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Sample records for adjusted indirect comparison

  1. Adjusted indirect treatment comparisons of bioequivalence studies

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    Gwaza, L

    2016-01-01

    Generic medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator, however, current regulatory systems do not require direct comparison between all available generics of the same innovator to ensure interchangeability. As such, interchangeability

  2. Drug efficacy by direct and adjusted indirect comparison to placebo: An illustration by Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis in HIV

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    Freedberg Kenneth A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our goal was to illustrate a method for making indirect treatment comparisons in the absence of head-to-head trials, by portraying the derivation of published efficacies for prophylaxis regimens of HIV-related opportunistic infections. Results We identified published results of randomized controlled trials from the United States in which HIV-infected patients received rifabutin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or placebo for prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC. We extracted the number of subjects, follow-up time, primary MAC events, mean CD4 count, and proportion of subjects on mono or dual antiretroviral therapy (ART from each study. We derived the efficacy of each drug using adjusted indirect comparisons and, when possible, by direct comparisons. Five articles satisfied our inclusion criteria. Using direct comparison, we estimated the efficacies of rifabutin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin compared to placebo to be 53% (95% CI, 48-61%, 66% (95% CI, 61-74%, and 66% (95% CI, 60-81%, respectively. Using adjusted indirect calculations, the efficacy of rifabutin compared to placebo ranged from 41% to 44%. The adjusted indirect efficacies of clarithromycin and azithromycin were estimated to be 73% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Accurate estimates of specific drug dosages as compared to placebo are important for policy and implementation research. This study illustrates a simple method of adjusting for differences in study populations by using indirect comparisons in the absence of head-to-head HIV clinical trials.

  3. Influence of point estimates and study power of bioequivalence studies on establishing bioequivalence between generics by adjusted indirect comparisons.

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    Gwaza, Luther; Gordon, John; Potthast, Henrike; Welink, Jan; Leufkens, Hubert; Stahl, Matthias; García-Arieta, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Adjusted indirect comparisons can be used to investigate bioequivalence between generic products that are bioequivalent with a common reference product. In previous work with generic tuberculosis medicines prequalified by the WHO, it was observed that although indirect comparisons are an effective approach for confirming the interchangeability of generics, the approach is subject to less precision than direct comparisons. The objective of this investigation was to explore this by examining the influence of point estimates and power of bioequivalence studies versus the reference on the ability to show equivalence in indirect comparisons. Power was considered as a determining factor instead of variability and sample size, because sample size is calculated based on variability and desired power. Scenarios were computed combining a range of point estimate differences (0-14 %) and statistical power of the studies (50-99.99 %). The indirect comparisons could conclude equivalence between generics only when (a) point estimate differences between generics were low (≤ 5.5 %) for any sufficiently powered study (> 80 %), or (b) the differences were large (but less than 14 %) and both bioequivalence studies were overpowered (e.g., 10 % difference and power ≥ 95 %). In summary, the ability to demonstrate interchangeability between generics is dependent not only on the real differences between the products but also on the design of the original generic vs. reference bioequivalence studies being combined, as earmarked by their respective power.

  4. Lipophilic versus hydrophilic statin therapy for heart failure: a protocol for an adjusted indirect comparison meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Statins are known to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in primary and secondary prevention studies. Subsequently, a number of nonrandomised studies have shown statins improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Small randomised controlled trials (RCT) also show improved cardiac function, reduced inflammation and mortality with statins in HF. However, the findings of two large RCTs do not support the evidence provided by previous studies and suggest statins lack beneficial effects in HF. Two meta-analyses have shown statins do not improve survival, whereas two others showed improved cardiac function and reduced inflammation in HF. It appears lipophilic statins produce better survival and other outcome benefits compared to hydrophilic statins. But the two types have not been compared in direct comparison trials in HF. Methods/design We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of lipophilic and hydrophilic statin therapy in patients with HF. Our objectives are: 1. To determine the effects of lipophilic statins on (1) mortality, (2) hospitalisation for worsening HF, (3) cardiac function and (4) inflammation. 2. To determine the effects of hydrophilic statins on (1) mortality, (2) hospitalisation for worsening HF, (3) cardiac function and (4) inflammation. 3. To compare the efficacy of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on HF outcomes with an adjusted indirect comparison meta-analysis. We will conduct an electronic search of databases for RCTs that evaluate statins in patients with HF. The reference lists of all identified studies will be reviewed. Two independent reviewers will conduct the search. The inclusion criteria include: 1. RCTs comparing statins with placebo or no statin in patients with symptomatic HF. 2. RCTs that employed the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle in data analysis. 3. Symptomatic HF patients of all aetiologies and on standard treatment. 4. Statin of any dose as intervention. 5. Placebo or no

  5. Comparative effectiveness of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis patients: results of a matching-adjusted indirect comparison.

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    Chan, Andrew; Cutter, Gary; Fox, Robert J; Xiao, James; Lewin, James B; Edwards, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    Using matching-adjusted indirect comparison, we compared efficacy outcomes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) or glatiramer acetate (GA). An indirect comparison of DMF (patient-level data) and GA (aggregate data) was conducted, with average baseline characteristics of DMF patients weighted to match those for GA patients. Direct comparison of DMF and GA was conducted in CONFIRM. Final results pooled the indirect and direct comparisons using meta-analysis. After matching, baseline characteristics were balanced between DMF and GA patients. Compared with GA, efficacy was significantly in favor of DMF as measured by annualized relapse rate (rate ratio: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.57-1.00; p = 0.0474) and 12-week confirmed disability progression (risk ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46-0.76; p < 0.0001). DMF demonstrated superior clinical efficacy versus GA.

  6. Comparative effectiveness using a matching-adjusted indirect comparison between delayed-release dimethyl fumarate and fingolimod for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

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    Fox, Robert J; Chan, Andrew; Zhang, Annie; Xiao, James; Levison, Dane; Lewin, James B; Edwards, Michael R; Marantz, Jing L

    2017-02-01

    Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) and fingolimod are approved oral disease-modifying treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In phase 3 trials, DMF (DEFINE/CONFIRM) and fingolimod (FREEDOMS/FREEDOMS II) resulted in significant reductions in clinical and magnetic resonance imaging activity, with acceptable safety profiles. Direct comparisons of these treatments are not possible due to a lack of head-to-head trials. We compared 2 year efficacy of DMF versus fingolimod at the approved dosage using a matching-adjusted indirect approach. Individual patient data from DEFINE and CONFIRM, and aggregate data from FREEDOMS and FREEDOMS II, were pooled and compared using the matching-adjusted in-direct method. To account for cross-trial differences, data from trials with available individual patient data were adjusted to match aggregate data (i.e. average patient characteristics) from trials without patient-level data. Data from DMF-treated patients were weighted such that average baseline characteristics matched those of fingolimod-treated patients. After matching, weighted treatment outcomes for DMF-treated patients (240 mg twice daily) were compared with summary outcomes for fingolimod-treated patients (0.5 mg once daily). All comparison results of DMF versus fingolimod used fingolimod as the reference. After matching, baseline characteristics were balanced between DMF and fingolimod. At year 2, the efficacy of DMF was similar to that of fingolimod for annualized relapse rate (rate ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.11 [0.88, 1.40]), 12 week confirmed disability progression (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 0.90 [0.63, 1.29]), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (mean difference [95% CI]: 0.04 [-0.05, 0.13]). For patient-reported outcomes (EuroQoL 5-Dimensions questionnaire), the mean differences (95% CI) were 0.05 (0.01, 0.08) for utility score and 3.22 (0.58, 5.86) for visual analog scale score

  7. Comparative Efficacy of Ibrutinib Versus Obinutuzumab + Chlorambucil in First-Line Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison.

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    Van Sanden, Suzy; Baculea, Simona; Diels, Joris; Cote, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Ibrutinib (ibr) monotherapy and the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (obi) are approved for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). No trials directly comparing their efficacy are available. Therefore a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) was performed to provide insight into their relative efficacy in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). MAIC attempts to adjust for between-trial differences in factors known or suspected to influence treatment effects, to minimize bias. A MAIC within a Bayesian framework was conducted using individual patient data from the RESONATE-2 study of ibr versus chlorambucil and published data from the CLL11 study of obi versus chlorambucil. Both studies were conducted in patients ineligible for full-dose fludarabine-based therapy. After matching, the reweighted adjusted relative efficacy measure of ibr versus chlorambucil from RESONATE-2 [hazard ratio (HR), 95% credible interval (CrI)] was compared with that of obi versus chlorambucil from CLL11 for each endpoint, using a Bayesian indirect comparison. Our results suggest that in a population with similar average baseline characteristics to CLL11, ibr would improve PFS and OS outcomes compared to obi. Before matching, the HRs for ibr versus obi were 0.48 [CrI = 0.22-1.02, p(HR <1) = 97%], 0.85 [CrI = 0.44-1.63, p(HR <1) = 69%], and 0.40 [CrI = 0.10-1.54, p(HR <1) = 91%] for PFS by investigator assessment, PFS by independent review committee, and OS, respectively. After matching on all available characteristics the HRs decreased to 0.12 [CrI = 0.02-0.97, p(HR <1) = 98%], 0.24 [CrI = 0.04-1.35, p(HR <1) = 95%], and 0.21 [CrI = <0.01-8.89, p(HR <1) = 79%], respectively. There was a large variance around the treatment effect for OS due to the low number of deaths. Our analysis suggests that ibrutinib is highly likely to provide greater PFS benefit than obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil in older or less

  8. Meta-analysis: adjusted indirect comparison of drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization versus {sup 90}Y-radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Ludwig, Johannes M.; Xing, Minzhi [Yale School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Di [University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Hyun S. [Yale School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale School of Medicine, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate comparative effectiveness of drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) versus Yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y)-radioembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Studies comparing conventional (c)TACE versus {sup 90}Y-radioembolization or DEB-TACE for HCC treatment were identified using PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The adjusted indirect meta-analytic method for effectiveness comparison of DEB-TACE versus {sup 90}Y-radioembolization was used. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare baseline characteristics. A priori defined sensitivity analysis of stratified study subgroups was performed for primary outcome analyses. Publication bias was tested by Egger's and Begg's tests. Fourteen studies comparing DEB-TACE or {sup 90}Y-radioembolization with cTACE were included. Analysis revealed a 1-year overall survival benefit for DEB-TACE over {sup 90}Y-radioembolization (79 % vs. 54.8 %; OR: 0.57; 95 %CI: 0.355-0.915; p = 0.02; I-squared: 0 %; p > 0.5), but not for the 2-year (61 % vs. 34 %; OR: 0.65; 95%CI: 0.294-1.437; p = 0.29) and 3-year survival (56.4 % vs. 20.9 %; OR: 0.713; 95 % CI: 0.21-2.548; p = 0.62). There was significant heterogeneity in the 2- and 3-year survival analyses. The pooled median overall survival was longer for DEB-TACE (22.6 vs. 14.7 months). There was no significant difference in tumour response rate. DEB-TACE and {sup 90}Y-radioembolization are efficacious treatments for patients suffering from HCC; DEB-TACE demonstrated survival benefit at 1-year compared to {sup 90}Y-radioembolization but direct comparison is warranted for further evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Matching-adjusted indirect comparisons of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 vs two recombinant factor VIII for the prophylactic treatment of severe hemophilia A

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    Pocoski J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Pocoski,1 Nanxin Li,2 Rajeev Ayyagari,2 Nikki Church,1 Monika Maas Enriquez,1 Quer Xiang,2 Sneha Kelkar,3 Ella X Du,2 Eric Q Wu,2 Jipan Xie3 1Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, NJ, 2Analysis Group, Inc., Boston, MA, 3Analysis Group, Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: No head-to-head trials comparing recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII products currently exist. This was a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC study of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 with antihemophilic factor (recombinant plasma/albumin-free method (rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa for the prophylaxis of severe hemophilia A. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify trials of rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa. Comparisons were conducted using BAY 81-8973 individual patient data (IPD from LEOPOLD trials and published data from rAHF-PFM and turoctocog alfa trials. Differences in outcome reporting were reconciled using transformation of BAY 81-8973 IPD. Patients in pooled LEOPOLD trials were weighted to match baseline characteristics for rAHF-PFM or turoctocog alfa trials using MAICs. After matching, annualized bleed rates (ABRs were compared using weighted t-tests. Results: Two rAHF-PFM trials and one turoctocog alfa trial were identified. In these trials, rFVIIIs were dosed thrice weekly or every other day; in LEOPOLD trials, BAY 81-8973 was dosed twice- or thrice weekly. Three MAICs were conducted because the two rAHF-PFM trials calculated ABRs differently, matching for age, race, and weight (turoctocog alfa only. BAY 81-8973 had similar ABR of all bleeds vs rAHF-PFM (two trials: 4.8 vs 6.3, 1.9 vs 1.8 [square root transform] and lower ABR of spontaneous bleeds and trauma bleeds (2.6 vs 4.1, 2.1 vs 4.7; both P<0.05. BAY 81-8973 showed lower ABR of all bleeds and spontaneous bleeds vs turoctocog alfa (4.3 vs 6.5, 2.8 vs 4.3; both P<0.05 and similar ABR of trauma bleeds (1.5 vs 1.6. In subgroup analysis, twice-weekly BAY 81-8973 had similar ABRs of all

  10. Effects of Statin Treatment on Inflammation and Cardiac Function in Heart Failure: An Adjusted Indirect Comparison Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

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    Bonsu, Kwadwo Osei; Reidpath, Daniel Diamond; Kadirvelu, Amudha

    2015-12-01

    Statins are known to prevent heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether statins as class or type (lipophilic or hydrophilic) improve outcomes of established HF. The current meta-analysis was performed to compare the treatment effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on inflammation and cardiac function in HF. Outcomes were indicators of cardiac function [changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)] and inflammation [changes in highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interluekin-6 (IL-6)]. We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases until December 31, 2014 for randomized control trials (RCTs) of statin versus placebo in patients with HF. RCTs with their respective extracted information were dichotomized into statin type evaluated and analyzed separately. Outcomes were pooled with random effect approach, producing standardized mean differences (SMD) for each statin type. Using these pooled estimates, we performed adjusted indirect comparisons for each outcome. Data from 6214 patients from 19 trials were analyzed. Lipophilic statin was superior to hydrophilic statin treatment regarding follow-up LVEF (SMD, 4.54; 95% CI, 4.16-4.91; P statin produces greater treatment effects on cardiac function and inflammation compared with hydrophilic statin in patients with HF. Until data from adequately powered head-to-head trial of the statin types are available, our meta-analysis brings clinicians and researchers a step closer to the quest on which statin--lipophilic or hydrophilic--is associated with better outcomes in HF. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. RESULTS OF EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF SECUKINUMAB VERSUS ADALIMUMAB IN TREATING PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS BY USING THE MATCHING-ADJUSTED INDIRECT COMPARISON METHOD

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    T. V. Korotaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To date there have been no results of a direct comparison of the efficiency of using tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, secukinumab (SCM and adalimumab (ADA in particular, to treat psoriatic arthritis (PsA. This suggests that there is a need to apply the Matching-Adjusted Indirect Comparison (MAIC method that will be able to choose a treatment option for PsA. Objective: to compare the efficacy of SCM andADAby using the MAIC method in patients with active PsA.Patients and methods. The results of usingADAin the Adalimumab Effectiveness in Psoriatic Trial (ADEPT, a randomized clinical trial (RCT, and SCM in the FUTURE 2 RCT were compared according to theAmericanCollegeof Rheumatology (ACR and Psoriatic Area and Severity Index (PASI criteria. The analysis based on the MAIC principles included aggregated data on 151 patients with active PsA from the ADEPT RCT and 189 patients from the FUTURE 2 RCT.Results. At 16 weeks, ACR20/50/70 responses were observed in 74.4/50.1/18.5% of the patients treated with SCM 150 mg, in 65.5/50.1/50.1% of those treated with SCM 300 mg, and in 55.6/32.5/20.5% of those receivingADA, respectively. Both doses of SCM had a significant advantage over the dose ofADAaccording to ACR20 and ACR50 responses. A PASI75 response forADAand SCM 150/300 mg was observed in 60.9 and 59.5/64.1% of the patients; and a PASI90 response was seen in 39.1 and 47.7/40.8% of the patients, respectively. At 24 weeks of treatment, ACR20, ACR50, and HAQ-DI responses in patients receiving SCM 150 and 300 mg were significantly higher than in PsA patients takingADA. No statistically significant differences were observed in ACR70 response rates. The ratio of ACR20 and ACR50 indicators was similar after 48 weeks of treatment initiation. Assessment of the dynamics of psoriasis yielded similar results.Conclusion. Patients with active PsA demonstrated the advantage of therapy with SCM 150 and 300 mg over that withADA. There was a greater improvement in

  12. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

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    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  13. Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir Versus Sofosbuvir and Ribavirin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Coinfected with HIV: A Matching-adjusted Indirect Comparison.

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    Swallow, Elyse; Song, Jinlin; Yuan, Yong; Kalsekar, Anupama; Kelley, Caroline; Peeples, Miranda; Mu, Fan; Ackerman, Peter; Signorovitch, James

    2016-02-01

    Our aim was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir (DCV+SOF) versus SOF plus ribavirin (SOF+R) in patients coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). A systematic literature review of Phase III clinical trials identified 2 trials of SOF+R-PHOTON-1 (A Phase 3, Open-Label Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of GS-7977 Plus Ribavirin in Chronic Genotype 1, 2 and 3 Hepatitis C Virus [HCV] and Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV] Co-Infected Subjects) and PHOTON-2 (A Phase 3, Open-Label Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Sofosbuvir Plus Ribavirin in Chronic Genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 Hepatitis C Virus [HCV] and Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV] Co-Infected Subjects) suitable for comparison with the trial of DCV+SOF in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV-ALLY-2 (A Phase 3 Evaluation of Daclatasvir Plus Sofosbuvir in Treatment-naïve and Treatment-experienced Chronic Hepatitis C [Genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6] Subjects Coinfected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV]). Individual patient data from ALLY-2 were available; published summary data were extracted and pooled for the PHOTON trials. To adjust for cross-trial differences, ALLY-2 patients were subject to the inclusion and exclusion criteria reported in the PHOTON trials and were weighted to match all available summary baseline characteristics reported in both PHOTON trials. Sustained virologic response at week 12 post-treatment (SVR12) discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs) and rates of AEs were compared. The SVR12 rate was significantly higher among patients treated with DCV+SOF (n = 91) than among those treated with SOF+R (n = 455) both before (96.7% vs 84.6%; P = 0.002) and after (99.9% vs 84.6%; P < 0.001) adjusting for baseline characteristics. After adjustment, compared with patients treated with SOF+R, patients receiving DCV+SOF had a significantly lower rate of discontinuation due to AEs and significantly lower rates of the following specific AEs

  14. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment System for Inpatient Hospital Capital Costs Basic Methodology for Determining the Federal Rate for... reporting period. (3) The measurement of teaching activity is the ratio of the hospital's full-time.... The indirect teaching adjustment factor equals . (c)-(d) Determination of Transition Period Payment...

  15. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts... compute indirect costs for other contracts performed during the applicable accounting period. ...

  16. Hospital standardized mortality ratio: consequences of adjusting hospital mortality with indirect standardization.

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    Maurice E Pouw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hospital standardized mortality ratio (HSMR is developed to evaluate and improve hospital quality. Different methods can be used to standardize the hospital mortality ratio. Our aim was to assess the validity and applicability of directly and indirectly standardized hospital mortality ratios. METHODS: Retrospective scenario analysis using routinely collected hospital data to compare deaths predicted by the indirectly standardized case-mix adjustment method with observed deaths. Discharges from Dutch hospitals in the period 2003-2009 were used to estimate the underlying prediction models. We analysed variation in indirectly standardized hospital mortality ratios (HSMRs when changing the case-mix distributions using different scenarios. Sixty-one Dutch hospitals were included in our scenario analysis. RESULTS: A numerical example showed that when interaction between hospital and case-mix is present and case-mix differs between hospitals, indirectly standardized HSMRs vary between hospitals providing the same quality of care. In empirical data analysis, the differences between directly and indirectly standardized HSMRs for individual hospitals were limited. CONCLUSION: Direct standardization is not affected by the presence of interaction between hospital and case-mix and is therefore theoretically preferable over indirect standardization. Since direct standardization is practically impossible when multiple predictors are included in the case-mix adjustment model, indirect standardization is the only available method to compute the HSMR. Before interpreting such indirectly standardized HSMRs the case-mix distributions of individual hospitals and the presence of interactions between hospital and case-mix should be assessed.

  17. Assessment and indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking in cohort studies using relative hazards models.

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    Richardson, David B; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cole, Stephen R

    2014-11-01

    Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950-2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950-2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer--a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Direct and Indirect Links between Peer Factors and Adolescent Adjustment Difficulties

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    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Cui, Lixian; Bosler, Cara D.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the role of emotion regulation in the link between peer factors and adolescent adjustment difficulties. The sample consisted of 206 adolescents (ages 10–18 years) and parents. Peer factors (i.e., peer antisocial behavior, peer co-rumination, peer emotion regulation) and youth depressive symptoms were based on youth reports. Youth emotion regulation and antisocial behavior were assessed using parent and youth ratings. Results showed that peer antisocial behavior was directly (but not indirectly) related to youth antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms, whereas peer emotion regulation was indirectly (but not directly) related to both adolescent outcomes. In addition, peer co-rumination was indirectly related to youth antisocial behavior and directly and indirectly related to youth depressive symptoms. In general, the results indicated little evidence of moderation by adolescent age, sex, or ethnic differences. Implications for peer relationships as socialization contexts are discussed. PMID:26893530

  19. Siblings’ Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model

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    Loeser, Meghan K.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth's perception of parents’ differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (−1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment. PMID:27867295

  20. Siblings' Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Youth's perception of parents' differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (-1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment.

  1. A scoping review of indirect comparison methods and applications using individual patient data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areti Angeliki Veroniki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several indirect comparison methods, including network meta-analyses (NMAs, using individual patient data (IPD have been developed to synthesize evidence from a network of trials. Although IPD indirect comparisons are published with increasing frequency in health care literature, there is no guidance on selecting the appropriate methodology and on reporting the methods and results. Methods In this paper we examine the methods and reporting of indirect comparison methods using IPD. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL from inception until October 2014. We included published and unpublished studies reporting a method, application, or review of indirect comparisons using IPD and at least three interventions. Results We identified 37 papers, including a total of 33 empirical networks. Of these, only 9 (27 % IPD-NMAs reported the existence of a study protocol, whereas 3 (9 % studies mentioned that protocols existed without providing a reference. The 33 empirical networks included 24 (73 % IPD-NMAs and 9 (27 % matching adjusted indirect comparisons (MAICs. Of the 21 (64 % networks with at least one closed loop, 19 (90 % were IPD-NMAs, 13 (68 % of which evaluated the prerequisite consistency assumption, and only 5 (38 % of the 13 IPD-NMAs used statistical approaches. The median number of trials included per network was 10 (IQR 4–19 (IPD-NMA: 15 [IQR 8–20]; MAIC: 2 [IQR 3–5], and the median number of IPD trials included in a network was 3 (IQR 1–9 (IPD-NMA: 6 [IQR 2–11]; MAIC: 2 [IQR 1–2]. Half of the networks (17; 52 % applied Bayesian hierarchical models (14 one-stage, 1 two-stage, 1 used IPD as an informative prior, 1 unclear-stage, including either IPD alone or with aggregated data (AD. Models for dichotomous and continuous outcomes were available (IPD alone or combined with AD, as were models for time-to-event data (IPD combined with AD. Conclusions One in three indirect comparison

  2. Incorporating indirect costs into a cost-benefit analysis of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Allaire, Benjamin T; Dibonaventura, Marco Dacosta; Burgess, Somali M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the time to breakeven and 5-year net costs of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) taking both direct and indirect costs and cost savings into account. Estimates of direct cost savings from LAGB were available from the literature. Although longitudinal data on indirect cost savings were not available, these estimates were generated by quantifying the relationship between medical expenditures and absenteeism and between medical expenditures and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity) and combining these elasticity estimates with estimates of the direct cost savings to generate total savings. These savings were then combined with the direct and indirect costs of the procedure to quantify net savings. By including indirect costs, the time to breakeven was reduced by half a year, from 16 to 14 quarters. After 5 years, net savings in medical expenditures from a gastric banding procedure were estimated to be $4970 (±$3090). Including absenteeism increased savings to $6180 (±$3550). Savings were further increased to $10,960 (±$5864) when both absenteeism and presenteeism estimates were included. This study presented a novel approach for including absenteeism and presenteeism estimates in cost-benefit analyses. Application of the approach to gastric banding among surgery-eligible obese employees revealed that the inclusion of indirect costs and cost savings improves the business case for the procedure. This approach can easily be extended to other populations and treatments. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Family boundary structures and child adjustment: the indirect role of emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Kristin M; Bregman, Hallie R; Malik, Neena M

    2012-12-01

    Structural and system theories propose that disruptions in family subsystem functioning increase risk for youth maladjustment. While there is growing evidence to support this proposition, studies that specifically focus on the larger family system remain relatively rare. Furthermore, the pathways that connect problems in family subsystem alliances to externalizing or internalizing problems in youth are as yet largely unexplored. This study examined youth emotional reactivity (anger and sadness) to family conflict as an indirect pathway of the association between family boundary disturbances and youth adjustment in a sample of two-parent families (N = 270). Observational coding was used to group families into Balanced, Dyadic, or Disengaged family alliance structures and to assess youth emotional reactivity, and parent-report was used to assess youth psychopathology. Structural equation modeling indicated both anger and sadness served as indirect pathways through which family boundary disturbances are linked with youth adjustment. In addition, gender was tested as a moderator and important gender differences were found. Specifically, boys were directly impacted by dyadic disturbances while girls were directly impacted by family disengagement. The findings help target goals for intervention and indicate that worthwhile objectives may include realigning family subsystem boundaries, changing family communication patterns, and improving affective coping skills for youth. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Direct and indirect costs and potential cost savings of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding among obese patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Allaire, Benjamin T; DiBonaventura, Marco DaCosta; Burgess, Somali M

    2011-09-01

    To estimate the time to breakeven and 5-year net costs for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding among obese patients with diabetes taking direct and indirect costs into account. Indirect cost savings were generated by quantifying the cross-sectional relationship between medical expenditures and absenteeism and between medical expenditures and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity) and simulating indirect cost savings based on these multipliers and reductions in direct medical costs available in the literature. Time to breakeven was estimated to be nine quarters with and without the inclusion of indirect costs. After 5 years, net savings increase from $26570 (±$9000) to $34160 (±$10 380) when indirect costs are included. This study presented a novel approach for incorporating indirect costs into cost-benefit analyses. Application to gastric banding revealed that inclusion of indirect costs improves the financial outlook for the procedure. (C)2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  5. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero

    2003-01-01

    test through: (I) Levene's for homogeneity of variances; (II) ANOVA on ranks (Kruskal-Wallis); (III) Dunn's multiple comparison test (0.05). Targis presented the highest microhardness values while Sinfony presented the lowest. Artglass and Solidex were found as intermediate materials. These results......The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10...

  6. [Development of an Excel spreadsheet for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobías, Aurelio; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Roqué, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses in clinical research usually aimed to evaluate treatment efficacy and safety in direct comparison with a unique comparator. Indirect comparisons, using the Bucher's method, can summarize primary data when information from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent. Mixed comparisons allow combining estimates from direct and indirect comparisons, increasing statistical power. There is a need for simple applications for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed comparisons. These can easily be conducted using a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. We developed a spreadsheet for indirect and mixed effects comparisons of friendly use for clinical researchers interested in systematic reviews, but non-familiarized with the use of more advanced statistical packages. The use of the proposed Excel spreadsheet for indirect and mixed comparisons can be of great use in clinical epidemiology to extend the knowledge provided by traditional meta-analysis when evidence from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent.

