims that have been made about their relative efficacy. Theoretical arguments are provided as well as real data examples.

  5. The Process of price formation and the skewness of asset returns

    CERN Document Server

    Reimann, S

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of assets returns exhibit a slight skewness. In this note we show that our model of endogenous price formation \\cite{Reimann2006} creates an asymmetric return distribution if the price dynamics are a process in which consecutive trading periods are dependent from each other in the sense that opening prices equal closing prices of the former trading period. The corresponding parameter $\\alpha$ is estimated from daily prices from 01/01/1999 - 12/31/2004 for 9 large indices. For the S&P 500, the skewness distribution of all its constituting assets is also calculated. The skewness distribution due to our model is compared with the distribution of the empirical skewness values of the ingle assets.

  6. 3D Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Analysis for Skew Rolling Process of the Stepped Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang FANG; Pan ZENG

    2003-01-01

    Based on rigid-plastic finite element method, a skew rolling process of stepped part is simulated. Considering nodesaving and effective remeshing, the tetrahedron solid elements are used to discrete workpiece. The workpiece material adopts rigid-plastic m

  7. On some properties of reflected skew Brownian motions and applications to dispersion in heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiyu; Wang, Suxin; Wang, Yongjin

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the close connection between the skew Brownian motion and the random particle motion in heterogeneous media, we investigate the reflected skew Brownian motion and try to find out its relationship with the corresponding dispersion problem when there exists a reflecting boundary. Through the use of the knowledge of stochastic analysis, we provide some basic properties of reflected skew Brownian motions, including the transition density, the Laplace transform of the first passage time, and some related results. A simple method to generate the sample path is also proposed. At the end of this paper, we reveal the strong relationship between the reflected skew Brownian motion and the solute dispersion in the presence of a sharp interface and a reflecting boundary.

  8. Role of exterior and evolutionary skew-symmetric differential forms in mathematical physics

    OpenAIRE

    Petrova, L. I.

    2005-01-01

    A role of skew-symmetric differential forms in mathematical physics relates to the fact that they reflect the properties of conservation laws. The closed exterior forms correspond to the conservation laws for physical fields, whereas the evolutionary forms correspond to the conservation laws for material media. Skew-symmetric differential forms can describe a conjugacy of any objects (that correspond to the conservation laws). The closed exterior forms describe conjugated objects. And the evo...

  9. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yang; Ouyang Hua; Du Zhao-Hui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP) neural network and genetic algorithm (GA), the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pres...

  10. Wheat and corn price skewness and volatility: Risk management implications for farmers and end users

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, J.

    2013-01-01

    Little has been documented as to how price skewness and volatility can influence decision making regarding agribusiness risk taking and managing risk in a dynamic environment. Price volatility introduces opportunities for farmers and end users, but it also introduces new risks, which can then require management. Volatility-skewness matrices are developed using CME wheat and corn prices to tactically determine when pricing and hedging might be more successful for farmers and end users. Volatil...

  11. Correction to: "On the Chambers-Mallows-Stuck Method for Simulating Skewed Stable Random Variables"

    OpenAIRE

    Weron, Rafal

    1996-01-01

    In the paper Weron (1996, Statist. Probab. Lett. 28, 165-171), I gave a proof to the equality in law of a skewed stable variable and a nonlinear transformation of two independent uniform and exponential variables. The Chambers et al. (1976, J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 71, 340–344) method of computer generation of a skewed stable random variable is based on this equality. Unfortunately an error crept into my calculations for alpha=1. This note corrects the error.

  12. Mapping of quantitative trait loci using the skew-normal distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In standard interval mapping (IM) of quantitative trait loci (QTL), the QTL effect is described by a normal mixture model. When this assumption of normality is violated, the most commonly adopted strategy is to use the previous model after data transformation. However, an appropriate transformation may not exist or may be difficult to find. Also this approach can raise interpretation issues. An interesting alternative is to consider a skew-normal mixture model in standard IM, and the resulting method is here denoted as skew-normal IM. This flexible model that includes the usual symmetric normal distribution as a special case is important, allowing continuous variation from normality to non-normality. In this paper we briefly introduce the main peculiarities of the skew-normal distribution. The maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of the skew-normal distribution are obtained by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The proposed model is illustrated with real data from an intercross experiment that shows a significant departure from the normality assumption. The performance of the skew-normal IM is assessed via stochastic simulation. The results indicate that the skew-normal IM has higher power for QTL detection and better precision of QTL location as compared to standard IM and nonparametric IM.

  13. 75 FR 59681 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief Economist... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  14. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ Page contents The ... the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing ...

  15. Bayesian linear regression with skew-symmetric error distributions with applications to survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Francisco J; Genton, Marc G

    2016-06-30

    We study Bayesian linear regression models with skew-symmetric scale mixtures of normal error distributions. These kinds of models can be used to capture departures from the usual assumption of normality of the errors in terms of heavy tails and asymmetry. We propose a general noninformative prior structure for these regression models and show that the corresponding posterior distribution is proper under mild conditions. We extend these propriety results to cases where the response variables are censored. The latter scenario is of interest in the context of accelerated failure time models, which are relevant in survival analysis. We present a simulation study that demonstrates good frequentist properties of the posterior credible intervals associated with the proposed priors. This study also sheds some light on the trade-off between increased model flexibility and the risk of over-fitting. We illustrate the performance of the proposed models with real data. Although we focus on models with univariate response variables, we also present some extensions to the multivariate case in the Supporting Information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26856806

  16. Bayesian linear regression with skew-symmetric error distributions with applications to survival analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Rubio, Francisco J.

    2016-02-09

    We study Bayesian linear regression models with skew-symmetric scale mixtures of normal error distributions. These kinds of models can be used to capture departures from the usual assumption of normality of the errors in terms of heavy tails and asymmetry. We propose a general noninformative prior structure for these regression models and show that the corresponding posterior distribution is proper under mild conditions. We extend these propriety results to cases where the response variables are censored. The latter scenario is of interest in the context of accelerated failure time models, which are relevant in survival analysis. We present a simulation study that demonstrates good frequentist properties of the posterior credible intervals associated with the proposed priors. This study also sheds some light on the trade-off between increased model flexibility and the risk of over-fitting. We illustrate the performance of the proposed models with real data. Although we focus on models with univariate response variables, we also present some extensions to the multivariate case in the Supporting Information.

  17. Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated

  18. Quantitative analysis of mutation and selection pressures on base composition skews in bacterial chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Carton W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most bacterial chromosomes exhibit asymmetry of base composition with respect to leading vs. lagging strands (GC and AT skews. These skews reflect mainly those in protein coding sequences, which are driven by asymmetric mutation pressures during replication and transcription (notably asymmetric cytosine deamination plus subsequent selection for preferred structures, signals, amino acid or codons. The transcription-associated effects but not the replication-associated effects contribute to the overall skews through the uneven distribution of the coding sequences on the leading and lagging strands. Results Analysis of 185 representative bacterial chromosomes showed diverse and characteristic patterns of skews among different clades. The base composition skews in the coding sequences were used to derive quantitatively the effect of replication-driven mutation plus subsequent selection ('replication-associated pressure', RAP, and the effect of transcription-driven mutation plus subsequent selection at translation level ('transcription-associate pressure', TAP. While different clades exhibit distinct patterns of RAP and TAP, RAP is absent or nearly absent in some bacteria, but TAP is present in all. The selection pressure at the translation level is evident in all bacteria based on the analysis of the skews at the three codon positions. Contribution of asymmetric cytosine deamination was found to be weak to TAP in most phyla, and strong to RAP in all the Proteobacteria but weak in most of the Firmicutes. This possibly reflects the differences in their chromosomal replication machineries. A strong negative correlation between TAP and G+C content and between TAP and chromosomal size were also revealed. Conclusion The study reveals the diverse mutation and selection forces associated with replication and transcription in various groups of bacteria that shape the distinct patterns of base composition skews in the chromosomes during

  19. Characteristic function-based semiparametric inference for skew-symmetric models

    KAUST Repository

    Potgieter, Cornelis J.

    2012-12-26

    Skew-symmetric models offer a very flexible class of distributions for modelling data. These distributions can also be viewed as selection models for the symmetric component of the specified skew-symmetric distribution. The estimation of the location and scale parameters corresponding to the symmetric component is considered here, with the symmetric component known. Emphasis is placed on using the empirical characteristic function to estimate these parameters. This is made possible by an invariance property of the skew-symmetric family of distributions, namely that even transformations of random variables that are skew-symmetric have a distribution only depending on the symmetric density. A distance metric between the real components of the empirical and true characteristic functions is minimized to obtain the estimators. The method is semiparametric, in that the symmetric component is specified, but the skewing function is assumed unknown. Furthermore, the methodology is extended to hypothesis testing. Two tests for a hypothesis of specific parameter values are considered, as well as a test for the hypothesis that the symmetric component has a specific parametric form. A resampling algorithm is described for practical implementation of these tests. The outcomes of various numerical experiments are presented. © 2012 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  20. Generalized Gaudin systems in a magnetic field and non-skew-symmetric r-matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2007-11-01

    We construct integrable cases of generalized classical and quantum Gaudin spin chains in an external magnetic field. For this purpose, we generalize the 'shift of argument method' onto the case of classical and quantum integrable systems governed by an arbitrary \\mathfrak{g} -valued, non-dynamical classical r-matrix with spectral parameters. We consider several examples of the obtained construction for the cases of skew-symmetric, 'twisted' non-skew-symmetric and 'anisotropic' non-skew-symmetric classical r-matrices. We show, in particular, that in a general case in order for the Gaudin system in a magnetic field to be integrable, the corresponding magnetic field should be non-homogeneous.

  1. A Cable-Passive Damper System for Sway and Skew Motion Control of a Crane Spreader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Duc Viet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the crane control problem is often approached by applying a certain active control command to some parts of the crane, this paper proposes a cable-passive damper system to reduce the vibration of a four-cable suspended crane spreader. The residual sway and skew motions of a crane spreader always produce the angle deflections between the crane cables and the crane spreader. The idea in this paper is to convert those deflections into energy dissipated by the viscous dampers, which connect the cables and the spreader. The proposed damper system is effective in reducing spreader sway and skew motions. Moreover, the optimal damping coefficient can be found analytically by minimizing the time integral of system energy. The numerical simulations show that the proposed passive system can assist the input shaping control of the trolley motion in reducing both sway and skew responses.

  2. Effect of PCC Joint Skew on Reflective Cracking in HMA Overlays

    CERN Document Server

    Ghauch, By Ziad G

    2011-01-01

    Reflective cracking is a relatively premature distress that occurs in HMA materials overlaying cracked and jointed underlying pavements. The high concentration of stresses and strains in the vicinity of the discontinuity of the old pavement causes the cracks to reflect into the newly placed HMA overlay. While it is a common practice to use skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements to improve the latter's performance, the impact of such a practice on the cracking of a potential HMA overlay has not been examined so far. In this context, this study investigates the effect of using skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements on reflective cracking development in the HMA overlay. Advanced three-dimensional Finite Element models including viscoelastic material properties for the HMA overlay, 3D beam modeling of dowel bars, non-uniform tire-pavement contact stresses, friction interfaces, and infinite boundary elements were constructed for both normal and skewed transverse joints using ABAQUS v-6.11. The potential ...

  3. Skewed Normal Distribution Of Return Assets In Call European Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Sulistianingsih

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Option is one of security derivates. In financial market, option is a contract that gives a right (notthe obligation for its owner to buy or sell a particular asset for a certain price at a certain time.Option can give a guarantee for a risk that can be faced in a market.This paper studies about theuse of Skewed Normal Distribution (SN in call europeanoption pricing. The SN provides aflexible framework that captures the skewness of log return. We obtain aclosed form solution forthe european call option pricing when log return follow the SN. Then, we will compare optionprices that is obtained by the SN and the Black-Scholes model with the option prices of market. Keywords: skewed normaldistribution, log return, options.

  4. Temporal Skewness of Electromagnetic Pulsed Waves Propagating Through Random Media with Embedded Irregularity Slab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许正文; 吴健; 霍文平; 吴振森

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulsed waves can be distorted in the propagation through random media, and their energy dis tributions change along the leading and trailing edge of the waveform, which can be presented by the temporal skewness. The skewness presents asymmetry and is treated by the third-order temporal moment, in which an analytic solution for the two-frequency mutual coherence function is obtained recently. Then, transionospheric pulses are discussed in details. Both theoretical analysis and numerical computation indicate that the contri butions from scattering and dispersion of irregularities dominate over those of background, so the latter can be neglected in most cases. Also, the temporal skewness of a transionospheric pulse is negative and energy is shifted to the leading edge.

  5. Finding the Right Distribution for Highly Skewed Zero-inflated Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Discrete, highly skewed distributions with excess numbers of zeros often result in biased estimates and misleading inferences if the zeros are not properly addressed. A clinical example of children with electrophysiologic disorders in which many of the children are treated without surgery is provided. The purpose of the current study was to identify the optimal modeling strategy for highly skewed, zeroinflated data often observed in the clinical setting by: (a simulating skewed, zero-inflated count data; (b fitting simulated data with Poisson, Negative Binomial, Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP and Zero-inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB models; and, (c applying the aforementioned models to actual, highlyskewed, clinical data of children with an EP disorder. The ZIP model was observed to be the optimal model based on traditional fit statistics as well as estimates of bias, mean-squared error, and coverage.  

  6. Elevated mortality among birds in Chernobyl as judged from skewed age and sex ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Pape Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area

  7. Separating the effects of mutation and selection in producing DNA skew in bacterial chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Brian R

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many bacterial chromosomes display nucleotide asymmetry, or skew, between the leading and lagging strands of replication. Mutational differences between these strands result in an overall pattern of skew that is centered about the origin of replication. Such a pattern could also arise from selection coupled with a bias for genes coded on the leading strand. The relative contributions of selection and mutation in producing compositional skew are largely unknown. Results We describe a model to quantify the contribution of mutational differences between the leading and lagging strands in producing replication-induced skew. When the origin and terminus of replication are known, the model can be used to estimate the relative accumulation of G over C and of A over T on the leading strand due to replication effects in a chromosome with bidirectional replication arms. The model may also be implemented in a maximum likelihood framework to estimate the locations of origin and terminus. We find that our estimations for the origin and terminus agree very well with the location of genes that are thought to be associated with the replication origin. This indicates that our model provides an accurate, objective method of determining the replication arms and also provides support for the hypothesis that these genes represent an ancestral cluster of origin-associated genes. Conclusion The model has several advantages over other methods of analyzing genome skew. First, it quantifies the role of mutation in generating skew so that its effect on composition, for example codon bias, can be assessed. Second, it provides an objective method for locating origin and terminus, one that is based on chromosome-wide accumulation of leading vs lagging strand nucleotide differences. Finally, the model has the potential to be utilized in a maximum likelihood framework in order to analyze the effect of chromosome rearrangements on nucleotide composition.

  8. The gestural misinformation effect: skewing eyewitness testimony through gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Daniel J; Pine, Karen J; Wiseman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility of eyewitnesses to verbal suggestion has been well documented, although little attention has been paid to the role of nonverbal communication in misinformation. Three experiments are reported; in each, participants watched footage of a crime scene before being questioned about what they had observed. In Experiments 1 and 2, an on-screen interviewer accompanied identically worded questions with gestures that either conveyed accurate information about the scene or conveyed false, misleading information. The misleading gestures significantly influenced recall, and participants' responses were consistent with the gestured information. In Experiment 3, a live interview was conducted, and the gestural misinformation effect was found to be robust; participants were influenced by misleading gestures performed by the interviewer during questioning. These findings provide compelling evidence for the gestural misinformation effect, whereby subtle hand gestures can implant information and distort the testimony of eyewitnesses. The practical and legal implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24027944

  9. FP-Hadoop: Efficient Execution of Parallel Jobs Over Skewed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Liroz-Gistau, Miguel; Akbarinia, Reza; Valduriez, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Big data parallel frameworks, such as MapReduce or Spark have been praised for their high scalability and performance, but show poor performance in the case of data skew. There are important cases where a high percentage of processing in the reduce side ends up being done by only one node. In this demonstration, we illustrate the use of FP-Hadoop, a system that efficiently deals with data skew in MapReduce jobs. In FP-Hadoop, there is a new phase, called intermediate reduce (IR), in which blo...

  10. X-Y coupling generation with AC/pulsed skew quadrupole and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new method of x-y coupling generation with AC or pulsed skew quadrupole is proposed. With this method, no difference resonance is requested; therefore the horizontal and vertical tunes should not be the same value. The AC skew quadrupole is driven by the difference frequency of horizontal and vertical betatron frequency to convert the horizontal position frequency to the vertical kick frequency and vice versa, therefore the coupling with this method is on resonance and can be driven to full coupling strength. In this report, the principle, simulation result, and possible applications are descried. (author)

  11. Option-Based Estimation of the Price of Co-Skewness and Co-Kurtosis Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Fournier, Mathieu;

    We show that the prices of risk for factors that are nonlinear in the market return are readily obtained using index option prices. We apply this insight to the price of co-skewness and co-kurtosis risk. The price of co-skewness risk corresponds to the spread between the physical and the risk-neu......-kurtosis risk indicates that the new estimates of the price of risk improve the models performance. Models with higher-order market moments also robustly outperform standard competitors such as the CAPM and the Fama-French model....

  12. Option-Based Estimation of the Price of Co-Skewness and Co-Kurtosis Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Fournier, Mathieu; Jacobs, Kris;

    We show that the prices of risk for factors that are nonlinear in the market return are readily obtained using index option prices. We apply this insight to the price of co-skewness and co-kurtosis risk. The price of co-skewness risk corresponds to the spread between the physical and the risk-neu......-kurtosis risk indicates that the new estimates of the price of risk improve the models' performance. Models with higher-order market moments also robustly outperform standard competitors such as the CAPM and the Fama-French model....

  13. Random and deterministic perturbation of a class of skew-product systems

    OpenAIRE

    Broomhead, David S.; Hadjiloucas, Demetris; Nicol, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the stability properties of skew-products T (,i>x,y) = (f(x), g(x,y)) in which (f,X,mu) is an ergodic map of a compact metric space X and g: X x Rn → Rn is continuous. We assume that the skew-product has a negative maximal Lyapunov exponent in the fibre. We study the orbit stability and stability of mixing of T (,i>x,y) = (f(x), g(x,y)) under deterministic and random perturbation of g. We show that such systems are stable in the sense that for any epsilon ...

  14. Connection with parallel totally skew-symmetric torsion on almost complex manifolds with Norden metric

    CERN Document Server

    Mekerov, Dimitar

    2009-01-01

    In the present work we consider an almost complex manifold with Norden metric (i.e. a metric with respect to which the almost complex structure is an antiisometry). On such a manifold we study a linear connection preserving the almost complex structure and the metric and having a totally skew-symmetric torsion tensor. We consider the case when the manifold admits a connection with parallel totally skew-symmetric torsion and the case when such connection has a Kaehler curvature tensor. We get necessary and sufficient conditions for an isotropic Kaehler manifold with Norden metric.

  15. Correction for Rhiel's theory for the range estimator of the coefficient of variation for skewed distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhiel, G Steven

    2010-02-01

    In 2007, Rhiel presented a technique to estimate the coefficient of variation from the range when sampling from skewed distributions. To provide an unbiased estimate, a correction factor (a(n)) for the mean was included. Numerical correction factors for a number of skewed distributions were provided. In a follow-up paper, he provided a proof he claimed showed the correction factor was independent of the mean and standard deviation, making the factors useful as these parameters vary; however, that proof did not establish independence. Herein is a proof which establishes the independence.

  16. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Xiang; Sano, Hideki; Ahn, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese immigrant students' cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students' demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in…

  17. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  18. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ ... following an SCI? What are the secondary conditions? I have no health insurance, what are my options? ...

  19. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... course an adjustment period as you navigate your new normal. The most important point to remember is ... to rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can ...

  20. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front-end are ...

  1. Widely Linear Blind Adaptive Equalization for Transmitter IQ-Imbalance/Skew Compensation in Multicarrier Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Simple analytical widely linear complex-valued models for IQ-imbalance and IQ-skew effects in multicarrier transmitters are presented. To compensate for such effects, a 4×4 MIMO widely linear adaptive equalizer is proposed and experimentally validated....

  2. The Curious Anomaly of Skewed Judgment Distributions and Systematic Error in the Wisdom of Crowds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates...

  3. Consistent paternity skew through ontogeny in Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D H Sherman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies in postcopulatory sexual selection use paternity success as a proxy for fertilization success. However, selective mortality during embryonic development can lead to skews in paternity in situations of polyandry and sperm competition. Thus, when assessment of paternity fails to incorporate mortality skews during early ontogeny, this may interfere with correct interpretation of results and subsequent evolutionary inference. In a previous series of in vitro sperm competition experiments with amphibians (Litoria peronii, we showed skewed paternity patterns towards males more genetically similar to the female. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use in vitro fertilizations and sperm competition trials to test if this pattern of paternity of fully developed tadpoles reflects patterns of paternity at fertilization and if paternity skews changes during embryonic development. We show that there is no selective mortality through ontogeny and that patterns of paternity of hatched tadpoles reflects success of competing males in sperm competition at fertilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study shows that previous inferences of fertilization success from paternity data are valid for this species, rigorous testing of these assumptions is required to ensure that differential embryonic mortality does not confound estimations of true fertilization success.

  4. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  5. Finite element studies on free vibration of laminated composite cylindrical skew panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa C.V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the finite element studies on free vibration of isotropic and laminated composite cylindrical skew panels. The analysis is performed using CQUAD4 and CQUAD8 elements of MSC/NASTRAN. The effects of the panel angle, skew angle, aspect ratio and length-to-thickness-ratio on fundamental frequency of isotropic cylindrical skew panels are studied. The effects of additional parameters such as the fiber orientation angle, numbers of layers and stacking sequence on the fundamental frequency of antisymmetric composite laminates are also studied. It is found that the CQUAD8 element yields better results than the CQUAD4 element in the validation and convergence studies. The CQUAD8 element is employed for the remaining part of the studies. The fundamental frequencies are found to increase with the panel angle and skew angle. When the number of layers in the laminate is large, the variation of the fundamental frequency with the number of layers is not appreciable. The boundary conditions are found to have a significant influence on the fundamental frequency

  6. Influence of Slope and Slenderness Ratio on the Non-Column Volume in Skew Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang KANG; Zhenghuan HU; Jinping LIU; Cuiping YANG; Huiping DU

    2003-01-01

    A definition of non-column volume ratio (NCVR) is brought forward by the authors. It is influenced greatly by the slendernessratio of the cylindrical billet and the slope of the wedge on the tool of skew rolling. Using the numerical simulation, the lawof

  7. Large-scale age-dependent skewed sex ratio in a sexually dimorphic avian scavenger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Lambertucci

    Full Text Available Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females. By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed.

  8. The curious anomaly of skewed judgment distributions and systematic error in the wisdom of crowds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrik W Nash

    Full Text Available Judgment distributions are often skewed and we know little about why. This paper explains the phenomenon of skewed judgment distributions by introducing the augmented quincunx (AQ model of sequential and probabilistic cue categorization by neurons of judges. In the process of developing inferences about true values, when neurons categorize cues better than chance, and when the particular true value is extreme compared to what is typical and anchored upon, then populations of judges form skewed judgment distributions with high probability. Moreover, the collective error made by these people can be inferred from how skewed their judgment distributions are, and in what direction they tilt. This implies not just that judgment distributions are shaped by cues, but that judgment distributions are cues themselves for the wisdom of crowds. The AQ model also predicts that judgment variance correlates positively with collective error, thereby challenging what is commonly believed about how diversity and collective intelligence relate. Data from 3053 judgment surveys about US macroeconomic variables obtained from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Wall Street Journal provide strong support, and implications are discussed with reference to three central ideas on collective intelligence, these being Galton's conjecture on the distribution of judgments, Muth's rational expectations hypothesis, and Page's diversity prediction theorem.