  7. Conducting Indirect-Treatment-Comparison and Network-Meta-Analysis Studies : Report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoaglin, David C.; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Scott, David A.; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C.; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M.; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for

  8. THE POSSIBILITIES AND RESULTS OF INDIRECT COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes two matching-adjusted indirect comparison-based investigations of the efficacy of adalimumab (ADA and secukinumab (SCM in active ankylosing spondylitis, which have been recently reported at the EULAR Congress (London, 2016. One study sponsored by AbbVie was conducted to determine the short-term (16-week comparative clinical and economic efficacy of the test drugs and the other was supported by Novartis to reveal long-term (52-week, only clinical efficacy. Both studies have shown that the short-term efficacy ofADAand SCM is practically similar; however, the latter has a better long-term clinical efficacy. A pharmacoeconomic analysis of both drugs used during the first 12 weeks has demonstrated some advantage ofADA. 

  9. Practice-based comparison of direct and indirect bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahl, S Thomas; Salome, Norman; Hatch, John P; Rugh, John D

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare bond-failure prevalences, numbers of appointments, and treatment times between direct and indirect bracket bonding for patients treated in private orthodontic practices. A convenience sample was collected from 11 orthodontic offices; 5 orthodontists (772 patients) used a direct bonding technique, and 6 (596 patients) used an indirect technique. Altogether, they examined 29,963 brackets in 1,368 patients. Bond failures were recorded by tooth number and by patient during 10 consecutive practice days. In addition, the orthodontists reported the treatment time and number of visits for each of their 10 most recently completed comprehensive patients. The per-patient debond prevalences were 1.17% +/- 3.62% for direct bonding and 1.21% +/- 3.81% for indirect bonding (P = .225). Direct-bonded patients required a mean (+/- SD) treatment time of 750 +/- 220 days and 22.0 +/- 7.3 visits; indirect bonding required a mean treatment time of 745 +/- 256 days and 22.2 +/- 7.3 visits (P = .691 and P = .653, respectively). This practice-based study showed no difference in the failure rates between direct and indirect bonding. Furthermore, total treatment times and numbers of appointments did not differ between the 2 techniques.

  10. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10) as foll......The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10...

  11. Impact of Father Involvement: A Closer Look at Indirect Effects Models Involving Marriage and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…

  12. A comparison of direct and indirect analytical methods of computing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first step in the analysis of gravity anomalies for mineral exploration is the extraction of residual gravity anomalies from the observed gravity anomalies. This can be achieved by graphical or analytical methods. Generally, direct and indirect analytical methods are considered better than graphical methods. Telford et al ...

  13. Indirect Treatment Comparison of Talimogene Laherparepvec Compared with Ipilimumab and Vemurafenib for the Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Casey; Ma, Qiufei; Kudlac, Amber; Palmer, Stephen; Barber, Beth; Zhao, Zhongyun

    2016-04-01

    Few randomized controlled trials have compared new treatments for metastatic melanoma. We sought to examine the relative treatment effect of talimogene laherparepvec compared with ipilimumab and vemurafenib. A systematic literature review of treatments for metastatic melanoma was undertaken but a valid network of evidence could not be established because of a lack of comparative data or studies with sufficient common comparators. A conventional adjusted indirect treatment comparison via network meta-analysis was, therefore, not feasible. Instead, a meta-analysis of absolute efficacy was undertaken, adjusting overall survival (OS) data for differences in prognostic factors between studies using a published algorithm. Four trials were included in the final indirect treatment comparison: two of ipilimumab, one of vemurafenib, and one of talimogene laherparepvec. Median OS for ipilimumab and vemurafenib increased significantly when adjustment was applied, demonstrating that variation in disease and patient characteristics was biasing OS estimates; adjusting for this made the survival data more comparable. For both ipilimumab and vemurafenib, the adjustments improved Kaplan-Meier OS curves; the observed talimogene laherparepvec OS curve remained above the adjusted OS curves for ipilimumab and vemurafenib, showing that long-term survival could differ from the observed medians. Even with limited data, talimogene laherparepvec, ipilimumab, and vemurafenib could be compared following adjustments, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of the relative effect of treatment on survival in a more comparable patient population. The results of this analysis suggest that OS with talimogene laherparepvec is at least as good as with ipilimumab and vemurafenib and improvement was more pronounced in patients with no bone, brain, lung or other visceral metastases. Amgen Inc.

  14. Indirect Effects of Extracurricular Participation on Academic Adjustment Via Perceived Friends' Prosocial Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2016-11-01

    Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school. However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Guided by the bioecological models of development, this study tested the indirect effects of participation in grade 8 in school sports or performance arts and clubs on grade 9 academic achievement, academic competence beliefs, and school belonging, via adolescents' perceptions of their friends' prosocial norms. Participants were 495 (45 % female) ethnically diverse students (mean age at grade 8 = 13.9 years; SD = .58) who were recruited into a longitudinal study on the basis of below average literacy in grade 1. Using weighted propensity score analyses to control for potential confounders, results of longitudinal SEM found indirect effect of participation in sports, but not of participation in performance arts and clubs, on grade 9 outcomes noted above. Implications of findings for improving educational attainment of at-risk youth are discussed.

  15. Indirect Effects of Extracurricular Participation on Academic Adjustment via Perceived Friends’ Prosocial Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man

    2016-01-01

    Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school. However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Guided by the bioecological models of development, this study tested the indirect effects of participation in grade 8 in school sports or performance arts and clubs on grade 9 academic achievement, academic competence beliefs, and school belonging, via adolescents’ perceptions of their friends’ prosocial norms. Participants were 495 (45% female) ethnically diverse students (mean age at grade 8 = 13.9 years; SD =.58) who were recruited into a longitudinal study on the basis of below average literacy in grade 1. Using weighted propensity score analyses to control for potential confounders, results of longitudinal SEM found indirect effect of participation in sports, but not of participation in performance arts and clubs, on grade 9 outcomes noted above. Implications of findings for improving educational attainment of at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:27299761

  16. Indirect versus direct bonding--a shear bond strength comparison: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetha, M; Pai, Vinaya S; Sanjay, N; Nandini, S

    2011-07-01

    The process of bonding orthodontic appliances to the enamel surface of the teeth has come to the forefront as a major improvement in bonding techniques. The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded using conventional direct bonding and indirect bonding as described by Thomas. Forty sound human premolars were divided into two groups of 20 each. Group I samples were bonded directly on the tooth surface using concise two paste adhesive system after etching and drying. Group II samples were bonded indirectly on the tooth surface according to Thomas indirect bonding technique using concise two paste adhesive system. The stored specimen was tested for shear bond strength in an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the shear bond strength between direct and indirect bonding techniques. Chi-square test showed that there were significant differences among the adhesive remnant index scores between direct and indirect bonding groups. In vitro shear bond strength comparison between direct and indirect-bonded attachments showed no significant difference between the two groups. Bond strength obtained with Thomas indirect bonding technique was comparable with direct bonding technique. Thomas indirect bonding technique can be used for bonding of the posterior teeth, where the risk of moisture contamination is high during bonding.

  17. Quantifying the indirect impacts of climate on agriculture: an inter-method comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Kate; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Climate change and increases in CO2 concentration affect the productivity of land, with implications for land use, land cover, and agricultural production. Much of the literature on the effect of climate on agriculture has focused on linking projections of changes in climate to process-based or statistical crop models. However, the changes in productivity have broader economic implications that cannot be quantified in crop models alone. How important are these socio-economic feedbacks to a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agriculture? In this paper, we attempt to measure the importance of these interaction effects through an inter-method comparison between process models, statistical models, and integrated assessment model (IAMs). We find the impacts on crop yields vary widely between these three modeling approaches. Yield impacts generated by the IAMs are 20%–40% higher than the yield impacts generated by process-based or statistical crop models, with indirect climate effects adjusting yields by between ‑12% and +15% (e.g. input substitution and crop switching). The remaining effects are due to technological change.

  18. Quantifying the indirect impacts of climate on agriculture: an inter-method comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2017-10-27

    Climate change and increases in CO2 concentration affect the productivity of land, with implications for land use, land cover, and agricultural production. Much of the literature on the effect of climate on agriculture has focused on linking projections of changes in climate to process-based or statistical crop models. However, the changes in productivity have broader economic implications that cannot be quantified in crop models alone. How important are these socio-economic feedbacks to a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agriculture? In this paper, we attempt to measure the importance of these interaction effects through an inter-method comparison between process models, statistical models, and integrated assessment model (IAMs). We find the impacts on crop yields vary widely between these three modeling approaches. Yield impacts generated by the IAMs are 20%-40% higher than the yield impacts generated by process-based or statistical crop models, with indirect climate effects adjusting yields by between - 12% and + 15% (e.g. input substitution and crop switching). The remaining effects are due to technological change.

  19. Comparative assessment of onabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron for overactive bladder: an indirect treatment comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemantle, Nick; Ginsberg, David A; McCool, Rachael; Fleetwood, Kelly; Arber, Mick; Khalaf, Kristin; Loveman, Clara; Ni, Quanhong; Glanville, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Context OnabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron have recently gained marketing authorisation to treat symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Objective To evaluate the relative efficacy of mirabegron and onabotulinumtoxinA in patients with idiopathic OAB. Design Network meta-analysis. Data sources A search of 9 electronic databases, review documents, guidelines and websites. Methods Randomised trials comparing any licensed dose of onabotulinumtoxinA or mirabegron with each other, anticholinergic drugs or placebo were eligible (19 randomised trials were identified). 1 reviewer extracted data from the studies and a second reviewer checked the data. Candidate trials were assessed for similarity and networks were developed for each outcome. Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. When there were differences in mean baseline values between mirabegron and onabotulinumtoxinA trials they were adjusted for using network meta-regression (NMR). Results No studies directly comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to mirabegron were identified. A network was created for each of the 7 outcomes, with 3–9 studies included in each individual network. The trials included in the networks were broadly similar. Patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA trials had more urinary incontinence and urgency episodes at baseline than patients in the mirabegron trials and these differences were adjusted for using NMR. Both onabotulinumtoxinA and mirabegron were more efficacious than placebo at reducing the frequency of urinary incontinence, urgency, urination and nocturia. OnabotulinumtoxinA was more efficacious than mirabegron (50 and 25 mg) in completely resolving daily episodes of urinary incontinence and urgency and in reducing the frequency of urinary incontinence, urgency and urination. NMR supported the results of the network meta-analysis. Conclusions In the absence of head-to-head trials comparing onabotulinumtoxinA to mirabegron, this indirect

  20. Indirect comparison for Anti-TNF drugs in moderate to severe ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Galván-Banqueri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the relative efficacy of infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab through adjusted indirect treatment comparisons (ITCs. Methods: An exhaustive search was performed until October 2013. Databases consulted were MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the Web of Science. Randomized control trials (RCTs comparing the efficacy of infliximab, adalimumab or golimumab versus placebo, in terms of clinical remission, clinical response and mucosal healing, were included. In the case that more than one RCT fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the same drug, a metanalysis was undertaken using a fixed effects model. ITCs were carried out using the method proposed by Bucher et al. Results: 6 RCTs published in 5 papers were included: 2 for infliximab (ACT 1 and ACT 2, 2 for adalimumab (ULTRA 1 y ULTRA 2 and 2 for golimumab (PURSUIT-SC y PURSUIT-M.In these RTCs, each biological agent was superior in efficacy to placebo. The results of the adjusted ITC are the following. In relation to the clinical remission, in the induction and maintenance period, there are no statistically significant differences between the three anti-TNF drugs. In relation to the clinical response and mucosal healing, in the induction period, there are statistically significant differences between infliximab and adalimumab. Conclusion: In view of the results obtained, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab appear to be similarly effective therapeutic alternatives. Therefore, other considerations such as safety, tolerance and cost-effectiveness should be taken into account in order to select the most appropriate treatment

  1. Adjustment and testing comparison of absolute gravimeters in November 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pešková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a comparison measurement processing of absolute gravimeters in 2013. The comparison deals with a number of various types of absolute gravimeters and includes also an absolute gravimeter from Geodetic observatory Pecný. Comparative measurements are performed to detect systematic errors of gravimeters. A result of processing is most likely value of a gravity and a systematic error of individual devices. Measured values are input to a adjustment with condition a sum of systematic errors is zero. A part of this process is also verification following output: (i value of a posteriori standard deviation, (ii size of corrections and (iii statistical significance of systematic errors. The results of adjustment are 15 gravity values on the reference places and 25 systematic errors of measuring instruments. Result shows that the presence of systematic errors in measurements is not statistically provable because the systematic errors are similarly sized as their standard deviation.

  2. Efficacy of anti-leishmania therapy in visceral leishmaniasis among HIV infected patients: a systematic review with indirect comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia F Cota

    Full Text Available We conducted a systematic literature review with indirect comparison of studies evaluating therapeutic efficacy and toxicity associated to visceral leishmaniasis (VL therapy among HIV infected individuals.The outcomes of interest were clinical and parasitological cure, mortality, and adverse events.PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and Cochrane manual were followed. Sources were MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge databases and manual search of references from evaluated studies. We included all studies reporting outcomes after VL treatment, regardless of their design. Study quality was evaluated systematically by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software v.2.2.048 was used to perform one-group meta-analysis of study arms with the same drug to estimate global rates of success and adverse events with each drug. These estimates were used, when possible, to indirectly compare treatment options, adjusted for CD4 count. Direct comparison was pooled when available.Seventeen studies reporting five treatment regimens and outcome of 920 VL episodes occurring in HIV infected individuals were included. The main outstanding difference in outcome among the treatment regimens was observed in mortality rate: it was around 3 times higher with high-dose antimony use (18.4%, CI 95% 13.3-25%, indirectly compared to lipid formulations of amphotericin B treatment (6.1%, CI 95% 3.9-9.4%. It was observed, also by indirect comparison, higher rates of clinical improvement in study arms using amphotericin B than in study arms using pentavalent antimonial therapy (Sb(v. The parasitological cure, an outcome that presented some degree of risk of selection and verification bias, had rates that varied widely within the same treatment arm, with high heterogeneity, hampering any formal comparison among drugs. One direct comparison of amphotericin and antimoniate was

  3. A common reference-based indirect comparison meta-analysis of eslicarbazepine versus lacosamide as add on treatments for focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Milan, Alberto; Grillo, Elisabetta

    2016-11-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) and lacosamide (LCM) have recently emerged as add-on treatments in patients with focal epilepsy experiencing seizures despite adequate monotherapy. Both drugs enhance slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. To date no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has directly compared ESL with LCM as add-on treatments for focal epilepsy. Our aim was to indirectly compare the efficacy of ESL and LCM used as add-on treatments in patients with focal epilepsy using common reference-based indirect comparison meta-analysis. We systematically searched RCTs in which ESL or LCM has been used as add-on treatment in patients with focal epilepsy and compared with placebo. Following outcomes were considered: ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency; seizure freedom; treatment withdrawal for any reason; ≥25% increase in seizure frequency. Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel meta-analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the efficacy of ESL or LCM versus placebo. Adjusted indirect comparisons were then made between ESL and LCM using the obtained results, and comparing the minimum and the highest effective recommended daily dose of each drug. Eight studies were included. Indirect comparisons adjusted for dose-effect showed no difference between ESL and LCM for responder rate, seizure freedom, and withdrawal rates. We could not assess increase in seizure frequency due to lack of data. Indirect comparisons failed to find a significant difference in efficacy between add-on ESL and LCM in patients with focal epilepsy. Direct head-to-head clinical trials comparing ESL with LCM as add-on antiepileptic treatment are required to confirm these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M; Colombo, Gualtiero B; Allen, Stuart M; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-08-12

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions.

  5. Indirect comparison of randomised controlled trials: comparative efficacy of dexlansoprazole vs. esomeprazole in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M S; Tan, S C; Xiong, T

    2013-07-01

    Dexlansoprazole is a new proton pump inhibitor (PPI) with a dual delayed-release system. Both dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole are an enantiomer of lansoprazole and omeprazole respectively. However, there is no head-to-head trial data or indirect comparison analyses between dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole. To compare the efficacy of dexlansoprazole with esomeprazole in healing erosive oesophagitis (EO), the maintenance of healed EO and the treatment of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing dexlansoprazole or esomeprazole with either placebo or another PPI were systematically reviewed. Random-effect meta-analyses and adjusted indirect comparisons were conducted to compare the treatment effect of dexlansoprazole and esomeprazole using a common comparator. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The indirect comparisons revealed significant differences in symptom control of heartburn in patients with NERD at 4 weeks. Dexlansoprazole 30 mg was more effective than esomeprazole 20 mg or 40 mg (RR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.15-3.51; RR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.39-3.38). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two drugs in EO healing and maintenance of healed EO. Comparison of symptom control in healed EO was not able to be made due to different definitions used in the RCTs. Adjusted indirect comparisons based on currently available RCT data suggested significantly better treatment effect in symptom control of heartburn in patients with NERD for dexlansoprazole against esomeprazole. No statistically significant differences were found in other EO outcomes. However, these study findings need to be interpreted with caution due to small number of studies and other limitations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Duloxetine compared with fluoxetine and venlafaxine: use of meta-regression analysis for indirect comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lançon Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparing duloxetine with existing antidepressant treatments is limited. A comparison of duloxetine with fluoxetine has been performed but no comparison with venlafaxine, the other antidepressant in the same therapeutic class with a significant market share, has been undertaken. In the absence of relevant data to assess the place that duloxetine should occupy in the therapeutic arsenal, indirect comparisons are the most rigorous way to go. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of duloxetine, fluoxetine and venlafaxine versus placebo in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, and performed indirect comparisons through meta-regressions. Methods The bibliography of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and the CENTRAL, Medline, and Embase databases were interrogated using advanced search strategies based on a combination of text and index terms. The search focused on randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials involving adult patients treated for acute phase Major Depressive Disorder. All outcomes were derived to take account for varying placebo responses throughout studies. Primary outcome was treatment efficacy as measured by Hedge's g effect size. Secondary outcomes were response and dropout rates as measured by log odds ratios. Meta-regressions were run to indirectly compare the drugs. Sensitivity analysis, assessing the influence of individual studies over the results, and the influence of patients' characteristics were run. Results 22 studies involving fluoxetine, 9 involving duloxetine and 8 involving venlafaxine were selected. Using indirect comparison methodology, estimated effect sizes for efficacy compared with duloxetine were 0.11 [-0.14;0.36] for fluoxetine and 0.22 [0.06;0.38] for venlafaxine. Response log odds ratios were -0.21 [-0.44;0.03], 0.70 [0.26;1.14]. Dropout log odds ratios were -0.02 [-0.33;0.29], 0.21 [-0.13;0.55]. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were

  7. A comparison of direct and indirect methods for the estimation of health utilities from clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Alava, Mónica; Wailoo, Allan; Wolfe, Fred; Michaud, Kaleb

    2014-10-01

    Analysts frequently estimate health state utility values from other outcomes. Utility values like EQ-5D have characteristics that make standard statistical methods inappropriate. We have developed a bespoke, mixture model approach to directly estimate EQ-5D. An indirect method, "response mapping," first estimates the level on each of the 5 dimensions of the EQ-5D and then calculates the expected tariff score. These methods have never previously been compared. We use a large observational database from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (N = 100,398). Direct estimation of UK EQ-5D scores as a function of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), pain, and age was performed with a limited dependent variable mixture model. Indirect modeling was undertaken with a set of generalized ordered probit models with expected tariff scores calculated mathematically. Linear regression was reported for comparison purposes. Impact on cost-effectiveness was demonstrated with an existing model. The linear model fits poorly, particularly at the extremes of the distribution. The bespoke mixture model and the indirect approaches improve fit over the entire range of EQ-5D. Mean average error is 10% and 5% lower compared with the linear model, respectively. Root mean squared error is 3% and 2% lower. The mixture model demonstrates superior performance to the indirect method across almost the entire range of pain and HAQ. These lead to differences in cost-effectiveness of up to 20%. There are limited data from patients in the most severe HAQ health states. Modeling of EQ-5D from clinical measures is best performed directly using the bespoke mixture model. This substantially outperforms the indirect method in this example. Linear models are inappropriate, suffer from systematic bias, and generate values outside the feasible range. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Indirect Comparison of Two Quantitative Immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Tests in a Population with Average Colorectal Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guittet, L; Bailly, L; Bouvier, V; Launoy, G

    2011-01-01

    ... (expressed in concentration of haemoglobin in the stools) is used. We performed a literature-based indirect comparison between these tests, taking into account the cut-off, the number of samples, and the way they were combined (I2...

  9. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

  10. Simulation evaluation of statistical properties of methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Fujian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect treatment comparison (ITC and mixed treatment comparisons (MTC have been increasingly used in network meta-analyses. This simulation study comprehensively investigated statistical properties and performances of commonly used ITC and MTC methods, including simple ITC (the Bucher method, frequentist and Bayesian MTC methods. Methods A simple network of three sets of two-arm trials with a closed loop was simulated. Different simulation scenarios were based on different number of trials, assumed treatment effects, extent of heterogeneity, bias and inconsistency. The performance of the ITC and MTC methods was measured by the type I error, statistical power, observed bias and mean squared error (MSE. Results When there are no biases in primary studies, all ITC and MTC methods investigated are on average unbiased. Depending on the extent and direction of biases in different sets of studies, ITC and MTC methods may be more or less biased than direct treatment comparisons (DTC. Of the methods investigated, the simple ITC method has the largest mean squared error (MSE. The DTC is superior to the ITC in terms of statistical power and MSE. Under the simulated circumstances in which there are no systematic biases and inconsistencies, the performances of MTC methods are generally better than the performance of the corresponding DTC methods. For inconsistency detection in network meta-analysis, the methods evaluated are on average unbiased. The statistical power of commonly used methods for detecting inconsistency is very low. Conclusions The available methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons have different advantages and limitations, depending on whether data analysed satisfies underlying assumptions. To choose the most valid statistical methods for research synthesis, an appropriate assessment of primary studies included in evidence network is required.

  11. Simulation evaluation of statistical properties of methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fujian; Clark, Allan; Bachmann, Max O; Maas, Jim

    2012-09-12

    Indirect treatment comparison (ITC) and mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) have been increasingly used in network meta-analyses. This simulation study comprehensively investigated statistical properties and performances of commonly used ITC and MTC methods, including simple ITC (the Bucher method), frequentist and Bayesian MTC methods. A simple network of three sets of two-arm trials with a closed loop was simulated. Different simulation scenarios were based on different number of trials, assumed treatment effects, extent of heterogeneity, bias and inconsistency. The performance of the ITC and MTC methods was measured by the type I error, statistical power, observed bias and mean squared error (MSE). When there are no biases in primary studies, all ITC and MTC methods investigated are on average unbiased. Depending on the extent and direction of biases in different sets of studies, ITC and MTC methods may be more or less biased than direct treatment comparisons (DTC). Of the methods investigated, the simple ITC method has the largest mean squared error (MSE). The DTC is superior to the ITC in terms of statistical power and MSE. Under the simulated circumstances in which there are no systematic biases and inconsistencies, the performances of MTC methods are generally better than the performance of the corresponding DTC methods. For inconsistency detection in network meta-analysis, the methods evaluated are on average unbiased. The statistical power of commonly used methods for detecting inconsistency is very low. The available methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons have different advantages and limitations, depending on whether data analysed satisfies underlying assumptions. To choose the most valid statistical methods for research synthesis, an appropriate assessment of primary studies included in evidence network is required.

  12. A comparison between direct and indirect methods available for human bite mark analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouble, Roland F; Craig, Geoffrey T

    2004-01-01

    Comparison techniques used in bite mark analysis are many and varied, the choice of technique depending largely on personal preference. Until recently, no one technique has been shown to be better than the others, and very little research has been carried out to compare different methods. This study evaluates and compares the accuracy of direct comparisons between suspects' models and bite marks with indirect comparisons in the form of conventional traced overlays of suspects' models or a new method using photocopier-generated overlays. Artificial bite marks in pigskin were made using standardized sets of models and recorded as photographs and fingerprint powder lifts on tape. The bite mark photographs and fingerprint lifts were coded and randomized so that a blind comparison could be made with the models, traced overlays, and photocopier-generated overlays using a modified version of the American Board of Forensic Odontology Scoring (ABFO) System for Bite Marks. It was found that the photocopier-generated overlays were significantly more accurate at matching the correct bite mark to the correct models irrespective of whether the bite mark was recorded photographically or as a fingerprint lift. The photocopier-generated overlays were also found to be more sensitive at matching the correct bite marks to the correct models than the other two methods used. The modified ABFO scoring system was able to discriminate between a correct match and several incorrect matches by awarding a high score to the correct match.

  13. Relative efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine versus selected antidepressants by indirect comparisons of similar clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Lançon, Christophe; Brignone, Mélanie; Rive, Benoît; Salah, Samir; Ereshefsky, Larry; Francois, Clément

    2014-12-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multimodal activity which has shown efficacy in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in six of ten short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled trials (completed end 2012). We performed meta-regression analyses to indirectly compare vortioxetine to seven marketed antidepressants with different mechanisms of action. To ensure study comparability, only experimental drug and placebo arms from placebo-controlled registration studies were included in primary analyses. The main outcomes were efficacy (standardized mean difference in change from baseline to 2 months on primary endpoint [MADRS/HAM-D]), and tolerability (withdrawal rate due to adverse events). For efficacy, estimates of treatment effect (negative estimates favor vortioxetine) for vortioxetine versus comparators were: agomelatine, -0.16 (p = 0.11); desvenlafaxine, 0.03 (p = 0.80); duloxetine, 0.09 (p = 0.42); escitalopram, -0.05 (p = 0.70); sertraline, -0.04 (p = 0.83); venlafaxine IR/XR, 0.12 (p = 0.33); and vilazodone, -0.25 (p = 0.11). For tolerability, all but one combination was numerically in favor of vortioxetine (odds ratio vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to adverse events) versus other antidepressants in registration studies in MDD. Alternative methods like mixed-treatment comparison and inclusion of all randomized studies and active reference arms may provide complementary information to this analysis (more evidence but also more heterogeneity). Key messages: Indirect comparisons based on registration studies allow a useful comparison between a recently approved antidepressant and an approved drug. Vortioxetine offers a comparable or favorable combination of efficacy (measured by MADRS/HAM-D assessments) and tolerability (measured by withdrawal rate due to adverse events) versus other antidepressants in registration studies in MDD.

  14. COMPARISON OF ADJUSTABLE HIGH-PHASE ORDER INDUCTION MOTORS’ MERITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of mathematical models of adjustable electrical drives with high-phase order induction motors for their merits analysis at static and dynamical modes. Methodology. At the mathematical modeling main kinds of physical processes taking place in the high-phase order induction motors are considered: electromagnetic, electromechanical, energetic, thermal, mechanical, vibroacoustic ones. Besides, functional as well as mass, frame and value indicators of frequency converters are taking into account which permits to consider technical and economical aspects of the adjustable induction electrical drives. Creation of high-phase order induction motors’ modifications in possible on the base of a stock 3-phase motors of basic design. Polyphase supply of induction motors is guaranteed by a number of the adjustable electrical drives’ power circuits. Results. Modelling of a number of adjustable electrical drives with induction motors of different phase number working on the same load by its character, value and required adjustment range is carried out. At the utilization of the family of characteristics including mechanical ones at different adjustment parameters on which loading mechanism’s characteristics are superimposed regulation curves representing dependences of electrical, energetic, thermal, mechanical, vibroacoustic quantities on the motors’ number of revolutions are obtained. Originality. The proposed complex models of adjustable electrical drives with high-phase order induction motors give a possibility to carry out the grounded choice of the drive’s acceptable variant. Besides, they can be used as design models at the development of adjustable high-phase order induction motors. Practical value. The investigated change of vibroacoustic indicators at static and dynamical modes has been determined decrease of these indicators in the drives with number of phase exceeding 3.

  15. Comparisons of Wind Field Effects on Radar Rainfall Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Han, D.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Weather radar-based rainfall estimates are prone to many sources of uncertainties due to its complicated measurement procedure and intricate synoptic regimes. Rain gauge measurement as the "ground-truth" is widely implemented in radar data adjustments, which is crucial and essential to reduce their systematic bias in hydrological applications, especially for radar bias corrections in spatial matching of precipitation patterns with rain gauge. The conventional practice is to build radar-gauge pairs on the basis of their vertical projection on the ground, which assumes the rainfall observed by radar falls vertically to the ground and should be in accordance with the surface rainfall directly below each radar pixel. Since wind is a typical weather factor, which not only incurs measurement error of rain gauge, but also induces the raindrops observed by radar drifting to the ground, consequently, it could contribute inconsistent spatial relationship between radar and gauge measurements. As a result, this study explores the trajectory of raindrops in the air based on the previous study which incorporates the wind field effect into a bias correlation scheme using downscaled 3-D wind data from weather research and forecasting model (WRF). The new prompted adjustment method is to simulate the raindrop trajectory by implementing the 3-D wind field created by WRF directly. The displacement of rainfall is estimated and radar-gauge spatial relationships are reconstructed and compared. Based on these, this study attempts to compare and evaluate two different adjustment methods on radar data with and without consideration of the wind-drift effect in different rainfall events and locations. The proposed adjustment method is expected to be a promising improvement to minimize wind-drift effect.

  16. Risk adjustment for inter-hospital comparison of caesarean delivery rates in low-risk deliveries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stivanello, Elisa; Rucci, Paola; Carretta, Elisa; Pieri, Giulia; Seghieri, Chiara; Nuti, Sabina; Declercq, Eugene; Taglioni, Martina; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2011-01-01

    .... The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which risk adjustment for clinical and socio-demographic variables is needed for inter-hospital comparisons of CD rates in women without...

  17. A comparison of the validity of two indirect utility instruments as measures of postoperative recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lawrence; Mata, Juan; Augustin, Berson R; Carli, Franco; Morin, Nancy; Latimer, Eric; Feldman, Liane S

    2014-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses of surgical interventions require valid measures of postoperative recovery. The objective of this study was to compare the validity of two indirect utility instruments, the Short Form 6D (SF-6D) and EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), as measures of postoperative recovery. A prospective cohort of patients undergoing elective colorectal resection at two university-affiliated institutions from October 2012-October 2013 completed the SF-6D and EQ-5D (including the EQ-visual analog scale [EQ-VAS]) at baseline (before surgery), and at 4 and 8 wk after surgery. Responsiveness and construct validity were assessed through a priori hypotheses. A total of 165 patients were included. The SF-6D was the most responsive to the expected postoperative changes at 4 and 8 wk compared with the EQ-5D and the EQ-VAS. The 4-wk SF-6D, EQ-5D, and EQ-VAS discriminated between patients with and without complications after controlling for confounders with adjusted mean differences of -0.070 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.126 to -0.015), -0.133 (95% CI -0.231, -0.030), and -7.91 (95% CI -14.77, -1.04), respectively. Mean SF-6D and EQ-5D values were significantly different from the US population norms at all time points, but the magnitude of change was highest for the SF-6D. The strength of correlation between all three instruments was moderate at all time points (r=0.550-0.684, all Pvalid measure of postoperative recovery than the EQ-5D and EQ-VAS in surgical cost-effectiveness analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: a comparison of adjusted mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, S S; Schaubel, D E; Desmeules, M; Morrison, H I; Mao, Y; Copleston, P; Jeffery, J R; Kjellstrand, C M

    1997-09-01

    Although kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment method for patients with ESRD, most patients are placed on dialysis either while awaiting transplantation or as their only therapy. The question of which dialytic method provides the best patient survival remains unresolved. Survival analyses comparing hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis/continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CAPD/CCPD), a newer and less costly dialytic modality, have yielded conflicting results. Using data obtained from the Canadian Organ Replacement Register, we compared mortality rates between hemodialysis and CAPD/CCPD among 11,970 ESRD patients who initiated treatment between 1990 and 1994 and were followed-up for a maximum of 5 years. Factors controlled for include age, primary renal diagnosis, center size, and predialysis comorbid conditions. The mortality rate ratio (RR) for CAPD/CCPD relative to hemodialysis, as estimated by Poisson regression, was 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 0.78). No such relationship was found when an intent-to-treat Cox regression model was fit. Decreased covariable-adjusted mortality for CAPD/CCPD held within all subgroups defined by age and diabetes status, although the RRs increased with age and diabetes prevalence. The increased mortality on hemodialysis compared with CAPD/CCPD was concentrated in the first 2 years of follow-up. Although continuous peritoneal dialysis was associated with significantly lower mortality rates relative to hemodialysis after adjusting for known prognostic factors, the potential impact of unmeasured patient characteristics must be considered. Notwithstanding, we present evidence that CAPD/CCPD, a newer and less costly method of renal replacement therapy, is not associated with increased mortality rates relative to hemodialysis.

  19. Indirect economic effects of new infrastructure : A comparison of Dutch high speed rail variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J.; Romp, W.

    2003-01-01

    New transport infrastructure has a myriad of direct and indirect effects. The indirect effects on population and economic activity are most difficult to estimate. This paper introduces three different models to estimate the impacts of new infrastructure on labour supply and demand, and carefully

  20. Comparison of "Direct" and "Indirect" Nuclear Cystography in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khriesat Imad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females, ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter and indirect techniques of nuclear cystography (NC. Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct technique while only 20 ureters showed VUR on the indirect technique (sensitivity 62%. Nine ureters, which did not show VUR on the direct cystogram, were read as positive on the indirect cystogram (specificity 82%. The false positive results of indirect nuclear cystogram make it invalid for VUR screening program, while the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct NC has made this the recommended test for screening and follow-up of VUR.

  1. Measurement of the optical density of packable composites: comparison between direct and indirect digital systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziottin Luiz Felipe Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the optical density of four packable composite resins with widths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm, by means of Digora® (direct and DentScan DentView® (indirect digital imaging systems, in order to compare both methods. Twenty acrylic plates, with the proposed thicknesses, were used, each one containing a sample of each resin. Each acrylic plate was radiographed three times, under a standardized technique. For the Digora® system, an optical plate was used under each resin sample, and, for the DentScan DentView® system, occlusal films were employed, totalizing 60 exposures for each system. Optical plates and films were scanned and three consecutive optical readouts were carried out, totalizing 1,440 readouts. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and revealed that the average optical density of the four resins always increased as thickness increased. Regarding the comparisons between the composite resins, in both analysis the resin with the greater optical density was SurefilTM followed by ProdigyTM Condensable, AlertTM and Solitaire®. The correlations between the results of Digora® and DentScan DentView® were significant for the different thicknesses and materials. The observed tendency is that as the values obtained with the Digora® system increase, so do the values obtained with DentScan DentView®. While thickness increased, the values of optical density in both Digora® and DentScan DentView® tended to approach each other. The Digora® system presented smaller amplitude between the results obtained in adjacent thicknesses.

  2. Effectiveness comparison of inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia using direct and indirect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehatta Yongki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthesia is important to do prior to tooth extraction procedure to control the patient's pain. Local anesthetic technique in dentistry consists of topical, infiltration, and anesthetic blocks. For molar tooth extraction, mandibular block technique is used either direct or indirect. This study aimed to see if there are differences in effectiveness of inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia techniques between direct and indirect. This clinical experimental design study used 20 patients as samples during February-April. 10 patients were taken as a group that carried out direct technique while 10 others group conducted indirect techniques. The sample selection using purposive sampling method. Pain level were measured using objective assessments (pain experienced by the patient after a given stimulus and subjective evaluation (thick taste perceived by the patient. The average time of onset in direct and indirect techniques in each sample was 16.88 ± 5.30 and 102.00 ± 19.56 seconds (subjectively and 22.50 ± 8.02 and 159.00 ± 25.10 (objectively. These results indicated direct techniques onset faster than indirect techniques. The average duration of direct and indirect techniques respectively was 121.63 ± 8.80 and 87.80 ± 9.96 minutes (subjectively and 91.88 ± 8.37 and 60.20 ± 10.40 minutes (objectively. These results indicated the duration of direct technique is longer than indirect technique. There was no significant difference when viewed from anesthesia depth and aspiration level. This study indicated that direct technique had better effect than indirect technique in terms of onset and duration, while in terms of anesthesia depth and aspiration level was relatively equal. Insignificant differences were obtained when assessing anesthetic technique successful rate based on gender, age and extracted tooth.

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of brivaracetam compared to lacosamide, eslicarbazepine acetate, and perampanel as adjunctive treatments in uncontrolled focal epilepsy: Results of an indirect comparison meta-analysis of RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-11-01

    Brivaracetam (BRV), eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), lacosamide (LCM), and perampanel (PER) have been recently marketed as adjunctive treatments for focal onset seizures. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has directly compared BRV with ESL, LCM, or PER. To compare BRV with the other add-on AEDs in patients with uncontrolled focal epilepsy, estimating their efficacy and tolerability through an adjusted, common-reference based indirect comparison meta-analysis. We systematically searched RCTs in which add-on treatment with ESL or LCM in patients with focal onset seizures have been compared with placebo. Efficacy and tolerability outcomes were considered. Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel meta-analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for the efficacy of BRV, LCM, ESL, or PER versus placebo. Adjusted indirect comparisons were then made between BRV and the other three AEDs using the obtained results, comparing the minimum and the highest effective recommended daily dose of each drug. Seventeen RCTs, with a total of 4971 patients were included. After adjusting for dose-effects, indirect comparisons showed no difference between BRV and LCM, ESL, or PER for responder rate and seizure freedom. Lower adverse events were observed with high dose BRV compared to high dose ESL or PER, but no difference was found in withdrawing because of adverse events. Indirect comparisons do not demonstrate a significant difference in efficacy between add-on BRV and LCM, ESL, or PER in focal epilepsy, and might suggest a better tolerability of BRV than ESL, and possibly also PER, at the highest effective recommended dose. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  5. Fecal occult blood versus DNA testing: indirect comparison in a colorectal cancer screening population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner H

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hermann Brenner,1–3 Hongda Chen1,4 1Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, 2Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT, 3German Cancer Consortium (DKTK, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ, Heidelberg, Germany; 4Program Office for Cancer Screening in Urban China, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: A multitarget stool DNA test (MSDT that showed higher sensitivity but lower specificity than a fecal immunochemical test (FIT for hemoglobin in one recent study from the US and Canada, is increasingly used for colorectal cancer (CRC screening, despite its ~20-fold higher costs compared to FITs. We aimed to assess diagnostic performance of a quantitative FIT in an independent study among participants of screening colonoscopy and to compare it with the previously reported performance of MSDT.Methods: A total of 3494 participants, aged 50–84 years, who underwent screening colonoscopy in private gastroenterological practices in Germany, and who provided a stool sample before colonoscopy to be evaluated by a commercially available quantitative FIT ( FOB Gold® were included. Diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity for detecting CRC or advanced precancerous lesions (APCLs was evaluated by comparison of test results with findings at screening colonoscopy. In addition to the original cutoff, we used an adjusted cutoff yielding the same specificity as reported for the MSDT to enhance comparability.Results: The most advanced finding at colonoscopy was CRC and APCL in 30 (0.86% and 359 (10.3% cases, respectively. At a cutoff yielding the same specificity as reported for MSDT (86.6%, the sensitivities (95% CI of the FIT for detecting CRC and APCL >1 cm were 96.7% (82.8–99.9% and 54

  6. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gözde TÜRK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Material and Methods Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs, allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply, and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (p<0.05, before and after cementation. Results Direct inlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442 and after (p=0.00001466 cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively. The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Conclusions Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after

  7. Comparison of direct and indirect plasma oxidation of NO combined with oxidation by catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jogi, Indrek; Stamate, Eugen; Irimiea, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Direct and indirect plasma oxidation of NOx was tested in a medium-scale test-bench at gas flows of 50 slm (3 m(3)/h). For direct plasma oxidation the synthetic flue gas was directed through a stacked DBD reactor. For indirect plasma oxidation, a DBD reactor was used to generate ozone from pure O-2...... and the plasma treated gas including ozone was mixed with flue gas at the entrance of a 6 m long serpentine-like reaction chamber which allowed reaction times longer than 10 s. At relatively low NOx concentrations of 200 ppm, both oxidation methods gave similar results. However, the temperature increase...

  8. Comparison of radiographic measurements obtained with conventional an indirect digital imaging during endontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Buloto Schmitd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of indirect digitized radiographic images taken during endodontic procedures and to compare the measurements recorded with this technique to those obtained from conventional radiographs. Two-hundred conventional periapical radiographs taken at the undergraduate Endodontics Clinic of the Dental School of Bauru were digitized. The conventional and indirect digitized images were compared by three examiners as to the quality and accuracy of the measurements recorded during endodontic treatment, in canal length determination, gutta-percha adaptation, lateral condensation and final obturation. The conventional radiographs were observed on a film viewer, surrounded by a dark card, and measured with magnifying glass and a millimeter ruler; the indirect digitized images were evaluated on the Digora® for Windows software, with free utilization of the bright/contrast tool. Unlike the conventional radiographic images, all indirect digitized images were considered as having a high quality. The distance between the filling material and the root apex was 0.117 mm larger, on average, for the Digora® system (p<0.01. The measurements achieved by the investigated radiographic methods were clinically similar and they are thus equivalent. Changes in brightness and contrast of the images using Digora®software improved the diagnosis.

  9. Brief Report: A Comparison of Indirect versus Experimental Strategies for the Assessment of Pica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasano, Lauren C.; Borrero, John C.; Kohn, Carolynn S.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of pica for three individuals with varying levels of intellectual disabilities. In addition, two indirect assessment instruments (the "Motivational Assessment Scale [MAS]", and the "Questions About Behavioral Function [QABF]") were also administered to both the parent and teacher of the child…

  10. COMPARISON OF RADIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED WITH CONVENTIONAL AND INDIRECT DIGITAL IMAGING DURING ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitd, Ligia Buloto; Lima, Tatiana de Castro; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of indirect digitized radiographic images taken during endodontic procedures and to compare the measurements recorded with this technique to those obtained from conventional radiographs. Two-hundred conventional periapical radiographs taken at the undergraduate Endodontics Clinic of the Dental School of Bauru were digitized. The conventional and indirect digitized images were compared by three examiners as to the quality and accuracy of the measurements recorded during endodontic treatment, in canal length determination, gutta-percha adaptation, lateral condensation and final obturation. The conventional radiographs were observed on a film viewer, surrounded by a dark card, and measured with magnifying glass and a millimeter ruler; the indirect digitized images were evaluated on the Digora® for Windows software, with free utilization of the bright/contrast tool. Unlike the conventional radiographic images, all indirect digitized images were considered as having a high quality. The distance between the filling material and the root apex was 0.117 mm larger, on average, for the Digora® system (p<0.01). The measurements achieved by the investigated radiographic methods were clinically similar and they are thus equivalent. Changes in brightness and contrast of the images using Digora® software improved the diagnosis. PMID:19089211

  11. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  12. Perspective shift increases processing effort of pronouns : a comparison between direct and indirect speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar; Hendriks, Petra

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the processing of deictic pronouns in two types of speech reports, direct speech (Elephant said: “I get the football”) and indirect speech (Elephant said that I get the football). According to Hypothesis 1, pronoun processing in direct speech is more demanding because it

  13. Inter-comparison of different direct and indirect methods to determine radon flux from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, C., E-mail: claudia.grossi@upc.ed [Institute of Energy (INTE), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Vargas, A.; Camacho, A. [Institute of Energy (INTE), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) (Spain); Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P. [University of Huelva (Spain); Xia Yu; Conen, F. [University of Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    The physical and chemical characteristics of radon gas make it a good tracer for use in the application of atmospheric transport models. For this purpose the radon source needs to be known on a global scale and this is difficult to achieve by only direct experimental methods. However, indirect methods can provide radon flux maps on larger scales, but their reliability has to be carefully checked. It is the aim of this work to compare radon flux values obtained by direct and indirect methods in a measurement campaign performed in the summer of 2008. Different systems to directly measure radon flux from the soil surface and to measure the related parameters terrestrial {gamma} dose and {sup 226}Ra activity in soil, for indirect estimation of radon flux, were tested. Four eastern Spanish sites with different geological and soil characteristics were selected: Teruel, Los Pedrones, Quintanar de la Orden and Madrid. The study shows the usefulness of both direct and indirect methods for obtaining radon flux data. Direct radon flux measurements by continuous and integrated monitors showed a coefficient of variation between 10% and 23%. At the same time, indirect methods based on correlations between {sup 222}Rn and terrestrial {gamma} dose rate, or {sup 226}Ra activity in soil, provided results similar to the direct measurements, when these proxies were directly measured at the site. Larger discrepancies were found when proxy values were extracted from existing data bases. The participating members involved in the campaign study were the Institute of Energy Technology (INTE) of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Huelva University (UHU), and Basel University (BASEL).

  14. Comparison of manual direct and automated indirect measurement of hippocampus using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, Frederik L. [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Germany); MRI Unit, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.giesel@dkfz.de; Thomann, Philipp A. [Section of Geriatric Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Hahn, Horst K. [MeVis, Bremen (Germany); Politi, Maria [Neuroradiology, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Germany); Pantel, Johannes [Department of Psychiatry, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, Paul D. [MRI Unit, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Schroeder, Johannes [Section of Geriatric Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Essig, Marco [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: Objective quantification of brain structure can aid diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to compare direct and indirect quantification approaches for hippocampal formation changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods and materials: Twenty-one healthy volunteers (mean age: 66.2), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (mean age: 66.6), and 10 patients with AD (mean age: 65.1) were enrolled. All subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and were imaged at 1.5 T (Vision, Siemens, Germany; T1w coronal TR = 4 ms, Flip = 13 deg., FOV = 250 mm, Matrix = 256 x 256, 128 contiguous slices, 1.8 mm). Direct measurement of the hippocampal formation was performed on coronal slices using a standardized protocol, while indirect temporal horn volume (THV) was calculated using a watershed algorithm-based software package (MeVis, Germany). Manual tracing took about 30 min, semi-automated measurement less than 3 min time. Results: Successful direct and indirect quantification was performed in all subjects. A significant volume difference was found between controls and AD patients (p < 0.001) with both the manual and the semi-automated approach. Group analysis showed a slight but not significant decrease of hippocampal volume and increase in temporal horn volume (THV) for subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared to volunteers (p < 0.07). A significant correlation (p < 0.001) of direct and indirect measurement was found. Conclusion: The presented indirect approach for hippocampus volumetry is equivalent to the direct approach and offers the advantages of observer independency, time reduction and thus usefulness for clinical routine.

  15. Shear bond strength comparison between direct and indirect bonded orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gia K; Dunn, William J; Taloumis, Louis J

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to teeth with either an indirect bonding technique and a new adhesive resin or a direct bonding technique and a light-activated adhesive. Fifty-four extracted premolars were mounted in acrylic blocks and randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 27). In one group, orthodontic brackets were bonded to premolars with an indirect bonding adhesive system; in the other, brackets were bonded with the direct method. Seventy-two hours later, the brackets were placed in a testing machine and subjected to a shear force with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The mean shear bond strengths for the indirect and direct groups were 11.2 and 10.9 MPa, respectively, both exceeding the minimum shear bond strength range of 5.9 to 7.8 MPa often cited in the literature for clinical success. Data were analyzed with Student t tests. No significant difference in shear bond strength between the 2 groups was detected (P =.76). Resin remnants on orthodontic bracket pads were observed with a dissecting microscope at 30x magnification and scored with a modified adhesive remnant index. There was no significant difference between groups (P >.05). There was also no correlation between shear bond strength and the percentage of adhesive resin remnants left on the orthodontic bracket. Under the conditions of this study, no evidence suggests a difference in shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to tooth enamel, whether they are bonded with the direct or indirect technique.

  16. Quantitative comparison of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol indirect effects in three polluted Asian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B.; Ahn, C.; Torres, O.; Durbin, P.

    2008-12-01

    Advances in satellite technology and ground based measurement techniques have resulted in vast amount of data on aerosol and cloud parameters. Aerosol indirect effects are characterized by the effects of aerosol on cloud radiative properties. This being a subject of significant interest for climate change and human health effects, many computational and satellite data analysis studies have been made to understand this mechanism. However, most of the studies are made on understanding the global effects. In this work we attempt to understand the local effects by making quantitative analysis of aerosol and its indirect effects in three polluted Asian cities. We analyze aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and MISR (Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), aerosol extinction optical depth, absorption optical depth, and aerosol index (AI) data from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and compare with AOD data of AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) at Beijing, China; Dalanzadgad, Mongolia; and Kanpur, India. Cloud parameters from MODIS data are correlated with aerosol optical depth. Seasonal variation of aerosol optical depth and its effect on cloud radiative properties are discussed. Large differences in AOD are observed in the measurements by different instruments. The differences in the results of indirect effects indicate considerable influence of local environment.

  17. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF drugs for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis: an indirect comparison meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1 Eric Druyts,2 J Antonio Aviña-Zubieta,3,4 Edward J Mills1,21Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaObjective: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of available tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitors (anti-TNFs for the management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA in patients with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs.Methods: We used an exhaustive search strategy covering randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and health technology assessments (HTA published on anti-TNFs for PsA. We performed indirect comparisons of the available anti-TNFs (adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, and infliximab measuring relative risks (RR for the psoriatic arthritis response criteria (PsARC, mean differences (MDs for improvements from baseline for the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ by PsARC responders and non-responders, and MD for the improvements from baseline for the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI. When the reporting of data on intervention group response rates and improvements were incomplete, we used straightforward conversions based on the available data.Results: We retrieved data from 20 publications representing seven trials, as well as two HTAs. All anti-TNFs were significantly better than control, but the indirect comparison did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the anti-TNFs. For PsARC response, golimumab yielded the highest RR and etanercept the second highest; adalimumab and infliximab both yielded notably smaller RRs. For HAQ improvement, etanercept and infliximab yielded the largest MD among PsARC responders

  18. Energy Expenditure in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: Comparison of the Sensewear Armband and Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Abel, Thomas; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Dreuscher, Annika; Anneken, Volker

    2014-05-09

    Inactivity and overweight are major health concerns in children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods for the assessment of activity and energy expenditure may be affected negatively by the underlying disability, especially when motor function is impaired. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the SenseWear armband in adolescents with cerebral palsy and hemiparesis. Ten volunteers (age: 13.4 ± 1.6 years) were equipped with SenseWear armbands (Model MF, BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, PA) on the hemiparetic and non-hemiparetic side of the body. Energy expenditure was measured at rest and during treadmill exercise (speed range: 0.85 to 2.35 m/s). Indirect calorimetry served as independent reference method. The mean error was between -0.6 and 0.8 kcal/min and there were no significant differences between SenseWear and indirect calorimetry at any speed. Differences between body sides in expenditure (mean: -0.2 to 0.0 kcal/min) and step count (mean: -3.4 to 9.7 steps/min) were not significant. The validity of the SenseWear armband does not appear to be negatively affected by cerebral palsy during laboratory treadmill exercise. Future field studies are necessary to assess the validity and practicability energy expenditure and physical activity in children and adolescents with physical disabilities.

  19. A comparison of bond strength between direct- and indirect-bonding methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Brandon James; Berzins, David W; Dhuru, Virendra B; Bradley, Thomas Gerard

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength and the sites of bond failure for brackets bonded to teeth, using two indirect-bonding material protocols and a direct-bonding technique. Sixty extracted human premolars were collected and randomly divided into three groups. The direct-bonded group (group 1) used a light-cured adhesive and primer (Transbond XT). One indirect-bonded group (group 2) consisted of a chemical-cured primer (Sondhi Rapid Set) and light-cured adhesive (Transbond XT), whereas the other group (group 3) used a light-cured primer (Orthosolo) and adhesive (Enlight LV). Forty hours after bonding, the samples were debonded. Mean shear bond strengths were 16.27, 13.83, and 14.76 MPa for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significant difference in mean bond strength between groups (P = .21). Furthermore, a Weibull analysis showed all three groups tested provided over a 90% survival rate at normal masticatory and orthodontic force levels. For each tooth, an Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was determined. Group 2 was found to have a significantly lower ARI score (P < .05) compared with groups 1 and 3. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficients indicated no strong correlation between bond strength and ARI score within or across all groups.

  20. Comparison of Mechanical and Indirect Ultrasonic Placement Technique on Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Retrofill Density in Simulated Root-end Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Christopher C; Williamson, Anne E; Dawson, Deborah V; Gomez, Manuel R; Liu, Wei

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the density of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) root-end filling placed by either manual condensation or manual condensation with indirect ultrasonic activation under simulated root-end surgery conditions in vitro. Extracted human molar teeth were obtained and sectioned to provide single-rooted samples (n = 50). Roots were instrumented to a size of 40 with a .04 taper and obturated with a warm vertical technique. The coronal end of each root was embedded in resin. A root-end resection and root-end preparation were completed on each root. Samples were randomly assigned to receive root-end fillings with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK) by 1 of 2 techniques: manual condensation alone (group M, n = 25) or manual condensation with indirect ultrasonic activation (group U, n = 25). MTA was placed incrementally to the level of the root end using the enumerated technique. Samples were weighed immediately before and after filling placement. MTA was removed from all samples so as not to change the root-end preparation, rinsed, and dried. Each sample then underwent MTA placement by the opposite technique, and weight was again measured immediately before and after MTA placement. MTA filling weights for each technique were analyzed statistically using a technique for repeated measures analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted to account for any carryover or order effects. After adjustment for carryover effects, it was found that regardless of the order of placement, the mean fill weight of MTA produced by the indirect ultrasonic method was on average 4.42 mg heavier than that produced by manual condensation alone. This result was statistically significant (P MTA root-end fillings was shown to produce a filling that was significantly denser than MTA placed by manual condensation alone. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of a Handheld Indirect Calorimetry Device and Predictive Energy Equations Among Individuals on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Ellis A; Marcus, Andrea; Byham-Gray, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Practical methods for determining resting energy expenditure (REE) among individuals on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are needed because of the limitations of indirect calorimetry. Two disease-specific predictive energy equations (PEEs) have been developed for this metabolically complex population. The aim of this study was to compare estimated REE (eREE) by PEEs to measured REE (mREE) with a handheld indirect calorimetry device (HICD). A prospective pilot study of adults on MHD (N = 40) was conducted at 2 dialysis clinics in Houston and Texas City, Texas. mREE by an HICD was compared with eREE determined by 6 PEEs using Bland-Altman analysis with a band of acceptable agreement of ±10% of the group mean mREE. Paired t-test and the intraclass correlation coefficient were also used to compare the alternate methods of measuring REE. A priori alpha was set at P Maintenance Hemodialysis Equation-Creatinine version (MHCD-CR) was the most accurate PEE with 52.5% of values within the band of acceptable agreement, followed by the Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation and the Vilar et al. Equation at 45.0% and 42.5%, respectively. When compared with mREE by the HICD, the MHDE-CR was more accurate and precise than other PEEs evaluated; however, this must be interpreted with caution as mREE was consistently lower than eREE from all PEEs. Further research is needed to validate the MHDE-CR and other practical methods for determining REE among individuals on MHD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  4. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence with agar gel immunodiffusion for the diagnosis of bluetongue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, G M; Gatti, M S; Germano, P M; Pestana-de-Castro, A F

    1992-01-01

    1. Sera from 190 cows and from 72 sheep were examined to compare the results obtained with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests for the diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) disease. 2. In the AGID test, 96 of 190 (50.5%) cattle serum samples and 38 of 72 (52.7%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 134 out of 262 (51.1%) sera. In the IIF test, 98 of 190 (51.6%) cattle serum samples and 39 of 72 (54.2%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 137 out of 262 (52.3%) sera. 3. The fluorescence of the IIF test presented a granular cytoplasmic aspect, which in some cells was observed only on the cell membranes. 4. Statistical analysis of the data showed close agreement between the two techniques, regardless of the kind of sera examined. The IIF test showed high sensitivity (93.8% and 92.1%), specificity (91.4% and 88.2%) and positive (91.8% and 89.7%) and negative (93.48% and 90.9%) predictive values for cattle serum and sheep serum, respectively. 5. The results obtained with IIF were comparable to those obtained with the AGID test, indicating that both techniques can be used routinely in epidemiologic studies of BT. However, the IIF offers the additional advantages that it can be used for antibody quantification and for the detection of viral antigens in BT-infected cell lines.