  9. Robust Runtime Optimization and Skew-Resistant Execution of Analytical SPARQL Queries on Pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotoulas, S; Urbani, J.; Boncz, P.A.; Mika, P.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a system that incrementally translates SPARQL queries to Pig Latin and executes them on a Hadoop cluster. This system is designed to work eciently on complex queries with many self-joins over huge datasets, avoiding job failures even in the case of joins with unexpected high-value skew.

  10. Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON AERODYNAMIC PERFORMANCE AND EXIT FLOW FIELD OF LOW PRESSURE AXIAL FLOW FAN WITH CIRCUMFERENTIAL SKEWED BLADES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the low pressure axial flow fan with circumferential skewed rotor blade, including the radial blade, the forward-skewed blade and the backward-skewed blade, was studied with experimental methods. The aerodynamic performance of the rotors was measured. At the design condition at outlet of the rotors, detailed flow measurements were performed with a five-hole probe and a Hot-Wire Anemometer (HWA). The results show that compared to the radial rotor, the forward-skewed rotor demonstrates a wider Stable Operating Range (SOR), is able to reduce the total pressure loss in the hub region and make main loading of blade accumulating in the mid-span region. There is a wider wake in the upper mid-span region of the forward-skewed rotor. Compared to the radial rotor, in the backward-skewed rotor there is higher total pressure loss near the hub and shroud regions and lower loss in the mid-span region. In addition, the velocity deficit in the wake is lower at mid-span of the backward-skewed rotor than the forward-skewed rotor.

  12. A novel technique for estimation of skew in binary text document images based on linear regression analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Shivakumara; G Hemantha Kumar; D S Guru; P Nagabhushan

    2005-02-01

    When a document is scanned either mechanically or manually for digitization, it often suffers from some degree of skew or tilt. Skew-angle detection plays an important role in the field of document analysis systems and OCR in achieving the expected accuracy. In this paper, we consider skew estimation of Roman script. The method uses the boundary growing approach to extract the lowermost and uppermost coordinates of pixels of characters of text lines present in the document, which can be subjected to linear regression analysis (LRA) to determine the skew angle of a skewed document. Further, the proposed technique works fine for scaled text binary documents also. The technique works based on the assumption that the space between the text lines is greater than the space between the words and characters. Finally, in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology we compare the experimental results with those of well-known existing methods.

  13. Effects of trophic skewing of species richness on ecosystem functioning in a diverse marine community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Reynolds

    Full Text Available Widespread overharvesting of top consumers of the world's ecosystems has "skewed" food webs, in terms of biomass and species richness, towards a generally greater domination at lower trophic levels. This skewing is exacerbated in locations where exotic species are predominantly low-trophic level consumers such as benthic macrophytes, detritivores, and filter feeders. However, in some systems where numerous exotic predators have been added, sometimes purposefully as in many freshwater systems, food webs are skewed in the opposite direction toward consumer dominance. Little is known about how such modifications to food web topology, e.g., changes in the ratio of predator to prey species richness, affect ecosystem functioning. We experimentally measured the effects of trophic skew on production in an estuarine food web by manipulating ratios of species richness across three trophic levels in experimental mesocosms. After 24 days, increasing macroalgal richness promoted both plant biomass and grazer abundance, although the positive effect on plant biomass disappeared in the presence of grazers. The strongest trophic cascade on the experimentally stocked macroalgae emerged in communities with a greater ratio of prey to predator richness (bottom-rich food webs, while stronger cascades on the accumulation of naturally colonizing algae (primarily microalgae with some early successional macroalgae that recruited and grew in the mesocosms generally emerged in communities with greater predator to prey richness (the more top-rich food webs. These results suggest that trophic skewing of species richness and overall changes in food web topology can influence marine community structure and food web dynamics in complex ways, emphasizing the need for multitrophic approaches to understand the consequences of marine extinctions and invasions.

  14. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  15. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  16. Construction engineering of steel tub-girder bridge systems for skew effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Chong, Juan Manuel

    Closed structural sections, such as those having circular, rectangular or trapezoidal shape, possess high rotational rigidity when compared to open sections such as I-girders. The high torsional rigidity of closed sections makes them ideal for use in highly curved bridges. In this case, the geometry of the bridge results in large torsional forces. Because of structural efficiency and economy reasons, most of these closed-section bridges consist of a trapezoidal cross-section, with a top concrete slab and bottom and side steel plates. The slab is cast after the steel is erected and thus a system of internal diaphragms and braces is necessary to stabilize the system during erection. During the steel erection and the early stages of the concrete deck placement, the section can be considered as quasi-closed as the top concrete flange has not been cast or is not yet effective. During steel erection, undetermined and/or large torsional forces and/or displacements may result in fit-up problems requiring large stresses to overcome. During concrete deck placement, the undetermined displacements can affect the control of the deck thickness and the final deck geometry, such as the alignment of deck joints and the matching of stages in phased constructions projects. Due to the interactions between their various components, the behavior of curved and skewed tub-girder bridges is significantly more complex than that of straight bridges. When skewed supports are used in tub-girders, the interaction of the girder bending rotations and the displacement constraints induced by the skewed support diaphragms causes twisting of the girders at the supports. These twist rotations introduce additional torques into the system. Both curvature and skew can cause design and construction difficulties, especially at the supports, where the corresponding steel dead load deflections and the large torsional stiffness of the girders may lead to large fit-up forces. Currently, the general

  17. Multi-objective mean-variance-skewness model for generation portfolio allocation in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an approach for generation portfolio allocation based on mean-variance-skewness (MVS) model which is an extension of the classical mean-variance (MV) portfolio theory, to deal with assets whose return distribution is non-normal. The MVS model allocates portfolios optimally by considering the maximization of both the expected return and skewness of portfolio return while simultaneously minimizing the risk. Since, it is competing and conflicting non-smooth multi-objective optimization problem, this paper employed a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) based meta-heuristic technique to provide Pareto-optimal solution in a single simulation run. Using a case study of the PJM electricity market, the performance of the MVS portfolio theory based method and the classical MV method is compared. It has been found that the MVS portfolio theory based method can provide significantly better portfolios in the situation where non-normally distributed assets exist for trading. (author)

  18. Skew-Quad Parametric-Resonance Ionization Cooling: Theory and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanaciev, Andre [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Sy, Amy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Johnson, Rolland P. [Muons Inc., Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Muon beam ionization cooling is a key component for the next generation of high-luminosity muon colliders. To reach adequately high luminosity without excessively large muon intensities, it was proposed previously to combine ionization cooling with techniques using a parametric resonance (PIC). Practical implementation of PIC proposal is a subject of this report. We show that an addition of skew quadrupoles to a planar PIC channel gives enough flexibility in the design to avoid unwanted resonances, while meeting the requirements of radially-periodic beam focusing at ionization-cooling plates, large dynamic aperture and an oscillating dispersion needed for aberration corrections. Theoretical arguments are corroborated with models and a detailed numerical analysis, providing step-by-step guidance for the design of Skew-quad PIC (SPIC) beamline.

  19. Generalized Christoffel-Darboux formula for classical skew-orthogonal polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Saugata [233 Green Park, Lake-Town, Kolkata-700 055 (India)], E-mail: saugata135@yahoo.com

    2008-10-31

    We show that skew-orthogonal functions, defined with respect to Jacobi weight w{sub a,b}(x) = (1 - x){sup a}(1 + x){sup b}, a, b > -1, including the limiting cases of Laguerre (w{sub a}(x) = x{sup a} e{sup -x}, a > -1) and Gaussian weight (w(x)=e{sup -x{sup 2}}), satisfy three-term recursion relation in the quaternion space. From this, we derive generalized Christoffel-Darboux (GCD) formulae for kernel functions arising in the study of the corresponding orthogonal and symplectic ensembles of random 2N x 2N matrices. Using the GCD formulae we calculate the level densities and prove that in the bulk of the spectrum, under appropriate scaling, the eigenvalue correlations are universal. We also provide evidence to show that there exists a mapping between skew-orthogonal functions arising in the study of orthogonal and symplectic ensembles of random matrices.

  20. Semiparametric Bayesian inference on skew-normal joint modeling of multivariate longitudinal and survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, An-Min; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2015-02-28

    We propose a semiparametric multivariate skew-normal joint model for multivariate longitudinal and multivariate survival data. One main feature of the posited model is that we relax the commonly used normality assumption for random effects and within-subject error by using a centered Dirichlet process prior to specify the random effects distribution and using a multivariate skew-normal distribution to specify the within-subject error distribution and model trajectory functions of longitudinal responses semiparametrically. A Bayesian approach is proposed to simultaneously obtain Bayesian estimates of unknown parameters, random effects and nonparametric functions by combining the Gibbs sampler and the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Particularly, a Bayesian local influence approach is developed to assess the effect of minor perturbations to within-subject measurement error and random effects. Several simulation studies and an example are presented to illustrate the proposed methodologies. PMID:25404574

  1. Surveying and optical tooling technologies combined to align a skewed beamline at the LAMPF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical Tooling evolved from traditional surveying, and both technologies are sometimes used interchangeably in large industrial installations, since the instruments and their specialized adapters and supports complement each other well. A unique marriage of both technologies was accomplished in a novel application at LAMPF, the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. LAMPF consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, one of which had to be altered to accommodate a new beamline for a neutrino experiment. The new line was to be installed into a crowded beam tunnel and had to be skewed and tilted in compound angles to avoid existing equipment. In this paper we describe how Optical Tooling was used in conjunction with simple alignment and reference fixtures to set fiducials on the magnets and other mechanical components of the beamline, and how theodolites and sight levels were then adapted to align these components along the calculated skew planes. Design tolerances are compared with measured alignment results

  2. Muon Tracking Studies in a Skew Parametric Resonance Ionization Cooling Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Afanaciev, Andre [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Skew Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (SPIC) is an extension of the Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) framework that has previously been explored as the final 6D cooling stage of a high-luminosity muon collider. The addition of skew quadrupoles to the PIC magnetic focusing channel induces coupled dynamic behavior of the beam that is radially periodic. The periodicity of the radial motion allows for the avoidance of unwanted resonances in the horizontal and vertical transverse planes, while still providing periodic locations at which ionization cooling components can be implemented. A first practical implementation of the magnetic field components required in the SPIC channel is modeled in MADX. Dynamic features of the coupled correlated optics with and without induced parametric resonance are presented and discussed.

  3. Optimization Design and Experimental Study of Low-Pressure Axial Fan with Forward-Skewed Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the optimization of blade skew in low pressure axial fan. Using back propagation (BP neural network and genetic algorithm (GA, the optimization was performed for a radial blade. An optimized blade is obtained through blade forward skew. Measurement of the two blades was carried out in aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance. Compared to the radial blade, the optimized blade demonstrated improvements in efficiency, total pressure ratio, stable operating range, and aerodynamic noise. Detailed flow measurement was performed in outlet flow field for investigating the responsible flow mechanisms. The optimized blade can cause a spanwise redistribution of flow toward the blade midspan and reduce tip loading. This results in reduced significantly total pressure loss near hub and shroud endwall region, despite the slight increase of total pressure loss at midspan. In addition, the measured spectrums show that the broadband noise of the impeller is dominant.

  4. Kinetic investigation of the extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by skew scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J. L.; Wu, M. W.

    2008-02-01

    A study of the kinetics of the extrinsic spin Hall conductivity induced by skew scattering is performed using the fully microscopic kinetic spin Bloch equation approach to the (001) GaAs symmetric quantum well. In the steady state, the extrinsic spin Hall current/conductivity vanishes for the linear k dependent spin-orbit coupling and is very small for the cubic k dependent spin-orbit coupling. The spin precession induced by the Dresselhaus/Rashba spin-orbit coupling plays a very important role in the vanishing of the extrinsic spin Hall conductivity in the steady state. An in-plane spin polarization is induced by the skew scattering, with the help of the spin-orbit coupling. This spin polarization is very different from the current-induced spin polarization.

  5. Kinetic investigation of the extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by skew scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J L; Wu, M W [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China)], E-mail: mwwu@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-02-27

    A study of the kinetics of the extrinsic spin Hall conductivity induced by skew scattering is performed using the fully microscopic kinetic spin Bloch equation approach to the (001) GaAs symmetric quantum well. In the steady state, the extrinsic spin Hall current/conductivity vanishes for the linear k dependent spin-orbit coupling and is very small for the cubic k dependent spin-orbit coupling. The spin precession induced by the Dresselhaus/Rashba spin-orbit coupling plays a very important role in the vanishing of the extrinsic spin Hall conductivity in the steady state. An in-plane spin polarization is induced by the skew scattering, with the help of the spin-orbit coupling. This spin polarization is very different from the current-induced spin polarization.

  6. Bed slope effects on turbulent wave boundary layers: 2. Comparison with skewness, asymmetry, and other effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    contributions believed to play a prominent role in cross-shore boundary layer and sediment transport processes: (1) converging-diverging effects from bed slope, (2) wave skewness, (3) wave asymmetry, and (4) waves combined with superposed negative currents (intended to loosely represent, for example, return...... currents or undertow). The effects from each of the four components are isolated and quantified using a standard set of bed shear stress quantities, allowing their easy comparison. For conditions representing large shallow-water waves on steep slopes, the results suggest that converging-diverging effects...... from beach slope may make a significant onshore bed load contribution. Generally, however, the results suggest wave skewness (in addition to conventional steady streaming) as the most important onshore contribution outside the surf zone. Streaming induced within the wave boundary layer is also...

  7. SKEWNESS IN STOCK RETURNS: EVIDENCE FROM THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE DURING 2000 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIAN PANAIT

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper investigates the symmetry in stock returns of the 30 most liquid companies traded on Bucharest Stock Exchange during 2000 – 2011 and also the most representative 5 market indices. Our daily data shows that skewness estimates are slightly negative for most indices and individual stocks, but only a few present values significantly different from the characteristics of a normal distribution. We compare our results with skewness estimates for 21 major and emerging stock market indices around the world and find that such results are similar to other low capitalization and trading volume markets. For all the Romanian and international assets studied, the Studentized-Range (St-R and Jarque-Bera (J-B tests reject the hypothesis of normal distribution of daily returns.

  8. Skew ray tracing in a step-index optical fiber using Geometric Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Angeleene; McNamara, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    We used Geometric Algebra to compute the paths of skew rays in a cylindrical, step-index multimode optical fiber. To do this, we used the vector addition form for the law of propagation, the exponential of an imaginary vector form for the law of refraction, and the juxtaposed vector product form for the law of reflection. In particular, the exponential forms of the vector rotations enables us to take advantage of the addition or subtraction of exponential arguments of two rotated vectors in the derivation of the ray tracing invariants in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. We showed that the light rays inside the optical fiber trace a polygonal helical path characterized by three invariants that relate successive reflections inside the fiber: the ray path distance, the difference in axial distances, and the difference in the azimuthal angles. We also rederived the known generalized formula for the numerical aperture for skew rays, which simplifies to the standard form for meridional rays.

  9. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  10. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  11. Enhanced Skewed Load and Broadside Power Reduction in Transition Fault Testing

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jyothi; Ms. P.Priyadharshika

    2014-01-01

    This Paper Proposes the T-algorithm technique to optimize the testing Skewed Load and Broadside architecture. And the architecture used to the compare the test pattern results. In this architecture, T-algorithm used to optimize the testing architecture. This architecture compare the test pattern output for the required any type of combinational architecture. The optimization process mainly focused by gate optimization for secure architecture. The proposed system to use the T-algorithm, to opt...

  12. Scent-marking and intrasexual competition in a cooperative carnivore with low reproductive skew

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, C. A.; Manser, M B

    2008-01-01

    Most mammals scent-mark and a variety of hypotheses have been put forward to explain this behaviour. Differences in the main function of scent-marking between species are likely to be related to differences in social systems. Here, we investigate the functions of scent-marking in a cooperatively breeding carnivore. In the banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), individuals of both sexes commonly breed in their natal group and reproductive skew within groups is low. Using experimental scent-mark prese...

  13. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  14. Quantum integrable systems, non-skew-symmetric r-matrices and algebraic Bethe ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrypnyk, T.

    2007-02-01

    We prove the integrability of the general quantum Hamiltonian systems governed by an arbitrary non-skew-symmetric, so(3)-valued, nondynamical classical r-matrix with spectral parameters. We consider the most interesting example of these quantum integrable systems, namely, the so(3) "generalized Gaudin systems" in detail. In the case of an arbitrary r-matrix which is "diagonal" in the sl(2) basis we calculate the spectrum and the eigenvalues of the corresponding Hamiltonians using the algebraic Bethe ansatz technique.

  15. Fitting age-specific fertility rates by a skew-symmetric probability density function

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzuco, Stefano; Scarpa, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Mixture probability density functions had recently been proposed to describe some fertility patterns characterized by a bi-modal shape. These mixture probability density functions appear to be adequate when the fertility pattern is actually bi-modal but less useful when the shape of age-specific fertility rates is unimodal. A further model is proposed based on skew-symmetric probability density functions. This model is both more parsimonious than mixture distributions and more flexible, sh...

  16. Skewness-induced asymmetric modulation of small-scale turbulence by large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Lionel; Leschziner, Michael; Gaitonde, Datta

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies discuss of role of skewness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in near-wall shear layers, in the context of quantifying the correlation between large-scale motions and amplitude variations of small-scale fluctuations—referred to as "modulation." The present study is based on the premise that the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations should be accounted for explicitly in the process of defining their envelope, which characterizes their amplitude variations. This leads to the notion of two envelopes, one for positive and the other for negative small-scale fluctuations, and hence also to two corresponding correlation coefficients. Justification for this concept is provided first by an examination of a high-frequency synthetic signal subjected to realistic skewness-inducing modulation. A new formalism is provided for deriving the two envelopes, and its fidelity is demonstrated for the synthetic test case. The method is then applied to a channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 4200, for which direct numerical simulation (DNS) data are available. The large-scale and small-scale fields are separated by the empirical mode decomposition method, and the modulation of the small-scale fluctuations by the large scales is examined. Separate maps of the correlation coefficient and of two-point correlations, the latter linking the large-scale motions and the envelopes of the small-scale motions, are derived for the two envelopes pertaining to positive and negative small-scale fluctuations, and these demonstrate a significant sensitivity to the envelope-definition process, especially close to the wall where the skewness of the small-scale fluctuations is the dominant contributor to the total value.

  17. Effect of PCC Joint Skew on Reflective Cracking in HMA Overlays

    OpenAIRE

    Ghauch, Ziad G.

    2011-01-01

    Reflective cracking is a relatively premature distress that occurs in HMA materials overlaying cracked and jointed underlying pavements. The high concentration of stresses and strains in the vicinity of the discontinuity of the old pavement causes the cracks to reflect into the newly placed HMA overlay. While it is a common practice to use skewed transverse joints in rigid pavements to improve the latter's performance, the impact of such a practice on the cracking of a potential HMA overlay h...

  18. Taming the Skew: Higher-Order Moments in Modeling Asset Price Processes in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjiv Ranjan Das; Sundaram, Rangarajan K

    1997-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that many financial markets exhibit a considerably greater degree of kurtosis (and sometimes also skewness) than is consistent with the Geometric Brownian Motion model of Black and Scholes (1973). Among the many alternative models that have been proposed in this context, two have become especially popular in recent years: models of jump-diffusions, and models of stochastic volatility. This paper explores the statistical properties of these models with a view to ident...

  19. Dealing with Skewed Data in Structured Overlays using Variable Hash Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine, Maeva; Huet, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Storing highly skewed data in a distributed system has become a very frequent issue, in particular with the emergence of semantic web and Big Data. This often leads to biased data dissemination among nodes. Addressing load imbalance is necessary, especially to minimize response time and avoid workload being handled by only one or few nodes. Our contribution aims at dynamically managing load imbalance by allowing multiple hash functions on different peers, while maintaining consistency of the ...

  20. Genotype and phenotype in Klinefelter syndrome - impact of androgen receptor polymorphism and skewed X inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A; Hertz, J M; Gravholt, C H

    2011-01-01

    The phenotypic variation of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is wide and may by caused by various genetic and epigenetic effects. Skewed inactivation of the supra-numerical X chromosome and polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) have been suggested as plausible causes. We wanted to describe X-chromo......-chromosome inactivation did not. The impact of CAGn on final height may be caused by later reactivation of the pituitary-gonadal axis....

  1. Dimension and measure of baker-like skew-products of $\\beta$-transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Färm, David

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalisation of the baker's transformation, consisting of a skew-product of contractions and a $\\beta$-transformation. The Hausdorff dimension and Lebesgue measure of the attractor is calculated for a set of parameters with positive measure. The proofs use a new transverality lemma similar to Solomyak's [Solomyak, 1995]. This transversality, which is applicable to the considered class of maps holds for a larger set of parameters than Solomyak's transversality.

  2. 75 FR 59683 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... for Farmers Program Review Committee, comprised of representatives from USDA's Office of the Chief... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers...

  3. Free vibration of composite skewed cylindrical shell panel by finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Salil

    2008-03-01

    In this paper a composite triangular shallow shell element has been used for free vibration analysis of laminated composite skewed cylindrical shell panels. In the present element first-order shear deformation theory has been incorporated by taking transverse displacement and bending rotations as independent field variables. The interpolation function used to approximate transverse displacement is one order higher than for bending rotations. This has made the element free from locking in shear. Two types of mass lumping schemes have been recommended. In one of the mass lumping scheme the effect of rotary inertia has been incorporated in the element formulations. Free vibration of skewed composite cylindrical shell panels having different thickness to radius ratios ( h/R=0.01-0.2), length to radius ratios ( L/R), number of layers and fiber orientation angles have been analyzed following the shallow shell method. The results for few examples obtained in the present analysis have compared with the published results. Some new results of composite skewed cylindrical shell panels have been presented which are expected to be useful to future research in this direction.

  4. Skew-Varicose Instability in Two Dimensional Generalized Swift-Hohenberg Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Weliwita, J A; Tobias, S M

    2011-01-01

    We apply analytical and numerical methods to study the linear stability of stripe patterns in two generalizations of the two-dimensional Swift--Hohenberg equation that include coupling to a mean flow. A projection operator is included in our models to allow exact stripe solutions. In the generalized models, stripes become unstable to the skew-varicose, oscillatory skew-varicose and cross-roll instabilities, in addition to the usual Eckhaus and zigzag instabilities. We analytically derive stability boundaries for the skew-varicose instability in various cases, including several asymptotic limits. We also use numerical techniques to determine eigenvalues and hence stability boundaries of other instabilities. We extend our analysis to both stress-free and no-slip boundary conditions and we note a cross over from the behaviour characteristic of no-slip to that of stress-free boundaries as the coupling to the mean flow increases or as the Prandtl number decreases. Close to the critical value of the bifurcation par...

  5. TVD differencing on three-dimensional unstructured meshes with monotonicity-preserving correction of mesh skewness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.

    2015-10-01

    Total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes are a widely applied group of monotonicity-preserving advection differencing schemes for partial differential equations in numerical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics. These schemes are typically designed for one-dimensional problems or multidimensional problems on structured equidistant quadrilateral meshes. Practical applications, however, often involve complex geometries that cannot be represented by Cartesian meshes and, therefore, necessitate the application of unstructured meshes, which require a more sophisticated discretisation to account for their additional topological complexity. In principle, TVD schemes are applicable to unstructured meshes, however, not all the data required for TVD differencing is readily available on unstructured meshes, and the solution suffers from considerable numerical diffusion as a result of mesh skewness. In this article we analyse TVD differencing on unstructured three-dimensional meshes, focusing on the non-linearity of TVD differencing and the extrapolation of the virtual upwind node. Furthermore, we propose a novel monotonicity-preserving correction method for TVD schemes that significantly reduces numerical diffusion caused by mesh skewness. The presented numerical experiments demonstrate the importance of accounting for the non-linearity introduced by TVD differencing and of imposing carefully chosen limits on the extrapolated virtual upwind node, as well as the efficacy of the proposed method to correct mesh skewness.