  5. Comparison of arterial blood pressure measurements and hypertension scores obtained by use of three indirect measurement devices in hospitalized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Morena B; Höpfner, Robert M; Francey, Thierry; Howard, Judith

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the agreement of blood pressure measurements and hypertension scores obtained by use of 3 indirect arterial blood pressure measurement devices in hospitalized dogs. Design-Diagnostic test evaluation. 29 client-owned dogs. 5 to 7 consecutive blood pressure readings were obtained from each dog on each of 3 occasions with a Doppler ultrasonic flow detector, a standard oscillometric device (STO), and a high-definition oscillometric device (HDO). When the individual sets of 5 to 7 readings were evaluated, the coefficient of variation for systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) exceeded 20% for 0% (Doppler), 11 % (STO), and 28% (HDO) of the sets of readings. After readings that exceeded a 20% coefficient of variation were discarded, repeatability was within 25 (Doppler), 37 (STO), and 39 (HDO) mm Hg for SAP. Correlation of mean values among the devices was between 0.47 and 0.63. Compared with Doppler readings, STO underestimated and HDO overestimated SAP. Limits of agreement between mean readings of any 2 devices were wide. With the hypertension scale used to score SAP, the intraclass correlation of scores was 0.48. Linear-weighted inter-rater reliability between scores was 0.40 (Doppler vs STO), 0.38 (Doppler vs HDO), and 0.29 (STO vs HDO). Results of this study suggested that no meaningful clinical comparison can be made between blood pressure readings obtained from the same dog with different indirect blood pressure measurement devices.

  6. Once-daily long-acting beta-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an indirect comparison of olodaterol and indacaterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roskell NS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neil S Roskell,1 Antonio Anzueto,2 Alan Hamilton,3 Bernd Disse,4 Karin Becker5 1Statistics, Bresmed Health Solutions Ltd, Sheffield, UK; 2School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Medical Department, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Ltd, Burlington, ON, Canada; 4Medical Department, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 5Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany Purpose: In the absence of head-to-head clinical trials comparing the once-daily, long-acting beta2-agonists olodaterol and indacaterol for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, an indirect treatment comparison by systematic review and synthesis of the available clinical evidence was conducted. Methods: A systematic literature review of randomized, controlled clinical trials in patients with COPD was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of olodaterol and indacaterol. Network meta-analysis and adjusted indirect comparison methods were employed to evaluate treatment efficacy, using outcomes based on trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, Transition Dyspnea Index, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score and response, rescue medication use, and proportion of patients with exacerbations. Results: Eighteen trials were identified for meta-analysis (eight, olodaterol; ten, indacaterol. Olodaterol trials included patients of all severities, whilst indacaterol trials excluded patients with very severe COPD. Concomitant maintenance bronchodilator use was allowed in most olodaterol trials, but not in indacaterol trials. When similarly designed trials/data were analyzed for change from baseline in trough FEV1 (liters, the following mean differences (95% confidence interval were observed: trials excluding concomitant bronchodilator: indacaterol 75 mcg versus olodaterol 5 mcg, –0.005 (–0.077 to 0.067, and indacaterol 150 mcg

  7. The Comparison of Tendency to Addiction and Adjustment in Girls and Boys Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sheydae

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the drug tended to fit 17-12 year old male and female students were holy city of Rabat. Methods: The research design of a comparison. Results: The study subjects consisted of 21 male and 29 female students who cover the charity Fatima Zahra studying in Rabat Karim units were selected by random sampling. Tool: in the study to measure the tendency to addiction People exposed to drug test Dhkrdyan and Bell was used to test adjustment. The results showed an inverse relation between the tendency to addiction in adolescents and that there are significant inconsistencies. The relation between the subscales inconsistency and tendency to addiction, a strong and significant positive relationship between family conflicts to tendency to addiction exists. Inconsistency between the two groups of boys and girls in terms of variables and there is significant risk of addiction. So that the average inconsistency in boys than girls and boys at risk for substance abuse than are females. Conclusions: The tendency to addiction, there are significant adjustment among adolescents and the tendency to addiction in adolescent boys and girls significant adjustment there.

  8. Modified adjustable suture hang-back recession: Description of technique and comparison with conventional adjustable hang-back recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to describe and compare modified hang-back recession with the conventional hang-back recession in large angle comitant exotropia (XT. Methods: A prospective, interventional, double-blinded, randomized study on adult patients (>18 years undergoing single eye recession-resection for large angle (>30 prism diopters constant comitant XT was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients in Group A underwent modified hang-back lateral rectus recession with adjustable knot while in Group B underwent conventional hang-back recession with an adjustable knot. Outcome parameters studied were readjustment rate, change in deviation at 6 weeks, complications and need for resurgery at 6 months. Results: The groups were comparable in terms of age and preoperative deviation. The patients with the modified hang back (Group A fared significantly better (P < 0.05 than those with conventional hang back (Group B in terms of lesser need for adjustment, greater correction in deviation at 6 weeks and lesser need for resurgery at 6 months. Conclusion: This modification offers several advantages, significantly reduces resurgery requirement and has no added complications.

  9. Comparison of indirect methods for the estimation of Boundary Layer height over flat-terrain in a coastal site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Contini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of different indirect methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH using sodar, ultrasonic anemometer and a prognostic model based on single point surface measurements is presented. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance of a minisodar, with the calculation of a prognostic model, with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra and with the BLH evaluated from the intensity of minisodar echoes in stable conditions. The data of a radiosonde system taken in a nearby site was also analysed to get an independent evaluation of BLH for comparison. There is a significant scatter in the data for both the evaluation through the variance of vertical wind speed and the spectral analysis of the horizontal wind velocity although created by different effects. In unstable conditions the different methods give a similar pattern even if the prognostic model in some days predicts a significantly higher BLH with respect to the other methods. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are worse than those in unstable conditions with an evident overestimation of the BLH that it is likely related to the overestimation of vertical turbulence and to the use of multiple range gates in the algorithm. Taking as reference the evaluation of BLH of the sodar, the spectral method applied to ultrasonic anemometer data seems to be affected by the lowest biases and it is a possible candidate, for the development of automatic routines for operational evaluation of BLH possibly with a different parameterisation for stable and unstable cases.

  10. Comparison of indirect methods for the estimation of boundary layer height over flat-terrain in a coastal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Daniele; Cava, Danilea; Martano, Paolo; Donateo, Antonio; Grasso, Fabio M. [ISAC-CNR, Inst. di Scienze dell' Atmosfera e del Clima, Lecce (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    In this paper an analysis of different indirect methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar, ultrasonic anemometer and a prognostic model based on single point surface measurements is presented. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance of a minisodar, with the calculation of a prognostic model, with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra and with the BLH evaluated from the intensity of minisodar echoes in stable conditions. The data of a radiosonde system taken in a nearby site was also analysed to get an independent evaluation of BLH for comparison. There is a significant scatter in the data for both the evaluation through the variance of vertical wind speed and the spectral analysis of the horizontal wind velocity although created by different effects. In unstable conditions the different methods give a similar pattern even if the prognostic model in some days predicts a significantly higher BLH with respect to the other methods. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are worse than those in unstable conditions with an evident overestimation of the BLH that it is likely related to the overestimation of vertical turbulence and to the use of multiple range gales in the algorithm. Taking as reference the evaluation of BLH of the sodar, the spectral method applied to ultrasonic anemometer data seems to be affected by the lowest biases and it is a possible candidate, for the development of automatic routines for operational evaluation of BLH possibly with a different parameterisation for stable and unstable cases. (orig.)

  11. A comparison of consumptive-use estimates derived from the simplified surface energy balance approach and indirect reporting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Kenny, Joan F.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in remote-sensing technology and Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) when used with satellite observations of irrigated lands. Estimates of ET are generally considered equivalent to consumptive use (CU) because they represent the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated, transpired, or otherwise not available for immediate reuse. The U.S. Geological Survey compared ET estimates from SSEB methods to CU data collected for 1995 using indirect methods as part of the National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP). Ten-year (2000-2009) average ET estimates from SSEB methods were derived using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1-kilometer satellite land surface temperature and gridded weather datasets from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS). County-level CU estimates for 1995 were assembled and referenced to 1-kilometer grid cells to synchronize with the SSEB ET estimates. Both datasets were seasonally and spatially weighted to represent the irrigation season (June-September) and those lands that were identified in the county as irrigated. A strong relation (R2 greater than 0.7) was determined between NWUIP CU and SSEB ET data. Regionally, the relation is stronger in arid western states than in humid eastern states, and positive and negative biases are both present at state-level comparisons. SSEB ET estimates can play a major role in monitoring and updating county-based CU estimates by providing a quick and cost-effective method to detect major year-to-year changes at county levels, as well as providing a means to disaggregate county-based ET estimates to sub-county levels. More research is needed to identify the causes for differences in state-based relations.

  12. Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments to University Life: Comparisons across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Fong Cheng, Alison Lai

    2012-01-01

    University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions, namely: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous researches show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The purpose of this…

  13. Comparison of validity of mapping between drug indications and ICD-10. Direct and indirect terminology based approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Y; Jung, C; Chae, Y; Kang, M; Kim, J; Joung, K; Lim, J; Cho, S; Sung, S; Lee, E; Kim, S

    2014-01-01

    .... This study was undertaken to compare the validity of a direct mapping approach and an indirect terminology based mapping approach of drug indications against the gold standard drawn from the results...

  14. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials Estudo comparativo da microdureza de materiais resinosos indiretos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baptista Miranda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10 as follows: G1 - Artglass; G2 - Sinfony; G3 - Solidex; G4 - Targis. Microhardness was determined by the Vickers indentation technique with a load of 300g for 10 seconds. Four indentations were made on each sample, determining the mean microhardness values for each specimen. Descriptive statistics data for the experimental conditions were: G1 - Artglass (mean ±standard deviation: 55.26 ± 1.15HVN; median: 52.6; G2 - Sinfony (31.22 ± 0.65HVN; 31.30; G3 - Solidex (52.25 ± 1.55HVN; 52.60; G4 - Targis (72.14 ± 2.82HVN; 73.30. An exploratory data analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate statistical test through: (I Levene's for homogeneity of variances; (II ANOVA on ranks (Kruskal-Wallis; (III Dunn's multiple comparison test (0.05. Targis presented the highest microhardness values while Sinfony presented the lowest. Artglass and Solidex were found as intermediate materials. These results indicate that distinct mechanical properties may be observed at specific materials. The composition of each material as well as variations on polymerization methods are possibly responsibles for the difference found in microhardness. Therefore, indirect composite resin materials that guarantee both good esthetics and adequate mechanical properties may be considered as substitutes of natural teeth.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a microdureza de 4 resinas compostas indiretas. Quarenta amostras cilíndricas foram obtidas com o auxílio de uma matriz de teflon, seguindo-se as recomendações dos fabricantes. Foram obtidas 10 amostras para cada material testado, contituindo-se 4 grupos (n=10 como se segue: G1-Artglass; G2-Sinfony; G3-Solidex; G4-Targis. A

  15. Boceprevir and telaprevir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection: an indirect comparison meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper CL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curtis L Cooper1, Eric Druyts2, Kristian Thorlund3, Jean B Nachega4, Antoine C El Khoury5, Christopher O'Regan6, Edward J Mills2,31Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 5Merck and Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ, 6Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, United KingdomBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the relative efficacy and safety of boceprevir and telaprevir, when used in combination with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, using an indirect comparison meta-analysis.Methods: Published phase II and phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of boceprevir and telaprevir in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infected adult populations were included. The primary outcomes were sustained virologic response, relapse, and discontinuation of all study drugs. Secondary outcomes included the adverse events of anemia, neutropenia, rash, and pruritus. Results: Four boceprevir trials and six telaprevir trials were included. No significant differences were observed for sustained virologic response among either naïve (relative risk [RR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–1.37, P = 0.20 or experienced patients (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52–1.23, P = 0.30. Similarly, for relapse among naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.18–3.45, P = 0.77 and experienced patients (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.90–3.24, P = 0.10, or discontinuation of therapy for naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.28–2.29, P = 0.72 and experienced patients (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69–1.12, P = 0.30. Telaprevir was more likely to be associated with rash and pruritus, and boceprevir was more likely to be associated with neutropenia in certain patient populations.Conclusion: Boceprevir and telaprevir appear

  16. A comparison of direct and indirect determinations of the masses of the Higgs Boson and the top quark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J. H.

    2017-10-01

    The indirect estimation of the Higgs Boson mass from electroweak radiative corrections within the Standard Model is compared with the directly measured value obtained by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the CERN LHC collider. Treating the direct measurement of m H as input, the Standard Model indirect estimation of the top-quark mass is also obtained and compared with its directly measured value. A model-independent analysis finds an indirect value of m H of ≃70 GeV, below the directly measured value of 125.7±0.4 GeV and an indirect value: m t=177.3±1.0 GeV, above the directly measured value: 173.21±0.87 GeV. A goodness-of-fit test to the Standard Model using all Z-pole observables and m W has a χ 2 probability of ≃2%. The reason why probability values about a factor of ten larger than this, and indirect estimates of m H about 30 GeV higher, have been obtained in recent global fits to the same data is recalled.

  17. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  18. Looking for the best immune-checkpoint inhibitor in pre-treated NSCLC patients: An indirect comparison between nivolumab, pembrolizumab and atezolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passiglia, Francesco; Galvano, Antonio; Rizzo, Sergio; Incorvaia, Lorena; Listì, Angela; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2017-10-28

    Immune-checkpoint inhibitors represent the new standard of care in patients with advanced NSCLC who progressed after first-line treatment. This work aim to assess any difference in both efficacy and safety profiles among Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab and Atezolizumab in pre-treated NSCLC patients. Randomized clinical trials comparing immune-checkpoint inhibitor versus docetaxel in pre-treated patients with advanced NSCLC were included and direct comparison meta-analysis of selected trials have been performed. Subsequently the summary estimates of Nivolumab, Pembrolizumab and Atezolizumab emerging from the direct meta-analysis were selected to provide the pooled estimates of hazard ratio (HR) and relative risk (RR) for the indirect comparisons among these agents. A total of 5 studies met the selection criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Indirect comparisons for efficacy outcomes showed the RR for ORR nivolumab versus atezolizumab 1.66 (95% CI 1.07-2.58), pembrolizumab versus atezolizumab 1.94 (95% CI 1.30-2.90). No significant differences in both PFS and OS have been observed. Indirect comparisons for safety showed the RR for G3-5 AEs nivolumab versus pembrolizumab 0.41 (95% CI 0.29-0.60), nivolumab versus atezolizumab 0.50 (95% CI 0.35-0.72). No significant differences in both pneumonitis and discontinuation rate have been observed. The results of this work revealed that nivolumab and pembrolizumab are associated with a significant increase of ORR as compared to atezolizumab and nivolumab is associated with a significant lower incidence of G3-5 AEs as compared to the other drugs. These evidences could support the oncologists to select the best drug for each patient. © 2017 UICC.

  19. A comparison of average wages with age-specific wages for assessing indirect productivity losses : Analytic simplicity versus analytic precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P; Tashjian, Cole; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Bhatt, Aomesh; Postma, Maarten J

    Objectives: Numerous approaches are used to estimate indirect productivity losses using various wage estimates applied to poor health in working aged adults. Considering the different wage estimation approaches observed in the published literature, we sought to assess variation in productivity loss

  20. Public Reporting of Primary Care Clinic Quality: Accounting for Sociodemographic Factors in Risk Adjustment and Performance Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Finch, Michael; Kreiger, Rob; Reeves, David

    2018-01-03

    Performance measurement and public reporting are increasingly being used to compare clinic performance. Intended consequences include quality improvement, value-based payment, and consumer choice. Unintended consequences include reducing access for riskier patients and inappropriately labeling some clinics as poor performers, resulting in tampering with stable care processes. Two analytic steps are used to maximize intended and minimize unintended consequences. First, risk adjustment is used to reduce the impact of factors outside providers' control. Second, performance categorization is used to compare clinic performance using risk-adjusted measures. This paper examines the effects of methodological choices, such as risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors in risk adjustment and accounting for patients clustering by clinics in performance categorization, on clinic performance comparison for diabetes care, vascular care, asthma, and colorectal cancer screening. The population includes all patients with commercial and public insurance served by clinics in Minnesota. Although risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors has a significant effect on quality, it does not explain much of the variation in quality. In contrast, taking into account the nesting of patients within clinics in performance categorization has a substantial effect on performance comparison.

  1. Crustal motion measurements from the POLENET Antarctic Network: comparisons with glacial isostatic adjustment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. J.; Konfal, S. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Spada, G.; Melini, D.; Barletta, V. R.; Kendrick, E. C.; Saddler, D.; Smalley, R., Jr.; Dalziel, I. W. D.; Willis, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Crustal motions measured by GPS provide a unique proxy record of ice mass change, due to the elastic and viscoelastic response of the earth to removal of ice loads. The ANET/POLENET array of bedrock GPS sites spans much of the Antarctic interior, encompassing regions where glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models predict large crustal displacements due to LGM ice loss and including coastal West Antarctica where major modern ice mass loss is documented. To isolate the long-term GIA component of measured crustal motions, we computed and removed elastic displacements due to recent ice mass change. We used the annually resolved ice mass balance data from Martín-Español et al. (2016) derived from a statistical inversion of satellite altimetry, gravimetry, and elastic-corrected GPS data for the period 2003-2013. The Regional Elastic Rebound Calculator (REAR) [Melini et al., 2015] was used to compute elastic vertical and horizontal surface displacements. Uplift due to elastic rebound is substantial in West Antarctica, very minimal in East Antarctica, and variable across the Weddell Embayment. The ANET GPS-derived crustal motion patterns ascribed to non-elastic GIA are spatially complex and differ significantly in magnitude from model predictions. We present a systematic comparison of measured and predicted velocities within different sectors of Antarctica, in order to examine spatial patterns relative to modern ice mass changes, ice history model uncertainties, and lateral variations in earth properties. In the Weddell Embayment region most vertical velocities are lower than uplift predicted by GIA models. Several sites in the southernmost Transantarctic Mountains and the Whitmore Mountains, where small ice mass increase occurs, have vertical uplift significantly exceeding GIA model predictions. There is an intriguing spatial correlation of these fast-moving sites with a low-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle documented by analysis of teleseismic Rayleigh waves by

  2. Comparison of the resin cement bond strength to an indirect composites treated by Er;YAG laser and sandblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansure Mirzaee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Indirect composites are designed to overcome the shortcomings of direct composites such as polymerization shrinkage and low degree of conversion. But, good adhesion of resin cements to indirect composites is still difficult. This research was designed to assess the effect of different powers of Er;YAG laser compared with sandblasting. On the micro tensil bond strength of resin cement to indirect composites.   Materials and Methods: Specimens were prepred using dental resin composite (Gradia GC and metallic mold (15×5×5 mm and were cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 24 blocks were prepared and randomly divided into 12 groups. G1:no treatment (as control, G 2-6: Er; YAG laser irradiation (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Watt, G7: sandblast. Two composite blocks were bonded to each other with Panavia F.2. resin cement. The cylindrical sections with dimensions of 1 mm were tested in a microtensile bond strength tester device using 0.5 mm/min speed until fracture points. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and T-test.   Results: Interaction between lasers irradiation and sandblast treatments were significant (P0.05 whether samples were sandblasted or not. Samples which received 300 mJ of laser showed lower bond strength compared with no laser treatment. Other groups showed no significant difference (P>0.05.   Conclusion: It seems that application of sandblast with proper variables, is a good way to improve bond strength.Laser application had no influence in improving the bond strength between the indirect composite and resin cement.

  3. Comparison of indirect methods for the estimation of Boundary Layer height over flat-terrain in a coastal site

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Contini; Danilea Cava; Paolo Martano; Antonio Donateo; Fabio M. Grasso

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an analysis of different indirect methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH) using sodar, ultrasonic anemometer and a prognostic model based on single point surface measurements is presented. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance of a minisodar, with the calculation of a prognostic model, with a parameterization based on horizon...

  4. Comparison of three dimensional isotropic and two dimensional conventional indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Young Cheol; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoo, Jae Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Suk Kyoung [Joeun Madi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy between a three-dimensional (3D) indirect isotropic T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography and a conventional two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted sequences of indirect MR arthrography for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. The study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. In total, 205 patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery for 206 shoulders were included in this study. Both conventional 2D T1-weighted FSE sequences and 3D isotropic T1-weighted FSE sequence were performed in all patients. Two radiologists evaluated the images for the presence of full- or partial-thickness tears in the supraspinatus-infraspinatus (SSP-ISP) tendons and tears in the subscapularis (SSC) tendons. Using the arthroscopic findings as the reference standard, the diagnostic performances of both methods were analyzed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Arthroscopy confirmed 165 SSP-ISP tendon tears and 103 SSC tendon tears. For diagnosing SSP-ISP tendon tears, the AUC values were 0.964 and 0.989 for the 2D sequences and 3D T1-weighted FSE sequence, respectively, in reader I and 0.947 and 0.963, respectively, in reader II. The AUC values for diagnosing SSC tendon tears were 0.921 and 0.925, respectively, for reader I and 0.856 and 0.860, respectively, for reader II. There was no significant difference between the AUC values of the 2D and 3D sequences in either reader for either type of tear. 3D indirect isotropic MR arthrography with FSE sequence and the conventional 2D arthrography are not significantly different in terms of accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears.

  5. Indirect determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Looking at the cognitive attitude of parsimony, culturally inculcated by operating on cognition with Occam’s razor, there are visible only the direct effects of a cause, or at most those of other collateral causes. The indirect effects of an explicit cause are, however, neglected.

  6. Airborne inorganic fibre level monitoring by transmission electron microscope (TEM): comparison of direct and indirect sample transfer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, W; Laszlo, I

    1996-02-01

    The direct and indirect sample transfer techniques for measuring airborne inorganic fibres concentrations were studied by TEM for airborne rockwool fibres, chrysotile, amosite and tungsten oxide whiskers. The number and mass concentrations of fibres with aspect ratios > or = 5, prepared by these two techniques for fibres longer than 0.5 mu m and 5 mu m, and the aspect ratios were evaluated and compared. It was found that the indirect sample transfer technique affects the fibre size distribution of different materials differently, and that the mass concentrations did not relate to fibre number concentrations of ambient air, irrespective of the sample transfer method used or the materials studied. It is concluded that the direct sample transfer method incorporating the etching stage should be preferred over the indirect method. Moreover, a need for an extra stage in-between the etching and carbon coating stages for the direct sample transfer method is suggested; this would be a stage where soluble materials could be removed.

  7. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Kleinman, K; Gillman, M W

    2014-12-01

    We implemented six confounding adjustment methods: (1) covariate-adjusted regression, (2) propensity score (PS) regression, (3) PS stratification, (4) PS matching with two calipers, (5) inverse probability weighting and (6) doubly robust estimation to examine the associations between the body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding v. formula only (n=437) and cesarean section v. vaginal delivery (n=1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were -0.33 (95% CI -0.53, -0.13) and -0.24 (-0.46, -0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller n (204-276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse probability weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from -0.01 to -0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method.

  8. Comparison of Indirect MR Arthrography With Conventional MRI in the Diagnosis of Knee Pathologies in Patients With Knee Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Jandaghi, Ali; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Emami-Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Mohammadzadeh, Solmaz; Farahmand, Maral

    2016-05-01

    Knee pain is a common problem in the general population. In order to determine the extent of the injury and the appropriate treatment, MRI provides the most accurate imaging method. This may be done through conventional MRI techniques or by injecting a contrast material (MR arthrography). The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of these two methods. The study involved the diagnostic evaluation on 60 patients with knee pain who received treatment over the course of a one-year period. Referred patients were randomly divided into two groups: indirect MR arthrography was performed on one group, and conventional MRI was performed on the other group. Both groups then underwent arthroscopy. The results from both groups were compared with the arthroscopic findings. In all of the pathologies studied, the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. A high rate of accuracy was found between MR arthrography and arthroscopy (P < 0.05) for all knee injuries, however a similar rate of accuracy between conventional MRI and arthroscopy was only seen in patients with damage to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), the tibio-femoral articular cartilage, and patella chondromalacia (P < 0.05). The highest rate of accuracy was seen in cases where indirect MR arthrography was used for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) damage (K = 1). Our results have shown that indirect MR arthrography had greater diagnostic accuracy in regards to the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values than conventional MRI in knee pathologies.

  9. Comparison of two indirect ELISA coating antigens for the detection of dairy cow antibodies against Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankaew, Pallop; Srisawat, Wanwisa; Singhla, Tawatchai; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Kataoka, Yasushi; Sawada, Takuo; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2018-02-01

    The ELISA is recognized as an efficient diagnostic tool for antibody detection, but there is no standard ELISA assay for detection of antibodies against hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle. The present study reports on an indirect ELISA assay for antibody detection of HS in dairy cows, and evaluates the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the method using a Bayesian approach. An indirect ELISA was developed with two types of heat extract antigens, Pasteurella multocida strains P-1256 and M-1404, as coating antigens. A checkerboard titration was employed using dairy cow sera immunized with P. multocida bacterin and colostrum-deprived calf sera. The concentrations of heat extract antigen (160μg/mL), sample serum (1:100) and goat anti-bovine immunoglobulin G labeled with horseradish peroxidase (1:2000) were optimal for the assay. The cut-off values were 0.147 and 0.128 for P-1256 and M-1404 coating antigens, and there were no differences in the results of tests with positive and negative sera (p<0.05). The characteristics of three diagnostic tests were evaluated using a one-population Bayesian model, assuming conditional dependence between two types of coating antigen-based ELISAs and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). A total of 415 sera samples from dairy cows without HS vaccination and no history of disease were tested. The Se and Sp of the P-1256 and M-1404 ELISAs were higher than those of the IHA. The Se and Sp of the P-1256 ELISA were 90.3% and 90.1%, while the Se and Sp of the M-1404 ELISA were 92.1% and 71.9%. The median values of Se and Sp from the IHA were 36.0% and 58.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. COMPARISON OF INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE WITH AGAR-GEL IMMUNODIFFUSION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF BLUETONGUE VIRUS-INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    ARITA, GMM; GATTI, MSV; GERMANO, PML; PESTANADECASTRO, AF

    1992-01-01

    1. Sera from 190 cows and from 72 sheep were examined to compare the results obtained with the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests for the diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) disease. 2. In the AGID test, 96 of 190 (50.5%) cattle serum samples and 38 of 72 (52.7%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a total of 134 out of 262 (51.1%) sera. In the IIF test, 98 of 190 (51.6%) cattle serum samples and 39 of 72 (54.2%) sheep serum samples were positive, for a to...

  11. Comparison of dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile employed and unemployed women in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Azadeh S; Younesi, Seyed Jalal; Azkhosh, Manouchehr; Askari, Ali

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to compare dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment in infertile employed and unemployed females. Due to the stresses of infertility, infertile females are faced with a variety of sexual and psychological problems, as well as dysfunctional attitudes that can lead to depression. Moreover, infertility problems provoke women into maladjustment and inadvertent corruption of relationships. In this regard, our goal is to consider the effects of employment in conjunction with education on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment among infertile women in Iran. In this work, we employed the survey method. We recruited 240 infertile women, utilizing the cluster random sampling method. These women filled out the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and the social adjustment part of the California Test of Personality. Next, multivariate analysis of variance was performed to test the relationship of employment status and education with dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. Our results indicated that dysfunctional attitudes were far more prevalent in infertile unemployed women than in infertile employed women. Also, social adjustment was better in infertile employed women than in infertile unemployed women. It was shown that education level alone does not have significant effect on dysfunctional attitudes and social adjustment. However, we demonstrated that the employment status of infertile women in conjunction with their education level significantly affects the two dimensions of dysfunctional attitudes (relationships, entitlements) and has insignificant effects on social adjustment. It was revealed that in employed infertile women in Iran, the higher education level, the less dysfunctional were attitudes in relationships and entitlements, whereas in unemployed infertile women, those with a college degree had the least and those with master's or higher degrees had the most dysfunctional attitudes in terms of relationships and entitlements.

  12. The big five and identification-contrast processes in social comparison in adjustment to cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R; Botke, G; van den Bergh, F

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between social comparison processes and the Big Five personality factors. In a sample of 112 patients with various forms of cancer it was found that Neuroticism was associated with a tendency to focus on the negative interpretation of social comparison

  13. Comparison of Propensity Score Methods and Covariate Adjustment: Evaluation in 4 Cardiovascular Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gregson, John; Baber, Usman; Williamson, Elizabeth; Sartori, Samantha; Mehran, Roxana; Nichols, Melissa; Stone, Gregg W; Pocock, Stuart J

    2017-01-24

    Propensity scores (PS) are an increasingly popular method to adjust for confounding in observational studies. Propensity score methods have theoretical advantages over conventional covariate adjustment, but their relative performance in real-word scenarios is poorly characterized. We used datasets from 4 large-scale cardiovascular observational studies (PROMETHEUS, ADAPT-DES [the Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents], THIN [The Health Improvement Network], and CHARM [Candesartan in Heart Failure-Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity]) to compare the performance of conventional covariate adjustment with 4 common PS methods: matching, stratification, inverse probability weighting, and use of PS as a covariate. We found that stratification performed poorly with few outcome events, and inverse probability weighting gave imprecise estimates of treatment effect and undue influence to a small number of observations when substantial confounding was present. Covariate adjustment and matching performed well in all of our examples, although matching tended to give less precise estimates in some cases. PS methods are not necessarily superior to conventional covariate adjustment, and care should be taken to select the most suitable method. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Indirect estimates of total fertility rate using child woman/ratio: a comparison with the Bogue-Palmore method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Matt; Baker, Jack; Brown, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Indirect estimation methodologies of the total fertility rate (TFR) have a long history within demography and have provided important techniques applied demographers can use when data is sparse or lacking. However new methodologies for approximating the total fertility rate have not been proposed in nearly 30 years. This study presents a novel method for indirectly approximating the total fertility rate using an algebraic rearrangement of the general fertility rate (GFR) through the known relationship between GFR and TFR. It then compares the proposed method to the well-known Bogue-Palmore method. These methods are compared in 196 countries and include overall errors as well as characteristics of the countries that contribute to fertility behavior. Additionally, these methods were compared geographically to find any geographical patterns. We find this novel method is not only simpler than the Bogue-Palmore method, requiring fewer data inputs, but also has reduced algebraic and absolute errors when compared with the Bogue-Palmore method and specifically outperforms the Bogue-Palmore method in developing countries. We find that our novel method may be useful estimation procedure for demographers.

  15. Expulsive therapy versus early endoscopic stone removal in patients with acute renal colic: a comparison of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauw, Casey A; Kaufman, Samuel R; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Roberts, William W; Faerber, Gary J; Wolf, J Stuart; Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-03-01

    While medical expulsive therapy is associated with lower health care expenditures compared to early endoscopic stone removal in patients with renal colic, little is known about the effect of medical expulsive therapy on indirect costs. Using a previously validated claims based algorithm we identified a cohort of patients with acute renal colic. After determining the up-front treatment type (ie an initial course of medical expulsive therapy vs early endoscopic stone removal) we compared differences in rates of short-term disability filing. We used propensity score matching to account for differences between treatment groups such that patients treated with medical expulsive therapy vs early endoscopic stone removal were similar with regard to measured characteristics. In total, 257 (35.8%) and 461 (64.2%) patients were treated with medical expulsive therapy or early endoscopic stone removal, respectively. There were no differences between treatment groups after propensity score matching. In the matched cohort the patients treated with medical expulsive therapy had a 6% predicted probability of filing a claim for short-term disability compared to 16.5% in the early endoscopic stone removal cohort (p indirect costs to the patient compared to early endoscopic stone removal. These findings have implications for providers when counseling patients with acute renal colic. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Attachment orientations and psychological adjustment of parents of children with cancer: A matched-group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Bisogno, Gianni; Viscardi, Elisabetta; Pillon, Marta; Opocher, Enrico; Basso, Giuseppe; Montanaro, Maria

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of childhood cancer on parents' adult attachment, social support, marital adjustment, anxiety, and depression. 30 parents of children with childhood cancer and 30 matched controls completed the following questionnaires: Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised, Dyadic Adjustment Scale-4, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - form Y, and Beck Depression Inventory. Parents of children with childhood cancer had a significantly lower dyadic adjustment than controls, and higher levels of insecure-avoidant attachment, state anxiety, and depression. It is important for health-care personnel to take into account these parents' propensity to show increased levels of avoidant attachment during children's treatment to foster effective communication and supportive relationships between clinicians, pediatric patients, and parents.

  17. An Indirect Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Abacavir/Lamivudine + Dolutegravir in Initial Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M Llibre

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis is to perform an indirect comparison of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (E/C/F/TDF to abacavir/lamivudine and dolutegravir (ABC/3TC + DTG by using 2 trials evaluating each of these regimens in comparison to efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF.An indirect comparison was performed by using a generalization of Bucher's methodology to calculate risk differences. Two phase III clinical trials (GS-US-236-0102 and SINGLE-described above were used.Results of the indirect comparison showed no statistically significant risk difference of the efficacy endpoint of achieving HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG for the ITT population at weeks 48, 96 and 144: respectively -3.7% (CI95% = [-10.8%; 3.4%], -5.2% (CI95% = [-13.2%; 2.8%] and -3.1% (CI95% = [-12.0%; 5.7%]. There was no statistically significant differences in the risk difference for serious adverse events (5.7% (CI95% = [-2.2%; 12.3%], drug related adverse event (2.7% (CI95% = [-7.0%;12.4%], drug related serious adverse event (0.8% (CI95% = [-1.6%;3.2%] and death (0.5% (CI95% = [-0.8%;1.8%], respectively, between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG. A significant difference was found for discontinuation due to adverse events with a higher rate for E/C/F/TDF (difference = 8.6% (CI95% = [3.3%; 13.9%]. There was also no statistically significant risk difference of the viral resistance of 1.2% (CI95% = [-1.2; 3.7] between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG at week 48, 1.7% at week 96 (CI95% = [-1.1; 4.5] and 2.2% (CI95% = [-1.0; 5.4] at week 144.

  18. Indirect and total costs of early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized comparison of combined step-down prednisolone, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine with sulfasalazine alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korthals-de Bos, Ingeborg; Van Tulder, Maurits; Boers, Maarten; Verhoeven, Arco C; Adèr, Herman J; Bibo, Jack; Boonen, Annelies; Van Der Linden, Sjef

    2004-09-01

    To describe the effect of indirect costs for patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) within the COBRA trial (Combinatietherapie Bij Reumatoide Artritis) on the cost-effectiveness of both therapies. Analyses of the efficacy and direct costs of the treatments have already been reported. Patients with early RA selected for the 56-week trial were randomly assigned to prednisolone, methotrexate, and sulfasalazine (the COBRA combination) (n = 76, tapered after 28 weeks) or to sulfasalazine (SSZ; n = 79, of which 78 patients were evaluable) alone. The main efficacy outcomes were a pooled index and radiographic damage score in hands and feet, and utilities. Direct and indirect costs were measured (from a societal perspective) by means of cost diaries and interviews completed by patients during the intervention phase and the followup phase, each lasting 28 weeks. Differences in mean costs between groups and cost-utility ratios were evaluated by applying nonparametric bootstrapping techniques. In the first 28 weeks, indirect costs per patient totaled US $2,578 and US $3,638 for COBRA and SSZ therapy, respectively (p = 0.09). The total costs were $5,931 and $7,853, respectively (p < 0.05). These differences were lost in the second 28 weeks. For the total period the mean total costs per patient were $10,262 and $12,788, respectively (p = 0.11). Sensitivity analyses showed robustness of the data. The point estimate of the cost per quality-adjusted life-year based on the rating scale was negative at $-385, suggesting dominance of COBRA (more effect at lower cost). COBRA therapy adds additional disease control (improvements in disease activity, physical function, and rate of damage progression) at lower or equal cost compared to SSZ in early RA.

  19. Comparison of an indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique and a hot pack for increasing range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Jay; Martorello, Laura; Swanson, Edward; Sego, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the randomized clinical study was to scientifically assess which intervention increases passive range of motion most effectively: the indirect tri-planar myofascial release (MFR) technique or the application of hot packs for gleno-humeral joint flexion, extension, and abduction. A total of 31 participants from a sample of convenience were randomly assigned to examine whether or not MFR was as effective in increasing range of motion as hot packs. The sample consisted of students at American International College. Students were randomly assigned to two groups: hot pack application (N=13) or MFR technique (N=18). The independent variable was the intervention, either the tri-planar MFR technique or the hot pack application. Group one received the indirect tri-planar MFR technique once for 3min. Group two received one hot pack application for 20min. The dependent variables, passive gleno-humeral shoulder range of motion in shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, and shoulder abduction, were taken pre- and post-intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed through the use of a two-way factorial design with mixed-factors ANOVA. Prior to conducting the study, inter-rater reliability was established using three testers for goniometric measures. A 2 (type of intervention: hot packs or MFR) by 2 (pre-test or post-test) mixed-factors ANOVA was calculated. Significant increases in range of motion were found for flexion, extension and abduction when comparing pre-test scores to post-test scores. The results of the ANOVA showed that for passive range of motion no differences were found for flexion, extension and abduction between the effectiveness of hot packs and MFR. For each of the dependent variables measured, MFR was shown to be as effective as hot packs in increasing range of motion, supporting the hypothesis. Since there was no significant difference between the types of intervention, both the hot pack application and the MFR technique were found to be

  20. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  1. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  2. Parenting and child adjustment: a comparison of Turkish and English families

    OpenAIRE

    Aytac, Arife Berna; Pike, Alison; Bond, Rod

    2016-01-01

    The links between parenting and child behaviour in cultural context have received increasing research attention. We investigated the effect of parenting on child adjustment using a multi-method design, comparing English and Turkish families. The socioeconomically diverse samples included 118 English and 100 Turkish families, each with two children aged 4–8 years. Mothers completed questionnaires as well as parent–child interaction being assessed using a structured Etch-a-Sketch task with each...

  3. Evaluation and Comparison of Individual and Group Sports in the Social Adjustment of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Due to the role of sports in youth social adjustment and social skills in their interpersonal relationships and social skills associated with academic achievement and their role in reducing mental and psychological problems ,we conducted this study to examine the role of physical activity in different sport fields. In order to compare the social skills of male students participating in the team and individual sports in Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, we chose 30 randomly as the sample size...

  4. Comparison of Social Adjustment in Blind Children and Normal in Primary School in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA ModdaresMoghaddam

    2014-05-01

    Methods:This is a descriptive, analytical study in which 270 blind and viewing students of primary schools in Mashhad participated in the academic years 2012-13. The blind students were chosen by census and viewing students through a stratified random sampling from normal schools. For data collection, a standard questionnaire that was social adjustment questionnaire was used. It was made in 1974 in America by Lambert, Wind Miller, Cole & Figueroa, which was translated in 1992 by Dr. Shahny Yeylagh, to be used for children of 7 to 13 years. It was conducted on 1500 boy and girl students of the first to fifth grade in elementary schools of Ahvaz. This test consists of 11 subscales, 38 sub-categories and 260 items. For data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistics such as t-test was used. (P <0.05. Results:The mean scores of social adjustment of students showed no statistically significant difference between the viewing and the blind (p=0.8. Also the mean of social adjustment in blind girls and boys was not statistically significant (p=0.1, but the incompatibility was found in more boys than the girls. Conclusion: Regarding the results, social incompatibility was higher in the blind girl students than the viewing girl students. Also this incompatibility was higher in the boys than the girls thereby requiring scientific and coherent planning for them.

  5. A distributional approach to obtain adjusted comparisons of proportions of a population at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Sauzet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichotomisation of continuous data has statistical drawbacks such as loss of power but may be useful in epidemiological research to define high risk individuals. Methods We extend a methodology for the presentation of comparison of proportions derived from a comparison of means for a continuous outcome to reflect the relationship between a continuous outcome and covariates in a linear (mixed model without losing statistical power. The so called “distributional method” is described and using perinatal data for illustration, results from the distributional method are compared to those of logistic regression and to quantile regression for three different outcomes. Results Estimates obtained using the distributional method for the comparison of proportions are consistently more precise than those obtained using logistic regression. For one of the three outcomes the estimates obtained from the distributional method and from logistic regression disagreed highlighting that the relationships between outcome and covariate differ conceptually between the two models. Conclusion When an outcome follows the required condition of distribution shift between exposure groups, the results of a linear regression model can be followed by the corresponding comparison of proportions at risk. This dual approach provides more precise estimates than logistic regression thus avoiding the drawback of the usual dichotomisation of continuous outcomes.

  6. Geant4-DNA simulation of DNA damage caused by direct and indirect radiation effects and comparison with biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrasa, Carmen; Meylan, Sylvain; Gonon, Geraldine; Gruel, Gaëtan; Giesen, Ulrich; Bueno, Marta; Rabus, Hans

    2017-09-01

    In this work we present results obtained in the frame of the BioQuaRT project. The objective of the study was the correlation between the number of radiation-induced double strand breaks (DSB) of the DNA molecule and the probability of detecting nuclear foci after targeted microbeam irradiation of cells with protons and alpha particles of different LET. The former were obtained by simulation with new methods integrated into Geant4-DNA that permit calculating the number of DSB in a DNA target model induced by direct and indirect radiation effects. A particular focus was laid in this work on evaluating the influence of different criteria applied to the simulated results for predicting the formation of a direct SSB. Indeed, these criteria have an important impact on the predicted number of DSB per particle track and its dependence with LET. Among the criteria tested in this work, the case that a direct radiation interaction leads to a strand break if the cumulative energy deposited in the backbone part of one nucleotide exceeds a threshold of 17.5 eV leads to the best agreement with the relative LET dependence of number of radiation induced foci. Further calculations and experimental data are nevertheless needed in order to fix the simulation parameters and to help interpreting the biological experimental data observed by immunofluorescence in terms of the DSB complexity.

  7. Geant4-DNA simulation of DNA damage caused by direct and indirect radiation effects and comparison with biological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villagrasa Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present results obtained in the frame of the BioQuaRT project. The objective of the study was the correlation between the number of radiation-induced double strand breaks (DSB of the DNA molecule and the probability of detecting nuclear foci after targeted microbeam irradiation of cells with protons and alpha particles of different LET. The former were obtained by simulation with new methods integrated into Geant4-DNA that permit calculating the number of DSB in a DNA target model induced by direct and indirect radiation effects. A particular focus was laid in this work on evaluating the influence of different criteria applied to the simulated results for predicting the formation of a direct SSB. Indeed, these criteria have an important impact on the predicted number of DSB per particle track and its dependence with LET. Among the criteria tested in this work, the case that a direct radiation interaction leads to a strand break if the cumulative energy deposited in the backbone part of one nucleotide exceeds a threshold of 17.5 eV leads to the best agreement with the relative LET dependence of number of radiation induced foci. Further calculations and experimental data are nevertheless needed in order to fix the simulation parameters and to help interpreting the biological experimental data observed by immunofluorescence in terms of the DSB complexity.

  8. Comparison of a serum indirect fluorescent antibody test with two Western blot tests for the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Daft, Barbara M; Conrad, Patricia A; Packham, Andrea E; Gardner, Ian A

    2003-01-01

    A serum indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was compared with a Western blot (WB) and a modified Western blot (mWB) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve of the IFAT was greater than the areaunder the curves of the WB and the mWB (P = 0.025 and P = 0.044, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the areas under the curves of the WBs (P > 0.05). On the basis of an arbitrarily chosen cut-off titer for a positive test result of 1:80 for the IFAT and interpreting weak positive WB results as positive test results, the sensitivities and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of all 3 tests were identical and equal to 88.9% (51.8-99.7%). The specificities and 95% CIs of the IFAT, WB, and mWB test were 100% (91-100%), 87.2% (72.6-95.7%), and 69.2% (52.4-83%), respectively. The overall accuracy of the IFAT was shown to be better than that of the WBs and, therefore, the test has potential for use in the diagnosis of EPM caused by Sarcocystis neurona.

  9. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition for determination of rubella virus antibody: evaluation of immune status with commercial reagents in a clinical laboratory.

    OpenAIRE

    Truant, A L; Barksdale, B L; Huber, T. W.; Elliott, L B

    1983-01-01

    Comparative evaluations of immune status for rubella virus are described for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hemagglutination inhibition, and indirect hemagglutination. A 92.1% agreement between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemagglutination assay was demonstrated for rubella immune status. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition demonstrated a 92.6% agreement and were compared in an attempt to define the quantitative usefulness of comparisons of ...

  10. Diagnostic performance of CT and MRI on the detection of symptomatic intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula: a meta-analysis with indirect comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yen-Heng [National Taiwan University, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital in Taipei and Yuan-Lin Branch, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Hospital and Medical College, Taipei (China); Lin, Hsien-Ho [National Taiwan University, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Hon-Man; Lee, Chung-Wei; Chen, Ya-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital in Taipei and Yuan-Lin Branch, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Hospital and Medical College, Taipei (China)

    2016-08-15

    This study aims to review the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in symptomatic dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were searched until April 2015 for studies which compared CT, MRI, or both with angiography for the detection of DAVF. The diagnostic performances of MRI and CT were indirectly compared using modality as a covariate in the analysis. Thirteen studies met our inclusion criteria. MRI had a sensitivity of 0.90 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-0.94) and specificity of 0.94 (95 % CI = 0.90-0.96). CT had a sensitivity of 0.80 (95 % CI = 0.62-0.90) and specificity of 0.87 (95 % CI = 0.74-0.94). MRI showed better diagnostic performance than CT (p = 0.02). Contrast medium use and time-resolved MR angiography did not improve MRI diagnostic performance (p = 0.31 and 0.44, respectively). Both CT and MRI had good diagnostic performance. MRI was better than CT on the detection of symptomatic intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula in the indirect comparison. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of sensory, microbiological, and biochemical parameters of microwave versus indirect UHT fluid skim milk during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, D A; Bang, W S; Cartwright, G; Drake, M A; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J

    2005-12-01

    Shelf-stable milk could benefit from sensory quality improvement. Current methods of heating cause flavor and nutrient degradation through exposure to overheated thermal exchange surfaces. Rapid heating with microwaves followed by sudden cooling could reduce or eliminate this problem. The objectives for this study were focused on designing and implementing continuous microwave thermal processing of skim fluid milks (white and chocolate) to compare sensory, microbiological, and biochemical parameters with conventionally prepared, indirect UHT milks. All test products were aseptically packaged and stored at ambient temperature for 12 mo. Every 3 mo, samples were taken for microbiological testing, reactive sulfhydryl determinations, active enzyme analysis, instrumental viscosity readings, color measurements, and descriptive sensory evaluation. Microbiological plate counts were negative on all milks at each time point. Enzymatic assays showed that plasmin was inactivated by both heat treatments. 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) analysis, a measure of reactive sulfhydryl (-SH-) groups, showed that the initial thiol content was not significantly different between the microwave-processed and UHT-treated milks. However, both heating methods resulted in an increased thiol level compared with conventionally pasteurized milk samples due to the higher temperatures attained. Sulfhydryl oxidase, a milk enzyme that catalyzes disulfide bond formation using a variety of protein substrates, retained activity following microwave processing, and decreased during storage. Viscosity values were essentially equivalent in microwave- and UHT-heated white skim milks. Sensory analyses established that UHT-treated milks were visibly darker, and exhibited higher caramelized and stale/fatty flavors with increased astringency compared with the microwave samples. Sweet aromatic flavor and sweet taste decreased during storage in both UHT and microwave milk products, whereas stale/fatty flavors

  12. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  13. Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Navya P.; Varma, Balagopal R.; Janardhanan, Sureshkumar; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun Mamachan; Govinda, Bhat Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4–7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P MTA and TheraCal showed no statistical difference in reparative dentin formation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures. PMID:27994414

  14. Comparison of three facebow/semi-adjustable articulator systems for planning orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, A M; Milosevic, A

    2000-06-01

    Our aim was to measure the steepness of the occlusal plane produced by three different semi-adjustable articulators: the Dentatus Type ARL, Denar MkII, and the Whipmix Quickmount 8800, and to assess the influence of possible systematic errors in positioning of study casts on articulators that are used to plan orthognathic surgery. Twenty patients (10 skeletal class II, and 10 skeletal class III) who were having pre-surgical orthodontics at Liverpool University Dental Hospital were studied. The measurement of the steepness of the occlusal plane was taken as the angle between the facebow bite-fork and the horizontal arm of the articulator. This was compared with the angle of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfort plane as measured on lateral cephalometry (the gold standard). The Whipmix was closest to the gold standard as it flattened the occlusal plane by only 2 degrees (P<0.05). The results of the Denar and Dentatus differed significantly from those of the cephalogram as they flattened the occlusal plane by 5 degrees and 6. 5 degrees (P<0.01), respectively. Clinicians are encouraged to verify the steepness of the occlusal plane on mounted study casts before the technician makes the model. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  15. To adjust or not to adjust for baseline when analyzing repeated binary responses? The case of complete data when treatment comparison at study end is of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Honghua; Kulkarni, Pandurang M; Mallinckrodt, Craig H; Shurzinske, Linda; Molenberghs, Geert; Lipkovich, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of adjusting for baseline covariates are not as straightforward with repeated binary responses as with continuous response variables. Therefore, in this study, we compared different methods for analyzing repeated binary data through simulations when the outcome at the study endpoint is of interest. Methods compared included chi-square, Fisher's exact test, covariate adjusted/unadjusted logistic regression (Adj.logit/Unadj.logit), covariate adjusted/unadjusted generalized estimating equations (Adj.GEE/Unadj.GEE), covariate adjusted/unadjusted generalized linear mixed model (Adj.GLMM/Unadj.GLMM). All these methods preserved the type I error close to the nominal level. Covariate adjusted methods improved power compared with the unadjusted methods because of the increased treatment effect estimates, especially when the correlation between the baseline and outcome was strong, even though there was an apparent increase in standard errors. Results of the Chi-squared test were identical to those for the unadjusted logistic regression. Fisher's exact test was the most conservative test regarding the type I error rate and also with the lowest power. Without missing data, there was no gain in using a repeated measures approach over a simple logistic regression at the final time point. Analysis of results from five phase III diabetes trials of the same compound was consistent with the simulation findings. Therefore, covariate adjusted analysis is recommended for repeated binary data when the study endpoint is of interest. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comparison between adjustable window technique and wavelet method in processing backscattering lidar signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, Aime; Trotta, Amerigo

    2004-01-01

    The "lidarist" frequently wishes to process his experimental data to obtain as accurate and clean a representation of water vapor as is consistent with his measurement accuracies. In measurements contaminated by high-frequency noise this usually means smoothing the experimental data by some method (which is equivalent to smoothing with a low-pass filter) to eliminate or greatly reduce the amount of high frequency noise without distorting the desired signal. For data which are continuous in time (analog data) this is commonly accomplished using low-pass RC filters. However, with the increasing use of computer-controlled data acquisition systems which record data in digital form, there has developed a need for techniques which perform the same filtering process on the digitized data. Filtering or smoothing process should be as simple and efficient as is consistent with experimental situation. Poissonian averaging has been using for filtering lidar signal data. In previous work we showed the opportunity of using digital filtering in order to overcome problems created by poissonian averaging. To introduce further improvement in filtering we have used binomial filters; some scientists also use differentiating smoothing in an attempt to compensate for the fact that differentiation reduces the signal-to-noise ratio. This can easily be performed with the binomial filter by convolving either the filter coefficients or the data by sequences [1,0, -1]/2. This may be repeated any number of times to obtain the second-third-, and higher-order derivatives, after which the data are low-pass filtered in usual manner. The advantages of the above adjustable windows compared to the fixed windows are their optimality and flexibility. A wavelet analysis is used to increase signal retrieval. Wavelet analysis represents the next logical step: a windowing technique with variable-sized regions. Wavelet analysis allows the use of long time intervals where we want more precise low

  17. Comparison of percentage excess weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowicz, Maciej; Lech, Paweł; Orłowski, Michał; Siczewski, Wiaczesław; Pawlak, Maciej; Świetlik, Dariusz; Witzling, Mieczysław; Michalik, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are acceptable options for primary bariatric procedures in patients with body mass index (BMI) 35–55 kg/m2. Aim The aim of this study is to compare the effects of these two bariatric procedures 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Material and methods Two hundred and two patients were included 72 LSG and 130 LAGB patients. The average age was 38.8 ±11.9 and 39.4 ±10.4 years in LSG and LAGB groups, with initial BMI of 44.1 kg/m2 and 45.2 kg/m2, p = NS. Results The mean percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 6 months for LSG vs. LAGB was 36.3% vs. 30.1% (p = 0.01) and at 12 months was 43.8% vs. 34.6% (p = 0.005). The greatest difference in the mean %EWL at 12 months was observed in patients with initial BMI of 40–49.9 kg/m2 in favor of LSG (47.5% vs. 35.6%; p = 0.01). Two years after surgery there was no advantage of LSG and in the subgroup of patients with BMI 50–55 kg/m2 there was a trend in favor of LAGB (57.2% vs. 30%; p = 0.07). The multiple regression model of independent variables (age, gender, initial BMI and the presence of comorbidities) proved insignificant in prediction of the best outcome in means of %EWL for either operative modality. None of these factors in the logistic regression model could determine the type of surgery that should be used in particular patients. Conclusions During the first 2 years after surgery, the best results were obtained in women with lower BMI undergoing LSG surgery. The LSG provides greater %EWL after a shorter period of time though the difference decreases in time. PMID:25337157

  18. Comparison of Satellite-based Basal and Adjusted Evapotranspiration for Several California Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Lund, C.; Melton, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    There is a continuing need to develop new sources of information on agricultural crop water consumption in the arid Western U.S. Pursuant to the California Water Conservation Act of 2009, for instance, the stakeholder community has developed a set of quantitative indicators involving measurement of evapotranspiration (ET) or crop consumptive use (Calif. Dept. Water Resources, 2012). Fraction of reference ET (or, crop coefficients) can be estimated from a biophysical description of the crop canopy involving green fractional cover (Fc) and height as per the FAO-56 practice standard of Allen et al. (1998). The current study involved 19 fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and Central Coast during 2011-12, growing a variety of specialty and commodity crops: lettuce, raisin, tomato, almond, melon, winegrape, garlic, peach, orange, cotton, corn and wheat. Most crops were on surface or subsurface drip, though micro-jet, sprinkler and flood were represented as well. Fc was retrospectively estimated every 8-16 days by optical satellite data and interpolated to a daily timestep. Crop height was derived as a capped linear function of Fc using published guideline maxima. These variables were used to generate daily basal crop coefficients (Kcb) per field through most or all of each respective growth cycle by the density coefficient approach of Allen & Pereira (2009). A soil water balance model for both topsoil and root zone, based on FAO-56 and using on-site measurements of applied irrigation and precipitation, was used to develop daily soil evaporation and crop water stress coefficients (Ke, Ks). Key meteorological variables (wind speed, relative humidity) were extracted from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) for climate correction. Basal crop ET (ETcb) was then derived from Kcb using CIMIS reference ET. Adjusted crop ET (ETc_adj) was estimated by the dual coefficient approach involving Kcb, Ke, and incorporating Ks. Cumulative ETc

  19. Comparison of Inorganic Carbon System Parameters Measured in the Atlantic Ocean from 1990 to 1998 and Recommended Adjustments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanninkhof, R.