  6. Squaring the Circle: Geometric Skewness and Symmetry Breaking for Passive Scalar Transport in Ducts and Pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Manuchehr; Bernardi, Francesca; Camassa, Roberto; McLaughlin, Richard M

    2015-10-01

    We study the role geometry plays in the emergence of asymmetries in diffusing passive scalars advected by pressure-driven flows in ducts and pipes of different aspect ratios. We uncover nonintuitive, multi-time-scale behavior gauged by a new statistic, which we term "geometric skewness" S^{G}, which measures instantaneously forming asymmetries at short times due to flow geometry. This signature distinguishes elliptical pipes of any aspect ratio, for which S^{G}=0, from rectangular ducts whose S^{G} is generically nonzero, and, interestingly, shows that a special duct of aspect ratio ≈0.53335 behaves like a circular pipe as its geometric skewness vanishes. Using a combination of exact solutions, novel short-time asymptotics, and Monte Carlo simulations, we establish the relevant time scales for plateaus and extrema in the evolution of the skewness and kurtosis for our class of geometries. For ducts limiting to channel geometries, we present new exact, single-series formulas for the first four moments on slices used to benchmark Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:26550727

  7. The role of the SST-thermocline relationship in Indian Ocean Dipole skewness and its response to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Benjamin; Cai, Wenju; Walsh, Kevin

    2014-08-12

    A positive Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) tends to have stronger cold sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) over the eastern Indian Ocean with greater impacts than warm SSTAs that occur during its negative phase. Two feedbacks have been suggested as the cause of positive IOD skewness, a positive Bjerknes feedback and a negative SST-cloud-radiation (SCR) feedback, but their relative importance is debated. Using inter-model statistics, we show that the most important process for IOD skewness is an asymmetry in the thermocline feedback, whereby SSTAs respond to thermocline depth anomalies more strongly during the positive phase than negative phase. This asymmetric thermocline feedback drives IOD skewness despite positive IODs receiving greater damping from the SCR feedback. In response to global warming, although the thermocline feedback strengthens, its asymmetry between positive and negative IODs weakens. This behaviour change explains the reduction in IOD skewness that many models display under global warming.

  8. Skewed Noise

    OpenAIRE

    David Dillenberger; Uzi Segal

    2013-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that individuals who face an asymmetric distribution over the likelihood of a specific event might actually prefer not to know the exact value of this probability. We address these findings by studying a decision maker who has recursive, non-expected utility preferences over two-stage lotteries. For a binary lottery that yields the better outcome with probability p, we identify noise around p with a compound lottery that induces a probability distribution over t...

  9. 基于蚁群拥挤度跃阶调整的交互信息调度算法%Interactive Information Scheduling Algorithm Based on Ant Colony and Congestion Step Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春林

    2015-01-01

    A large database object interaction information scheduling is the key to improve the stability and throughput of network database system structure, using the UDP protocol to transport real-time large object data scheduling, improve the transmission performance of large object data, key to avoid delay and lost frames. This paper presents an interactive infor-mation scheduling algorithm of ant colony and congestion based on adjusting step, take the business of each component of a response and constant in the frequency domain, then take the nearest integer, realize data decompression process according-ly, according to the HList returned to IC Compiler for task scheduling, according to the time sequence information of each node using double threshold decision, design conditions, the sender needs to send data, the time axis is divided into adja-cent to each task, smoothing window model, information model construction scheduling adaptive step adjustment, the simu-lation results show that this algorithm can effectively improve the scheduling performance of interactive information, save the task overhead, shorten interactive information scheduling delay, it can reduce the bit error rate.%大数据库对象交互信息调度是提高网络数据库系统结构的稳定性和吞吐量的关键,通过采用UDP协议传输实时大对象数据调度,提高大对象数据的传输性能,是避免延时和丢帧的关键.提出一种基于蚁群拥挤度跃阶调整的交互信息调度算法,根据HList返回到IC Compiler中进行任务调度,根据每个节点的时序信息,采用双阈值判决条件设计,发送方需要发送数据时,时间轴划分成各个相邻的任务匹配平滑窗口模型,构建跃阶调整的自适应信息调度模型,仿真结果表明,本文算法能有效提高交互信息调度性能,节省了任务开销,缩短交互信息调度延时,降低误码率.

  10. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  11. Detection of skewed X-chromosome inactivation in Fragile X syndrome and X chromosome aneuploidy using quantitative melt analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godler, David E; Inaba, Yoshimi; Schwartz, Charles E; Bui, Quang M; Shi, Elva Z; Li, Xin; Herlihy, Amy S; Skinner, Cindy; Hagerman, Randi J; Francis, David; Amor, David J; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hopper, John L; Slater, Howard R

    2015-07-01

    Methylation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) exon 1/intron 1 boundary positioned fragile X related epigenetic element 2 (FREE2), reveals skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in fragile X syndrome full mutation (FM: CGG > 200) females. XCI skewing has been also linked to abnormal X-linked gene expression with the broader clinical impact for sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). In this study, 10 FREE2 CpG sites were targeted using methylation specific quantitative melt analysis (MS-QMA), including 3 sites that could not be analysed with previously used EpiTYPER system. The method was applied for detection of skewed XCI in FM females and in different types of SCA. We tested venous blood and saliva DNA collected from 107 controls (CGG chromosome test; (ii) locus-specific XCI skewing towards the hypomethylated state in FM females; and (iii) skewed XCI towards the hypermethylated state in SCA with 3 or more X chromosomes, and in 5% of the 47,XXY individuals. MS-QMA output also showed significant correlation with the EpiTYPER reference method in FM males and females (P < 0.0001) and SCAs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate use of MS-QMA to quantify skewed XCI in two applications with diagnostic utility.

  12. Adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Barbulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.

  13. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thoughts and feelings and is something that takes time. The goal of adjusting is to rebuild one's ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in ...

  14. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include grieving, taking ... treatment options. Related pages What is a complete vs incomplete injury? What emergency procedures occur following an ...

  15. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include ... a peer mentor Advocate for change Fundraise with Team Reeve Champions Committee Volunteering About Us Our story ...

  16. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  17. Multi-toning Image Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Xiao-juan; PENG Qun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the different lighting environments or other reasons, the pixel colors may be quite different in one image which causes distinct visual discontinuities. It makes the analysis and processing of such an image more difficult and sometime impossible. In this paper, a unified multi-toning image adjustment method is proposed to solve this problem. First, a novel unsupervised clustering method was proposed to partition the source and the target image into a certain number of subsets with similar color statistics. By matching the texture characteristics and luminance distribution between the blocks, it can create optimized correspondence. Then, the color information was transferred from the matched pixels in the source blocks to the target ones. Graph cut method was used to optimize the seams between different subsets in the final step. This method can automatically perform color adjustment of a multi-toning image. It is simple and efficient. Various results show the validity of this method.

  18. Occupational Adjustment of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Zorlu, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves significantly with the duration of residence. The extent of this initial disadvantage and the rate of adjustment vary across immigrant groups according to the transferability of skills associated with t...

  19. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  20. A computerized adjustable brain atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized brain atlas, adjustable to the patients anatomy, has been developed. It is primarily intended for use in positron emission tomography, but may also be employed in other fields utilizing neuro imaging, such as sterotactic surgery, transmission computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The atlas is based on anatomical information obtained from digitized cryosectioned brains. It can be adjusted to fit a wide range of images from individual brains with normal anatomy. The corresponding transformation is chosen so that the modified atlas agrees with a set of CT or NMR images of the patient. The computerized atlas can be used to improve the quantification and evaluation of PET data by: Aiding and improving the selection of regions of interests. Facilitating comparisons of functional image data from different individuals or groups of individuals. Facilitating the comparison of different examinations of the same patient, thus reducing the need of reproducible fixation systems. Providing external a priori anatomical information to be used in the image reconstruction. Improving the attenuation and scatter corrections. Aiding in selecting a suitable patient orientation during the PET study. By applying the inverse atlas transformation to PET data set it is possible to relate the PET information to the anatomy of the reference atlas. Reformatted PET data from different patients can thus be averaged, and averages from different categories of patients can be compared. The method will facilitate the identification of statistically significant differences in the PET information from different groups of patients. (orig.)

  1. Identification of 2R-ohnologue gene families displaying the same mutation-load skew in multiple cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Michele; Dissanayake, Kumara; Synowsky, Silvia; Albergante, Luca; MacKintosh, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of signalling pathways was boosted at the origin of the vertebrates, when two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R-WGD) occurred. Those genes and proteins that have survived from the 2R-WGD-termed 2R-ohnologues-belong to families of two to four members, and are enriched in signalling components relevant to cancer. Here, we find that while only approximately 30% of human transcript-coding genes are 2R-ohnologues, they carry 42-60% of the gene mutations in 30 different cancer types. Across a subset of cancer datasets, including melanoma, breast, lung adenocarcinoma, liver and medulloblastoma, we identified 673 2R-ohnologue families in which one gene carries mutations at multiple positions, while sister genes in the same family are relatively mutation free. Strikingly, in 315 of the 322 2R-ohnologue families displaying such a skew in multiple cancers, the same gene carries the heaviest mutation load in each cancer, and usually the second-ranked gene is also the same in each cancer. Our findings inspire the hypothesis that in certain cancers, heterogeneous combinations of genetic changes impair parts of the 2R-WGD signalling networks and force information flow through a limited set of oncogenic pathways in which specific non-mutated 2R-ohnologues serve as effectors. The non-mutated 2R-ohnologues are therefore potential therapeutic targets. These include proteins linked to growth factor signalling, neurotransmission and ion channels.

  2. Skew-t fits to mortality data--can a Gaussian-related distribution replace the Gompertz-Makeham as the basis for mortality studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeremy S C; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Mongiało, Zbigniew; Ignaczak, Paweł; Czajkowski, Andrzej A; Klęsk, Przemysław; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    Gompertz-related distributions have dominated mortality studies for 187 years. However, nonrelated distributions also fit well to mortality data. These compete with the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham data when applied to data with varying extents of truncation, with no consensus as to preference. In contrast, Gaussian-related distributions are rarely applied, despite the fact that Lexis in 1879 suggested that the normal distribution itself fits well to the right of the mode. Study aims were therefore to compare skew-t fits to Human Mortality Database data, with Gompertz-nested distributions, by implementing maximum likelihood estimation functions (mle2, R package bbmle; coding given). Results showed skew-t fits obtained lower Bayesian information criterion values than Gompertz-nested distributions, applied to low-mortality country data, including 1711 and 1810 cohorts. As Gaussian-related distributions have now been found to have almost universal application to error theory, one conclusion could be that a Gaussian-related distribution might replace Gompertz-related distributions as the basis for mortality studies.

  3. Self-alignment of full skewed RSINS:observability analysis and full-observable Kalman filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lailiang Song; Chunxi Zhang; Jiazhen Lu

    2014-01-01

    Traditional orthogonal strapdown inertial navigation sys-tem (SINS) cannot achieve satisfactory self-alignment accuracy in the stationary base: taking more than 5 minutes and al the iner-tial sensors biases cannot get ful observability except the up-axis accelerometer. However, the ful skewed redundant SINS (RSINS) can not only enhance the reliability of the system, but also improve the accuracy of the system, such as the initial alignment. Firstly, the observability of the system state includes attitude errors and al the inertial sensors biases are analyzed with the global perspective method: any three gyroscopes and three accelerometers can be assembled into an independent subordinate SINS (sub-SINS);the system state can be uniquely confirmed by the coupling connec-tions of al the sub-SINSs;the attitude errors and random constant biases of al the inertial sensors are observable. However, the ran-dom noises of the inertial sensors are not taken into account in the above analyzing process. Secondly, the ful-observable Kalman filter which can be applied to the actual RSINS containing random noises is established; the system state includes the position, ve-locity, attitude errors of al the sub-SINSs and the random constant biases of the redundant inertial sensors. At last, the initial self-alignment process of a typical four-redundancy ful skewed RSINS is simulated: the horizontal attitudes (pitch, rol ) errors and yaw error can be exactly evaluated within 80 s and 100 s respectively, while the random constant biases of gyroscopes and accelero-meters can be precisely evaluated within 120 s. For the ful skewed RSINS, the self-alignment accuracy is greatly improved, mean-while the self-alignment time is widely shortened.

  4. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  5. B Cells Promote Th1- Skewed NKT Cell Response by CD1d-TCR Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Park, Se-Ho

    2013-01-01

    CD1d expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are good glyco-lipid antigen presenting cells for NKT cells. However, resting B cells are very weak stimulators for NKT cells. Although α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) loaded B cells can activate NKT cells, it is not well defined whether B cells interfere NKT cell stimulating activity of DCs. Unexpectedly, we found in this study that B cells can promote Th1-skewed NKT cell response, which means a increased level of IFN-γ by NKT cells, concomitant with a d...

  6. Stability of a cantilevered skew inhomogeneous plate in supersonic gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaulova, T. N.; Lavit, I. M.

    2011-07-01

    This paper considers the vibrations of a skew inhomogeneous plate in gas flow. The plate is clamped in a certain section of one of its sides. Interaction of the flow with the plate is described using piston theory. The problem solution is based on the Hamilton's variational principle and finite element method. The calculation results are compared with known data of theoretical studies and experiments. For the inhomogeneous plate, similarity parameters were established for the problem, which, in practically important cases, appears to be self-similar for one of the similarity parameters. This allows one to reduce the solution of this problem to the solution of an algebraic eigenvalue problem.

  7. Uniform persistence and upper Lyapunov exponents for monotone skew-product semiflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several results of uniform persistence above and below a minimal set of an abstract monotone skew-product semiflow are obtained. When the minimal set has a continuous separation the results are given in terms of the principal spectrum. In the case that the semiflow is generated by the solutions of a family of non-autonomous differential equations of ordinary, delay or parabolic type, the former results are strongly improved. A method of calculus of the upper Lyapunov exponent of the minimal set is also determined. (paper)

  8. Skewed X-chromosome inactivation in female carriers of dyskeratosis congenita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devriendt, K.; Matthijs, G.; Legius, E. [Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    In this study, we report on a family with X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Linkage analysis with markers in the factor VIII gene at Xq28 yielded a LOD score of 2 at a recombination of 0. Clinical manifestations of DC, such as skin lesions following the Blaschko lines, were present in two obligate carrier females. Highly skewed X inactivation was observed in white blood cells, cultured skin fibroblasts, and buccal mucosa from female carriers of DC in this family. This suggests a critical role for the DC gene in bone marrow-cell and fibroblast-cell proliferation. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Testing gravity on large scales. The skewness of the galaxy distribution at z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Marinoni, C; Cappi, A; Le Fèvre, O; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Pollo, A; Iovino, A; McCracken, H J; Scaramella, R; De la Torre, S; Virey, J M; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Ilbert, O; Lamareille, F; Marano, B; Mathez, G; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Vergani, D; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Abbas, U; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Brinchmann, J; Buzzi, A; Cucciati, O; de Ravel, L; Gregorini, L; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Pérez-Montero, E; Taxil, P; Temporin, S; Walcher, C J

    2008-01-01

    We study the evolution of the low-order moments of the galaxy overdensity distribution over the redshift interval 0.7skewness evolve over this redshift interval in a way that is remarkably consistent with predictions of first- and second-order perturbation theory. This finding confirms the standard gravitational instability paradigm over nearly 9 Gyrs of cosmic time and demonstrates the importance of accounting for the non-linear component of galaxy biasing to avoid disagreement between theory and observations.

  10. Measuring skew in average surface roughness as a function of surface preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.

    2015-08-01

    Characterizing surface roughness is important for predicting optical performance. Better measurement of surface roughness reduces polishing time, saves money and allows the science requirements to be better defined. This study characterized statistics of average surface roughness as a function of polishing time. Average surface roughness was measured at 81 locations using a Zygo® white light interferometer at regular intervals during the polishing process. Each data set was fit to a normal and Largest Extreme Value (LEV) distribution; then tested for goodness of fit. We show that the skew in the average data changes as a function of polishing time.

  11. 75 FR 59685 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program...

  12. 75 FR 4098 - Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD... are required to advise the Secretary of the need for and request of a new utility allowance for... whether the information will have practical utility; (2) Evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate...

  13. Risk adjusted equity valuation and accounting betas

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, P F; Wang, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general equity valuation model where abnormal earnings, back value, the discount factor and interest rates evolve stochastically. Focusing on the dynamics of abnormal earnings, we demonstrate the back value, abnormal earnings, "other information" and two risk adjustment terms are sufficient for valuation when pricing kernel risk is attributable to a single market factor. The risk adjustment terms depend on accounting betas reflecting the covariances between abnormal...

  14. Quantitative analysis of replication-related mutation and selection pressures in bacterial chromosomes and plasmids using generalised GC skew index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Haruo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their bi-directional replication machinery starting from a single finite origin, bacterial genomes show characteristic nucleotide compositional bias between the two replichores, which can be visualised through GC skew or (C-G/(C+G. Although this polarisation is used for computational prediction of replication origins in many bacterial genomes, the degree of GC skew visibility varies widely among different species, necessitating a quantitative measurement of GC skew strength in order to provide confidence measures for GC skew-based predictions of replication origins. Results Here we discuss a quantitative index for the measurement of GC skew strength, named the generalised GC skew index (gGCSI, which is applicable to genomes of any length, including bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. We demonstrate that gGCSI is independent of the window size and can thus be used to compare genomes with different sizes, such as bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. It can suggest the existence of different replication mechanisms in archaea and of rolling-circle replication in plasmids. Correlation of gGCSI values between plasmids and their corresponding host chromosomes suggests that within the same strain, these replicons have reproduced using the same replication machinery and thus exhibit similar strengths of replication strand skew. Conclusions gGCSI can be applied to genomes of any length and thus allows comparative study of replication-related mutation and selection pressures in genomes of different lengths such as bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. Using gGCSI, we showed that replication-related mutation or selection pressure is similar for replicons with similar machinery.

  15. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs......, inspired by Actor-Network Theory to demonstrate that regime incumbent actors can induce gradual regime adjustments at the urban scale. This is done through a case study of an urban development project, where the Municipality of Egedal in Denmark has successfully promoted energy efficient buildings through...

  16. Different male versus female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Clive Hays

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD, such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceeding 3:1 in >50% records, which, at-a-glance, reiterates concerns for extinction. However, we also demonstrate that more frequent breeding by males, empirically shown by satellite tracking 23 individuals and supported by a generalized bio-energetic life history model, generates more balanced operational sex ratios (OSRs. Hence, concerns of increasingly skewed hatchling sex ratios and reduced population viability are less acute than previously thought for sea turtles. In fact, in some scenarios skewed hatchling sex ratios in groups with TSD may be adaptive to ensure optimum OSRs.

  17. Response of a skewed turbulent boundary layer to favourable pressure gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudier, M.P.; Johnson, M.W. [Dept. of Engineering Mechanical Engineering, Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom); Ramadan, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kings College, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-06-01

    Experimental results are reported for the response to a favourable pressure gradient of an initially turbulent boundary layer (Re{sub {theta}} {approx} 1600) developing on a flat plate with its leading edge skewed at 60 to the approach flow. The pressure gradient orthogonal to the leading edge is nominally the same as that which was shown by Escudier et al. [(1998) Exp Fluids 25: 491-502] to cause extreme thinning of a two-dimensional (2D) (i.e. unskewed) turbulent boundary layer and the intermittency in the immediate vicinity of the surface to fall to zero, i.e. an apparent laminarisation of the boundary layer. In the case of the skewed boundary layer, the responses of the turbulence and mean-flow structures are qualitatively similar to those for the 2D situation. However, the streamwise pressure gradient is much weaker than for the 2D experiment and the extent of the changes it produces is much reduced. Even so, the changes are considerably greater than would be expected from the magnitude of the streamwise pressure gradient. (orig.)

  18. Understanding the distinctively skewed and heavy tailed character of atmospheric and oceanic probability distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability distributions of large-scale atmospheric and oceanic variables are generally skewed and heavy-tailed. We argue that their distinctive departures from Gaussianity arise fundamentally from the fact that in a quadratically nonlinear system with a quadratic invariant, the coupling coefficients between system components are not constant but depend linearly on the system state in a distinctive way. In particular, the skewness arises from a tendency of the system trajectory to linger near states of weak coupling. We show that the salient features of the observed non-Gaussianity can be captured in the simplest such nonlinear 2-component system. If the system is stochastically forced and linearly damped, with one component damped much more strongly than the other, then the strongly damped fast component becomes effectively decoupled from the weakly damped slow component, and its impact on the slow component can be approximated as a stochastic noise forcing plus an augmented nonlinear damping. In the limit of large time-scale separation, the nonlinear augmentation of the damping becomes small, and the noise forcing can be approximated as an additive noise plus a correlated additive and multiplicative noise (CAM noise) forcing. Much of the diversity of observed large-scale atmospheric and oceanic probability distributions can be interpreted in this minimal framework

  19. Cavitation Simulation on Conventional and Highly-Skewed Propellers in the Behind Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The cavitating flows around conventional and highly-skewed propellers in the behind-hull condition are simulated by an in-house RANS solver, EllipSys (Sørensen 2003), with the cavitation model, based on the homogeneous equilibrium modeling (HEM) approach and a vapor transport equation. The valida......The cavitating flows around conventional and highly-skewed propellers in the behind-hull condition are simulated by an in-house RANS solver, EllipSys (Sørensen 2003), with the cavitation model, based on the homogeneous equilibrium modeling (HEM) approach and a vapor transport equation....... The validation of the cavitation model in EllipSys has been conducted for the cavitating flows on 2D/3D hydrofoils (Shin 2010). Prior to the cavitation simulation, the open-water characteristics of the propellers from the computation are compared with those from the propulsion test for the fully-wetted flows (Li...... & Lundström 2002, Lindell 2005). The cavitation simulation is performed for the flow condition corresponding to that in the cavitation tunnel test for the ship model equipped with the propeller (Johannsen 2004, Lindell 2005). Instead of modeling the hull for the behind-hull condition, the measured wake field...