    2003-05-21

    As part of the global synthesis effort sponsored by the Global Carbon Cycle project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. Department of Energy, a comprehensive comparison was performed of inorganic carbon parameters measured on oceanographic surveys carried out under auspices of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and related programs. Many of the cruises were performed as part of the World Hydrographic Program of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and the NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study. Total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TAlk), fugacity of CO{sub 2}, and pH data from twenty-three cruises were checked to determine whether there were systematic offsets of these parameters between cruises. The focus was on the DIC and TAlk state variables. Data quality and offsets of DIC and TAlk were determined by using several different techniques. One approach was based on crossover analyses, where the deep-water concentrations of DIC and TAlk were compared for stations on different cruises that were within 100 km of each other. Regional comparisons were also made by using a multiple-parameter linear regression technique in which DIC or TAlk was regressed against hydrographic and nutrient parameters. When offsets of greater than 4 {micro}mol/kg were observed for DIC and/or 6 {micro}mol/kg were observed for TAlk, the data taken on the cruise were closely scrutinized to determine whether the offsets were systematic. Based on these analyses, the DIC data and TAlk data of three cruises were deemed of insufficient quality to be included in the comprehensive basinwide data set. For several of the cruises, small adjustments in TAlk were recommended for consistency with other cruises in the region. After these adjustments were incorporated, the inorganic carbon data from all cruises along with hydrographic, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data were combined as a research quality product for the scientific community.

  20. A Comparison of Recurrent Non-specific Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Subjects in Variability of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Hedayati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to ivestigate of the postural strategies variability in low back pain patients, as a criterion in the adaptability evaluation of this system to the environmental demands and comparison of patients with healthy persons and also the importance of psychological factors associated with pain as an effective factor in postural disturbances was assessed. Materials & Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional and case-control study was performed on twenty one recurrent non-specific low back pain patients whom had been selected simply and conveniently and twenty one healthy persons whom had been matched with patients. The electromyographic activity of Deltoid, External Oblique, Transverse Abdominis / Internal Oblique and Erector Spinae muscles of each person was recorded in 75 rapid arm flexion with maximum acceleration. To study the patient’s avoidance belief and disability, two standard tools Fear-Avoidance Belief Questionnaire (FABQ and Roland-Morris Questionnaire were used respectively. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that chronic low back pain patients exhibit less variability in their anticipatory postural adjustments than the control group(P=0.047. However, the decrease in variability of the timing of anticipatory postural adjustments of External Oblique(P=0.45 and Erector Spinae(P=0.6 muscles was not significant. The correlation between the timing variability of anticipatory postural adjustments and fear-avoidance belief questionnaire scores was significant(P=0.006, however there was no significant correlation between this variable and disability(P=0.09 in the patients. Conclusion: There is a decrease in variability of postural control system of recurrent non-specific low back pain patients that can result in the persistence of pain and chronicity by decreasing the adaptability to environmental demands. The restoration of variability to

  1. A Comparison Between Impedance Measured by a Commercial Analyzer and your Value Adjusted by a Theoretical Model in Body Composition Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    suprailiac, thigh and calf sites, in order to get data to estimate FFM from antropometric parameters. The equations used for body composition estimate...Similarly, a scatter plot of the fat -free mass estimated from the new equation using Ztheo (FFMbia-adjusted) against our antropometric �gold...A COMPARISON BETWEEN IMPEDANCE MEASURED BY A COMMERCIAL ANALYZER AND YOUR VALUE ADJUSTED BY A THEORETICAL MODEL IN BODY COMPOSITION EVALUATION

  2. Is risk-adjusted mortality an indicator of quality of care in general surgery?: a comparison of risk adjustment to peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackford, Steven R; Hyman, Neil; Ben-Jacob, Talia; Ratliff, John

    2010-09-01

    Profiling of hospitals using risk-adjusted mortality rates as a measure of quality is becoming increasingly frequent. We sought to determine the validity of this approach by comparing the risk-adjusted predicted mortality to the findings of concurrent peer review and retrospective chart review of deaths that occur on a general surgery service. Consecutive patients admitted to a busy general surgery service from January 2000 to January 2006 were prospectively entered into the Surgical Activity Tracking System. Rigorous, systematic peer review was performed concurrently by service members on all deaths. Adjudication was later validated by an independent senior surgeon. Three methodologies of risk adjustment (University Health Consortium, Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality, and the Charlson index) were used and compared the "excess mortality" predicted by each to the number of potentially preventable deaths determined by peer review. A total of 9623 patients were admitted and 75 died (0.7%). University Health Consortium and Physiological and Operative Severity Score predicted an excess mortality of 62 and 65 deaths, respectively; Charlson predicted that 73% of the cohort would be dead in 1 year. Concurrent and retrospective peer review found that death was potentially preventable in only 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Peer adjudication and extensive clinical review adds much to the analysis of an adverse outcome, similar to the "black box" in an airplane crash. Although methods of risk adjustment may be helpful in identifying patients for peer review, they should be used for internal process improvement and not published as metrics of hospital or provider performance.

  3. Empirical comparison of four baseline covariate adjustment methods in analysis of continuous outcomes in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiyuan; Paul, James; Nantha-Aree, Manyat; Buckley, Norman; Shahzad, Uswa; Cheng, Ji; DeBeer, Justin; Winemaker, Mitchell; Wismer, David; Punthakee, Dinshaw; Avram, Victoria; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Although seemingly straightforward, the statistical comparison of a continuous variable in a randomized controlled trial that has both a pre- and posttreatment score presents an interesting challenge for trialists. We present here empirical application of four statistical methods (posttreatment scores with analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, change in scores, and percent change in scores), using data from a randomized controlled trial of postoperative pain in patients following total joint arthroplasty (the Morphine COnsumption in Joint Replacement Patients, With and Without GaBapentin Treatment, a RandomIzed ControlLEd Study [MOBILE] trials). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to adjust for baseline measures and to provide an unbiased estimate of the mean group difference of the 1-year postoperative knee flexion scores in knee arthroplasty patients. Robustness tests were done by comparing ANCOVA with three comparative methods: the posttreatment scores, change in scores, and percentage change from baseline. All four methods showed similar direction of effect; however, ANCOVA (-3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -9.5, 1.6; P=0.15) and the posttreatment score (-4.3; 95% CI: -9.8, 1.2; P=0.12) method provided the highest precision of estimate compared with the change score (-3.0; 95% CI: -9.9, 3.8; P=0.38) and percent change (-0.019; 95% CI: -0.087, 0.050; P=0.58). ANCOVA, through both simulation and empirical studies, provides the best statistical estimation for analyzing continuous outcomes requiring covariate adjustment. Our empirical findings support the use of ANCOVA as an optimal method in both design and analysis of trials with a continuous primary outcome.

  4. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  5. [Comparison of the Pressure on the Larynx and Tongue Using McGRATH® MAC Video Laryngoscope--Direct Vision versus Indirect Vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasutomo; Miyazaki, Yukiko; Kitakata, Hidenori; Shibuya, Hiromi; Okada, Toshiki

    2015-12-01

    Studies show that McGRATH® MAC (McG) is useful during direct laryngoscopy. However, no study has examined whether McG re- duces pressure on the upper airway tract We compared direct vision with indirect vision concerning pressure on the larynx and tongue. Twenty two anesthesiologists and 16 junior residents attempted direct laryngoscopy of airway management simulator using McG with direct vision and indirect vision. Pressure was measured using pressure measurement film. In anesthesiologists group, pressure on larynx was 14.8 ± 2.7 kgf · cm(-2) with direct vision and 12.7 ± 2.7 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P vision and 7.6 ± 2.8 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P = 0.18). In junior residents group, pressure on larynx was 19.0 ± 1.3 kgf · cm(-2) with direct vision and 14.1 ± 3.1 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P vision and 11.2 ± 4.7 kgf · cm(-2) with indirect vision (P vision can reduce pressure on the upper airway tract.

  6. Comparison of Indirect Nursing Interventions Performed by Korean and U.S. Nurses Using the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin

    2016-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify frequency and time spent performing indirect nursing interventions by Korean nurses, and to compare the time spent on indirect nursing interventions with estimates of time spent by U.S. nurses. Data were collected from 721 registered nurses working in eight hospitals in Korea. U.S. data were obtained from the fifth edition of the Nursing Interventions Classification published in 2008. Korean nurses took more time with 4 interventions, and U.S. nurses took more time with 13. In general, Korean nurses spent less time performing indirect interventions than did U.S. nurses. Information from this study will help nurse administrators in their decision-making processes regarding managing units and staffing. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  7. A prospective crossover comparison of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and pressure-support ventilation in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breatnach, Cormac

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation with pressure-support ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective, crossover comparison study. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Sixteen ventilated infants and children: mean age = 9.7 months (range = 2 days-4 yrs) and mean weight = 6.2 kg (range = 2.4-13.7kg). INTERVENTIONS: A modified nasogastric tube was inserted and correct positioning was confirmed. Patients were ventilated in pressure-support mode with a pneumatic trigger for a 30-min period and then in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode for up to 4 hrs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected for comparison included activating trigger (neural vs. pneumatic), peak and mean airway pressures, expired minute and tidal volumes, heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, end-tidal CO2 and arterial blood gases. Synchrony was improved in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode with 65% (+\\/-21%) of breaths triggered neurally vs. 35% pneumatically (p < .001) and 85% (+\\/-8%) of breaths cycled-off neurally vs. 15% pneumatically (p = .0001). The peak airway pressure in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was significantly lower than in pressure-support mode with a 28% decrease in pressure after 30 mins (p = .003) and 32% decrease after 3 hrs (p < .001). Mean airway pressure was reduced by 11% at 30 mins (p = .13) and 9% at 3 hrs (p = .31) in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode although this did not reach statistical significance. Patient hemodynamics and gas exchange remained stable for the study period. No adverse patient events or device effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit population, ventilation in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was associated with improved patient-ventilator synchrony and lower peak airway pressure when compared with pressure-support ventilation with a pneumatic trigger. Ventilating patients in this new mode

  8. Risk adjusting cesarean delivery rates: a comparison of hospital profiles based on medical record and birth certificate data.

    OpenAIRE

    DiGiuseppe, D L; Aron, D C; Payne, S M; Snow, R J; Dierker, L; Rosenthal, G E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Compare the discrimination of risk-adjustment models for primary cesarean delivery derived from medical record data and birth certificate data and determine if the two types of models yield similar hospital profiles of risk-adjusted cesarean delivery rates. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: The study involved 29,234 women without prior cesarean delivery admitted for labor and delivery in 1993-95 to 20 hospitals in northeast Ohio for whom data abstracted from patient medical records and ...

  9. Introducing a new generation indirect calorimeter for estimating energy requirements in adult intensive care unit patients: feasibility, practical considerations, and comparison with a mathematical equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Elisabeth; Spapen, Herbert; Honoré, Patrick M; Mattens, Sabrina; Van Gorp, Viola; Diltoer, Marc; Huyghens, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Indirect calorimetry (IC) is increasingly advocated for individualizing nutritional therapy in critically ill adult patients, but questions remain regarding its practical implementation. During 12 weeks, we prospectively assessed utility and practical aspects of IC use. Adult medico-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients were daily screened for malnutrition. Indirect calorimetry was planned in subjects considered unable to meet energy requirements on day 3 after admission. Measured energy expenditure (MEE) was compared with calculated (resting/total) energy expenditure. A total of 940 evaluations were performed in 266 patients (age, 63±16 years; 59% males; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 14±8). A total of 230 patients (86.5%) were at risk for malnutrition, and in 118 of them, IC was indicated. Practical considerations precluded measurements in 72 cases (61%). Forty-six calorimetric evaluations revealed an MEE of 1649±544 kcal per 24 hours that poorly correlated with calculated resting energy expenditure (r2=0.19) and calculated total energy expenditure (r2=0.20). Indirect calorimetry measurements were not time-consuming. Indirect calorimetry was indicated in half but effectively performed in only 20% of a representative intensive care unit population at risk for malnutrition. Correlation between MEE and CEE was poor. Indirect calorimetry is increasingly advocated for individualizing nutritional therapy in critically ill adult patients. Practical feasibility is tested in this study. Large differences between measured and calculated energy expenditure are observed. Together with patients' characteristics, feasibility results can guide clinicians or institutes in using IC in their daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  11. Comparison of Direct and Indirect Methods of Teaching Breast Self-Examination – Influence on Knowledge and Attitudes of Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Sara; Heidari, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Monthly breast self-examination (BSE) has been presented as one of the best screening methods available. The aim of this study was to compare effects of both direct and indirect methods of teaching of BSE on knowledge and attitudes of nursing and midwifery personnel. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed on 89 nursing and midwifery personnel in Valiasr hospital of Borujen city. Participants were randomly divided into a direct and an indirect training group. Researcher-designed BSE knowledge and attitude and demographic information questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Before the education intervention, the mean levels of knowledge and attitude were 9.82±2.79 and 56.5±6.21 in the direct training group and 9.59±2.71 and 54.5±4.51 in the indirect training group; after the intervention, they reached 19.2±0.96 and 62.9±4.21, and 11.0±2.58 and 59.0±3.44, respectively. The difference in the mean levels of knowledge and attitude were significantly higher in the direct training group post intervention (P<0.05). Conclusion: It appears that educational planners and hospital personnel education officials should seek to teach aspects of crucial health behavior to female personnel using cooperative and direct training methods. PMID:28548468

  12. Comparison of Direct and Indirect Methods of Teaching Breast Self-Examination – Influence on Knowledge and Attitudes of Iranian Nursing and Midwifery Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Sara; Heidari, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour

    2017-04-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Monthly breast self-examination (BSE) has been presented as one of the best screening methods available. The aim of this study was to compare effects of both direct and indirect methods of teaching of BSE on knowledge and attitudes of nursing and midwifery personnel. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed on 89 nursing and midwifery personnel in Valiasr hospital of Borujen city. Participants were randomly divided into a direct and an indirect training group. Researcher-designed BSE knowledge and attitude and demographic information questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Before the education intervention, the mean levels of knowledge and attitude were 9.82±2.79 and 56.5±6.21 in the direct training group and 9.59±2.71 and 54.5±4.51 in the indirect training group; after the intervention, they reached 19.2±0.96 and 62.9±4.21, and 11.0±2.58 and 59.0±3.44, respectively. The difference in the mean levels of knowledge and attitude were significantly higher in the direct training group post intervention (Pteach aspects of crucial health behavior to female personnel using cooperative and direct training methods. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  14. Comparison of Methods for Adjusting Incorrect Assignments of Items to Subtests Oblique Multiple Group Method Versus Confirmatory Common Factor Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    2009-01-01

    A common question in test evaluation is whether an a priori assignment of items to subtests is supported by empirical data. If the analysis results indicate the assignment of items to subtests under study is not supported by data, the assignment is often adjusted. In this study the authors compare

  15. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: Comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features

    OpenAIRE

    Tarbox, Sarah I.; Brown, Leslie H.; Haas, Gretchen L.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia...

  16. The combined geodetic network adjusted on the reference ellipsoid – a comparison of three functional models for GNSS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadaj Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment problem of the so-called combined (hybrid, integrated network created with GNSS vectors and terrestrial observations has been the subject of many theoretical and applied works. The network adjustment in various mathematical spaces was considered: in the Cartesian geocentric system on a reference ellipsoid and on a mapping plane. For practical reasons, it often takes a geodetic coordinate system associated with the reference ellipsoid. In this case, the Cartesian GNSS vectors are converted, for example, into geodesic parameters (azimuth and length on the ellipsoid, but the simple form of converted pseudo-observations are the direct differences of the geodetic coordinates. Unfortunately, such an approach may be essentially distorted by a systematic error resulting from the position error of the GNSS vector, before its projection on the ellipsoid surface. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of this error on the determined measures of geometric ellipsoid elements, including the differences of geodetic coordinates or geodesic parameters is presented. Assuming that the adjustment of a combined network on the ellipsoid shows that the optimal functional approach in relation to the satellite observation, is to create the observational equations directly for the original GNSS Cartesian vector components, writing them directly as a function of the geodetic coordinates (in numerical applications, we use the linearized forms of observational equations with explicitly specified coefficients. While retaining the original character of the Cartesian vector, one avoids any systematic errors that may occur in the conversion of the original GNSS vectors to ellipsoid elements, for example the vector of the geodesic parameters. The problem is theoretically developed and numerically tested. An example of the adjustment of a subnet loaded from the database of reference stations of the ASG-EUPOS system was considered for the preferred functional

  17. Measuring the productivity of residential long-term care in England: methods for quality adjustment and regional comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Forder, Julien; Nizalova, Olena

    2017-06-01

    Productivity trend information is valuable in developing policy and for understanding changes in the 'value for money' of the care system. In this paper, we consider approaches to measuring productivity of adult social care (ASC), and particularly care home services. Productivity growth in the public sector is traditionally measured by comparing change in total output to change in total inputs, but has not accounted for changes in service quality and need. In this study, we propose a method to estimate 'quality adjusted' output based on indicators of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT), using data collected in the annual adult social care survey (ASCS). When combined with expenditure and activity data for 2010 to 2012, we found that this approach was feasible to implement with current data and that it altered the productivity results compared with non-adjusted productivity metrics. Overall, quality-adjusted productivity grew in most regions between 2010 and 2011 and remained unchanged for most regions from 2011 to 2012.

  18. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Sarah I; Brown, Leslie H; Haas, Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia (n=68), schizoaffective disorder (n=22), and mood disorder with psychotic features (n=15). Social and academic maladjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Worse social functioning in late adolescence was associated with higher odds of schizophrenia compared to odds of either schizoaffective disorder or mood disorder with psychotic features, independently of child and early adolescent maladjustment. Greater social dysfunction in childhood was associated with higher odds of schizoaffective disorder compared to odds of schizophrenia. Premorbid decline in academic adjustment was observed for all groups, but did not predict diagnosis at any stage of development. Results suggest that social functioning is disrupted in the premorbid phase of both schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but remains fairly stable in mood disorders with psychotic features. Disparities in the onset and time course of social dysfunction suggest important developmental differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: comparisons across gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.

  20. Comparison of enamel-bracket bond strength using direct- and indirect-bonding techniques with a self-etching ion releasing S-PRG filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresa; Mayoral, Juan R; Giner, Lluís; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of two systems for bonding orthodontic brackets to enamel. The first system involved a self-etching primer (Beauty Ortho Bond, BO) containing surface pre-reacted glass filler. The second involved a primer applied with phosphoric acid etching (Transbond XT, TX). Ninety-six extracted human premolars were divided into eight groups: Group I (TX/direct bonding), Group II (TX/indirect bonding), Group III (BO/direct bonding), and Group IV (BO/indirect bonding). Groups V-VIII were identical to Groups I-IV, respectively, but were also subjected to 1,500 thermal cycles between 5 and 55°C. ARI was scored by binocular microscopy. SBS was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni test. ARI was analyzed by the chi-squared test. The BO groups showed lower SBS and ARI results than the TX groups. SBS was significantly influenced by the primer material, bonding technique, and thermal cycling.

  1. Comparison between intraoral indirect and conventional film-based imaging for the detection of dental root fractures: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Werner H; Venturin, Jaqueline S; Noujeim, Marcel; Dove, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    Digital intraoral radiographic systems have been rapidly replacing conventional dental X-ray films for diagnosis of dental diseases. Current scientific literature supports the use of these digital systems for the detection of dental caries, periodontal bone loss, and periapical pathologies. However, relatively few studies have been published addressing the detection of dental root fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoral F-speed film (Insight) with two photostimulable phosphor (PSP) indirect digital systems (ScanX and Digora Optime) for the detection of simulated dental root fractures. Ten raters evaluated images acquired from 10 dry human cadaver mandibles under optimal viewing conditions. These data were analyzed by a 5-point receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for statistical differences. Sensitivity and specificity of these systems were also assessed. Since statistically significant difference between the systems was not observed, the results of this study agreeably support indirect digital PSP plates as an alternative to the evaluated conventional film for the detection of dental root fractures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-02-18

    To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement "gold standard" among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life.

  3. Social cognition of indirect speech: Evidence from Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Holtgraves, Thomas; Durso, Raymon; Harris, Erica

    2010-03-01

    We examined potential neurocognitive mechanisms of indirect speech in support of face management in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 32 elderly controls with chronic disease. In experiment 1, we demonstrated automatic activation of indirect meanings of particularized implicatures in controls but not in PD patients. Failure to automatically engage comprehension of indirect meanings of indirect speech acts in PD patients was correlated with a measure of prefrontal dysfunction. In experiment 2, we showed that while PD patients and controls offered similar interpretations of indirect speech acts, PD participants were overly confident in their interpretations and unaware of errors of interpretation. Efficient reputational adjustment mechanisms apparently require intact striatal-prefrontal networks.

  4. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations o...

  5. Conceptualizing and measuring illness self-concept: a comparison with self-esteem and optimism in predicting fibromyalgia adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morea, Jessica M; Friend, Ronald; Bennett, Robert M

    2008-12-01

    Illness self-concept (ISC), or the extent to which individuals are consumed by their illness, was theoretically described and evaluated with the Illness Self-Concept Scale (ISCS), a new 23-item scale, to predict adjustment in fibromyalgia. To establish convergent and discriminant validity, illness self-concept was compared to self-esteem and optimism in predicting health status, illness intrusiveness, depression, and life satisfaction. The ISCS demonstrated good reliability (alpha = .94; test-retest r = .80) and was a strong predictor of outcomes, even after controlling for optimism or self-esteem. The ISCS predicted unique variance in health-related outcomes; optimism and self-esteem did not, providing construct validation. Illness self-concept may play a significant role in coping with fibromyalgia and may prove useful in the evaluation of other chronic illnesses. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reference limits of plasma and serum creatinine concentrations from intra-laboratory data bases of several German and Italian medical centres: Comparison between direct and indirect procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzideh, Farhad; Wosniok, Werner; Haeckel, Rainer

    2010-02-01

    The current dogma of establishing intra-laboratory reference limits (RLs) and their periodical reviewing cannot be fulfilled by most laboratories due to the expenses involved. Thus, most laboratories adopt external sources for their RLs often neglecting the problems of transferability. Therefore, several attempts were undertaken to derive RLs from the large data pools stored in modern laboratory information systems. These attempts were further developed to a more sophisticated indirect procedure. The new model can be considered a combined approach because it pre-excludes some subjects by direct criteria. In the current study, the new concept was applied to estimate RLs for serum and plasma creatinine from several German and Italian laboratories. A smoothed kernel density function was estimated for the distribution of the total mixed data of the sample group (combined data of non-diseased and diseased subjects). It was assumed that the "central" part of the distribution of all data represents the non-diseased ("healthy") population. The central part was defined by truncation points using an optimisation method, and was used to estimate a Gaussian distribution of the values of presumably non-diseased subjects after Box-Cox transformation of the empirical data. This distribution was now considered as the distribution of the non-diseased subgroup. The percentiles of this parametrical distribution were calculated to obtain RLs. RLs determined by the indirect combined decomposition technique led to similar RLs as the classical direct method. Furthermore, the RLs obtained from 14 laboratories in 2 different European regions reflected the well-known differences of various analytical procedures. Stratification for gender and age was necessary. With rising age, an increase of the upper RL and of the reference range was observed. Hospitalization appeared also to affect the RLs. The new approach led to RLs in an artificially mixed population of diseased and non

  7. Comparison of an indirect ELISA with the Brucella milk ring test for detection of antibodies to Brucella abortus in bulk milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzini, V R; Aguirre, N P; Valentini, B S; Torioni de Echaide, S; Lugaresi, C I; Marchesino, M D; Nielsen, K

    2001-09-03

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk samples was evaluated. About 31 individual milk samples from B. abortus infected cows were diluted into bulk milk from a brucellosis free herd. Individual milk samples obtained from 96 negative or positive herds to ELISA or Brucella ring test (BRT), were tested by ELISA. All positive cows were bled and serum samples were tested by the complement-fixation test (CFT) which was considered the definitive test. A herd was considered infected if at least, one cow was positive in the CFT. Four samples were negative in the BRT at the dilution 1:10 but positive in the ELISA. For samples positive in both tests, BRT titers ranged from 1:10 to 1:480 while ELISA titers ranged from 1:10 to 1:3200. Using bulk milk samples, the sensitivity of the ELISA (98.1%) was higher than the BRT (72.2%) but the specificity of BRT (90.5%) was not statistically different (P=1.0) from the ELISA (88.1%). The implications of the results for brucellosis control are discussed.

  8. [Comparison of the indirect immunofluorescence assay performance of Bartonella henselae antigens obtained by co-cultivation in Vero and HeLa cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Cağrı; Akkaya, Yüksel; Kiriş Satılmış, Ozgün; Yılmaz, Cansev

    2011-07-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection is mainly based on serological testing by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Cell line co-cultivation with B.henselae and agar derivated antigens are the two major procedures used for evaluation of anti-Bartonella antibodies. Vero and Hep-2 cell lines are the most commonly used media for co-cultivation both in-house and commercial diagnostic kits production. However, HeLa cells which are easily supplied and grown, also can easily be infected by B.henselae. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of antigens obtained by co-cultivation of B.henselae ATCC 49882 (Houston-1) in Vero and HeLa Cells in IFA serology. Out of 381 sera samples, 127 (33.3%) were found positive and 195 (51.2%) were found negative by IFA performed by both cell line co-cultivations. The total agreement between the methods were found as 84.5% (322/381), and Cohen kappa value was calculated as 0.68 (strong, coherent). As a result, He-La cells were found to be useful for the preparation of B.henselae antigens to be used in IFA for the serologic diagnosis of B.henselae infections. However different genotype strains and cross reactions with other infectious agents should be investigated by further studies before routine applications of HeLa cell co-cultivations procedure is established.

  9. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  10. An Improved Label-Free Indirect Competitive SPR Immunosensor and Its Comparison with Conventional ELISA for Ractopamine Detection in Swine Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ractopamine (RCT is banned for use in animals in many countries, and it is urgent to develop efficient methods for specific and sensitive RCT detection. A label-free indirect competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR immunosensor was first developed with a primary antibody herein and then improved by a secondary antibody for the detection of RCT residue in swine urine. Meanwhile, a pre-incubation process of RCT and the primary antibody was performed to further improve the sensitivity. With all the key parameters optimized, the improved immunosenor can attain a linear range of 0.3–32 ng/mL and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.09 ng/mL for RCT detection with high specificity. Furthermore, the improved label-free SPR immunosenor was compared thoroughly with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The SPR immunosensor showed advantages over the ELISA in terms of LOD, reagent consumption, analysis time, experiment automation, and so on. The SPR immunosensor can be used as potential method for real-time monitoring and screening of RCT residue in swine urine or other samples. In addition, the design using antibody pairs for biosensor development can be further referred to for other small molecule detection.

  11. A comparison of two sleep spindle detection methods based on all night averages: individually adjusted versus fixed frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Przemyslaw Ujma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are frequently studied for their relationship with state and trait cognitive variables, and they are thought to play an important role in sleep-related memory consolidation. Due to their frequent occurrence in NREM sleep, the detection of sleep spindles is only feasible using automatic algorithms, of which a large number is available. We compared subject averages of the spindle parameters computed by a fixed frequency (11-13 Hz for slow spindles, 13-15 Hz for fast spindles automatic detection algorithm and the individual adjustment method (IAM, which uses individual frequency bands for sleep spindle detection. Fast spindle duration and amplitude are strongly correlated in the two algorithms, but there is little overlap in fast spindle density and slow spindle parameters in general. The agreement between fixed and manually determined sleep spindle frequencies is limited, especially in case of slow spindles. This is the most likely reason for the poor agreement between the two detection methods in case of slow spindle parameters. Our results suggest that while various algorithms may reliably detect fast spindles, a more sophisticated algorithm primed to individual spindle frequencies is necessary for the detection of slow spindles as well as individual variations in the number of spindles in general.

  12. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  13. Cross-kingdom comparison of transcriptomic adjustments to low-oxygen stress highlights conserved and plant-specific responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustroph, Angelika; Lee, Seung Cho; Oosumi, Teruko; Zanetti, Maria Eugenia; Yang, Huijun; Ma, Kelvin; Yaghoubi-Masihi, Arbi; Fukao, Takeshi; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2010-03-01

    High-throughput technology has facilitated genome-scale analyses of transcriptomic adjustments in response to environmental perturbations with an oxygen deprivation component, such as transient hypoxia or anoxia, root waterlogging, or complete submergence. We showed previously that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings elevate the levels of hundreds of transcripts, including a core group of 49 genes that are prioritized for translation across cell types of both shoots and roots. To recognize low-oxygen responses that are evolutionarily conserved versus species specific, we compared the transcriptomic reconfiguration in 21 organisms from four kingdoms (Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Bacteria). Sorting of organism proteomes into clusters of putative orthologs identified broadly conserved responses associated with glycolysis, fermentation, alternative respiration, metabolite transport, reactive oxygen species amelioration, chaperone activity, and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially regulated genes involved in signaling and transcriptional regulation were poorly conserved across kingdoms. Strikingly, nearly half of the induced mRNAs of Arabidopsis seedlings encode proteins of unknown function, of which over 40% had up-regulated orthologs in poplar (Populus trichocarpa), rice (Oryza sativa), or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Sixteen HYPOXIA-RESPONSIVE UNKNOWN PROTEIN (HUP) genes, including four that are Arabidopsis specific, were ectopically overexpressed and evaluated for their effect on seedling tolerance to oxygen deprivation. This allowed the identification of HUPs coregulated with genes associated with anaerobic metabolism and other processes that significantly enhance or reduce stress survival when ectopically overexpressed. These findings illuminate both broadly conserved and plant-specific low-oxygen stress responses and confirm that plant-specific HUPs with limited phylogenetic distribution influence low-oxygen stress endurance.

  14. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  15. Management of trauma pain in the emergency setting: low-dose methoxyflurane or nitrous oxide? A systematic review and indirect treatment comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Keith M; Siddiqui, Mohd Kashif; Sharma, Ikksheta; Dickerson, Sara; Eberhardt, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Background Low-dose methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide (N2O; 50:50 with oxygen) are both self-administered, self-titrated, rapid-acting, nonnarcotic, and noninvasive inhalational agents with similar onset times of pain relief. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these analgesics in emergency care. Materials and methods A systematic literature search and review according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were performed using Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, several clinical trial registers, and emergency-medicine conference material. Results Although both compounds have been used for many years in emergency care, the search found only a few controlled studies and no head-to-head trials performed in this setting. Two double-blind, randomized studies comparing their respective study medication (low-dose methoxyflurane or N2O) to placebo were identified that could be compared in an indirect approach by using placebo as a bridging comparator. Both agents provided rapid pain relief to trauma patients, with no significant differences between them; both treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusion Both low-dose methoxyflurane and N2O are suitable options for the pain treatment of trauma patients in the emergency setting. Due to the ease of administration and portability, inhaled low-dose methoxyflurane, however, may not only offer advantages in emergency situations in remote or difficult-to-reach locations and mass-casualty situations but also be of significant value in urban and rural environments. PMID:29302193

  16. Recruiting former melanoma patients via hospitals in comparison to office-based dermatologists in a register-based cohort study that required indirect contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Zeissig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are detailed reviews about different recruitment strategies, but not with regard to differences between recruitment of hospital-based versus office-based physicians. Within this study, the two different recruitment schemes are compared. Advantages and disadvantages of different ways of recruitment in registry-based studies are discussed. Methods In a cross-sectional cancer-registry-based study, long-term melanoma patients were contacted by dermatologists rather than directly by the registry on the basis of the legal situation. Logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to assess effects of various patient and physician characteristics on participation and data quality. Especially differences between hospital-based versus office-based dermatologists are evaluated. Results Seventy two out of 112 contacted dermatologists took part in the study (64.3%. The cooperation proportion was 52.2% (689 participants/1320 contacted patients. Participants and non-participants differed regarding age and sex, but not regarding other social demographic factors and cancer stage. We did not observe a difference in patient participation between hospital-based versus office-based dermatologists (OR 1.08 [CI 0.84–1.39]; p = 0.57. However, medical data provided by the cancer registry were better for participants registered and recruited by hospitals. Conclusions In cohort studies with epidemiological cancer registries, recruitment via physicians has potential disadvantages and is more complex. If this indirect way of contact is mandatory, we recommend recruitment procedures including hospital-based rather than office-based physicians. However, physician characteristics were not associated with outcome.

  17. Cuff filling volumes for pediatric classic laryngeal mask airways: comparison of clinical end points versus adjusted cuff pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Babita; Sethi, Sameer; Ram, Jagat; Wig, Jyotsna

    2013-02-01

    Clinical end points are often used to guide inflation and adequacy of cuff seal after laryngeal mask airway placement. However, clinical end points for cuff inflation have been shown to have significantly higher intracuff pressure. The adjusted cuff pressure between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O causes significantly better seal of laryngeal mask airway. We prospectively assessed the cuff pressures generated by cuff inflation guided by clinical end points, and the actual volume of air required to achieve cuff pressures between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O for sizes 1-2.5 reusable classic laryngeal mask airway. Two hundred and three ASA I and II children undergoing elective cataract surgery requiring general anesthesia receiving laryngeal mask airway sizes 1-2.5 were recruited to this study. The laryngeal mask airway was placed using standard technique. After insertion of laryngeal mask airway, the cuff was slowly inflated until a slight outward shift of device was noted. Cuff pressures were measured using calibrated hand held Portex Cuff Inflator Pressure Gauge (Portex Limited, Hythe, Kent, UK). If the cuff pressure was >60 cm H(2)O, the cuff was deflated to achieve a cuff pressure of 55-60 cm H(2)O. The volume of air required to achieve this pressure was recorded. The volume of air required to achieve the pressure between 55 and 60 cm H(2)O in laryngeal mask airway size 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 were 2.750 ± 0.2565, 4.951 ± 0.5378, 6.927 ± 0.6328, and 10.208 ± 1.4535 ml, respectively. The difference between the initial and the final cuff volumes and pressures in all laryngeal mask airway sizes were statistically significant(P = 0.000). Lower cuff volumes are required to achieve a pressure of 60 cm H(2)O than those required if clinical end points are used as a sole guide for determining cuff inflation for patients receiving pediatric laryngeal mask airways. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Technical Note: Comparison between a direct and the standard, indirect method for dissolved organic nitrogen determination in freshwater environments with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Graeber

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON in aquatic systems with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, the sum of NO3, NO2 and NH4+ concentrations is often hampered by high uncertainties regarding the determined DON concentration. The reason is that DON is determined indirectly as the difference between total dissolved nitrogen (TDN and DIN. In this standard approach to determine DON concentrations, even small relative measurement errors of the DIN and TDN concentrations propagate into high absolute errors of DON concentrations at high DIN : TDN ratios. To improve the DON measurement accuracy at high DIN : TDN ratios, we investigated the DON measurement accuracy of this standard approach according to the DIN : TDN ratio and compared it to the direct measurement of DON by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC for freshwater systems. For this, we used standard compounds and natural samples with and without DIN enrichment. We show that for the standard approach, large errors of the determined DON concentrations at DIN : TDN ratios >0.6 occur for both standard compounds and natural samples. In contrast, measurements of DON by SEC always gave low errors at high DIN : TDN ratios due to the successful separation of DON from DIN. For SEC, DON recovery rates were 91–108% for five pure standard compounds and 89–103% for two standard compounds, enriched with DIN. Moreover, SEC resulted in 93–108% recovery rates for DON concentrations of natural samples at a DIN : TDN ratio of 0.8 and the technique was successfully applied to a range of samples from waste water treatment plants to forest and agricultural streams. With 2.5 h of measurement time per sample, SEC is slower, but more accurate than the standard approach for determination of DON concentrations in freshwaters with DIN : TDN ratios >0.6. To sum up, the direct DON measurement by SEC enables better understanding of the

  19. Chiropractic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Results Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only a modest benefit — similar to the results of more conventional treatments. Some studies suggest that spinal manipulation also may ...

  20. [Comparison of effects of systemic (intramuscular) and intrastriatal injections of D1-dopamine receptor blocker on motor behavior and postural adjustment in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, K B; Kamkina, Iu V

    2008-01-01

    The study is based on the concept (Shapovalova, 2000) that activation and blockade of various types of muscarine and dopamine receptors located at various outputs of neostriatum should have different effects on motor behavior. The goal of the study was comparison of effects of systemic and intrastriatal injections of a selective blocker of D1 dopamine receptors on motor behavior. Experiments were carried out on 5 dogs on a model of instrumental defensive reflex (IDR) connected with keeping a certain flexor posture. Performance of the experiments, recording, storage, and analysis of data were accomplished with aid of original programs for PC. Systemic (intramuscular) administration of the blocker of D1 dopamine receptors SCH23390 at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg led to a sharp decrease of the IDR amplitude and in most cases--to the complete refusal of its performance. First of all, the phasic component of the instrumental response was inhibited, the diagonal pattern of the postural adjustment being preserved. Bilateral microinjections into the dog neostriatum of the same blocker of D1 receptors at a dose of 0.1 and 1.0 g did not change the percent of correct solution of the instrumental task, but at the same time produced a great number of changes in motorics: latent period of response increased statistically significantly, in some cases its amplitude rose, phasity decreased, intersignal raisings of limbs ceased completely. The obtained data allow the following conclusions to be made. 1. Difference of effects of systemic and intrastriatal injections of SCH23390 seems to be due to that at its systemic administration, D1 receptors of other structures, not only of neostriatum, can also be blocked. 2. Effect of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system on neostriatum via D1 receptors is complex - activation of motor activity (projectional spine neurons of the direct pathway) and a weak modulation of mental process (large spineless cholinergic interneurons). 3. Regulation of movement

  1. Indirect Control and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesarino Bertini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine who has the power within a stock corporate company can be a quite complex problem, especially when control is achieved through alliances between shareholders. This problem arises especially in cases of indirect control of corporations, that is, in situations involving shareholders and companies with cross-shareholdings. The first to solve the problem of measuring power in the case of indirect share control were Gianfranco Gambarelli and Guillermo Owen in [10]. In the following years, numerous other models were introduced. In this paper, we critically examine the models of: Gambarelli and Owen, Denti and Prati, Crama and Leruth, Karos and Peters, as well as Mercik and Lobos, taking into account two well-known, illustrative examples, one with an acyclic corporate structure and the other with a cyclic structure. (original abstract

  2. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes.

  3. Dark Matter Indirect Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Lavalle, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The astronomical dark matter could be made of weakly interacting and massive particles. If so, these species would be abundant inside the Milky Way, where they would continuously annihilate and produce cosmic rays. Those annihilation products are potentially detectable at the Earth, and could provide indirect clues for the presence of dark matter species within the Galaxy. We will review here the various cosmic radiations which the dark matter can produce. We will examine how they propagate t...

  4. Practice-based randomized controlled-comparison clinical trial of chiropractic adjustments and brief massage treatment at sites of subluxation in subjects with essential hypertension: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaugher, Gregory; Long, Cynthia R; Alcantara, Joel; Silveus, Alyssa D; Wood, Herbert; Lotun, Kapildeo; Menke, J Michael; Meeker, William C; Rowe, Stephen H

    2002-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial in the private practice setting examining short- and long-term effects of chiropractic adjustments for subjects with essential hypertension compared with a brief soft tissue massage, as well as a nontreatment control group. Randomized controlled-comparison trial with 3 parallel groups. Private practice outpatient chiropractic clinic. Twenty-three subjects, aged 24 to 50 years with systolic or diastolic essential hypertension. Two months of full-spine chiropractic care (ie, Gonstead) consisting primarily of specific-contact, short-lever-arm adjustments delivered at motion segments exhibiting signs of subluxation. The massage group had a brief effleurage procedure delivered at localized regions of the spine believed to be exhibiting signs of subluxation. The nontreatment control group rested alone for a period of approximately 5 minutes in an adjustment room. Cost per enrolled subject, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) measured with a random-0 sphygmomanometer and patient reported health status (SF-36). Pilot study outcome measures also included an assessment of cooperation of subjects to randomization procedures and drop-out rates, recruitment effectiveness, analysis of temporal stability of BPs at the beginning of care, and the effects of inclusion/exclusion criteria on the subject pool. Thirty subjects enrolled, yielding a cost of $161 per enrolled subject. One subject was later determined to be ineligible, and 6 others dropped out. In both the chiropractic and massage therapy groups, all subjects were classified as either overweight or obese; in the control group there were only 2 classified as such. SF-36 profiles for the groups were similar to that of a normal population. The mean change in diastolic BP was -4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -8.6, 0.5) in the chiropractic care group, 0.5 (95% CI: -3.5, 4.5) in the brief massage treatment group, and -4.9 (95% CI: -9.7, -0

  5. Indirect evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, M.J.; Chapman, H.L.; Pescod, D.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics and applications of three indirect evaporative cooling systems are described. The rock bed regenerative unit is now in licensed production and some operational experience is available, while the plastic plate heat exchanger unit has been demonstrated to be effective. A third system, based on a rotary heat exchanger is included. Although less development has been done on it, several successful applications of the heat exchanger are operational. All systems provide comfort cooling in which building indoor temperature varies over the day at an operating cost less than 50% of that of a comparable refrigerated cooling system.

  6. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  8. Indirect laminate veneers as an indirect bonding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Ken; Miwa, Hideyuki; Goto, Shigemi; Kondo, Takamasa

    2004-01-01

    Indirect bracket bonding methods that use individual tooth transfer trays offer several benefits compared to direct bonding techniques, as well as to indirect bonding systems that use transfer trays that include all of the teeth. Precise and correct bracket position presents the most significant advantage of all indirect bonding procedures, but this new indirect bracket bonding technique also provides unprecedented enamel protection and caries prevention. In addition, it provides accuracy for the recementation of any loose, broken, or lost brackets at their previous sites. This article presents the rationale and a step-by-step guide for implementing this indirect bracket bonding system.

  9. Comparative evaluation of group-based mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment and management of chronic pain disorders: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis with indirect comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchard, Taylor; Lepage, Chris; Hutton, Brian; Skidmore, Becky; Poulin, Patricia A

    2014-11-10

    Chronic pain disorders impact the physical, psychological, social, and financial well-being of between 10%-30% of Canadians. The primary aims of psychological interventions targeting chronic pain disorders are to reduce patients' pain-related disability and to improve their quality of life. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the prevailing treatment for chronic pain, however mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has displayed promise as an alternative treatment option. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to compare MBSR to CBT in their relative ability to reduce pain-related disability and intensity, to alleviate emotional distress, and to improve global functioning in chronic pain patients. We will conduct a systematic review with meta-analyses to compare MBSR to CBT in the treatment of chronic pain disorders in adults. We will report our review according to the recommendations provided by the PRISMA statement. Randomized studies will be included and the literature search will comprise Ovid MEDLINE®, Ovid MEDLINE® In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Embase Classic+Embase, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library on Wiley, including CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, and HTA. Study selection and data extraction will be conducted by independent investigators and in duplicate. Outcomes of interest will include pain interference, pain intensity, emotional functioning, and patient global impression of change. The Cochrane risk of bias tool will be used to assess risk of bias of included studies. As we anticipate that scales used to measure participant responses will be related but varied from study to study, standardized mean differences will be used to compare effect sizes between treatment modalities. Given the possibility of little or no head-to-head evidence comparing MBSR with CBT, we will use indirect treatment comparison methodology to assess the relative effectiveness of these interventions. The findings from

  10. Age and gender adjusted comparison of clinical features between severe cases infected with H7N9 and H1N1pdm influenza A in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Huo

    Full Text Available Influenza H7N9 and H1N1pdm can cause severe human infections. It is important to investigate the distinguishing clinical features between these two diseases. Several studies have compared the differences in general, however, age and gender adjusted comparisons may be more useful and informative to the health professionals.A total of 184 severe H1N1pdm patients and 37 severe H7N9 patients from Jiangsu Province were included in this analysis to perform age and gender adjusted comparison of clinical features.After adjusting age and gender, no significant differences in chronic medical conditions or treatment were found between severely ill patients with H7N9 and H1N1pdm. Severely ill patients with H7N9 had significantly longer interval from onset of illness to neuraminidase inhibitor treatment and to death. They were more likely to have complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, liver and renal dysfunctions, and had a significantly higher risk of death.Our results suggests that age and gender should be adjusted as important confounding factors when comparing the clinical features between severe H7N9 and H1N1pdm patients to avoid any misunderstanding regarding the differences between these two diseases particularly in terms of clinical severity and prognosis.

  11. Comparison of intraocular pressure adjusted by central corneal thickness or corneal biomechanical properties as measured in glaucomatous eyes using noncontact tonometers and the Goldmann applanation tonometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoeda K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kiyoshi Yaoeda,1,2 Atsushi Fukushima,1 Motohiro Shirakashi,3 Takeo Fukuchi2 1Yaoeda Eye Clinic, Nagaoka, 2Division of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 3Kido Eye Clinic, Niigata, Japan Purpose: To investigate the correlation coefficients between intraocular pressure (IOP before and after adjusting for central corneal thickness (CCT and corneal biomechanical properties. Patients and methods: A total of 218 eyes of 218 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (mean age =71.5 years; mean spherical equivalent =-0.51 D; mean deviation determined by Humphrey visual field analyzer =-3.22 dB were included in this study. The tIOP and tIOPCCT, which were adjusted by the CCT (with tIOP meaning IOP not adjusted by CCT, as determined using the CT-1P; and tIOPCCT meaning IOP adjusted by CCT, as determined using the CT-1P, were determined using a noncontact tonometer. The IOPg and IOPCCT, which were adjusted by CCT, and IOPcc adjusted by corneal biomechanical properties were determined using a Reichert 7CR (with IOPg meaning IOP not adjusted by CCT or corneal biomechanical properties, as determined using the Reichert 7CR; IOPCCT meaning IOP adjusted by CCT, as determined using the Reichert 7CR; and IOPcc meaning IOP adjusted by corneal biomechanical properties, as determined using the Reichert 7CR. The GT and GTCCT adjusted by CCT were determined using a Goldmann applanation tonometer (with GT meaning IOP not adjusted by CCT, as determined using the Goldmann applanation tonometer; and with GTCCT meaning IOP adjusted by CCT, as determined using the GAT. Pearson’s correlation coefficients among the IOPs were calculated and compared. P-values <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: The tIOP, tIOPCCT, IOPg, IOPCCT, IOPcc, GT, and GTCCT were 14.8±2.5, 15.0±2.4, 13.1±3.2, 13.3±3.1, 13.7±2.9, 13.2±2.4, and 13.4±2.3 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation, respectively. The

  12. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  13. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  14. Net energy of hemp hulls and processed hemp hull products fed to growing pigs and the comparison of net energy determined via indirect calorimetry and calculated from prediction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the NE of hemp hulls (HH), extruded HH (EHH), and a blended product of HH with pea (HHP) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry (IC) and to determine effects of dietary fiber on heat production (HP) and fasting HP (FHP). Twenty-four growing barrows with an average initial BW of 22.9 ± 1.75 kg were individually housed in adjustable metabolism crates. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates per treatment. A corn-soybean meal basal diet was prepared. Three additional diets were formulated to contain a constant ratio of corn and soybean meal and each of the test ingredients. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 16 d including 10 d for adaptation and 6 d for total collection of feces and urine to determine DE and ME of experimental diets. Pigs were then moved into IC chambers to determine HP and FHP. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM was greater ( < 0.01) in the HHP diet than in the HH and EHH diets but less ( < 0.01) than in the basal diet. Similarly, the ATTD of GE in the basal diet was greater ( < 0.01) compared with the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. The DE, ME, and NE of the basal diet were greater ( < 0.01) than those of the HH, EHH, and HHP diets. No significant differences were observed for the HP (on average, 1,904 kcal/kg DM) and FHP (on average, 1,320 kcal/kg DM) among treatments. However, the retained energy of pigs fed the basal diet (1,763 kcal/kg DM) was greater ( < 0.05) than for those fed the HH (1,501 kcal/kg DM) and HHP (1,482 kcal/kg DM) diets. The NE:ME ratio tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.10) for the basal diet (0.85) than for the HH (0.82), EHH (0.82), and HHP (0.83) diets. The NE of HH, EHH, and HHP determined by the IC method were 2,375, 2,320, and 2,399 kcal/kg DM, respectively, whereas values calculated using published prediction equations were 2,308, 2,161, and 2,278 kcal/kg DM, respectively. However there was no difference between determined and

  15. The Adjustment Problems Faced by International and Overseas Chinese Students Studying in Taiwan Universities: A Comparison of Student and Faculty/Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John R.; Galloway, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 15 years the number of international students studying at universities in Taiwan has increased dramatically; however, to date, there have been few studies that measured the cultural adjustment problems that this diverse group of students experience. To remedy this problem, this study gathered data from 1,174 international students…

  16. Comparison of (semi-)automatic and manually adjusted measurements of left ventricular function in dual source computed tomography using three different software tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, G. J.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.; Overbosch, J.; Litcheva Gueorguieva, A.; Janssen-van der Weide, M. C.; Oudkerk, M.

    To assess the accuracy of (semi-)automatic measurements of left ventricular (LV) functional parameters in cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) compared to manually adjusted measurements in three different workstations. Forty patients, who underwent cardiac DSCT, were included (31 men, mean

  17. On the comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection of indirect questioning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Adrian; Waubert de Puiseau, Berenike; Schmidt, Alexander F; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    On surveys that assess sensitive personal attributes, indirect questioning aims at increasing respondents' willingness to answer truthfully by protecting confidentiality. However, the assumption that subjects understand questioning procedures fully and trust them to protect their privacy is rarely tested. In a scenario-based design, we compared four indirect questioning procedures in terms of their comprehensibility and perceived privacy protection. All indirect questioning techniques were found to be less comprehensible by respondents than a conventional direct question used for comparison. Less-educated respondents experienced more difficulties when confronted with any indirect questioning technique. Regardless of education, the crosswise model was found to be the most comprehensible among the four indirect methods. Indirect questioning in general was perceived to increase privacy protection in comparison to a direct question. Unexpectedly, comprehension and perceived privacy protection did not correlate. We recommend assessing these factors separately in future evaluations of indirect questioning.

  18. An Examination of Family Adjustment Among Operation Desert Storm Veterans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taft, Casey T; Schumm, Jeremiah A; Panuzio, Jullian; Proctor, Susan P

    2008-01-01

    .... When the relative impacts of separate PTSD symptom groupings were examined, those reflecting withdrawal/numbing symptoms and arousal/lack of control symptoms significantly and indirectly accounted for the negative effects of combat exposure on family adjustment.

  19. Adjusted indices of multiple deprivation to enable comparisons within and between constituent countries of the UK including an illustration using mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gary A; Barclay, Matthew E; Payne, Rupert A

    2016-11-15

    Social determinants can have a major impact on health and as a consequence substantial inequalities are seen between and within countries. The study of inequalities between countries relies on having accurate and consistent measures of deprivation across the country borders. However, in the UK most socioeconomic deprivation measures are not comparable between countries. We give a method of adjusting the Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for use across the UK, describe the deprivation of each UK country, and show the problems introduced by naïvely using country-specific deprivation measures in a UK-wide analysis of mortality rates. 42 148 geographic areas covering the population of the UK. Adjusted IMD scores based on the income and employment domains of country-specific IMD scores, adjusting for the contribution of other domains. The mortality rate among people aged under 75 years standardised to the UK age structure was compared between country-specific and UK-adjusted IMD quintiles. Of the constituent countries of the UK, Northern Ireland was the most deprived with 37% of the population living in areas in the most deprived fifth of the UK, followed by Wales with 22% of the population living in the most deprived fifth of the UK. England and Scotland had similar levels of deprivation. Deprivation-specific mortality rates were similar in England and Wales. Northern Ireland had lower mortality rates than England for each deprivation group, with similar differences for each group. Scotland had higher mortality rates than England for each deprivation group, with larger differences for more deprived groups. Analyses of between-country and within-country inequalities by socioeconomic position should use consistent measures; failing to use consistent measures may give misleading results. The published adjusted IMD scores we describe allow consistent analysis across the UK. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  20. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobien van Apeldoorn

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream. It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties, however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  1. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  2. Social and emotional adjustment following early pregnancy in young Australian women: a comparison of those who terminate, miscarry, or complete pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Craig A; Horwill, Emily; Moore, Elya; Eisenberg, Marla E; Venn, Alison; O'Loughlin, Christina; Patton, George C

    2014-06-01

    To compare social and emotional adjustment including educational attainment and substance use in women who had a child, pregnancy termination, or miscarriage by young adulthood. Data were from a population-based longitudinal study of the health and well-being of 1,943 young Australians (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study) followed from 15 to 24 years of age. The sample was restricted to female participants and based on pregnancies reported by age 24 years. Analyses were adjusted for early teenage depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, cannabis use, and parent socioeconomic context. A total of 208 pregnancies (in 170 women) were reported from a sample of 824 young women by 24 years of age. Compared with those who had never been pregnant, those who had a child had lower tertiary education completion and a higher risk of nicotine dependence; those who terminated a pregnancy were more commonly single and had a higher risk of smoking and alcohol use as well as nicotine and alcohol dependence; and those who had a miscarriage had a higher risk of depressive symptomatology and binge drinking as well as nicotine and cannabis dependence. Young women who have been pregnant by their mid-twenties report a range of difficulties in social and emotional adjustment that vary across the different pregnancy outcomes. Broad-based psychosocial health care is essential not only for young women whose pregnancies proceed to live birth, but also for those whose pregnancies end with miscarriage or induced abortion. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Types of indirect compliments in Russian and Vietnamese communicative cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Нгуен Тху Хыонг

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies compliments as speech acts in Russian and Vietnamese communication and discusses the usage of some types of indirect compliments in the communicative cultures of the two. A comparison showing their similarities and differences and frequency in their usage in cross-cultural communication has also been undertaken.

  4. Comparison of Memory Function and MMPI-2 Profile between Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Adjustment Disorder after a Traffic Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Man; Hyun, Myoung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Objective Differential diagnosis between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adjustment disorder (AD) is rather difficult, but very important to the assignment of appropriate treatment and prognosis. This study investigated methods to differentiate PTSD and AD. Methods Twenty-five people with PTSD and 24 people with AD were recruited. Memory tests, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2), and Beck's Depression Inventory were administered. Results There were significant decreases in immediate verbal recall and delayed verbal recognition in the participants with PTSD. The reduced memory functions of participants with PTSD were significantly influenced by depressive symptoms. Hypochondriasis, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, paranoia, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder scale of MMPI-2 classified significantly PTSD and AD group. Conclusion Our results suggest that verbal memory assessments and the MMPI-2 could be useful for discriminating between PTSD and AD. PMID:24851120

  5. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  6. Modeling Indirect Tunneling in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edward

    Indirect tunneling in silicon p-n junctions catches people's attention again in recent years. First, the phenomenon induces a serious leakage problem, so called gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) effect, in modern metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Second, it is utilized to develop a novel tunneling transistor with the sharp turn-on ability for continuing ITRS roadmap. Although the indirect tunneling is important for the state-of-the-art transistor-technology, the accuracy of the present tunneling models in technology computer-aided design (TCAD) tools is still vague. In the research work, the theory of indirect tunneling in silicon has been thoroughly studied. The phonon-assisted tunneling model has been developed and compared with the existing ones in the Sentaurus-Synopsys, Medici-Synopsys, and Atlas-Silvaco TCAD tools. Beyond these existing models, ours successfully predicts the indirect tunneling current under the different field direction in silicon. In addition, bandgap narrowing in heavily-doped p-n junctions under the reverse-biased condition is also studied during the model development. At the end of the research work, the application to low standby power (LSTP) transistors is demonstrated to show the capability of our tunneling model in the device level.