  20. Hematopoietic lineage skewing and intestinal epithelia degeneration in aged mice with telomerase RNA component deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jichun; Bryant, Mark A; Dent, James J; Sun, Yu; Desierto, Marie J; Young, Neal S

    2015-12-01

    A deletion of a telomerase RNA component (Terc(-/-)) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice resulted in hematopoietic lineage skewing with increased neutrophils and CD11b(+) myeloid cells and decreased red blood cells and CD45R(+) B lymphocytes when animals reach ages older than 12 months. There was no decline in bone marrow (BM) c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) (KSL) cells in old Terc(-/-) mice, and the lineage skewing phenomenon was not transferred when BM cells from old Terc(-/-) donors were transplanted into young B6 recipients. Necropsy and histological examinations found minimal to no change in the lung, spleen and liver but detected severe epithelia degeneration, ulceration and infection in small and large intestines, leading to enteritis, typhlitis and colitis in old Terc(-/-) mice. In a mouse model of dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced typhlitis and colitis, development of intestinal pathology was associated with increases in neutrophils and CD11b(+) myeloid cells and a decrease in CD45R(+) B cells, similar to those observed in old Terc(-/-) mice. Treatment of 11-13 month old Terc(-/-) mice with antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfa water reduced neutrophils and myeloid cells and increased B lymphocytes in the blood, indicating that mitigation of intestinal infection and inflammation could alleviate hematological abnormalities in old Terc(-/-) animals. PMID:26523501

  1. Optical alignment to set a skewed beamline for neutrino research at the LAMPF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) consists of a linear accelerator with multiple target systems, where the particle beam is being switched into separate channels to be aimed at discrete terminals to perform a variety of functions. The beam is always enclosed in an evacuated pipe with directional changes following simple geometric patterns along vertical or horizontal reference lines. Beam steering and focusing is accomplished with magnets surrounding the evacuated beam tubes. In a novel application it was necessry to cut into an existing beam tube and add a line which was to be skewed in a compound angle to clear the existing equipment and fit into the limited space provided in the beam tunnel. Alignment of the skewed beamline was accomplished by setting optical reference lines and planes to calculated beam centerlines and positioning the beam pipes and most magnets to these references using special centering fixtures. This paper describes the combined use of the optical tooling and surveying technology as applied to the marking of the components and positioning of subassemblies in the reference grid. Auxiliary targets and alignment fixtures were developed to facilitate the unique procedures and are described. Design and measured alignment tolerances are compared

  2. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  3. Enhancing tumor apparent diffusion coefficient histogram skewness stratifies the postoperative survival in recurrent glioblastoma multiforme patients undergoing salvage surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Linn, Jennifer; Podlesek, Dino; Sitoci Ficici, Kerim Hakan; Kitzler, Hagen H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B; Rieger, Bernhard; Krex, Dietmar

    2016-05-01

    Objective To determine the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters for the prediction of individual survival in patients undergoing surgery for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) in a retrospective cohort study. Methods Thirty-one patients who underwent surgery for first recurrence of a known GBM between 2008 and 2012 were included. The following parameters were collected: age, sex, enhancing tumor size, mean ADC, median ADC, ADC skewness, ADC kurtosis and fifth percentile of the ADC histogram, initial progression free survival (PFS), extent of second resection and further adjuvant treatment. The association of these parameters with survival and PFS after second surgery was analyzed using log-rank test and Cox regression. Results Using log-rank test, ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing tumor was significantly associated with both survival (p = 0.001) and PFS after second surgery (p = 0.005). Further parameters associated with prolonged survival after second surgery were: gross total resection at second surgery (p = 0.026), tumor size (0.040) and third surgery (p = 0.003). In the multivariate Cox analysis, ADC histogram skewness was shown to be an independent prognostic factor for survival after second surgery. Conclusion ADC histogram skewness of the enhancing lesion, enhancing lesion size, third surgery, as well as gross total resection have been shown to be associated with survival following the second surgery. ADC histogram skewness was an independent prognostic factor for survival in the multivariate analysis. PMID:26830088

  4. Development of a contour map showing generalized skew coefficients of annual peak discharges of rural, unregulated streams in New York, excluding Long Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumia, Richard; Baevsky, Yvonne H.

    2000-01-01

    Flood-frequency relations that are developed by fitting the logarithms of annual peak discharges to a Pearson Type-III distribution are sensitive to skew coefficients. Estimates of population skew for a site are improved when computed from the weighted average of (1) the sample (station) skew, and (2) an unbiased, generalized skew estimate. A weighting technique based on the number of years of record at each of 226 sites was used to develop a contour map of unbiased, generalized skew coefficients for New York. An attempt was made to group (regionalize) the station skew coefficients into five hydrologically similar areas of New York, but the statewide version proved to be as accurate as the regionalized version and therefore was adopted as the final generalized skew-coefficient map for New York. An error analysis showed the statewide contour map to have lower MSE?s (mean square errors) than those computed from (1) the five regional skewcoefficient contour maps, (2) a previously used (1982) nationwide skew coefficient map, and (3) the weighted mean of skew coefficients for sites within each of five hydrologically uniform, but distinct areas of New York.

  5. Effects of within-colony competition on body size asymmetries and reproductive skew in a social spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Bilde, Trine

    2013-01-01

    theoretical models suggest that reproductive skew is a result of contest competition within colonies, leading to size hierarchies where only the largest females become reproducers. We investigated the effect of competition on within-group body size variation over six months in S. dumicola, by manipulating...... food level and colony size. We found no evidence that competition leads to increased size asymmetry within colonies, suggesting that contest competition may not be the proximate explanation for reproductive skew. Within-colony body size variation was high already in the juvenile stage, and did...... not increase over the course of the experiment, suggesting that body size variation is shaped at an early stage. This might facilitate task specialization within colonies and ensure colony-level reproductive output by early allocation of reproductive roles. We suggest that reproductive skew in social spiders...

  6. GENERALIZED PRECONDITIONED HERMITIAN AND SKEW-HERMITIAN SPLITTING METHODS FOR NON-HERMITIAN POSITIVE-DEFINITE LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Yin; Quanyu Dou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a generalized preconditioned Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (GPHSS) iteration method for a non-Hermitian positive-definite matrix is studied,which covers standard Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (HSS) iteration and also many existing variants.Theoretical analysis gives an upper bound for the spectral radius of the iteration matrix.From practical point of view,we have analyzed and implemented inexact generalized preconditioned Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (IGPHSS) iteration,which employs Krylov subspace methods as its inner processes.Numerical experiments from three-dimensional convection-diffusion equation show that the GPHSS and IGPHSS iterations are efficient and competitive with standard HSS iteration and AHSS iteration.

  7. Credit Valuation Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk has become a topical issue since the 2007 Credit Crisis, particularly for its impact on the valuation of OTC derivatives. This becomes critical when the credit risk of entities involved in a contract either as underlying or counterparty become highly correlated as is the case during macroeconomic shocks. It impacts the valuation of such contracts through an additional term, the credit valuation adjustment (CVA). This can become large with such correlation. This thesis outlines the...

  8. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  9. Bulk asymptotics of skew-orthogonal polynomials for quartic double well potential and universality in the matrix model

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Saugata

    2008-01-01

    We derive bulk asymptotics of skew-orthogonal polynomials (sop) $\\pi^{\\bt}_{m}$, $\\beta=1$, 4, defined w.r.t. the weight $\\exp(-2NV(x))$, $V (x)=gx^4/4+tx^2/2$, $g>0$ and $t 0$, such that $\\epsilon\\leq (m/N)\\leq \\lambda_{\\rm cr}-\\epsilon$, where $\\lambda_{\\rm cr}$ is the critical value which separates sop with two cuts from those with one cut. Simultaneously we derive asymptotics for the recursive coefficients of skew-orthogonal polynomials. The proof is based on obtaining a finite term recur...

  10. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  11. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A;

    2015-01-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells...... - is associated with the production of IgE antibody and atopic allergy, whereas, Th1 cells antagonize IgE responses and the development of allergic disease. In seeking to provide a mechanistic basis for this increased prevalence of allergic disease, one proposal has been the 'hygiene hypothesis', which argues...... that the more marked Th2 skewing observed in first pregnancy may, at least in part, explain the higher prevalence of atopic disease and allergy in the first born....

  12. Numeric and symbolic evaluation of the pfaffian of general skew-symmetric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    González-Ballestero, C; Bertsch, G F

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of pfaffians arises in a number of physics applications, and for some of them a direct method is preferable to using the determinantal formula. We discuss two methods for the numerical evaluation of pfaffians. The first is tridiagonalization based on Householder transformations. The main advantage of this method is its numerical stability that makes unnecessary the implementation of a pivoting strategy. The second method considered is based on Aitken's block diagonalization formula. It yields to a kind of LU (similar to Cholesky's factorization) decomposition (under congruence) of arbitrary skew-symmetric matrices that is well suited both for the numeric and symbolic evaluations of the pfaffian. Fortran subroutines (FORTRAN 77 and 90) implementing both methods are given. We also provide simple implementations in Python and Mathematica for purpose of testing, or for exploratory studies of methods that make use of pfaffians.

  13. Homoclinic snaking in plane Couette flow: bending, skewing, and finite-size effects

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, John F

    2015-01-01

    Invariant solutions of shear flows have recently been extended from spatially periodic solutions in minimal flow units to spatially localized solutions on extended domains. One set of spanwise-localized solutions of plane Couette flow exhibits homoclinic snaking, a process by which steady-state solutions grow additional structure smoothly at their fronts when continued parametrically. Homoclinic snaking is well understood mathematically in the context of the one-dimensional Swift-Hohenberg equation. Consequently, the snaking solutions of plane Couette flow form a promising connection between the largely phenomenological study of laminar-turbulent patterns in viscous shear flows and the mathematically well-developed field of pattern-formation theory. In this paper we present a numerical study of the snaking solutions, generalizing beyond the fixed streamwise wavelength of previous studies. We find a number of new solution features, including bending, skewing, and finite-size effects. We show that the finite-si...

  14. A cylindrical shell with an axial crack under skew-symmetric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuceoglu, U.; Erdogan, F.

    1973-01-01

    The skew-symmetric problem for a cylindrical shell containing an axial crack is considered. It is assumed that the material has a special orthotropy - namely, that the shear modulus may be evaluated from the measured Young's moduli and Poisson ratios and is not an independent material constant. The problem is solved within the confines of an eighth-order linearized shallow shell theory. As numerical examples, the torsion of an isotropic cylinder and that of a specially orthotropic cylinder (titanium) are considered. The membrane and bending components of the stress intensity factor are calculated and are given as functions of a dimensionless shell parameter. In the torsion problem for the axially cracked cylinder the bending effects appear to be much more significant than that found for the circumferentially cracked cylindrical shell. Also, as the shell parameter increases, unlike the results found in the pressurized shell, the bending stresses around crack ends do not change sign.

  15. Identification of aeroelastic forces on twin bridge cables from full-scale measurements in skew winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acampora, Antonio; Macdonald, J.H.G.; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2012-01-01

    Despite much research in recent years, large amplitude vibrations of inclined bridge cables continue to be of concern. Various mechanisms for the excitation have been suggested, including rain-wind excitation, dry inclined cable galloping, high reduced-velocity vortex shedding and excitation from...... the deck and/or towers. Since 2010, the Technical University of Denmark has been monitoring the vibrations of the twin inclined cables of the Øresund Bridge. From the acquired data, Georgakis and Acampora [1] showed that the cable aerodynamic damping can be determined for wind orthogonal to the twin cables...... of this paper is to identify the aeroelastic forces for in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations of bridge cables in dry conditions as in [2], but now for skewed winds. To achieve this, an output-only system identification employing the Eigenvalue Realisation Algorithm (ERA) [3] has been applied to selected...

  16. Extreme skewing of X chromosome inactivation in mothers of homosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocklandt, Sven; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Hamer, Dean H

    2006-02-01

    Human sexual preference is a sexually dimorphic trait with a substantial genetic component. Linkage of male sexual orientation to markers on the X chromosome has been reported in some families. Here, we measured X chromosome inactivation ratios in 97 mothers of homosexual men and 103 age-matched control women without gay sons. The number of women with extreme skewing of X-inactivation was significantly higher in mothers of gay men (13/97=13%) compared to controls (4/103=4%) and increased in mothers with two or more gay sons (10/44=23%). Our findings support a role for the X chromosome in regulating sexual orientation in a subgroup of gay men. PMID:16369763

  17. Gluten-containing grains skew gluten assessment in oats due to sample grind non-homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ronald D; Chen, Yumin; Contreras, Veronica

    2017-02-01

    Oats are easily contaminated with gluten-rich kernels of wheat, rye and barley. These contaminants are like gluten 'pills', shown here to skew gluten analysis results. Using R-Biopharm R5 ELISA, we quantified gluten in gluten-free oatmeal servings from an in-market survey. For samples with a 5-20ppm reading on a first test, replicate analyses provided results ranging 160ppm. This suggests sample grinding may inadequately disperse gluten to allow a single accurate gluten assessment. To ascertain this, and characterize the distribution of 0.25-g gluten test results for kernel contaminated oats, twelve 50g samples of pure oats, each spiked with a wheat kernel, showed that 0.25g test results followed log-normal-like distributions. With this, we estimate probabilities of mis-assessment for a 'single measure/sample' relative to the gluten content. PMID:27596406

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of the heavy gyro-rotor with two skew rotating axes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotors are the basic working parts in many machines so that the problem of rotor vibration has existed for a long time. In this paper the rotor is analyzed as a shaft-disc system. The disc is eccentric and shaft is supported on both sides with rigid bearings. Here we present special case when the support shaft is vertical and the rotor shaft is horizontal but they are without intersection. A system of nonlinear differential equations is determined. When the angular velocity of shaft axis is constant, the motion character analysis is performed by means of phase trajectories and that is done for different cases of eccentricity and angle of skew. Some numerical analysis of obtained analytical solutions is performed through Math Cad

  19. INTRINSIC FEATURES OF TURBULENT FLOW IN STRONGLY 3-D SKEW BLADE PASSAGE OF A FRANCIS TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-xiang; WANG Wen-quan; GUO Yakun

    2007-01-01

    The turbulent flow, with the Reynolds number of 5.9 105, in the strongly 3-D skew blade passage of a true Francis hydro turbine was simulated by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of the fully developed turbulence in the passage with strongly 3-D complex geometry. The simulations show that the strong three-dimensionality of the passage has a great amplification effect on the turbulence in the passage, and the distributions of the turbulence are diversely nonuniform, for instance, the rise of turbulent kinetic energy in the lower 1/3 region of the passage is more than 45%, whereas its rise in the upper 1/3 region is less than 1%. With the LES approach, the details of the flow structures at the near-wall surfaces of the blades could be obtained. Several turbulent spots were captured.

  20. A q-Analogue of the Centralizer Construction and Skew Representations of the Quantum Affine Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Hopkins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We prove an analogue of the Sylvester theorem for the generator matrices of the quantum affine algebra ${ m U}_q(widehat{mathfrak{gl}}_n$. We then use it to give an explicit realization of the skew representations of the quantum affine algebra. This allows one to identify them in a simple way by calculating their highest weight, Drinfeld polynomials and the Gelfand-Tsetlin character (or $q$-character. We also apply the quantum Sylvester theorem to construct a$q$-analogue of the Olshanski algebra as a projective limit of certaincentralizers in ${ m U}_q(mathfrak{gl}_n$ and show that this limit algebra contains the $q$-Yangian as a subalgebra.

  1. Extrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Resonant Skew Scattering in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aires; Rappoport, Tatiana G.; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2015-03-01

    We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging. The author acknowledges support from the National Research Foundation-Competitive Research Programme through Grant No. R-144-000-295-281.

  2. A Simple Simulation Technique for Nonnormal Data with Prespecified Skewness, Kurtosis, and Covariance Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njål; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2016-01-01

    We present and investigate a simple way to generate nonnormal data using linear combinations of independent generator (IG) variables. The simulated data have prespecified univariate skewness and kurtosis and a given covariance matrix. In contrast to the widely used Vale-Maurelli (VM) transform, the obtained data are shown to have a non-Gaussian copula. We analytically obtain asymptotic robustness conditions for the IG distribution. We show empirically that popular test statistics in covariance analysis tend to reject true models more often under the IG transform than under the VM transform. This implies that overly optimistic evaluations of estimators and fit statistics in covariance structure analysis may be tempered by including the IG transform for nonnormal data generation. We provide an implementation of the IG transform in the R environment.

  3. Nonlinear free flexural vibrations of functionally graded rectangular and skew plates under thermal environments

    CERN Document Server

    Sundararajan, N; Ganapathi, M; 10.1016/j.finel.2005.06.001

    2011-01-01

    The nonlinear formulation developed based on von Karman's assumptions is employed to study the free vibration characteristics of functionally graded material (FGM) plates subjected to thermal environment. Temperature field is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface and varied in the thickness direction. The material is assumed to be temperature dependent and graded in the thickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. The effective material properties are estimated from the volume fractions and the material properties of the constituents using Mori-Tanaka homogenization method. The nonlinear governing equations obtained using Lagrange's equations of motion are solved using finite element procedure coupled with the direct iteration technique. The variation of nonlinear frequency ratio with amplitude is highlighted considering various parameters such as gradient index, temperature, thickness and aspect ratios, and skew angle. For...

  4. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection

  5. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Igarashi, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: tigarash@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Primate Model, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Harashima, Hideyoshi, E-mail: harasima@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Sugita, Masahiko, E-mail: msugita@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  6. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us anything ⟟ Resources in your area ☇ Fundraise with Team Reeve Need to talk to someone? We’re ... are looking for more information on how to manage depression or have a specific question, our information ...

  7. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... helplessness and confusion is to arm yourself with information on what a spinal cord injury is, and ... Karp Resources If you are looking for more information on how to manage depression or have a ...

  8. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  9. 75 FR 4592 - January 2010 Pay Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... INFORMATION: On December 23, 2009, the President signed Executive Order 13525 (74 FR 69231), which implemented... 2010 locality pay area definitions can be found at http://www.opm.gov/oca/10tables/locdef.asp . The Non....gov/oca/compmemo/index.asp .) The Executive order adjusted the rates of basic pay for...

  10. Uncertainty relation of mixed states by means of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variance of an observable in a quantum state is usually used to describe Heisenberg uncertainty relation. For mixed states, the variance includes quantum and classical uncertainties. By means of the skew information and the decomposition of the variance, a stronger uncertainty relation was presented by Luo [ Phys. Rev. A 72, 042110 (2005)]. In this paper, by using Wigner-Yanase-Dyson information which is a generalization of the skew information, we propose a general uncertainty relation of mixed states.

  11. The role of semantics, pre-emption and skew in linguistic distributions: the case of the un-construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eIbbotson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We use the Google Ngram database, a corpus of 5,195,769 digitized books containing ~4% of all books ever published, to test three ideas that are hypothesized to account for linguistic generalizations: verbal semantics, pre-emption and skew. Using 828,813 tokens of un-forms as a test case for these mechanisms, we found verbal semantics was a good predictor of the frequency of un-forms in the English language over the past 200 years – both in terms of how the frequency changed over time and their rank frequency. We did not find strong evidence for the direct competition of un-forms and their top pre-emptors, however the skew of the un-construction competitors was inversely correlated with the acceptability of the un-form. We suggest a cognitive explanation for this, namely, that the more the set of relevant pre-emptors is skewed then the more easily it is retrieved from memory. This suggests that it is not just the frequency of pre-emptive forms that must be taken into account when trying to explain usage patterns but their skew as well.

  12. A Note on the Skew Energy of Digraphs%有向图反能量的一个注记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淑玉; 田贵贤

    2013-01-01

    有向图的反能量是指有向图的反邻接矩阵的能量.本文利用有向图的运算构造出了几类有向图,它们中的每一个都满足有向图的反能量等于其底图的能量.部分回答了Adiga等人在文[The skew energy of a digraph,Linear Algebra Appl.,2010,432:1825 1835]中提出的一个公开问题.%The skew energy (&)s (D) of a digraph D is defined as the energy of its skewadjacency matrix.In this paper,employing many operations of digraphs,we construct several classes of digraphs,each one of which satisfies its skew energy is the same as the energy of its underlying graph.This work partly answers a problem proposed by Adiga et al.[The skew energy of a digraph,Linear Algebra Appl.,2010,432:1825-1835].

  13. Determining the role of skewed X-chromosome inactivation in developing muscle symptoms in carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Ergoli, Manuela; Picillo, Esther; Politano, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Duchenne and Becker dystrophinopathies (DMD and BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that lead to absent or reduced expression of dystrophin in both skeletal and heart muscles. DMD/BMD female carriers are usually asymptomatic, although about 8 % may exhibit muscle or cardiac symptoms. Several mechanisms leading to a reduced dystrophin have been hypothesized to explain the clinical manifestations and, in particular, the role of the skewed XCI is questioned. In this review, the mechanism of XCI and its involvement in the phenotype of BMD/DMD carriers with both a normal karyotype or with X;autosome translocations with breakpoints at Xp21 (locus of the DMD gene) will be analyzed. We have previously observed that DMD carriers with moderate/severe muscle involvement, exhibit a moderate or extremely skewed XCI, in particular if presenting with an early onset of symptoms, while DMD carriers with mild muscle involvement present a random XCI. Moreover, we found that among 87.1 % of the carriers with X;autosome translocations involving the locus Xp21 who developed signs and symptoms of dystrophinopathy such as proximal muscle weakness, difficulty to run, jump and climb stairs, 95.2 % had a skewed XCI pattern in lymphocytes. These data support the hypothesis that skewed XCI is involved in the onset of phenotype in DMD carriers, the X chromosome carrying the normal DMD gene being preferentially inactivated and leading to a moderate-severe muscle involvement. PMID:27098336

  14. Two Brothers with Skewed Thiopurine Metabolism in Ulcerative Colitis Treated Successfully with Allopurinol and Mercaptopurine Dose Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hoentjen, Frank; Hanauer, Stephen B.; de Boer, Nanne K; Rubin, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Thiopurine therapy effectively maintains remission in inflammatory bowel disease. However, many patients are unable to achieve optimum benefits from azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine because of undesirable metabolism related to high thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity characterized by hepatic transaminitis secondary to increased 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) production and reduced levels of therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN). Allopurinol can optimize this skewed metabolism....

  15. Development of the applicability of simplified Henry's method for skewed multicell box-girder bridges under traffic loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iman MOHSENI; A.R.Khalim RASHID

    2012-01-01

    Concrete precast multicell box-girder (MCB) bridges combine aesthetics with torsional stiffness perfectly.Previous analytical studies indicate that currently available specifications are unable to consider the effect of the twisting moment (torsional moment) on bridge actions.In straight bridges the effect of torsion is negligible and the transverse reinforced design is governed by other requirements.However,in the case of skewed bridges the effect of the twisting moment should be considered.Therefore,an in-depth study was performed on 90 concrete MCB bridges with skew angles ranging from 0° to 60°.For each girder the bridge actions were determined under the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) live load conditions.The analytical results show that torsional stiffness and live load positions greatly affected the bridges' responses.In addition,based on a statistical analysis of the obtained results,several skew correction factors are proposed to improve the precision of the simplified Henry's method,which is widely used by bridge engineers to predict bridge actions.The relationship between the bending moment and secondary moments was also investigated and it was concluded that all secondary actions increase with an increase in skewness.

  16. Contribution of Co-Skewness and Co-Kurtosis of the Higher Moment CAPM for Finding the Technical Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zobaer Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the technical efficiency of individual companies and their respective groups of Bangladesh stock market (i.e., Dhaka Stock Exchange, DSE by using two risk factors (co-skewness and co-kurtosis as the additional input variables in the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA. The co-skewness and co-kurtosis are derived from the Higher Moment Capital Asset Pricing Model (H-CAPM. To investigate the contribution of these two factors, two types of technical efficiency are derived: (1 technical efficiency with considering co-skewness and co-kurtosis (WSK and (2 technical efficiency without considering co-skewness and co-kurtosis (WOSK. By comparing these two types of technical efficiency, it is noticed that the technical efficiency of WSK is higher than the technical efficiency of WOSK for the individual companies and their respective groups. As per available literature in the context Bangladesh stock market, no study has been conducted thus far to measure technical efficiency of companies and their respective groups by using the risk factors which are derived from the H-CAPM. In this research, the link between H-CAPM and SFA is established for measuring technical efficiency and it is believed that the findings of this study may be applied to other emerging stock markets.

  17. Underwriters' view of risk - An adjuster's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews how a risk assessment is performed by an insurance adjuster to determine rates and insurability of a client. It provides a historical perspective on insurance and how information systems are used to monitor past claims to determine future risk. Although this paper does not specifically address the oil and gas industry, it is informative in identifying how insurance rates are determined and risk assessments for various oil and gas operations are performed

  18. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  19. Technical Document for Price Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Tian; Mulugeta Kahsai; Randall Jackson

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the basis for the price adjustment mechanisms in a time series IO model. The essentials of the price adjustment and price change propagation algorithms are presented, along with a matrix permutation algorithm that facilitates the implementation of the price adjustment mechanism. The Matlab function is provided.

  20. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  1. Application of Particle Swarm Optimization Theory in Skew Distribution of Highly Skewed Propeller%粒子群算法在大侧斜螺旋桨侧斜分布优化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 熊鹰; 何苗; 黄胜

    2012-01-01

    In order to design a more reasonable skew distribution of propeller section,the new particle swarm optimization(PSO) arithmetic of the intelligent optimized field combined with panel method was adopted to do the optimization design of the propeller's skew distribution.The mathematical model and main process of the PSO arithmetic in the optimization design of the skew distribution were given,moreover the validity calculation to the propeller of HSP was did.The convergence of unsteady thrust coefficient's 2ed amplitude and the skew distribution along with iterative times in two different rake modes was taken.At the same time,the change law of the key blade's unsteady thrust coefficient along with iterative times in one circuit was also obtained.The results show that the unsteady coefficient fluctuation of the optimization propeller has a little reduction compared with the prototype.So the propeller's performance can be improved through the optimization of skew in unsteady field and the feasibility of PSO method in propeller's skew optimization is validated.%为设计出具有良好侧斜分布的螺旋桨剖面,采用智能优化领域的粒子群优化(PSO)算法,结合非定常面元法对螺旋桨的侧斜分布进行了优化设计.给出了PSO算法的数学模型及其在侧斜优化设计中的主要计算过程,并以HSP桨为母型进行设计.获取了2种纵倾方式下非定常推力系数的2阶幅值收敛情况、侧斜分布随迭代次数的收敛情况以及主桨叶在旋转1周的非定常推力系数随迭代次数的变化规律等.由计算结果可知,优化桨的非定常推力系数脉动比母型桨减小了许多,即通过改变螺旋桨侧斜分布能有效改善非均匀流场中螺旋桨的性能,进而也验证了PSO方法在螺旋桨侧斜优化设计中的可行性.

  2. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a specific question, our information specialists are available business weekdays, Monday through Friday, toll-free at 800- ... are my options? How can I apply for Social Security benefits? How do I find a rehabilitation ...

  3. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a specific question, our information specialists are available business weekdays, Monday through Friday, toll-free at 800- ... to cerebral palsy support groups and organizations, including: Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center (MSKTC) maintains factsheets on ...

  4. Improvement of Moderately Loaded Transonic Axial Compressor Performance Using Low Porosity Bend Skewed Casing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Bhanudasji Alone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of a single stage transonic axial flow compressor coupled with low porosity bend skewed casing treatment. The casing treatment has a plenum chamber above the bend slots. The depth of the plenum chamber is varied to understand its impact on the performance of compressor stage. The performance of the compressor stage is evaluated for casing treatment and plenum chamber configurations at two axial locations of 20% and 40%. Experimental results reveal that the stall margin of the compressor stage increases with increase in the plenum chamber volume. Hot-wire measurements show significant reduction in the turbulence intensity with increase in the plenum chamber volume compared to that with the solid casing at the stall condition. At higher operating speeds of 80% and at 20% axial coverage, the stall margin of the compressor increases by 20% with half and full plenum depth. The improvement in the peak stage efficiency observed is 4.6% with half plenum configuration and 3.34% with the full plenum configuration. The maximum improvement in the stall margin of 29.16% is obtained at 50% operating speed with full plenum configurations at 40% axial coverage.

  5. Strong reproductive skew among males in the multiply mated swordtail Xiphophorus multilineatus (Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Sanetra, M; Schartl, M; Meyer, A

    2005-01-01

    Male swordtails in the genus Xiphophorus display a conspicuous ventral elongation of the caudal fin, the sword, which arose through sexual selection due to female preference. Females mate regularly and are able to store sperm for at least 6 months. If multiple mating is frequent, this would raise the intriguing question about the role of female choice and male-male competition in shaping the mating system of these fishes. Size-dependent alternate mating strategies occur in Xiphophorus; one such strategy is courtship with a sigmoid display by large dominant males, while the other is gonopodial thrusting, in which small subordinate males sneak copulations. Using microsatellite markers, we observed a frequency of multiple paternity in wild-caught Xiphophorus multilineatus in 28% of families analyzed, but the actual frequency of multiple mating suggested by the correction factor PrDM was 33%. The number of fathers contributing genetically to the brood ranged from one to three. Compared to other species in the family Poeciliidae, both frequency and degree of multiple paternity were low. Paternity was found to be highly skewed, with one male on average contributing more than 70% to the offspring. Hence in this Xiphophorus mating system, typically one male dominates and sneaker males do not appear to be particularly effective. Postcopulatory mechanisms, however, such as sperm competition, are also indicated by our data, using sex-linked phenotypes among the offspring. PMID:15743903

  6. Allele-Skewed DNA Modification in the Brain: Relevance to a Schizophrenia GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Sarah A; Ptak, Carolyn; Mak, Denise Y F; Shamsi, Mehrdad; Oh, Gabriel; Knight, Joanne; Boutros, Paul C; Petronis, Arturas

    2016-05-01

    Numerous recent studies have suggested that phenotypic effects of DNA sequence variants can be mediated or modulated by their epigenetic marks, such as allele-skewed DNA modification (ASM). Using Affymetrix SNP microarrays, we performed a comprehensive search of ASM effects in human post-mortem brain and sperm samples (total n = 256) from individuals with major psychosis and control individuals. Depending on the phenotypic category of the brain samples, 1.4%-7.5% of interrogated SNPs exhibited ASM effects. Next, we investigated ASM in the context of genetic studies of schizophrenia and detected that brain ASM SNPs were significantly overrepresented among sub-threshold SNPs from a schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS). Brain ASM SNPs showed a much stronger enrichment in a schizophrenia GWAS than in 17 large GWASs of non-psychiatric diseases and traits, arguing that ASM effects are at least partially tissue specific. Studies of germline and control brain ASM SNPs supported a causal association between ASM and schizophrenia. Finally, significantly higher proportions of ASM SNPs than of non-ASM SNPs were detected at loci exhibiting epigenetic signatures of enhancers and promoters, and they were overrepresented within transcription factor binding regions and DNase I hypersensitive sites. All of these findings collectively indicate that ASM SNPs should be prioritized in follow-up GWASs. PMID:27087318

  7. Computing the Skewness of the Phylogenetic Mean Pairwise Distance in Linear Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Sandel, Brody Steven

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic Mean Pairwise Distance (MPD) is one of the most popular measures for computing the phylogenetic distance between a given group of species. More specifically, for a phylogenetic tree T and for a set of species R represented by a subset of the leaf nodes of T , the MPD of R is equal...... of the MPD on a tree T optimally, in Θ(n) time; here n is the size of the tree T . So far this is the first result that leads to an exact, let alone efficient, computation of the skewness for any popular phylogenetic distance measure. Moreover, we show how we can compute in Θ(n) time several interesting...... to the average cost of all possible simple paths in T that connect pairs of nodes in R. Among other phylogenetic measures, the MPD is used as a tool for deciding if the species of a given group R are closely related. To do this, it is important to compute not only the value of the MPD for this group but also...

  8. Compressive VOF method with skewness correction to capture sharp interfaces on arbitrary meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.

    2014-12-01

    The accurate and efficient modelling of two-phase flows is at present mostly limited to structured, unskewed meshes, due to the additional topological and numerical complexity of arbitrary, unstructured meshes. Compressive VOF methods which discretize the interface advection with algebraic differencing schemes are computationally efficient and inherently applicable to arbitrary meshes. However, compressive VOF methods evidently suffer severely from numerical diffusion on meshes with topological skewness. In this paper we present a compressive VOF method using a state-of-the-art donor-acceptor advection scheme which includes novel modifications to substantially reduce numerical diffusion on arbitrary meshes without adding computational complexity. The new methodology accurately captures evolving interfaces on any arbitrary, non-overlapping mesh and conserves mass within the limits of the applied solver tolerance. A thorough validation of the presented methods is conducted, examining the pure advection of the interface indicator function as well as the application to evolving interfaces with surface tension. Crucially, the results on equidistant Cartesian and arbitrary tetrahedral meshes are shown to be comparable and accurate.

  9. A Timing Estimation Method Based-on Skewness Analysis in Vehicular Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuerong Cui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle positioning technology has drawn more and more attention in vehicular wireless networks to reduce transportation time and traffic accidents. Nowadays, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS are widely used in land vehicle positioning, but most of them are lack precision and reliability in situations where their signals are blocked. Positioning systems base-on short range wireless communication are another effective way that can be used in vehicle positioning or vehicle ranging. IEEE 802.11p is a new real-time short range wireless communication standard for vehicles, so a new method is proposed to estimate the time delay or ranges between vehicles based on the IEEE 802.11p standard which includes three main steps: cross-correlation between the received signal and the short preamble, summing up the correlated results in groups, and finding the maximum peak using a dynamic threshold based on the skewness analysis. With the range between each vehicle or road-side infrastructure, the position of neighboring vehicles can be estimated correctly. Simulation results were presented in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU vehicular multipath channel, which show that the proposed method provides better precision than some well-known timing estimation techniques, especially in low signal to noise ratio (SNR environments.

  10. Fuzzy Clustering of Color Textures using Skew Divergence and Compact Histograms: Segmenting Thin Rock Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital image segmentation is the process of assigning distinct labels to different objects in a digital image, and clustering techniques can be used to achieve such segmentations. However, many traditional segmentation algorithm fail to segment objects that are characterized by textures whose patterns cannot be successfully described by simple statistics computed over a very restricted area. In this paper we present a fuzzy clustering algorithm that achieves the segmentation of images with color textures by employing a distance function based on the Skew Divergence, that is based on the well-known Kullback-Leibler Divergence. In order for such a distance to produce good results when applied to color images, we reduced the dimensionality of the image's histogram, thus eliminating the sparsity of the color histogram and speeding up the execution of the algorithm. We performed experiments on thin rock sections and compared our results to the segmentations obtained by the Fuzzy C-Means and by another fuzzy segmentation technique, showing the superiority of our approach

  11. A measure of sexual selection in hermaphroditic animals: parentage skew and the opportunity for selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, M C; Sella, G

    2008-05-01

    The role of sexual selection in shaping the mating system of hermaphrodites is currently widely accepted. However, a quantification of the intensity of sexual selection in hermaphroditic animals has never been accomplished. We evaluated the opportunity for sexual selection for both the female and the male functions in the simultaneous outcrossing hermaphrodite Ophryotrocha diadema by measuring focal hermaphrodites' paternal and maternal offspring in experimental replicated monogamous and promiscuous populations, using genetic markers to estimate paternity. Opportunity for sexual selection for each of the two sexual functions was quantified by means of the Crow's index, i.e. the ratio of variance in progeny number to the squared mean number of progeny. In addition, the extent to which the reproductive success was shared among competing individuals was estimated by means of the Nonacs's B index. We documented that the strength of selection on the male and female function in hermaphrodites with external fertilization depends on the reproductive context. Under a promiscuous regime, hermaphrodites have higher opportunities for selection for both the male and the female function than under the monogamous regime. Moreover, the reproductive skew for the female function becomes greater than that for the male function, moving from monogamy to promiscuity. In our model system, allocation to one sexual function is opposed by any degree of allocation to the other, indicating that sex-specific patterns of selection operate in this model species.

  12. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H. A.; Aziz, Sherry K.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-01-01

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27596223

  13. Effect of ellipse orientation on the thermoelastic behaviour of skew laminated composite plate with elliptical cutout

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S R Niranjan Kumar; M M M Sarcar; V Bala Krishna Murthy; K M Rao

    2009-02-01

    An effort is made to study the thermoelastic behaviour of a cross-ply laminated composite skew plate with elliptical cutout subjected to pressure and non-linearly varying temperature loading in the present analysis. Orientation of the elliptical cut out is varied from 0° to 180° with respect to horizontal at an interval of 30° in the anti clockwise direction is considered for the present analysis. A three-dimensional heat conduction analysis in fibre reinforced composite laminates has been simulated by finite element method to get realistic temperature in the laminate under different thermal boundary conditions. A finite element method, which works on the basis of three-dimensional theory of elasticity, is employed to evaluate the stresses and deformations. The effect of orientation due to pressure loading on the stresses and transverse deflection is observed to be insignificant. The magnitudes of the in-plane normal stresses, x and y, for temperature loading are greatly affected by ellipse orientation and are observed to be minimum at the ellipse orientation of 0° and 90°, respectively. The in-plane and inter-laminar shear stresses are observed to be minimum at the ellipse orientation of 90°.

  14. The First Trimester Gravid Serum Regulates Procalcitonin Expression in Human Macrophages Skewing Their Phenotype In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Rami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT is one of the best diagnostic and prognostic markers in clinical practice, widely used to evaluate the evolution of bacterial infections. Although it is mainly produced by thyroid, during sepsis almost all the peripheral tissues are involved in PCT production. Parenchymal cells have been suggested as the main source of PCT expression; however the contribution of macrophages is not clear yet. In response to environmental cues, tissue macrophages acquire distinct functional phenotypes, ranging from proinflammatory (M1 to anti-inflammatory (M2 phenotype. Macrophages at the fetal-maternal interface show immunosuppressive M2-like activities required for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis during pregnancy. This study aims to clarify the ability to synthesise PCT of fully differentiated (M0, polarized (M1/M2 macrophages and those cultured either in the presence of first trimester gravid serum (GS or pregnancy hormones. We found out that M1 macrophages upregulate PCT expression following LPS stimulation compared to M0 and M2. The GS downregulates PCT expression in macrophages, skewing them towards an M2-like phenotype. This effect seems only partially mediated by the hormonal milieu. Our findings strengthen the key role of macrophages in counteracting inflammatory stimuli during pregnancy, suggesting PCT as a possible new marker of M1-like macrophages.

  15. Numerical Analysis of the High Skew Propeller of an Underwater Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ghasseni; Parviz Ghadimi

    2011-01-01

    A numerical analysis based on the boundary element method (BEM) was presented for the hydrodynamic performance of a high skew propeller (HSP) which is employed by an underwater vehicle (UV).Since UVs operate at two different working conditions (surface and submerged conditions),the design of such a propeller is a cumbersome task.This is primarily due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different.Therefore,some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power at the mentioned conditions.The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust,minimum torque,and efficiency.In the current study,a 5-bladed HSP was chosen for running the UV.This propeller operated at the stem of the UV hull where the inflow velocity to the propeller was non-uniform.Some parameters of the propeller were predicted based on the UV geometrical hull and operating conditions.The computed results include the pressure distribution and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the HSP in open water conditions,and comparison of these results with those of the experimental data indicates good agreement.The propeller efficiency for both submerged and surface conditions was found to be 67% and 64%,respectively,which compared to conventional propellers is a significantly higher efficiency.

  16. UNAPPROVED ACCESS POINT ELIMINATION IN WLAN USING MULTIPLE AGENTS AND SKEW INTERVALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof.S.B.Vanjale

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For the Wireless Networks, presence of unapproved access points is becoming the major security issue. If this kind of network threats are not detected and mitigated on time, those will lead to the serious network damage and data loss. There are many researchers proposed solutions to overcome this security problem of WLAN, but those proposed tools having limitations or maybe they not automated to adopt the frequent changes in WLAN. We are into this research to present the new approach based on Master and Slave agents. Thisproposed approach not only looking for fast detection of Rough Access points in the network but also presenting the solution to mitigate the WLAN from them. In short new framework is dealing with detecting as well as eliminating the Unapproved Access Points in the network. In proposed approach, the Master and slave agents are automatically scanning the networks for any unauthorized access points using the skew intervals. This Methodology has the following outstanding properties: (1 it doesn’t require any specialized hardware; (2 the proposed algorithm detects and completely eliminates the unapproved aps from network; (3 it provides a cost-effective solution; (4 due to multiple master agents possibility of network congestion or delaysis reduced. The proposed technique can block unapproved APs as well as remove them from the networks both in form of Unauthorized APs or as a Rogue Clients Acting as APs.

  17. Connection with Totally Skew-Symmetric Torsion on Riemannian Almost Product Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Mekerov, Dimitar

    2010-01-01

    On Riemannian almost product manifolds (M,P,g) with trP=0 we consider a linear connection nabla' preserving the almost product structure P and the metric g and having a totally skew-symmetric torsion tensor. We prove that if (M,P,g) admits such a connection then (M,P,g) belongs to the basic class W3 from the classification in [M.Staikova, K.Gribachev. Canonical connections and their conformal invariants on Riemannian P-manifolds, Serdica Math. J. 18 (1992), 150-161]. We consider the case when the curvature tensor of nabla' on (M,P,g) in W3 has the same properties like the ones of the curvature tensor of the Levi-Civita connection nabla on (M,P,g) with nabla(P)=0. We construct a 4-parametric family of 4-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of the class W3 by a Lie group and consider the connection nabla' on an arbitrary manifold of this family.

  18. Effect of phase response curve skewness on synchronization of electrically coupled neuronal oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Ramana; Wilson, Charles J

    2013-10-01

    We investigate why electrically coupled neuronal oscillators synchronize or fail to synchronize using the theory of weakly coupled oscillators. Stability of synchrony and antisynchrony is predicted analytically and verified using numerical bifurcation diagrams. The shape of the phase response curve (PRC), the shape of the voltage time course, and the frequency of spiking are freely varied to map out regions of parameter spaces that hold stable solutions. We find that type 1 and type 2 PRCs can hold both synchronous and antisynchronous solutions, but the shape of the PRC and the voltage determine the extent of their stability. This is achieved by introducing a five-piecewise linear model to the PRC and a three-piecewise linear model to the voltage time course, and then analyzing the resultant eigenvalue equations that determine the stability of the phase-locked solutions. A single time parameter defines the skewness of the PRC, and another single time parameter defines the spike width and frequency. Our approach gives a comprehensive picture of the relation of the PRC shape, voltage time course, and stability of the resultant synchronous and antisynchronous solutions.

  19. Boundedness of the mixed velocity-temperature derivative skewness in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S. L.; Antonia, R. A.; Djenidi, L.; Danaila, L.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The transport equation for the mean scalar dissipation rate ɛ ¯ θ is derived by applying the limit at small separations to the generalized form of Yaglom's equation in two types of flows, those dominated mainly by a decay of energy in the streamwise direction and those which are forced, through a continuous injection of energy at large scales. In grid turbulence, the imbalance between the production of ɛ ¯ θ due to stretching of the temperature field and the destruction of ɛ ¯ θ by the thermal diffusivity is governed by the streamwise advection of ɛ ¯ θ by the mean velocity. This imbalance is intrinsically different from that in stationary forced periodic box turbulence (or SFPBT), which is virtually negligible. In essence, the different types of imbalance represent different constraints imposed by the large-scale motion on the relation between the so-called mixed velocity-temperature derivative skewness ST and the scalar enstrophy destruction coefficient Gθ in different flows, thus resulting in non-universal approaches of ST towards a constant value as Reλ increases. The data for ST collected in grid turbulence and in SFPBT indicate that the magnitude of ST is bounded, this limit being close to 0.5.

  20. Gluten-containing grains skew gluten assessment in oats due to sample grind non-homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Ronald D; Chen, Yumin; Contreras, Veronica

    2017-02-01

    Oats are easily contaminated with gluten-rich kernels of wheat, rye and barley. These contaminants are like gluten 'pills', shown here to skew gluten analysis results. Using R-Biopharm R5 ELISA, we quantified gluten in gluten-free oatmeal servings from an in-market survey. For samples with a 5-20ppm reading on a first test, replicate analyses provided results ranging 160ppm. This suggests sample grinding may inadequately disperse gluten to allow a single accurate gluten assessment. To ascertain this, and characterize the distribution of 0.25-g gluten test results for kernel contaminated oats, twelve 50g samples of pure oats, each spiked with a wheat kernel, showed that 0.25g test results followed log-normal-like distributions. With this, we estimate probabilities of mis-assessment for a 'single measure/sample' relative to the <20ppm regulatory threshold, and derive an equation relating the probability of mis-assessment to sample average gluten content.

  1. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  2. Net-proton number kurtosis and skewness in nuclear collisions: Influence of deuteron formation

    CERN Document Server

    Feckova, Zuzana; Tomasik, Boris; Bleicher, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We explore the influence of deuteron formation in the late stage of nucleus-nucleus reactions on the fluctuations observed in the final net-proton yields around midrapidity. At each investigated energy, the produced (anti-)proton yield at chemical freeze-out is assumed to fluctuate according to a Poisson distribution and in each event the probability for deuteron formation by coalescence is proportional to $(dN_{\\mathrm{proton}}/dy)^2$. The protons that are then clustered in deuterons are usually not included in the experimental measurement of the net-proton fluctuations, therefore, we subtract these clustered protons from the final state proton number for the calculation of the net-proton fluctuations (the same is done in the anti-proton sector). Due to the non-linear deuteron formation probability the resulting distribution is not a Skellam distribution, but shows the interesting feature of a decrease in the kurtosis $\\kappa \\sigma^2$ and a local maximum in the skewness $S \\sigma$ observables as the collisi...

  3. A Timing Estimation Method Based-on Skewness Analysis in Vehicular Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuerong; Li, Juan; Wu, Chunlei; Liu, Jian-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle positioning technology has drawn more and more attention in vehicular wireless networks to reduce transportation time and traffic accidents. Nowadays, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are widely used in land vehicle positioning, but most of them are lack precision and reliability in situations where their signals are blocked. Positioning systems base-on short range wireless communication are another effective way that can be used in vehicle positioning or vehicle ranging. IEEE 802.11p is a new real-time short range wireless communication standard for vehicles, so a new method is proposed to estimate the time delay or ranges between vehicles based on the IEEE 802.11p standard which includes three main steps: cross-correlation between the received signal and the short preamble, summing up the correlated results in groups, and finding the maximum peak using a dynamic threshold based on the skewness analysis. With the range between each vehicle or road-side infrastructure, the position of neighboring vehicles can be estimated correctly. Simulation results were presented in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) vehicular multipath channel, which show that the proposed method provides better precision than some well-known timing estimation techniques, especially in low signal to noise ratio (SNR) environments. PMID:26580628

  4. Application of derivative matrices of skew rays to design of compound dispersion prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2016-09-01

    Numerous optimization methods have been developed in recent decades for optical system design. However, these methods rely heavily on ray tracing and finite difference techniques to estimate the derivative matrices of the rays. Consequently, the accuracy of the results obtained from these methods is critically dependent on the incremental step size used in the tuning stage. To overcome this limitation, the present study proposes a comprehensive methodology for the design of compound dispersion prisms based on the first- and second-order derivative matrices of skew rays. The proposed method facilitates the analysis and design of prisms with respect to arbitrary system variables and provides an ideal basis for automatic prism design applications. Four illustrative examples are given. It is shown that the optical quantities required to evaluate the prism performance can be extracted directly from the proposed derivative matrices. In addition, it is shown in this study that the single-element 3D prism can have the same deviation angle and spectral dispersion as the 2D compound prism. PMID:27607509

  5. Viruses-to-mobile genetic elements skew in the deep Atlantis II brine pool sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Mustafa; Elbehery, Ali H. A.; Aziz, Sherry K.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Siam, Rania

    2016-09-01

    The central rift of the Red Sea has 25 brine pools with different physical and geochemical characteristics. Atlantis II (ATIID), Discovery Deeps (DD) and Chain Deep (CD) are characterized by high salinity, temperature and metal content. Several studies reported microbial communities in these brine pools, but few studies addressed the brine pool sediments. Therefore, sediment cores were collected from ATIID, DD, CD brine pools and an adjacent brine-influenced site. Sixteen different lithologic sediment sections were subjected to shotgun DNA pyrosequencing to generate 1.47 billion base pairs (1.47 × 109 bp). We generated sediment-specific reads and attempted to annotate all reads. We report the phylogenetic and biochemical uniqueness of the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. In contrary to all other sediment sections, bacteria dominate the deepest ATIID sulfur-rich brine pool sediments. This decrease in virus-to-bacteria ratio in selected sections and depth coincided with an overrepresentation of mobile genetic elements. Skewing in the composition of viruses-to-mobile genetic elements may uniquely contribute to the distinct microbial consortium in sediments in proximity to hydrothermally active vents of the Red Sea and possibly in their surroundings, through differential horizontal gene transfer.

  6. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  7. 75 FR 49458 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by... TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: August 3, 2010. Suzanne...

  8. 75 FR 43140 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... assistance and cash benefits. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Staff... ; or visit the TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 14, 2010....

  9. 75 FR 48931 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by phone... Farmers' Web site: www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 30, 2010. John D. Brewer, Administrator,...

  10. 75 FR 45092 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers Program Staff, FAS, USDA by... TAA for Farmers' Web site: http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/taa . Dated: July 21, 2010. John D....

  11. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a specific question, our information specialists are available business weekdays, Monday through Friday, toll-free at 800- ... part by grant number 90PR3002, from the U.S. Administration for Community Living, Department of Health and Human ...

  12. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a specific question, our information specialists are available business weekdays, Monday through Friday, toll-free at 800- ... are my options? How can I apply for Social Security benefits? How do I find a rehabilitation ... impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in ...

  13. COMPENDEX Profile Adjustment Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standera, Oldrich

    If an information system is to survive, the users must be satisfied that it meets their needs promptly and consistently. It is essential to react quickly to any undesired result such as an extemely high or low output, too low a relevance or recall, or both. The search editor should feel responsbile not only for the profile setup but also for its…

  14. Development and Validation of a New Blade Element Momentum Skewed-Wake Model within AeroDyn: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, S. A.; Hayman, G.; Damiani, R.; Jonkman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Blade element momentum methods, though conceptually simple, are highly useful for analyzing wind turbines aerodynamics and are widely used in many design and analysis applications. A new version of AeroDyn is being developed to take advantage of new robust solution methodologies, conform to a new modularization framework for National Renewable Energy Laboratory's FAST, utilize advanced skewed-wake analysis methods, fix limitations with previous implementations, and to enable modeling of highly flexible and nonstraight blades. This paper reviews blade element momentum theory and several of the options available for analyzing skewed inflow. AeroDyn implementation details are described for the benefit of users and developers. These new options are compared to solutions from the previous version of AeroDyn and to experimental data. Finally, recommendations are given on how one might select from the various available solution approaches.

  15. Distributions of the largest singular values of skew-symmetric random matrices and their applications to paired comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Kuriki, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Let $A$ be a real skew-symmetric Gaussian random matrix whose upper triangular elements are independently distributed according to the standard normal distribution. We provide the distribution of the largest singular value $\\sigma_1$ of $A$. Moreover, by acknowledging the fact that the largest singular value can be regarded as the maximum of a Gaussian field, we deduce the distribution of the standardized largest singular value $\\sigma_1/\\sqrt{\\mathrm{tr}(A'A)/2}$. These distributional results are utilized in Scheff\\'{e}'s paired comparisons model. We propose tests for the hypothesis of subtractivity based on the largest singular value of the skew-symmetric residual matrix. Professional baseball league data are analyzed as an illustrative example.

  16. 牛仔织物纬斜的解决措施%Countermeasures for skewing of denim fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽霞; 刘干民

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes of skewing during denim fabric production, concerning moisture absorption and swelling property of cotton fiber and fabric structure, as well as uneven stress caused by equipments and processes in weaving, finishing and washing process. The method to control skewing is introduced to improve the quality of denim fabric.%分析了牛仔织物产生纬斜的原因,其与棉纤维吸湿异向溶胀性能和织物结构,以及织造、牛仔布后整理、水洗处理等生产过程中的设备和工艺使织物产生不均匀的内应力有关.针对不同类型的纬斜,介绍了相应的控制方法,以提高牛仔面料的质量.

  17. A review of statistical estimators for risk-adjusted length of stay: analysis of the Australian and new Zealand intensive care adult patient data-base, 2008–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran John L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the analysis of length-of-stay (LOS data, which is characteristically right-skewed, a number of statistical estimators have been proposed as alternatives to the traditional ordinary least squares (OLS regression with log dependent variable. Methods Using a cohort of patients identified in the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database, 2008–2009, 12 different methods were used for estimation of intensive care (ICU length of stay. These encompassed risk-adjusted regression analysis of firstly: log LOS using OLS, linear mixed model [LMM], treatment effects, skew-normal and skew-t models; and secondly: unmodified (raw LOS via OLS, generalised linear models [GLMs] with log-link and 4 different distributions [Poisson, gamma, negative binomial and inverse-Gaussian], extended estimating equations [EEE] and a finite mixture model including a gamma distribution. A fixed covariate list and ICU-site clustering with robust variance were utilised for model fitting with split-sample determination (80% and validation (20% data sets, and model simulation was undertaken to establish over-fitting (Copas test. Indices of model specification using Bayesian information criterion [BIC: lower values preferred] and residual analysis as well as predictive performance (R2, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC, mean absolute error [MAE] were established for each estimator. Results The data-set consisted of 111663 patients from 131 ICUs; with mean(SD age 60.6(18.8 years, 43.0% were female, 40.7% were mechanically ventilated and ICU mortality was 7.8%. ICU length-of-stay was 3.4(5.1 (median 1.8, range (0.17-60 days and demonstrated marked kurtosis and right skew (29.4 and 4.4 respectively. BIC showed considerable spread, from a maximum of 509801 (OLS-raw scale to a minimum of 210286 (LMM. R2 ranged from 0.22 (LMM to 0.17 and the CCC from 0.334 (LMM to 0.149, with MAE 2.2-2.4. Superior residual behaviour was

  18. Central limit theorems for functionals of large dimensional sample covariance matrix and mean vector in matrix-variate skewed model

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Taras; Mazur, Stepan; Parolya, Nestor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the asymptotic distributions of functionals of the sample covariance matrix and the sample mean vector obtained under the assumption that the matrix of observations has a matrix variate general skew normal distribution. The central limit theorem is derived for the product of the sample covariance matrix and the sample mean vector. Moreover, we consider the product of an inverse covariance matrix and the mean vector for which the central limit theorem is established a...

  19. Skewness and Kurtosis of the Switching Current Distribution in Superconductor-Graphene-Superconductor Junctions and Superconductor-Nanowire-Superconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew; Aref, Thomas; Coskun, Ulas; Weinberg, Phillip; Levchenko, Alex; Vakaryuk, Victor; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2013-03-01

    We study statistical properties of the switching current in superconductor-graphene-superconductor proximity junctions and superconductor-nanowire-superconductor devices. The fluctuations of the switching current are related to Little's phase slips, generated by thermal and quantum fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter. The study focuses on higher moments of the statistical probability distributions of the switching current. Namely we study the skewness, which defines the asymmetry of the distribution, and kurtosis, which is a measure of the ``peakedness.'' The skewness is defined as sk= m3 /m23 / 2 where m2 is the second moment of the distribution, called the variance, and m3 is the third moment. Kurtosis is defined as kur= m4 /m22 , where m4 is the fourth moment of the distribution. It is known that for Gaussian distributions sk=0 and kur=3. On our devices we find, in most cases, sk ~ -1 and kur ~ 5. These results are in agreement with numerical simulations as well as an analytic model. Finally we present preliminary experimental results for a two-nanowire device. We have found that the standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis of the switching current distributions in these devices vary periodically with magnetic field.

  20. Two brothers with skewed thiopurine metabolism in ulcerative colitis treated successfully with allopurinol and mercaptopurine dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoentjen, Frank; Hanauer, Stephen B; de Boer, Nanne K; Rubin, David T

    2012-01-01

    Thiopurine therapy effectively maintains remission in inflammatory bowel disease. However, many patients are unable to achieve optimum benefits from azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine because of undesirable metabolism related to high thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity characterized by hepatic transaminitis secondary to increased 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP) production and reduced levels of therapeutic 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN). Allopurinol can optimize this skewed metabolism. We discuss two brothers who were both diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). Their disease remained active despite oral and topical mesalamines. Steroids followed by 6-mercaptopurine (MP) were unsuccessfully introduced for both patients and both were found to have high 6-MMP and low 6-TGN levels, despite normal TMPT enzyme activity, accompanied by transaminitis. Allopurinol was introduced in combination with MP dose reduction. For both brothers addition of allopurinol was associated with successful remission and optimized MP metabolites. These siblings with active UC illustrate that skewed thiopurine metabolism may occur despite normal TPMT enzyme activity and can lead to adverse events in the absence of disease control. We confirm previous data showing that addition of allopurinol can reverse this skewed metabolism, and reduce both hepatotoxicity and disease activity, but we now also introduce the concept of a family history of preferential MP metabolism as a clue to effective management for other family members. PMID:22147254

  1. De novo MECP2 duplications in two females with intellectual disability and unfavorable complete skewed X-inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieremans, Nathalie; Bauters, Marijke; Belet, Stefanie; Verbeeck, Jelle; Jansen, Anna C; Seneca, Sara; Roelens, Filip; De Baere, Elfride; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Xq28 microduplications of MECP2 are a prominent cause of a severe syndromic form of intellectual disability (ID) in males. Females are usually unaffected through near to complete X-inactivation of the aberrant X chromosome (skewing). In rare cases, affected females have been described due to random X-inactivation. Here, we report on two female patients carrying de novo MECP2 microduplications on their fully active X chromosomes. Both patients present with ID and additional clinical features. Mono-allelic expression confirmed complete skewing of X-inactivation. Consequently, significantly enhanced MECP2 mRNA levels were observed. We hypothesize that the cause for the complete skewing is due to a more harmful mutation on the other X chromosome, thereby forcing the MECP2 duplication to become active. However, we could not unequivocally identify such a second mutation by array-CGH or exome sequencing. Our data underline that, like in males, increased MECP2 dosage in females can contribute to ID too, which should be taken into account in diagnostics.

  2. Skewed task conflicts in teams: What happens when a few members see more conflict than the rest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ruchi; Janardhanan, Niranjan S; Greer, Lindred L; Conlon, Donald E; Edwards, Jeffery R

    2016-07-01

    Task conflict has been the subject of a long-standing debate in the literature-when does task conflict help or hurt team performance? We propose that this debate can be resolved by taking a more precise view of how task conflicts are perceived in teams. Specifically, we propose that in teams, when a few team members perceive a high level of task disagreement while a majority of others perceive low levels of task disagreement-that is, there is positively skewed task conflict, task conflict is most likely to live up to its purported benefits for team performance. In our first study of student teams engaged in a business decision game, we find support for the positive relationship between skewed task conflict and team performance. In our second field study of teams in a financial corporation, we find that the relationship between positively skewed task conflict and supervisor ratings of team performance is mediated by reflective communication within the team. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26949822

  3. The Design and Implementation of a Novel Skew Scenario Model in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vetrivelan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this research, it had been presented a novel Skew Scenario Model that has been developed and implemented for mobile ad hoc networks. There exist several mobility patterns that try to capture the behavior of the mobile devices under different circumstances, whereas in our work, the direction movement of the nodes is significantly specified horizontally, vertically and diagonally in the simulation area. Approach: Our novel Skew Scenario Model and the impact of mobility on MANET protocols had been compared and analyzed. The performance of DSDV and DSR under SSM in terms of packet delivery fraction, routing load and latency for varying source and destination traffic from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 under 100 nodes environment had been analyzed. Apart from this, our SSM with the existing waypoint model in 100 nodes environment had been compared. A suitable algorithm for SSM has also been developed. Results: Our simulation result showed that the functioning of our SSM had greatly influenced the performance of routing protocols in MANET environment. Simulation experiments confirm that for DSR under SSM, the PDF is highest between 93.56-99.43%, routing load is lowest between 1.005-1.068 and Latency is very less between 0.0163-0.049 sec, in the case of DSDV under SSM, the PDF is 63.22-79.104%, routing load is 1.20-1.58 and latency is 0.018-0.050 sec. The result revealed the fact that the reactive routing protocol DSR outperforms much more than the Proactive routing protocol DSDV. Our Novel Model has performed well when we compared it with existing waypoint mobility model while setting many source-destination connections. In DSR under SSM and waypoint model, PDF is between 93.56-99.43% in SSM and in waypoint 94.20-98.88%. Routing load in SSM is 1.0056-1.068, waypoint 1.01-1.06 seconds. Latency is between 0.026-0.063 in SSM and in waypoint 0.026-0.1235 sec. Conclusion: This study revealed the fact that the DSR discovers new routes faster

  4. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  5. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  6. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  7. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  8. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  9. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  10. 大型多纵梁斜交渡槽结构受力特性%FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF LARGESCALE SKEW AQUEDUCT BRIDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 唐克东; 刘祚秋; 陈文义; 李树瑶

    2001-01-01

    本文采用空间杆系有限元方法,旨在对同跨度斜交渡槽与正交渡槽进行计算对比,使对斜交渡槽受力特性有一个较为清晰的认识,从计算结果对比来看,斜交渡槽的内力较为复杂,是典型的组合受力构件。%This paper presents a spatial frame element analysis of large scale skew aqueduct bridge. Comparison is made between skew aqueduct bridges and straight aqueduct bridges. It is found that the internal force distribution of a skew aqueduct bridge is complicated compared with that of a straight aqueduct bridge. A skew aqueduct bridge is characterized by the internal forces of a composite structure.

  11. Performance-based seismic assessment of skewed bridges with and without considering soil-structure interaction effects for various site classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Abdoulreza

    This study aims to investigate the behavior of skewed and straight highway overpass bridges both with and without taking into account the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) due to near-fault ground motions. Both deterministic (i.e., pushover and nonlinear dynamic analyses) and probabilistic approaches were utilized. A set of response sensitivity analyses was performed considering various skew angles, column elements, and soil properties for bridge considered both as fixed-base and SSI models. It has been observed that as the skew angle increased, the bridge responded more severely to the ground motion. For instance, the deck rotation and shear-keys displacement increased with an increase in the skew angle. A modal pushover analysis was also performed in conjunction with the nonlinear dynamic analysis. It has been found that combining the bridge responses for various modes of vibration resulted in a relatively accurate seismic response compared to the nonlinear dynamic analysis while saving time and analysis cost, to a great extent. A probabilistic analysis was also performed considering record-to-record variability in ground motion, and a set of probabilistic seismic demand and fragility plots was generated. The effects of change in the skew angle and also SSI were studied to see various bridge responses. The damage probability increased especially with respect to deck rotation as the skew angle increased. The SSI had a decreasing effect on the overall response of the bridge with pile foundation.

  12. 基于MRS Copula-GJR-Skewed-t模型的股指期货套期保值研究%Hedging of stock index futures based on Markov regime-switching Copula-GJR-Skewed-t model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢赤; 余聪; 罗长青; 王纲金

    2013-01-01

    构建了一个基于马尔可夫状态转换Copula函数的GJR-Skew-t模型,用以估计4个亚洲证券市场中股指期货与指数现货之间的最小方差套期保值比率.实证研究表明:动态套期保值模型的风险规避效果明显优于静态模型;根据套期保值组合方差降低百分比,该模型套期保值效果比其它动态策略有显著提升;除日本市场外,基于马尔可夫状态转换Copula函数的套期保值模型可以获得比传统模型更高的收益,这意味着该策略模型有助于降低套期保值成本.%This paper constructs a GJR-Skew-t model based on Copula functions with Markov regime switching to estimate the minimum variance hedging ratio between the returns of stock index futures and spots in four Asian markets. The empirical results show that the risk mitigation degree of the dynamic hedging models is higher than that of the static models. Based on the analysis of the variance reduction of hedging portfolio, the dynamic models are more effective than other models. Moreover, the proposed Markov regime-switching Copula-GJR-Skewed-t model can gain higher revenues than the traditional models except for the Japanese market, which means that our model contributes to reduce the cost of hedging.

  13. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  14. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need to work to help with family finances. All of the changes that they face can ... 2000). Goal instability and adjustment to physical disability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2). 251-265. This ...

  15. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  16. Adjustable Chain Trees for Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  17. Adjustment techniques for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

  18. Jointly Modeling Event Time and Skewed-Longitudinal Data with Missing Response and Mismeasured Covariate for AIDS Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangxin; Yan, Chunning; Xing, Dongyuan; Zhang, Nanhua; Chen, Henian

    2015-01-01

    In longitudinal studies it is often of interest to investigate how a repeatedly measured marker in time is associated with a time to an event of interest. This type of research question has given rise to a rapidly developing field of biostatistics research that deals with the joint modeling of longitudinal and time-to-event data. Normality of model errors in longitudinal model is a routine assumption, but it may be unrealistically obscuring important features of subject variations. Covariates are usually introduced in the models to partially explain between- and within-subject variations, but some covariates such as CD4 cell count may be often measured with substantial errors. Moreover, the responses may encounter nonignorable missing. Statistical analysis may be complicated dramatically based on longitudinal-survival joint models where longitudinal data with skewness, missing values, and measurement errors are observed. In this article, we relax the distributional assumptions for the longitudinal models using skewed (parametric) distribution and unspecified (nonparametric) distribution placed by a Dirichlet process prior, and address the simultaneous influence of skewness, missingness, covariate measurement error, and time-to-event process by jointly modeling three components (response process with missing values, covariate process with measurement errors, and time-to-event process) linked through the random-effects that characterize the underlying individual-specific longitudinal processes in Bayesian analysis. The method is illustrated with an AIDS study by jointly modeling HIV/CD4 dynamics and time to viral rebound in comparison with potential models with various scenarios and different distributional specifications. PMID:24905593

  19. Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty problem using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies by different researchers have confirmed that skewed sex ratio is a critical social problem in India. This enduring problem of gender imbalance is the collective result of factors like sex selective abortion, gender discrimination, son preference for the preservation of tribe, emergence of new technologies in medical field and many more factors. Another severe problem to be addressed in India is poverty. Many factors contribute to the perpetuation of poverty such as illiteracy, bad governance, under employment and various other reasons. Despite of India's accelerated growth rate, poverty in India is still prevalent.

  20. Pre-operative perfusion skewness and kurtosis are potential predictors of progression-free survival after partial resection of newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Wo Yul [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Kim, Sang Joon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To determine whether pre-operative perfusion skewness and kurtosis derived from normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) histograms are associated with progression-free survival (PFS) of patients after partial resection of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. A total of 135 glioblastoma patients who had undergone partial resection of tumor (resection of < 50% of pre-operative tumor volume or surgical biopsy) confirmed with immediate postsurgical MRI and examined with both conventional MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI before the surgery were retrospectively reviewed in this study. They had been followed up post-surgical chemoradiotherapy for tumor progression. Using histogram analyses of nCBV derived from pre-operative DSC perfusion MRI, patients were sub-classified into the following four groups: positive skewness and leptokurtosis (group 1); positive skewness and platykurtosis (group 2); negative skewness and leptokurtosis (group 3); negative skewness and platykurtosis (group 4). Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were performed to determine whether clinical and imaging covariates were associated with PFS or overall survival (OS) of these patients. According to the Kaplan-Meier method, median PFS of group 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 62, 51, 39, and 41 weeks, respectively, with median OS of 82, 77, 77, and 72 weeks, respectively. In multivariable analyses with Cox proportional hazards regression, pre-operative skewness/kurtosis pattern (hazard ratio: 2.98 to 4.64; p < 0.001), Karnofsky performance scale score (hazard ratio: 1.04; p = 0.003), and post-operative tumor volume (hazard ratio: 1.04; p = 0.02) were independently associated with PFS but not with OS. Higher skewness and kurtosis of nCBV histogram before surgery were associated with longer PFS in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma after partial tumor resection.

  1. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  2. Risk-Adjusted Control Charts for Health Care Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Albers

    2011-01-01

    the distribution involved is negative binomial. However, in health care monitoring, (groups of patients will often belong to different risk categories. In the present paper, we will show how information about category membership can be used to adjust the basic negative binomial charts to the actual risk incurred. Attention is also devoted to comparing such conditional charts to their unconditional counterparts. The latter do take possible heterogeneity into account but refrain from risk-adjustment. Note that in the risk adjusted case several parameters are involved, which will all be typically unknown. Hence, the potentially considerable estimation effects of the new charts will be investigated as well.

  3. Performance-based seismic assessment of skewed bridges with and without considering soil-foundation interaction effects for various site classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Abdoul R.

    2014-09-01

    The seismic behavior of skewed bridges has not been well studied compared to straight bridges. Skewed bridges have shown extensive damage, especially due to deck rotation, shear keys failure, abutment unseating and column-bent drift. This research, therefore, aims to study the behavior of skewed and straight highway overpass bridges both with and without taking into account the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) due to near-fault ground motions. Due to several sources of uncertainty associated with the ground motions, soil and structure, a probabilistic approach is needed. Thus, a probabilistic methodology similar to the one developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) has been utilized to assess the probability of damage due to various levels of shaking using appropriate intensity measures with minimum dispersions. The probabilistic analyses were performed for various bridge configurations and site conditions, including sand ranging from loose to dense and clay ranging from soft to stiff, in order to evaluate the effects. The results proved a considerable susceptibility of skewed bridges to deck rotation and shear keys displacement. It was also found that SSI had a decreasing effect on the damage probability for various demands compared to the fixed-base model without including SSI. However, deck rotation for all types of the soil and also abutment unseating for very loose sand and soft clay showed an increase in damage probability compared to the fixed-base model. The damage probability for various demands has also been found to decrease with an increase of soil strength for both sandy and clayey sites. With respect to the variations in the skew angle, an increase in skew angle has had an increasing effect on the amplitude of the seismic response for various demands. Deck rotation has been very sensitive to the increase in the skew angle; therefore, as the skew angle increased, the deck rotation responded accordingly

  4. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  5. Text/Graphics Separation and Skew Correction of Text Regions of Business Card Images for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mollah, Ayatullah Faruk; Nasipuri, Mita

    2010-01-01

    Separation of the text regions from background texture and graphics is an important step of any optical character recognition system for the images containing both texts and graphics. In this paper, we have presented a novel text/graphics separation technique and a method for skew correction of text regions extracted from business card images captured with a cell-phone camera. At first, the background is eliminated at a coarse level based on intensity variance. This makes the foreground components distinct from each other. Then the non-text components are removed using various characteristic features of text and graphics. Finally, the text regions are skew corrected for further processing. Experimenting with business card images of various resolutions, we have found an optimum performance of 98.25% (recall) with 0.75 MP images, that takes 0.17 seconds processing time and 1.1 MB peak memory on a moderately powerful computer (DualCore 1.73 GHz Processor, 1 GB RAM, 1 MB L2 Cache). The developed technique is comp...

  6. Mexican-Origin Parents’ Work Conditions and Adolescents’ Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-origin parents’ work experiences are a distal extra-familial context for adolescents’ adjustment. This two-wave multi-informant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents’ work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents’ adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of ...

  7. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  8. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  9. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  10. College adjustment, depressive symptoms and peer support among undergraduate university students

    OpenAIRE

    Horgan, Aine Mairead

    2014-01-01

    Background: College adjustment is a developmental milestone that can be stressful and may lead to mental health problems such as depression. Support during this adjustment period is seen as essential, however it is unknown if informal peer support from fellow students has any impact on either college adjustment or depressive symptoms. Aim: To identify levels of social and personal college adjustment, depressive symptoms and peer support among students, and to examine the relationship between ...

  11. Zip Codes, Originally based off of ZCTA then adjusted based on tax parcel mailing addresses., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Waupaca County Land Information.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zip Codes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of 2013. It is described as...

  12. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  13. Self-Adjusting Stack Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Matthew A; Chen, Yan; Acar, Umut A

    2011-01-01

    Self-adjusting computation offers a language-based approach to writing programs that automatically respond to dynamically changing data. Recent work made significant progress in developing sound semantics and associated implementations of self-adjusting computation for high-level, functional languages. These techniques, however, do not address issues that arise for low-level languages, i.e., stack-based imperative languages that lack strong type systems and automatic memory management. In this paper, we describe techniques for self-adjusting computation which are suitable for low-level languages. Necessarily, we take a different approach than previous work: instead of starting with a high-level language with additional primitives to support self-adjusting computation, we start with a low-level intermediate language, whose semantics is given by a stack-based abstract machine. We prove that this semantics is sound: it always updates computations in a way that is consistent with full reevaluation. We give a comp...

  14. An adjustable contracted CI method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  15. Polar Factorization and Generalized Inverse for Row (Column) Skew Symmetric Matrix%行(列)反对称矩阵的极分解及其广义逆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晖坪

    2013-01-01

    The author studied the polar factorization and generalized inverse of row (column) skew symmetric matrix, which leads to some new results. In addition, the formula of the polar factorization and generalized inverse of row (column) skew symmetric matrix were given, which makes calculation easier, and some perturbation bounds of polar factorization of row (column) skew symmetric matrix were also presented.%考虑行(列)反对称矩阵的极分解和广义逆,给出了行(列)反对称矩阵的极分解和广义逆计算公式,并对行(列)反对称矩阵的极分解作了扰动分析.结果表明,所给方法既减少了计算量与存储量,又保证了数值精度.

  16. DFT及多投影分析的织物纬斜检测方法研究%Fabric Skew Detection Method Based on DFT and Multi-projection Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董燕; 朱永胜; 张晓慧

    2013-01-01

    For fabric image skew detection,the detection accuracy is vulnerable to light and fabric texture complexity.If process the image with a lot of redundant information directly,it needs a large amount of calculation,which is not suitable for real-time detection system.This paper proposed a novel method based on DFT and multi-projection analysis on the grounds of the DFT spectrum binarization and morphological filtering experiments.This method was used to remove the redundant information of DFT spectrum of the fabric image,rotate and projecte the spectrum in small step,then detected the skew angle of the fabric image based on the fact that a maximum of projection pixels appears in the center of the spectrum if the longitudinal centerline of the spectrum is vertical to the transverse axis.The experimental results show that this algorithm has high accuracy in detecting small amount of fabric skew and better adaptability of the fabric density.%研究织物图像纬斜准确检测的问题,检测精度易受光线及织物纹理复杂性的影响,如将存在着大量冗余信息的图像直接进行处理,计算量大,不适合用实时检测系统.在对织物的DFT谱进行二值化、形态学滤波等一系列实验的基础上,提出了一种基于DFT及多投影分析的纬斜量检测方法.方法将织物图像的DFT变换谱去除冗余信息,再以较小的步长进行旋转投影,根据频谱图的纵轴与横坐标垂直时在频谱图的中心位置会出现投影像素的最大值的原理,检测出织物图像的倾斜角度.实验结果证明该算法在对小角度的纬斜量检测时,具有较高的精度,且对织物的疏密度适应性较强.

  17. 2.5 Gbps clock data recovery using 1/4th-rate quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase clock generator

    OpenAIRE

    S. Tontisirin; R. Tielert

    2006-01-01

    A Gb/s clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit using 1/4th-rate digital quadricorrelator frequency detector and skew-calibrated multi-phase voltage-controlled oscillator is presented. With 1/4th-rate clock architecture, the coil-free oscillator can have lower operation frequency providing sufficient low-jitter operation. Moreover, it is an inherent 1-to-4 DEMUX. The skew calibration scheme is applied to reduce phase offset in multi-phase clock generator. The CDR with frequency detector can have...

  18. 一般形式下斜正态随机向量的矩%Moments of the Skew Normal Random Vectors in the General Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方碧琪

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we derived the moments of the random vectors with the skew normal distributions and their quadratic forms in the general case.As an application,the measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosm are calculated.%本文给出一般形式下斜正态随机向量及其平方型的矩公式.作为应用,计算出了斜正态随机向量的多元偏度和峰度.

  19. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  20. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  1. The assessment of social adjustment. A review of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, M M

    1975-03-01

    Interest in the community adjustment of psychiatric patients has led to the development of rating techniques for its evaluation. Selection of an appropriate scale for the task should include a review of its item content, anchor points, coverage, method of obtaining information, informant, psychometric properties, precision, cost, scoring, and instructional material. While no scale is without limitations, this report describes 15 currently available scales that meet many of the important criteria for assessing social adjustment and are sufficiently developed to be useful in evaluative research. This review also contains a list of pertinent references to the scales and guide to the literature on behavioral rating scales.

  2. On the effect of intermittency of turbulence on the parabolic relation between skewness and kurtosis in magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Guszejnov, Dávid; Zoletnik, Sándor; Lazányi, Nóra

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed to contribute to the scientific discussions that have been triggered by the experimental observation of a quadratic relation between the kurtosis and skewness of turbulent fluctuations present in fusion plasmas and other nonlinear physical systems. In this paper we offer a general statistical model which attributes the observed $K = aS^2 + b$ relation to the varying intermittency of the experimental signals. The model is a two random variable model constructed to catch the essential intermittent feature of the real signal. One of the variables is the amplitude of the underlying intermittent event (e.g. turbulent structure) while the other is connected to the intermittency level of the system. This simple model can attribute physical meaning to the $a$ and $b$ coefficients, as they characterize the spatio-temporal statistics of intermittent events. By constructing a particle-conserving Gaussian model for the underlying coherent structures the experimentally measured $a$ and $b$ coefficients...

  3. Approximation of skewed interfaces with tensor-based model reduction procedures: Application to the reduced basis hierarchical model reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Mario; Smetana, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    In this article we introduce a procedure, which allows to recover the potentially very good approximation properties of tensor-based model reduction procedures for the solution of partial differential equations in the presence of interfaces or strong gradients in the solution which are skewed with respect to the coordinate axes. The two key ideas are the location of the interface either by solving a lower-dimensional partial differential equation or by using data functions and the subsequent removal of the interface of the solution by choosing the determined interface as the lifting function of the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We demonstrate in numerical experiments for linear elliptic equations and the reduced basis-hierarchical model reduction approach that the proposed procedure locates the interface well and yields a significantly improved convergence behavior even in the case when we only consider an approximation of the interface.

  4. Influence of complex disorder on skew-scattering Hall effects in L 10 -ordered FePt alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Bernd; Long, Nguyen H.; Mavropoulos, Phivos; Blügel, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2016-08-01

    We show by first-principles calculations that the skew-scattering anomalous Hall and spin Hall angles of L 10 -ordered FePt drastically depend on different types of disorder. A different sign of the anomalous Hall angle is obtained when slightly deviating from the stoichiometric ratio towards the Fe-rich side as compared to the Pt-rich side. For stoichiometric samples, short-range ordering of defects has a profound effect on the Hall angles and can change them by a factor of 2 as compared to the case of uncorrelated disorder. This might explain the vast range of anomalous Hall angles measured in experiments, which undergo different preparation procedures and thus might differ in their crystallographic quality.

  5. The New Propeller Design 3 Blades Type on 18o Skew Angle and Testing Cavitation of Tailing Thai Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruphant Noosomton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents to case study the method design of 3-blade type ship propeller. cavitation flow is investigated around ship propellers experimentally. Testing of different types new model propellers and local type propellers are performed in this study. A 3-blades, skew angle 18 degree, developed area 55 and comparison which local type propeller commonly used by Thai fishermen. A practical design method was achieved by combining a vortex lattice lifting method and lifting surface method. The optimum circulation distribution yielding the maximum lift-to-torque ratio was computed for given thrust and chord lengths along the radius of the propeller by dividing the blade into a number of panels extending from hub to tip. The radial distribution of bound circulation could be computed by a set of constant-strength vortex elements. The cavitation phenomenon of new design appeared to be less than local type

  6. Skewness, long-time memory, and non-stationarity: Application to leverage effect in financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, H. E.; Porto, M.; Dose, C.

    2008-10-01

    We analyze daily log-returns data for a set of 1200 stocks, taken from US stock markets, over a period of 2481 trading days (January 1996-November 2005). We estimate the degree of non-stationarity in daily market volatility employing a polynomial fit, used as a detrending function. We find that the autocorrelation function of absolute detrended log-returns departs strongly from the corresponding original data autocorrelation function, while the observed leverage effect depends only weakly on trends. Such effect is shown to occur when both skewness and long-time memory are simultaneously present. A fractional derivative random walk model is discussed yielding a quantitative agreement with the empirical results.

  7. It takes two to tango: reproductive skew and social correlates of male mating success in a lek-breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Thomas B; Parker, Patricia G; Blake, John G; Loiselle, Bette A

    2009-07-01

    Variance in reproductive success among individuals is a defining characteristic of many social vertebrates. Yet, our understanding of which male attributes contribute to reproductive success is still fragmentary in most cases. Male-male reproductive coalitions, where males jointly display to attract females, are of particular interest to evolutionary biologists because one male appears to forego reproduction to assist the social partner. By examining the relationship between social behaviour and reproductive success, we can elucidate the proximate function of coalitions in the context of mate choice. Here, we use data from a 4-year study of wire-tailed manakins (Pipra filicauda) to provide molecular estimates of reproductive skew and to test the hypothesis that male-male social interactions, in the context of coordinated displays, positively influence a male's reproductive success. More specifically, we quantify male-male social interactions using network metrics and predict that greater connectivity will result in higher relative reproductive success. Our data show that four out of six leks studied had significant reproductive skew, with success apportioned to very few individuals in each lek. Metrics of male social affiliations derived from our network analysis, especially male connectivity, measured as the number of males with whom the focal male has extended interactions, were strong predictors of the number of offspring sired. Thus, network connectivity is associated with male fitness in wire-tailed manakins. This pattern may be the result of shared cues used by both sexes to assess male quality, or the result of strict female choice for coordinated display behaviour.

  8. Haemophilia A and cardiovascular morbidity in a female SHAM syndrome carrier due to skewed X chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczar, Szymon; Kosinska, Joanna; Ploski, Rafal; Pastorczak, Agata; Wegner, Olga; Zalewska-Szewczyk, Beata; Paige, Adam J W; Borowiec, Maciej; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    We have recently described a severe haemophilia A and moyamoya (SHAM) syndrome caused by Xq28 deletions encompassing F8 and the BRCC3 familial moyamoya gene. The phenotype includes haemophilia A, moyamoya angiopathy, dysmorphia and hypertension. The genetic analysis of the family of our SHAM patient demonstrated carrier state in proband's mother and sister. The patient's mother is apparently well, whereas his currently 18-years-old sister presents with mild haemophilia A, coarctation of the aorta, hypertension, and ventricular arrhythmia. We performed X chromosome inactivation assay based on HpaII methylation analysis of a polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) in the X linked AR (androgen receptor) gene and used quantitative real-time RT PCR to measure the expression of genes from the deleted region in proband's family members. We found an extremely skewed X chromosome inactivation pattern in the female members of the family leading to preferential inactivation of the X chromosome without Xq28 deletion in patient's sister. We demonstrated differential expression of the genes from the deleted region in four members of the family, that tightly correlates with the clinical features. In conclusion, we show that the haematologic and cardiovascular morbidity and the discrepancy between patient's sister and mother despite the same genetic lesion are due to skewed X chromosome inactivation leading to clinically relevant differential expression of SHAM syndrome genes. This report highlights the role for BRCC3 in cardiovascular physiology and disease, and demonstrates that in some complex hereditary syndromes full diagnostics may require the examination of both genetic and epigenetic events. PMID:26691666

  9. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Hai-bo; Jian-kun Yang; Ji-chun Tan; De-zhi Su; Wen-liang Wang; Xiu-jian Li; Hui Jia

    2010-01-01

    Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6), pp.678-...

  10. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  11. 个人理论对刻板印象相关行为信息注意加工的调节作用%The Adjustment Role of Person Theory to Process Stereotype Related Behavioral Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余秋梅; 张锋

    2014-01-01

    目的:考察个人理论对性别刻板印象相关信息注意加工的调节机制.方法:翻译修订Levy等人编制的内隐个人理论测验(Implicit Person Theory Measure)作为研究筛选实验被试的工具,通过自编问卷确定实验材料,通过反应时范式考察个人理论对性别刻板印象相关信息注意分配的调节作用.结果:在高认知负荷条件下,实体论者将更多的注意资源分配于对与其刻板印象一致性信息的加工,而动态论者将更多的注意资源分配于对与其刻板印象不一致性信息的加工;在低认知负荷条件下,实体论者与动态论者对不同类型行为信息的注意分配不存在差异.结论:实体论者与动态论者对基于性别刻板印象行为信息的加工机制不同.%Objective:To explore the moderating effect of person theory on the attention processing on gender stereotype information.Methods:Implicit Person Theory Measure was translated and revised,which was used to screen the parcipants.and a self-administered questionnaire was applied to determine the experimental material.Results:Under high cognitive load,entity theorists allocated more attention to consistent information than to inconsistent information,whereas incremental theorists allocated more attention to inconsistent information than to consistent information.There were no significant differences of attention allocation for either entity theorists or incremental theorists in the low load condition.Conclusion:Person theory may influence the attentional processing on the gender stereotype information under high cognitive load conditions.

  12. 两跨连续斜交梁桥振动台试验研究%Shaking table tests for a two-span continuous skew girder bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永吉; 卓卫东; 孙颖

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics and three-dimensional seismic response of a two-span continuous skew girder bridge were analyzed,using parameters,such as,skew angle,shear span ratio,reinforcement ratio and axial compression ratio and so on.Taking a skewed girder bridge of Fujian as an engineering example,a 1 ∶5 scale two-span continuous skewed girder bridge model was designed for shaking table tests.Adopting shaking table tests and FE numerical analysis, the seismic responses and damage characteristics of the skewed girder bridge were studied.Results of shaking table tests showed that the structure's acceleration response and displacement response are guite different under different types of ground motion and at the same site or different types of ground motion and at different sites;under the same skew angle. the smaller the axial compression ratio,the larger the acceleration and displacement responses;when the axial compression ratio is the same,the smaller the skew angle,the larger the acceleration and displacement responses;a reasonable choice of skew angle has a great influence on the dynamic performance of skew bridges in the design of skew bridges.%选取了斜交角、配箍率和轴压比等设计参数,对两跨连续斜交梁桥进行结构动力特性分析和单向地震动输入下结构的地震反应分析。以福建省高速公路某座斜交梁桥为工程背景,设计制作了一座1/5缩尺两跨连续混凝土斜交梁桥试验模型,结合振动台模型试验和数值模拟分析,研究斜交梁桥地震响应及震害特点。振动台模型试验结果表明:不同场地类别的地震动及同一场地类别但不同的地震动作用下,结构的加速度响应、位移响应差别较大;在相同斜交角时,轴压比越小,加速度和位移响应越大;当轴压比相同时,斜交角越小,加速度和位移响应越大。从试验可知,在斜交桥设计中,合理选择斜交角对桥梁动力性能有很大的影响。

  13. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-bo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.678-682, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.36

  14. Social Class and Belonging: Implications for College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrove, Joan M.; Long, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    This study addressed the extent to which social class position structures a sense of belonging at college, and the ways in which belonging informs adjustment to college. Among 322 liberal arts college students, social class background was significantly associated with a sense of belonging at college and was marginally related to academic…

  15. A price adjustment process in a model of monopolistic competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tuinstra

    2004-01-01

    We consider a price adjustment process in a model of monopolistic competition. Firms have incomplete information about the demand structure. When they set a price they observe the amount they can sell at that price and they observe the slope of the true demand curve at that price. With this informat

  16. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meghan A; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers' and fathers' parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with lower parenting self-efficacy, but self-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting satisfaction. For fathers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting stress, whereas higher levels of self-oriented parenting perfectionism were associated with higher parenting self-efficacy, lower parenting stress, and greater parenting satisfaction. These findings support the distinction between societal- and self-oriented perfectionism, extend research on perfectionism to interpersonal adjustment in the parenting domain, and provide the first evidence for the potential consequences of holding excessively high standards for parenting. PMID:22328797

  17. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  18. Anchoring Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    An anchoring adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (ACAPM) is developed in which the payoff volatilities of well-established stocks are used as starting points that are adjusted to form volatility judgments about other stocks. Anchoring heuristic implies that such adjustments are typically insufficient. ACAPM converges to CAPM with correct adjustment, so CAPM is a special case of ACAPM. The model provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects in the stock market. A ke...

  19. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  20. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  1. Neighborhood Assets and Adolescent Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Oliva Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study analyzing the relationship between some dimensions or developmental assets in the neighborhood, as measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood, and adjustment and life satisfaction of adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 2400 adolescents (1068 boys and 1332 girls between ages 12 and 17 who were secondary students in public and private schools in Western Andalusia. The results showed significant relationships between most dimensions of the scale (youth empowerment, attachment to neighbourhood safety and social control and internalizing and externalizing problems, substance use and life satisfaction of participants. Moreover, the data provide evidence about the external validity of the scale used in the study. From the results some suggestions for intervention in the community environment are extracted.

  2. Effects of Mass and Volume Fraction Skewness in Variable Density Mixing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtor, Adam J.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond

    2015-11-01

    Among the parameters characterizing mixing by variable density turbulence of fluids involving density variations of a factor of 5 to 10 are the Atwood, Froude, Schmidt, and Reynolds numbers. There is evidence that the amount of each fluid present when the two pure fluids mix, as described by the probability density function of the mass or molar (volume) fraction, also strongly affects the mixing process. To investigate this phenomena, implicit large-eddy simulations (ILES) are performed for binary fluid mixtures in statistically homogenous environments under constant acceleration. These coarse grained simulations are used as data for theory validation and mix model development. ILES has been demonstrated to accurately capture the mixing behavior of a passive scalar field through stirring and advection by a turbulent velocity field. The present work advances that research and studies the extent to which an under-resolved active scalar drives the subsequent fluid motion and determines the nature of the mixing process. Effects of initial distributions of the mass and molar (volume) fraction probability density function on the resulting variable density turbulence and mixing are investigated and compared to direct numerical simulations from the Johns Hopkins Turbulence Database. Funded by the LANL LDRD-ER on ``Inserting Nonlinear N-Material Coupling PDF Information into Turbulent Mixing Models'' through exploratory research project number 20150498ER.

  3. Skewed Riskscapes and Environmental Injustice: A Case Study of Metropolitan St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Troy D.

    2008-08-01

    This article presents a case study of Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) air pollution exposure risks across metropolitan St. Louis. The first section critically reviews environmental justice research and related barriers to environmental risk management. Second, the paper offers a conventional analysis of the spatial patterns of TRI facilities and their surrounding census block group demographics for metropolitan St. Louis. Third, the article describes the use of an exposure risk characterization for 319 manufacturers and their air releases of more than 126 toxic pollutants. This information could lead to more practical resolutions of urban environmental injustices. The analysis of TRIs across metropolitan St. Louis shows that minority and low-income residents were disproportionately closer to industrial pollution sources at nonrandom significance levels. Spatial concentrations of minority residents averaged nearly 40% within one kilometer of St. Louis TRI sites compared to 25% elsewhere. However, one-fifth of the region’s air pollution exposure risk over a decade was spatially concentrated among only six facilities on the southwestern border of East St. Louis. This disproportionate concentration of some of the greatest pollution risk would never be considered in most conventional environmental justice analyses. Not all pollution exposure risk is average, and the worst risks deserve more attention from environmental managers assessing and mitigating environmental injustices.

  4. 陶瓷/金属非保守FGM斜板的颤振分析%Flutter Analysis of Ceramic/Metal Non-conservative FGM Skew Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮苗; 王忠民; 王砚

    2011-01-01

    研究了陶瓷/金属非保守功能梯度材料(FGM)斜板的颤振问题。以薄板理论为基础,假定材料的等效物性参数为沿厚度方向体积分数的幂律变化,在斜坐标系下建立了非保守FGM斜板的运动微分方程。运用微分求积法,对四边固支边界条件下陶瓷/金属非保守FGM斜板的量纲一复频率进行了数值计算,分析了FGM斜板的梯度指标、夹角和长宽比的变化对非保守FGM斜板稳定性的影响。结果表明,非保守FGM斜板的临界颤振荷载随梯度指标和夹角的增大而减小,随长宽比的增大而增大。%This paper investigated the flutter of a ceramic/metal non-conservative FGM skew thin plate.Based on the thin plate theory,the material properties were assumed to vary continuously through their thickness according to a power-law distribution of the volume fractions of the plate constituents,and the differential equations of motion of the non-conservative FGM skew thin plate were established in oblique coordinate system.The dimensionless complex frequencies of the non-conservative FGM skew thin plate with four edges clamped were calculated by the differential quadrature method.The effects of the gradient index,skew angle and aspect ratio on the stability of the non-conservation FGM skew thin plate were analyzed.Results show that the critical flutter load decreases with the increase of the gradient index or the skew angle,the critical flutter load increases with the increase of the aspect ratio.

  5. Next generation sequencing reveals skewing of the T and B cell receptor repertoires in patients with Wiskott Aldrich syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E O'Connell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS is due to mutations of the WAS gene encoding for the cytoskeletal WAS protein (WASp, leading to abnormal downstream signaling from the T cell and B cell antigen receptors (TCR, BCR. We hypothesized that the impaired signaling through the TCR and BCR in WAS would subsequently lead to aberrations in the immune repertoire of WAS patients. Using next generation sequencing, the T cell receptor beta (TRB and B cell immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH repertoires of 8 patients with WAS and 6 controls were sequenced. Clonal expansions were identified within memory CD4+ cells, as well as in total, naïve and memory CD8+ cells from WAS patients. In the B cell compartment, WAS patient IGH repertoires were also clonally expanded and showed skewed usage of IGHV and IGHJ genes, and increased usage of IGHG constant genes, compared with controls. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates significant abnormalities of the immune repertoire in WAS patients using next generation sequencing.

  6. Next Generation Sequencing Reveals Skewing of the T and B Cell Receptor Repertoires in Patients with Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Amy E.; Volpi, Stefano; Dobbs, Kerry; Fiorini, Claudia; Tsitsikov, Erdyni; de Boer, Helen; Barlan, Isil B.; Despotovic, Jenny M.; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco J.; Hanson, I. Celine; Kanariou, Maria G.; Martínez-Beckerat, Roxana; Mayorga-Sirera, Alvaro; Mejia-Carvajal, Carmen; Radwan, Nesrine; Weiss, Aaron R.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Lee, Yu Nee; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

    2014-01-01

    The Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is due to mutations of the WAS gene encoding for the cytoskeletal WAS protein, leading to abnormal downstream signaling from the T cell and B cell antigen receptors (TCR and BCR). We hypothesized that the impaired signaling through the TCR and BCR in WAS would subsequently lead to aberrations in the immune repertoire of WAS patients. Using next generation sequencing (NGS), the T cell receptor β and B cell immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) repertoires of eight patients with WAS and six controls were sequenced. Clonal expansions were identified within memory CD4+ cells as well as in total, naïve and memory CD8+ cells from WAS patients. In the B cell compartment, WAS patient IGH repertoires were also clonally expanded and showed skewed usage of IGHV and IGHJ genes, and increased usage of IGHG constant genes, compared with controls. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates significant abnormalities of the immune repertoire in WAS patients using NGS. PMID:25101082

  7. De novo interstitial direct duplication of Xq21.1q25 associated with skewed X-inactivation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachdjian, G; Aboura, A; Benkhalifa, M; Creveaux, I; Foix-Hélias, L; Gadisseux, J F; Boespflug-Tanguy, O; Mohammed, M; Labrune, P

    2004-12-15

    Genotype-phenotype correlation in women with an abnormal phenotype associated with a duplication of the long arm of the X chromosome remains unclear. We report on prenatal diagnosis and follow-up of a girl with an Xq duplication and dysmorphic features. The abnormal phenotype included growth retardation, hypotonia, and nystagmus. In order to improve the resolution of the cytogenetic analysis, we used both conventional and array-based comparative genomic hybridization to perform a global molecular cytogenetic analysis of the genome. These molecular cytogenetic analyses showed a direct duplication Xq21.1 --> q25 without other chromosomal abnormalities. This duplication was originating from the paternal X chromosome. Moreover, a skewed X-inactivation pattern was observed leading to a partial functional disomy of the chromosomal region Xq21.1q25. This report and review of the literature suggest that functional disomy for chromosome X could explain the abnormal phenotype. In prenatal diagnosis, this can have implication for patient management and genetic counseling.

  8. Hydrodynamic Efficiency Improvement of the High Skew Propeller for the Underwater Vehicle Under Surface and Submerged Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan Ghassemi; Parviz Ghadimi

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is presented for designing the High Skew Propeller (HSP)used in an Underwater Vehicle (UV).Since UVs operate under two different kinds of working conditions (i.e.surface and submerged conditions),the design of such a propeller is an unwieldy task.This is mainly due to the fact that the resistance forces as well as the vessel efficiency under these conditions are significantly different.Therefore,some factors are necessary for the design of the optimum propeller to utilize the power under the mentioned conditions.The design objectives of the optimum propeller are to obtain the highest possible thrust and efficiency with the minimum torque.For the current UV,the main dimensions of the propeller are predicted based on the given required thrust and the defined operating conditions.These dimensions (number of blades,pitch,diameter,expanded area ratio,thickness and camber) are determined through iterative procedure.Because the propeller operates at the stem of the UV where the inflow velocity to the propeller is non-uniform,a 5-blade HSP is preferred for running the UV.Finally,the propeller is designed based on the numerical calculations to acquire the improved hydrodynamic efficiency.

  9. Skew Detection/Correction and Local Minima/Maxima Techniques for Extracting a New Arabic Benchmark Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Ahmed Al Hamad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a set of techniques for extracting a new standard benchmark database for Arabic handwritten scripts. Thresholding, filtering, and skew detection/correction techniques are developed as a pre-processing step of the database. Local minima and maxima using horizontal and vertical histogram are implemented for extracting the script elements of the database. Elements of the database contain pages, paragraphs, lines, and characters. The database divides into two major parts. The first part represents the original elements without modifications; the second part represents the elements after applying the proposed techniques. The final database has collected, extracted, validated, and saved. All techniques are tested for extracting and validating the elements. In this respect, ACDAR proposes a first issue of the Arabic benchmark databases. In addition, the paper confirms establishment a specialized research-oriented center refers to learning, teaching, and collaboration activities. This center is called "Arabic Center for Document Analysis and Recognition (ACDAR" which is similar to other centers developed for other languages such as English.

  10. Skewed distribution of hypothyroidism in the coastal communities of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Knight, John C; Babichuk, Nicole A; Mulay, Shree

    2015-10-01

    Several studies published in the recent past have shown that rising levels of thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in the environment affect thyroid function in humans. These TDCs are the anthropogenic organic compounds that enter the human body mostly by ingestion and may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis, the most common cause of hypothyroidism. The studies also show the presence of high levels of TDCs in marine animals; therefore, consumption of contaminated seafood might trigger hypothyroidism. So far, there is no readily available population-based data, showing the regional distribution of hypothyroidism cases. We collected administrative data from the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Health Information on hospitalizations with hypothyroidism (from 1998 to 2012) in 41 coastal communities of Newfoundland and found that mean hypothyroidism rates of west and south coasts were significantly higher than in the east coast (1.8 and 1.9 times respectively). A one-way analysis of variance was used to test for regional differences in rates. A significant between-group difference in the rate of hypothyroidism was found (F2,38 = 8.309; p = 0.001). The St. Lawrence River, its estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence are heavily polluted with TDCs from industries, their effluents, and urbanization in the Great Lakes Watershed and along the river. Environment Canada has already identified this river along with the Great Lakes Watershed as one of the top TDCs polluted water sources in the country. The west and south coasts are in contact with the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Local marine products are a regular diet of the coastal communities of Newfoundland. Based on these available evidence, we hypothesize the role of TDCs in the rise of hypothyroidism on the western and southern coasts. However, further study will be needed to establish any association between abnormally high rates of hypothyroidism and exposure to TDCs.

  11. Investigating the Use of an Adjustment Task to Set Preferred Colour of Ambient Illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadóttir, Ásta; Fotios, Steve A.; Christoffersen, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the method of adjustment when determining user preferences for the colour appearance of ambient lighting. A booth was lit using luminaires containing an array of white and coloured light emitting diodes (LEDs), allowing continuous variation of correlated c...... the adjustment task, and thus, the importance of considering and reporting this information in studies that employ the method of adjustment....

  12. The Adjustment of the Manufacturing Labors in the Northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junlasun Thuninart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Northeastern labors used to live in the community cultures moved to work at the garment factory. The capitalism and the national economic and social development plan of Thailand were the causes. The policy of this plan was to make Thailand modern and emphasized development of an economic power. The Northeastern labors lacked of the lands for planting and turned to be head over heels in dept. They migrated to be the labors in the industry section for themselves, their families and the rural communities can survive under the capitalism context. The purpose of the article was to study the adjustment of the manufacturing labors in the garment manufacturing in Khon Khaen province located in Northeast of Thailand. Approach: It was a qualitative research. Data collection included interviews and participant observations and document analysis. Research data was classified into groups on study topic and analyzed on the purpose of study by using descriptive analysis. Informants included 60 key informants were the labors, the owned factory and the officer. Results: The result of this research was the adjustment causes of the labors who worked at the garment factory has divided into 3 conflict levels were as follows: (1 practicing, (2 norm and (3 value and ideal. These causes made them by adjusting themselves to economy acculturation for sufficient economy, namely employees stopped working when they earned enough money and the adjustment in duration of work hours was not strict. The Northeastern labors adjusted themselves for stopped working with traditional condition that was called “Heatsipsong”. It was the cultural capital of the Northeastern labors and the adjustment from cultural integration of the labors. The Northeastern labors enjoyed working as collective work and the rule and duty in work were held to a family and kinship structure; however, the rule and duty in the scheduling and assigning of employees was up to a

  13. Nuclear data adjustment methodology utilizing resonance parameter sensitivities and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the development and demonstration of a Nuclear Data Adjustment Method that allows inclusion of both energy and spatial self-shielding into the adjustment procedure. The resulting adjustments are for the basic parameters (i.e., resonance parameters) in the resonance regions and for the group cross sections elsewhere. The majority of this development effort concerns the production of resonance parameter sensitivity information which allows the linkage between the responses of interest and the basic parameters. The resonance parameter sensitivity methodology developed herein usually provides accurate results when compared to direct recalculations using existing and well-known cross section processing codes. However, it has been shown in several cases that self-shielded cross sections can be very non-linear functions of the basic parameters. For this reason caution must be used in any study which assumes that a linear relationship exists between a given self-shielded group cross section and its corresponding basic data parameters

  14. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murru Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD.

  15. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  16. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  17. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  18. INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC PARAMETRS OF SPLIT SKEWED BRIDGE SPANS IN CASE OF LOSS OF CONTACT BETWEEN END BEAM AND ITS SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.Safronov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. In order to get a valid estimate of risks of fracture during the mainten-ance of simply supported skew slab-and-girder reinforced concrete spans of highway bridges the influence of the supporting skew on the natural frequencies spectrum and the corresponding ei-genmodes in case of changing the design model due to loss of contact between beams and support.Results. Possible loss of contact between one of the marginal beams and its support near the sharp angle during the maintenance of transport facility depending on its type and geometrical parameters is substantiated. Modal and frequency spectrum analysis of spans in case of loss of contact between one of the marginal beams and its support is performed.Conclusions. The analysis revealed possible loss of contact between marginal beams and support, which increases as the skew angle grows and the width and length of the span reduce. A signifi-cant influence of support separation on eigenmodes and frequency spectrum of spans is revealed.

  19. Highly skewed sex ratios and biased fossil deposition of moa: ancient DNA provides new insight on New Zealand's extinct megafauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allentoft, Morten E.; Bunce, Michael; Scofield, R. Paul; Hale, Marie L.; Holdaway, Richard N.

    2010-03-01

    Ancient DNA was isolated from the bones of 267 individuals of the extinct New Zealand moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from two late Holocene deposits [Pyramid Valley (PV) and Bell Hill Vineyard (BHV)] located 5.7 km apart in North Canterbury, South Island. The two sites' combined fossil record cover the last 3000 years of pre-human New Zealand and mitochondrial DNA confirmed that four species ( Dinornis robustus, Euryapteryx curtus, Emeus crassus, and Pachyornis elephantopus) were sympatric in the region. However, the relative species compositions in the two deposits differed significantly with D. robustus and E. crassus being most abundant at PV while E. curtus outnumbered the other three moa taxa combined at BHV. A subsample of 227 individuals had sufficient nuclear DNA preservation to warrant the use of molecular sexing techniques, and the analyses uncovered a remarkable excess of females in both deposits with an overall male to female ratio of 1:5.1. Among juveniles of E. curtus, the only species which was represented by a substantial fraction of juveniles, the sex ratio was not skewed (10 ♂, 10 ♀), suggesting that the observed imbalance arose as a result of differential mortality during maturation. Surprisingly, sex ratios proved significantly different between sites with a 1:2.2 ratio at BHV ( n = 90) and 1:14.2 at PV ( n = 137). Given the mobility of large ratites, and the proximity of the two fossil assemblages in space and time, these differences in taxonomic and gender composition indicate that moa biology and the local environment have affected the fossil representation dramatically and several possible explanations are offered. Apart from adding to our understanding of moa biology, these discoveries reinforce the need for caution when basing interpretation of the fossil record on material from a single site.

  20. Vietnamese Cross-Cultural Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Joseph Trung

    This report provides information that will help Americans deal with or counsel Vietnamese refugees. The following topics are covered: (1) history and geography of Vietnam; (2) culture of Vietnam; (3) differences between American and Vietnamese culture; (4) counseling recommendations; (5) differences between American and Vietnamese students; and…

  1. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  2. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  3. GGE双标图的信息比校正原理与应用*--以长江流域棉花品种生态区划分为例%Principles and applications of information ratio adjustment of GGE biplot-A case study of cotton mega-environment investigation in the Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许乃银; 李健

    2015-01-01

    , identifying ideal cultivars and test environments, evaluating the representativeness and discrimination ability of test sites, and differentiating mega-environments have attracted extensive application in analyzing regional trials of many crops. Nevertheless, few reports have focused on the potential loss of fit of GGE biplot models and model adjustment using information ratio (IR). IR is the product of percent variation explained by each principal component and the minor value of degree of freedom of genotypes along with the number of test locatons in GGE biplot analysis of datasets in regional crop trials. As principal component with IR≥1 has useful information, it is a sufficient and necessary condition of GGE model with appropriate goodness of fit to cover all data analysis. In fact, the goodness of fit of GGE biplot models is restricted to the sum of percent variation explained by the first two principal components (PC1 and PC2), rather than the suitable principal components determined by IR. Thus although GGE biplot model is an efficient graphical display of data structure, it is not so efficient to guarantee optimal fitting of effects. Using the GGE biplot method and collected datasets in national regional cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) trials in the Yangtze River Valley in 2000-2012, this study showed the effects of IR adjustments of GGE models in maga-environment investigation. The scores of principal components for IR≥1 in 35 groups of regional cotton trials were used to calculate Euclidean distance matrix among the test environments. Also a hierachical cluster analysis was implemented to outline the scheme of differentiation of the mega-environment. A corresponding analysis was also carried out using fixed first two principal components of GGE biplot analysis for the purpose of mutual comparision between GGE biplot model and IR-adjusted GGE model for mega-environment investigation efficiency. The results showed that while only 28.6% was appropriately fitted by

  4. An adjustment cost model of distributional dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew, Yoseph; Basu, Parantap

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the distributional e¤ects of adjustment cost in an environment with incomplete capital market. We find that a higher adjustment cost for human capital acquisition slows down the intergenerational mobility and results in a persistent inequality across generations. A low depreciation cost of human capital contributes to longer life of the capital which could elevate this adjustment cost and hence contribute to this inequality persistence. A lower total factor productivity could hurt...

  5. Trade Liberalization and Trade Adjustment Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, K. C.; Staiger, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the relationship between trade adjustment subsidies and successful reciprocal trade liberalization. We consider economies that are faced with a periodic need to move resources out of a declining import-competing sector, and that are attempting to sustain cooperative but self-enforcing trade agreements in the face of these adjustment needs. If the limitations associated with enforcement of international trade agreements are sufficiently severe, trade adjustment assistance can facili...

  6. Attitude-adjusting table for neutron monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron monochromator attitude-adjusting table is one of the mechanical components for most monochromatic neutron scattering spectrometer. It is mainly used for mounting crystal monochromator, and getting monochromatic neutron by adjusting the attitude of monochromator remotely. The table has a compact volume and five adjusting axes with high resolution. It combines optic mechanical electronic technique with computer control technique. This device will be applied to the neutron residual stress spectrometer on CARR firstly. (authors)

  7. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  8. Implementation of Risk Adjustment for Medicare

    OpenAIRE

    Ingber, Melvin J.

    2000-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) implemented risk adjustment for Medicare capitated organizations January 2000. The risk adjustment system used, the Principal Inpatient Diagnostic Cost Group (PIPDCG) method, had to be incorporated into the payment structure mandated by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA). This article describes how risk adjustment was integrated into the payment system within the rules of the BBA, and how fee-for-service (FFS) and health maintenance organizat...

  9. 基于数据倾斜关联度的数据库高效挖掘方法%Database Efficient Mining Method Research Based on the Data Skew Relational

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志良

    2014-01-01

    提出一种基于数据倾斜关联度的数据高效算法,首次给出数据倾斜度的概念,利用数据类间特征进行数据倾斜程度的判断,对相似数据进行类间聚类,将数据库中数据特征进行信息相似度计算,计算概念总出现次数时应累加其所有子概念的出现次数。在查询的过程中,充分考虑同一数据属性的多样性,对数据特征加入模型的数量进行约束,减少不必要的繁琐数据特征。判断符合查询条件的数据类别,根据不同的数据类别进行数据查询,实现数据结构的优化。实验结果表明,利用这种算法进行数据库查询优化,能够有效提高海量数据库信息查询的效率。%Presents an efficient algorithm based on data from the data skew incidence degree. First proposed the concept of gradient data, using the data between the characteristics of data skew degree of judgment, of similarity between classes the data clustering, the data in the database information characteristics of similarity calculation, computing concept over-all occurrences should be added when the occurrences of the concept of all children. In the process of query, give full consideration to the diversity of the same data attributes, to join model with constraints on the number of data characteris-tics, reduce unnecessary red tape data characteristics. Conform to the category of data query condition, according to the different categories of data query, optimizing the data structure. The experimental results show that using this algorithm, database query optimization, can effectively improve the efficiency of mass database information query.

  10. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  11. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  12. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  13. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  14. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  15. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  16. Research on Adjust Time of Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  17. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  18. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2... applicable) penalty amount 20 U.S.C. 1015(c)(5) Provides for a fine of up to $25,000 for failure by...

  19. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  20. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  1. Attachment for sucker rod depth adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.D.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a surface unit of an oil well pumping system, having a walking beam, a suspended carrier bar and an interconnected sucker rod assembly for stroking a reciprocating down-hole pump. It comprises a cross bar having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly and adapted to be transversely supported by the carrier bar; a depth adjusting bar, having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly, positioned at a selected fixed dimension above and parallel to the cross bar and adapted to operatively support the sucker rod assembly; clamping means for fixing the sucker rod relative to the depth adjusting bar; and hydraulically extendable means supportively connecting the depth adjusting bar to the cross bar on at least each side of the carrier bar for adjusting the selected fixed dimension and maintaining the adjustment during operation.

  2. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ] ACTION: Notice and request for...

  3. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  4. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  5. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  6. Nutritional bias as a new mode of adjusting sex allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, MJL; van Lieshout, E; Visser, GH; Komdeur, J

    2004-01-01

    Sex biases in the allocation of resources to offspring occur in a broad range of taxa. Parents have been shown to achieve such biases either by producing numerically more of one sex or by providing the individuals of one sex with a greater quantity of resources. In addition, skews in allocation coul

  7. Portfolio with skewness considering parameter uncertainty%参数不确定条件下考虑偏度的投资组合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔媛媛; 王建琼; 庄泓刚

    2011-01-01

    Given the limitation of traditional portfolio theory, portfolio model using a Bayesian decision theory and skew-normal distributions was proposed to solve the problem of parameter uncertainty and improve utility of portfolio. Then, based on Taylor series expansion of expected utility, we analysed the relationship between the higher moment risk and utility, and employed the MCMC and numerical optimization algorithm which estimated the parameters of skew-normal distributions and the weights of portfolio. Our results suggest that expected utility can be improved using Bayesian Theory which solves the problem of parameter uncertainty. Further, it is important to incorporate mean, variance and skewness in portfolio selection strategy.%考虑到传统投资组合理论的局限,为了解决参数不确定问题,提高投资组合效用,应用贝叶斯理论,在多维有偏分布基础上讨论了考虑偏度的投资组合问题,通过对期望效用函数的Taylor展开,分析了各阶矩风险与期望效用函数的关系.应用MCMC方法和数值优化方法对有偏正态分布进行了参数估计和投资组合权重的计算.研究结果表明,应用贝叶斯理论解决参数不确定问题,可以提高投资者期望效用,考虑期望收益,方差以及偏度不确定性会对投资组合策略产生重要的影响.

  8. 超斜铰接板桥数值分析及其试验%Numerical Modeling and Experimental Study on Large-Angle Hinged Skew Slab Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文献; 金叔阳; 韩志辉; 仝培周

    2011-01-01

    研究了超斜铰接板桥(斜交角大于45°)的荷载横向分布规律,提出了利用经验公式求算超斜铰接板桥荷载横向分布影响线竖标值的方法.采用剪力-柔性梁格法对某桥进行数值模拟,利用有机玻璃模型试验验证其正确性,得出了简单实用的数值模拟方法.对不同板数、不同斜交角的铰接板桥进行数值模拟,进而得出计算超斜铰接板桥横向分布影响线竖标值的经验公式.通过理论解的求算,证明该经验公式实用、可靠.%Transverse load distribution of large-angle hinged skew slab bridge was studied,and the method to calculate the influence line of transverse load distribution with an empirical formula was put forward.In order to establish a reliable numerical model,shear-flexible grillage method was adopted,then organic glass model was made to verify the reasonableness of the numerical model.Numerical models of hinged skew slab bridges with different slabs,different skew angles were established to get the empirical formulas of the influence line of transverse load distribution.Finally,the reliability of the empirical formulas was validated by theoretical calculation.

  9. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  10. A note on how to iterate adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagschal, Jehudah J.; Yeivin, Yehuda [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2002-08-01

    We study the elementary problem of adjusting a given parameter library by one measured response so that calculating the response with the adjusted library reproduces the measured value. We formulate the problem of the least-squares adjustment for non-linear responses, and offer a reasoned iteration scheme to solve it. A numerical example illustrates the success of the proposed procedure. Our scheme is identical to that suggested by Perey, and thus adds insight, offers justification, and also serves as a formal proof of the latter. (author)

  11. Occupation and smoking adjusted mortality due to asthma among Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torén, K; Hörte, L G; Järvholm, B

    1991-05-01

    The study aims to survey the mortality from asthma in different occupations among Swedish men. The design was a register based cohort study where the smoking adjusted mortality due to asthma among Swedish men 1971-80 was investigated. For each occupation a smoking adjusted standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated based on a linkage between official mortality statistics 1971-80 and occupational information in the 1970 national census. The information about the smoking habits among different occupations was obtained from a smoking survey carried out in 1963. In the statistical analysis only occupations with more than 10 deaths were considered. A significantly increased mortality from asthma was found among farmers (smoking adjusted SMR 137, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 115-156), farm workers (smoking adjusted SMR 170, 95% CI 107-235), woodworking machine operators (smoking adjusted SMR 226, 95% CI 108-344), clerical workers (smoking adjusted SMR 161, 95% CI 102-220), packers and labellers (smoking adjusted SMR 144, 95% CI 100-188), and watchmen (smoking adjusted SMR 212, 95% CI 104-320). Exposure to organic dust, such as fresh wood dust and dusts in the farming environment, may cause increased mortality due to asthma.

  12. The Wigner–Yanase information can increase under phase sensitive incoherent operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shuanping, E-mail: shuanpingdu@yahoo.com; Bai, Zhaofang, E-mail: baizhaofang@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-08-15

    We found that the Wigner-Yanase skew information, which has been recently proposed as a measure of coherence in Girolami (2014), can increase under a class of operations which may be interpreted as incoherent following the framework of Baumgratz et al., while being phase sensitive.

  13. p-hacking by post hoc selection with multiple opportunities: Detectability by skewness test?: Comment on Simonsohn, Nelson, and Simmons (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    Simonsohn, Nelson, and Simmons (2014) have suggested a novel test to detect p-hacking in research, that is, when researchers report excessive rates of "significant effects" that are truly false positives. Although this test is very useful for identifying true effects in some cases, it fails to identify false positives in several situations when researchers conduct multiple statistical tests (e.g., reporting the most significant result). In these cases, p-curves are right-skewed, thereby mimicking the existence of real effects even if no effect is actually present.

  14. First-principles evaluation of intrinsic, side-jump, and skew-scattering parts of anomalous Hall conductivities in disordered alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, K; Kota, Y; Sakuma, A.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a first-principles procedure for the individual evaluation of the intrinsic, side-jump, and skew-scattering contributions to the anomalous Hall conductivity ${\\sigma}_{xy}$. This method is based on the different microscopic conductive processes of each origin of ${\\sigma}_{xy}$ in the Kubo-Streda formula. We also present an approach for implementing this scheme in the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) method with the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The valid...

  15. p-hacking by post hoc selection with multiple opportunities: Detectability by skewness test?: Comment on Simonsohn, Nelson, and Simmons (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Miller, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    Simonsohn, Nelson, and Simmons (2014) have suggested a novel test to detect p-hacking in research, that is, when researchers report excessive rates of "significant effects" that are truly false positives. Although this test is very useful for identifying true effects in some cases, it fails to identify false positives in several situations when researchers conduct multiple statistical tests (e.g., reporting the most significant result). In these cases, p-curves are right-skewed, thereby mimicking the existence of real effects even if no effect is actually present. PMID:26595841

  16. Is Emotional Adjustment Status Predictor of the IUD Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Farajzadegan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of emotional adjustment on IUD continuation to understand why persons with similar clinical problems have different interpretation and select different strategies to cope with their complaints.Materials and Methods: This historical cohort study was carried out on 12 randomly chosen health centers of Isfahan province in 2007. Two hundred forty eight literate and married women aged 15-49 years who had chosen IUD as a contraceptive method since 2002 entered the study. After explaining the aim of study and taking informed consent, women completed the demographic, individual characteristics and 32 questions in emotional domain of Bell’s Adjustment Inventory (adult form. May 2007 was considered the end time of IUD consumption as a defined outcome. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS version 15. T–test, chi–square, Mann–Whitney, General Linear Model, Regression were used for data analysis.Results: During this period 60% (146 of women preserved their IUD and 40% (98 of them removed their IUD. The mean score of emotional adjustment was 16.16±6.28 in IUD preserved women in comparison to 18.23±5.63 in IUD removed women. Poor ,moderate and good  grades of emotional adjustment were 54%, 40% and 6% in IUD preserved woman vs 72.4% , 24.5% and 3.1% in IUD removed women.Conclusion: Psychological factors such as emotional adjustment can influence IUD survival; so improved counseling and good candidate selection before IUD insertion is recommended.

  17. Price adjustments by a gasoline retail chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use daily data to examine price responses in the Swedish gasoline market to changes in the Rotterdam spot price, exchange rates and taxes. The distribution of price adjustments by a leading retail chain, for the period January 1980 to December 1996, is symmetric with no small adjustments. An error correction model shows that, in the short run, prices gradually move towards the long-run equilibrium in response to cost shocks. There is some evidence that, also in the short run, prices are stickier downwards than upwards. Prices respond more rapidly to exchange rate movements than to the spot market price. Our analysis emphasizes that to fully understand price adjustments it is necessary to examine data sets where the sample frequency at least matches that of price adjustments

  18. Speed of adjustment: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Arioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the speed of adjustment for leverage ratios of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul, in order to investigate the prediction of the trade-off theory, regarding capital structure rebalancing. For this purpose, we estimate the speed of adjustment by using Generalized Method of Moments system estimation technique. The results of this estimation suggest the speed of adjustment as approximately 29%. This significant speed of adjustment is consistent with the prediction of trade-off theory, which suggests that firms follow target capital structures and when the firms' leverage ratios deviate from these targets; they make financial decisions with the goal of closing the gap between the previous year's leverage and target leverage of the current period.

  19. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  20. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.