  7. Indirect Reciprocity : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, J.; Schram, A.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has

  8. short communication indirect spectrophotometric determination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    E-mail: asamin2002@hotmail.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. INDIRECT SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ... arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute pain in musculoskeletal disorder and acute gout. It has been shown to be an effective analgesic in fracture, dental, postoperative and.

  9. Indirect speech acts in English

    OpenAIRE

    Василина, Владимир Николаевич

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with indirect speech acts in Englishspeaking discourse. Different approaches to their analysis and the reasons for their use are discussed. It is argued that the choice of the form of speech actsdepends on the parameters of communicative partners.

  10. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  11. Mechanical valves versus the Ross procedure for aortic valve replacement in children: propensity-adjusted comparison of long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsoufi, Bahaaldin; Al-Halees, Zohair; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian W; Al-Ahmadi, Mamdouh; Sallehuddin, Ahmed; Canver, Charles C; Bulbul, Ziad; Joufan, Mansoor; Fadel, Bahaa

    2009-02-01

    We aimed to identify characteristics differentiating children undergoing aortic valve replacement by using mechanical prostheses versus the Ross procedure and to compare survival and the need for aortic valve reoperation after each procedure. From 1983 to 2004, 346 children underwent aortic valve replacement (215 underwent the Ross procedure and 131 underwent placement of a mechanical prosthesis). Factors associated with procedure choice were used to construct a propensity score for use as a covariate in regression models to adjust for potential confounding by indication. Patients undergoing the Ross procedure were younger, more likely to have a congenital cause, and less likely to have a rheumatic or connective tissue cause. They had a lower frequency of regurgitation, required more annular enlargement, and had less concomitant cardiac surgery. Competing-risk analysis showed that 16 years after aortic valve replacement, 20% of patients had died without subsequent aortic valve replacement, 25% underwent second aortic valve replacement, and 55% remained alive without further replacement. After propensity adjustment, factors associated with early-phase death included mechanical valves and a nonrheumatic cause. Mechanical valves were also associated with constant-phase mortality. Repeated aortic valve replacement was associated with the Ross procedure and a rheumatic cause. Both factors were also associated with all-cause cardiac reoperation. In children receiving mechanical prostheses, younger age and smaller valve size were significant risk factors for death. Freedom from homograft replacement after the Ross procedure was 82% at 16 years of follow-up. Results from this study showed good outcomes and an acceptable complication rate with both valve choices. Given the significantly increased risk of early and late death in younger children receiving smaller mechanical valves, the Ross procedure confers survival advantage in this age group at the expense of increased

  12. Premorbid functioning of patients with first-episode nonaffective psychosis: a comparison of deterioration in academic and social performance, and clinical correlates of Premorbid Adjustment Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Ralph C; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    Motivated by a previous study among male veterans [Allen, D.N., Frantom, L.V., Strauss, G.P., van Kammen, D.P., 2005. Differential patterns of premorbid academic and social deterioration in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr. Res. 75, 389-397], the present analysis examined: (1) patterns of premorbid academic and social functioning during childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence, and (2) associations between these premorbid functioning dimensions and a number of clinical variables. Data on premorbid functioning were collected using the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) in 95 hospitalized first-episode patients. Analyses were similar to those conducted by Allen and colleagues (2005). Deterioration was evident in both academic and social functioning from childhood to early adolescence, along with a pronounced/accelerated deterioration in academic functioning from early adolescence to late adolescence, occurring in both male and female patients. Age at onset of prodromal symptoms was predicted by childhood/early adolescent/late adolescent academic functioning scores, and age at onset of psychotic symptoms was significantly associated only with childhood academic functioning. Severity of negative symptoms was predicted by childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores, and severity of general psychopathology symptoms was predicted by late adolescent academic functioning, as well as childhood and late adolescent social functioning scores. Consistent with prior findings, deterioration in premorbid functioning appears to be more pronounced in the academic than social dimension of the PAS. Some PAS scores are predictive of ages at onset of prodrome/psychosis and severity of psychotic symptoms. Ongoing research on premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia may have implications for future prevention goals.

  13. Improvement of glycaemia control in subjects with type 2 diabetes by self-monitoring of blood glucose: comparison of two management programs adjusting bedtime insulin dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-S; Wu, T-E; Jap, T-S; Lin, S-H; Hsiao, L-C; Lin, H-D

    2008-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important for patients treated with insulin to detect asymptomatic hypoglycaemia and to guide patients towards reaching blood glucose goal. This study compared two management programs for adjusting bedtime insulin dose: program 1 (performed by study subjects) vs. program 2 (performed by study subjects and reminded by investigators). This is a prospective, open-level, 28-week randomized trial in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic subjects. One hundred subjects treated with oral antidiabetic drugs plus bedtime insulin with glycated haemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) >8.0% were screened and received a structure education package in a 4-week run-in period. Seventy-eight subjects were randomized to two treatment programs (adjust insulin dose by themselves with or without investigators' reminder) and reviewed by the investigators at a 4-week interval clinical visit. The mean SMBG decreased significantly in both groups, with a greater decrease observed in program 2 vs. program 1 (from 198.7 +/- 43.1 to 122.6 +/- 21.9 mg/dl vs. from 194.0 +/- 42.7 to 151.6 +/- 37.7 mg/dl, p Bedtime insulin dose increased in both groups with a greater increase in program 2 (from 14.4 +/- 8.7 to 27.4 +/- 12.8 IU vs. from 14.3 +/- 8.3 to 18.4 +/- 6.2 IU, p weight changes. Systematically titrating bedtime insulin dose added to oral therapy, especially combined with health care reminders, can safely improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes with poor glycaemic control. This regimen may facilitate safe and effective insulin therapy in routine medical practice and improve achievement of recommended standards of diabetes care.

  14. Observations regarding 'quality of life' and 'comfort with food' after bariatric surgery: comparison between laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Jacobi, David; Léger, Julie; Bourbao-Tournois, Céline; Huten, Noël; Camus, Vincent; Ballon, Nicolas; Couet, Charles

    2011-08-01

    Although laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are coexisting first-choice restrictive procedures for bariatric surgery candidates, it is possible, given their different modes of action, that these procedures have different effects on quality of life (QOL). We hypothesized that improvement of QOL and comfort with food could be better with LSG compared to LAGB. This cohort study included 131 obese patients who had either LAGB (n = 102) or LSG (n = 29). Patients were assessed during preoperative and at 6- and 12-month postoperative visits. Five QOL dimensions were assessed using the 'Quality of Life, Obesity and Dietetics' rating scale: physical impact, psycho-social impact, impact on sex life, comfort with food and diet experience. We compared QOL evolution between LAGB and LSG using linear mixed models adjusted for gender and body mass index at each visit. Excess weight loss was 28.4 ± 14.7% and 34.8 ± 18.4% for LAGB and 35.7 ± 14.3% and 43.8 ± 17.8% for LSG at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, respectively. Both LAGB and LSG provided significant improvement in the physical, psycho-social, sexual and diet experience dimensions of QOL. LSG was associated with better improvement than LAGB in short-term (6-month) comfort with food. Our results add further evidence to the benefit of LSG and LAGB in obesity management. Within the first year of follow-up, there is no lasting difference in the comfort with food dimension between LSG and LABG.

  15. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content requirement...

  16. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content requirement...

  17. 7 CFR 2903.4 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biodiesel Fuel Education Program, applicants should use the current indirect cost rate negotiated with the cognizant Federal negotiating agency. Indirect costs may not exceed the negotiated rate. If no indirect cost... that otherwise would be in the grantee's indirect cost pool under the applicable Office of Management...

  18. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijantini Wijantini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported operating income, the estimated costs are overstated. The simple regressions analysis suggest that the indirect cost of financial distress significantly increases with size, leverage, number of creditors, and poor industry performance, but is not related to degree of bank loan reliance. The findings provide a weak support for the financial distress theory which suggests that conflicts of interest render the costs of financial distress.

  19. A comparison of the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) across different patient populations using Rasch analysis and exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thandi, Gursimran; Fear, Nicola T; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-01-01

    The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is designed to measure patients' perceived functional impairment associated with a health problem. There is a paucity of studies that explore the stability of the item hierarchy in the WSAS across different disease populations. This study investigated the unidimensional structure of the WSAS across different disease populations. Secondary data analysis was conducted on pooled patient data (HIV, breast cancer, and inflammatory conditions) to create a new dataset (n=554). The data were analysed using Rasch analysis and exploratory factor analysis. Exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis of the WSAS showed a good fit as a unidimensional scale, person and item separation indices were >2 suggesting that the WSAS is sensitive enough to distinguish between participants of varying levels of ability. Some differential item functioning was seen by diagnosis and by sex for items 1 and 5 of the WSAS. Overall, a one dimensional structure was identified for the WSAS. However, a small number of differential item functioning (DIF) was identified, suggesting that scores from the WSAS cannot be compared across groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Indirect Costs Reimbursement in the U.S.A.: Facts and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, Christian

    2000-01-01

    This brief clarifies the U.S. system for indirect cost reimbursements to universities for research. In Canada the system of research support derives from historical decisions on federal-provincial roles, and the responsibilities and mechanisms for funding indirect costs is less than clear. When this issue is raised, comparisons with the U.S.…

  1. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanabe, Shoma; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs has been examined in great details. Previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by theoretical analysis of a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equili...

  2. Approaching work and learning indirectly

    OpenAIRE

    Macintyre, Ronald; Thomson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches work and learning indirectly. It is part of a mixed method longitudinal study that looks at the articulation from Higher National (HN) to part time Higher Education (HE). Since 2003 the Open University in Scotland (OU) has been collecting quantitative and qualitative data on students who have HN qualifications. This paper looks at the experiences of those students and the central place of work in those journeys. \\ud \\ud The paper beings with a statistical overview. HN St...

  3. Cross-Kingdom Comparison of Transcriptomic Adjustments to Low-Oxygen Stress Highlights Conserved and Plant-Specific Responses1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustroph, Angelika; Lee, Seung Cho; Oosumi, Teruko; Zanetti, Maria Eugenia; Yang, Huijun; Ma, Kelvin; Yaghoubi-Masihi, Arbi; Fukao, Takeshi; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput technology has facilitated genome-scale analyses of transcriptomic adjustments in response to environmental perturbations with an oxygen deprivation component, such as transient hypoxia or anoxia, root waterlogging, or complete submergence. We showed previously that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings elevate the levels of hundreds of transcripts, including a core group of 49 genes that are prioritized for translation across cell types of both shoots and roots. To recognize low-oxygen responses that are evolutionarily conserved versus species specific, we compared the transcriptomic reconfiguration in 21 organisms from four kingdoms (Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Bacteria). Sorting of organism proteomes into clusters of putative orthologs identified broadly conserved responses associated with glycolysis, fermentation, alternative respiration, metabolite transport, reactive oxygen species amelioration, chaperone activity, and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially regulated genes involved in signaling and transcriptional regulation were poorly conserved across kingdoms. Strikingly, nearly half of the induced mRNAs of Arabidopsis seedlings encode proteins of unknown function, of which over 40% had up-regulated orthologs in poplar (Populus trichocarpa), rice (Oryza sativa), or Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Sixteen HYPOXIA-RESPONSIVE UNKNOWN PROTEIN (HUP) genes, including four that are Arabidopsis specific, were ectopically overexpressed and evaluated for their effect on seedling tolerance to oxygen deprivation. This allowed the identification of HUPs coregulated with genes associated with anaerobic metabolism and other processes that significantly enhance or reduce stress survival when ectopically overexpressed. These findings illuminate both broadly conserved and plant-specific low-oxygen stress responses and confirm that plant-specific HUPs with limited phylogenetic distribution influence low-oxygen stress endurance. PMID:20097791

  4. A comparison of direct versus indirect laryngoscopic visualization during endotracheal intubation of lightly embalmed cadavers utilizing the GlideScope®, Storz Medi Pack Mobile Imaging System™ and the New Storz CMAC™ videolaryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Ben H; Nicholsal, Thomas A; Carpenter, Jennifer; Singh, Leighton; Bernhagen, Mary A; Murray, W Bosseau; Wadman, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that the skills needed to use video laryngoscope systems are easily learned by healthcare providers. This study compared several video laryngoscopic (VL) systems and a direct laryngoscope (DL) view when used by medical residents practicing intubation on cadavers. The video devices used included the Storz Medi Pack Mobile Imaging System™, the Storz CMAC® VL System and the GlideScope®. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine (UNMC EM) residents were recruited and given a brief pre-study informational period. The cadavers were lightly embalmed. The study subjects were asked to perform intubations on two cadavers using both DL and VL while using the three different VL systems. Procedural data was recorded for each attempt and pre and post experience perceptions were collected. N=14. All subjects reported their varied previous intubation experience. The average airway score using DL: for the Storz VL was 1.54 (SD = 0.576) and for the C-MAC was 1.46 (SD = 0.637). Success in intubation of the standard airway using DL was 93% versus a 100% success rate when intubating with indirect VL visualization. Based on our data, we believe that the incorporation of VL into cadaver airway management training provided an improved learning environment for the study residents. In our study, the resident subjects were 93% successful with DL intubation even though 50% had less than 30 intubations. As well, there was a 100% success rate when intubating with indirect VL visualization. In conclusion, the researchers believe this cadaver model incorporated with VL is a powerful tool which may help improve the overall learning curve for orotracheal intubation. 2011.

  5. Comparison of the effect of nonactivated self-adjusting file system, Vibringe, EndoVac, ultrasonic and needle irrigation on apical extrusion of debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, E; Ozsu, D; Arslan, H; Erdogan, A S

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effects of Vibringe, EndoVac, nonactivated SAF and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) with a conventional syringe on the amount of apically extruded debris. Seventy-five extracted human maxillary incisors were selected and randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 15). The root canals were irrigated with Vibringe (Vibringe B. V. Corp, Amsterdam, Netherlands), EndoVac (Discus Dental, Smart Endodontics, Culver City, CA, USA), nonactivated SAF (ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and conventional syringe. Distilled water was used as an irrigant, and debris was collected in pre-weighed glass vials. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 37 °C for 10 days to evaporate the irrigant before weighing the dry debris. The mean weight of debris was assessed, and one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of values and post hoc Tukey's test was used between groups (P = 0.05). The SAF group extruded significantly less debris than PUI and Vibringe groups (P  0.05). All irrigation systems were associated with apical extrusion of debris. Nonactivated SAF extruded significantly less than Vibringe, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic and syringe irrigation. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Accounting for center in the Early External Cephalic Version trials: an empirical comparison of statistical methods to adjust for center in a multicenter trial with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Angela; Chu, Rong; Thorpe, Julia; McDonald, Sarah; Thabane, Lehana; Hutton, Eileen

    2014-09-26

    Clustering of outcomes at centers involved in multicenter trials is a type of center effect. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement recommends that multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should account for center effects in their analysis, however most do not. The Early External Cephalic Version (EECV) trials published in 2003 and 2011 stratified by center at randomization, but did not account for center in the analyses, and due to the nature of the intervention and number of centers, may have been prone to center effects. Using data from the EECV trials, we undertook an empirical study to compare various statistical approaches to account for center effect while estimating the impact of external cephalic version timing (early or delayed) on the outcomes of cesarean section, preterm birth, and non-cephalic presentation at the time of birth. The data from the EECV pilot trial and the EECV2 trial were merged into one dataset. Fisher's exact method was used to test the overall effect of external cephalic version timing unadjusted for center effects. Seven statistical models that accounted for center effects were applied to the data. The models included: i) the Mantel-Haenszel test, ii) logistic regression with fixed center effect and fixed treatment effect, iii) center-size weighted and iv) un-weighted logistic regression with fixed center effect and fixed treatment-by-center interaction, iv) logistic regression with random center effect and fixed treatment effect, v) logistic regression with random center effect and random treatment-by-center interaction, and vi) generalized estimating equations. For each of the three outcomes of interest approaches to account for center effect did not alter the overall findings of the trial. The results were similar for the majority of the methods used to adjust for center, illustrating the robustness of the findings. Despite literature that suggests center effect can change the estimate of effect in

  7. The calculation of language lateralization indices in post-stroke aphasia: A comparison of a standard and a lesion-adjusted formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Dietz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The language lateralization index (LI is a valuable tool in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research, especially in people with post-stroke aphasia. However, there is inconsistent consideration for the overlap of lesions with regions of interest (ROIs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether standard LI (SLI and lesion-adjusted LI (LALI formulae generate different LI values and language lateralization classification for people with post-stroke chronic aphasia.Methods: SLI and LALI were calculated for an event-related (overt verb generation task in an anterior and a posterior language regions of interest (ROI. Twelve people with aphasia due to a single left-hemispheric infarct (11 right-handed; 1 left-handed; 77.2 ± 41.7 months post-stroke were included (8 females; 57 ± 8.88 years. Spearman correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were calculated to determine the relationship of the LI values generated by the SLI and the LALI formulas. Fischer’s exact test and a weighted Cohen’s Kappa determined the difference in language lateralization classification and agreement in the classification. Spearman correlation was used to examine the relationship between the difference in lateralization values produced by the LALI and SLI calculations with (1 lesion size, (2 the percentage of lesion overlap in each ROI, and (3 aphasia severity. Results: The two calculation methods were highly correlated and produced similar LI Values, yet yielded significantly different classification for language lateralization. Further, a more leftward LI resulted from application of the LALI formula in 10 participants, in either the anterior ROI (n = 3 or the posterior ROI (n = 7. Finally, for the posterior ROI only, significant correlations were revealed between the two calculation methods and the (1 lesion size and (2 percent of overlap with the ROI.Discussion: While both approaches produce highly correlated

  8. Reproducibility of bracket positioning in the indirect bonding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Dale A; Gardner, Gary; Carballeyra, Alain D

    2013-11-01

    Current studies have compared indirect bonding with direct placement of orthodontic brackets; many of these have shown that indirect bonding is generally a more accurate technique. However, the reproducibility of an indirect bonding setup by an orthodontist has yet to be described in the literature. Using cone-beam computed tomography and computer-assisted modeling software, we evaluated the consistency of orthodontists in placing orthodontic brackets at different times. Five orthodontists with experience in indirect bonding were selected to place brackets on 10 different casts at 3 time periods (n = 30 per orthodontist). Each participant completed an initial indirect bonding setup on each cast; subsequent bracket placements were completed twice at monthly intervals for comparison with the initial setup. The casts were scanned using an iCAT cone-beam computed tomography scanner (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, Pa) and imported into Geomagic Studio software (Geomagic, Research Triangle Park, NC) for superimposition and analysis. The scans for each time period were superimposed on the initial setup in the imaging software, and differences between bracket positions were calculated. For each superimposition, the measurements recorded were the greatest discrepancies between individual brackets as well as the mean discrepancies and standard deviations between all brackets on each cast. Single-factor and repeated-measure analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between time points of each orthodontist, or among the orthodontists for the parameters measured. The mean discrepancy was 0.1 mm for each 10-bracket indirect bonding setup. Orthodontists are consistent in selecting bracket positions for an indirect bonding setup at various time periods. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bosonic cascades of indirect excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalitov, A. V.; De Liberato, S.; Lagoudakis, P.; Savvidis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the concept of the terahertz bosonic cascade laser (BCL) based on a parabolic quantum well (PQW) embedded in a microcavity was proposed. We refine this proposal by suggesting transitions between indirect exciton (IX) states as a source of terahertz emission. We explicitly propose a structure containing a narrow-square QW and a wide-parabolic QW for the realisation of a bosonic cascade. Advantages of this type of structures are in large dipole matrix elements for terahertz transitions and in long exciton radiative lifetimes which are crucial for realisation of threshold and quantum efficiency BCLs.

  10. Evaluation and comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, using serum and cerebrospinal fluid of naturally and experimentally infected, and vaccinated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Daft, Barbara M; Conrad, Patricia A; Packham, Andrea E; Saville, William J; MacKay, Robert J; Barr, Bradd C; Wilson, W David; Ng, Terry; Reed, Stephen M; Gardner, Ian A

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses naturally and experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona, to assess the correlation between serum and CSF titers, and to determine the effect of S. neurona vaccination on the diagnosis of infection. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve for the IFAT were 0.97 (serum) and 0.99 (CSF). Sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 and 96.9% (serum, cutoff 80) and 100 and 99% (CSF, cutoff 5), respectively. Titer-specific likelihood ratios (LRs) ranged from 0.03 to 187.8 for titers between <10 and 640. Median time to conversion was 22-26 days postinfection (DPI) (serum) and 30 DPI (CSF). The correlation between serum and CSF titers was moderately strong (r = 0.6) at 30 DPI. Percentage of vaccinated antibody-positive horses ranged from 0 to 95% between 0 and 112 days after the second vaccination. Thus, the IFAT was reliable and accurate using serum and CSF. Use of LRs potentially improves clinical decision making. Correlation between serum and CSF titers affects the joint accuracy of the IFAT; therefore, the ratio of serum to CSF titers has potential diagnostic value. The S. neurona vaccine could possibly interfere with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis diagnosis.

  11. A single-arm trial indirect comparison investigation: a proof-of-concept method to predict venous leg ulcer healing time for a new acellular synthetic matrix matched to standard care control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Ronald; Nelson, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    To compare data on time to healing from two separate cohorts: one treated with a new acellular synthetic matrix plus standard care (SC) and one matched from four large UK pragmatic, randomised controlled trials [venous leg ulcer (VLU) evidence network]. We introduce a new proof-of-concept strategy to a VLU clinical evidence network, propensity score matching and sensitivity analysis to predict the feasibility of the new acellular synthetic matrix plus SC for success in future randomised, controlled clinical trials. Prospective data on chronic VLUs from a safety and effectiveness study on an acellular synthetic matrix conducted in one wound centre in the UK (17 patients) and three wound centres in Australia (36 patients) were compared retrospectively to propensity score-matched data from patients with comparable leg ulcer disease aetiology, age, baseline ulcer area, ulcer duration, multi-layer compression bandaging and majority of care completed in specialist wound centres (average of 1 visit per week), with the outcome measures at comparable follow-up periods from patients enrolled in four prospective, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised studies of venous ulcers in the UK (the comparison group; VLU evidence network). Analysis using Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a mean healing time of 73·1 days for ASM plus SC (ASM) treated ulcers in comparison with 83·5 days for comparison group ulcers treated with SC alone (Log rank test, χ 2 5·779, P = 0·016) within 12 weeks. Sensitivity analysis indicates that an unobserved covariate would have to change the odds of healing for SC by a factor of 1·1 to impact the baseline results. Results from this study predict a significant effect on healing time when using a new ASM as an adjunct to SC in the treatment of non-healing venous ulcers in the UK, but results are sensitive to unobserved covariates that may be important in healing time comparison. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Language shifts in free indirect discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Emar

    Free indirect discourse is a way of reporting what a protagonist thinks or says that is distinct from both direct and indirect discourse. In particular, while pronouns and tenses are presented from the narrator's perspective, as in indirect discourse, other indexical and expressive elements reflect

  13. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...

  14. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer C...

  15. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and its...

  16. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to...

  17. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raciborski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%. According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  18. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5-1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000-157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  19. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  1. Indirect costs associated with glioblastoma: Experience at one hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabeitia, J; Torres-Bayona, S; Samprón, N; Arrázola, M; Bollar, A; Armendariz, M; Torres, P; Ruiz, I; Caballero, M C; Egaña, L; Querejeta, A; Villanua, J; Pardo, E; Etxegoien, I; Liceaga, G; Urtasun, M; Michan, M; Emparanza, J I; Aldaz, P; Matheu, A; Úrculo, E

    2016-07-20

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour. Despite advances in treatment, its prognosis remains dismal, with a mean survival time of about 14 months. Many articles have addressed direct costs, those associated with the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Indirect costs, those associated with loss of productivity due to the disease, have seldom been described. We conducted a retrospective study in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma at Hospital Universitario Donostia between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We collected demographics, data regarding the treatment received, and survival times. We calculated the indirect costs with the human capital approach, adjusting the mean salaries of comparable individuals by sex and age and obtaining mortality data for the general population from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Past salaries were updated to 2015 euros according to the annual inflation rate and we applied a discount of 3.5% compounded yearly to future salaries. We reviewed the records of 99 patients: 46 women (mean age 63.53) and 53 men (mean age 59.94); 29 patients underwent a biopsy and the remaining 70 underwent excisional surgery. Mean survival was 18.092 months for the whole series. The total indirect cost for the series was €11 080 762 (2015). Mean indirect cost per patient was €111 926 (2015). Although glioblastoma is a relatively uncommon type of tumour, accounting for only 4% of all cancers, its poor prognosis and potential sequelae generate disproportionately large morbidity and mortality rates which translate to high indirect costs. Clinicians should be aware of the societal impact of glioblastoma and indirect costs should be taken into account when cost effectiveness studies are performed to better illustrate the overall consequences of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy expenditure evaluation in humans and non-human primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of energy expenditure evaluation by SenseWear Armband by direct comparison with indirect calorimetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Casiraghi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA placed on the arm (SWA ARM and on the back (SWA BACK in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE in healthy baboons. METHODS: We studied 26 (15F/11M human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC, performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M non-human primates. RESULTS: In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min. In the non-human primate (baboons experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min. CONCLUSION: SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with "gold standard", IC, in humans.

  3. Transferability of indirect cost of chronic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei-Li; Xie, Feng; Hu, Hao; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2013-06-01

    Indirect cost is an important component in economic evaluations. The variation in the magnitude of indirect costs across studies and countries is substantial and affects the transferability of results across jurisdictions. This study explored the factors involved in the variation of reported indirect cost and investigated the feasibility of transferring indirect costs across settings. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies estimating indirect costs for four selected chronic diseases, namely, asthma (AS), diabetes (DI), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and schizophrenia (SC). A multiple linear regression analysis was run to identify the factors that potentially explain the variation in reported indirect costs. Parametric (fixed- and random-effect models) and non-parametric (bootstrapping method) meta-analyses were applied to local gross domestic product (GDP)/capita-adjusted indirect costs for each disease. Results from the three different analytical methods were compared to ascertain the robustness of estimation. The systematic literature review identified 77 articles that reported indirect costs of AS (n = 18), DI (n = 20), RA (n = 25) and SC (n = 14) for literature synthesis. Substantial inter- and intra-disease variations among the indirect cost studies were observed with respect to geographic distribution, methodology and magnitude of cost estimation. Regression analysis showed that disease categories and local GDP/capita significantly (p indirect cost. The range of intra-disease variation in indirect costs was substantially reduced after adjusting by and expressing values as local GDP/capita. The GDP-adjusted indirect cost in terms of percentage of local GDP/capita of AS was the lowest and that of SC was the highest. Bootstrapping estimation was relatively conservative, with slightly wider confidence intervals (CIs) than the parametric method, with a mean (95 % CI) of 2.12 % (1.4089-2.9332) for AS, 10.65 % (7.215-14.7438) for DI

  4. Indirect Instruments of Prudential Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The qualifying of supervision as “prudential” is used to differentiate it from other forms of supervision, which regards issues related to banking consumer protection. In order to achieve its goal, prudential supervision needs relevant information, provided mostly by the credit institutions their selves. Hence, the existence of a reporting system is essential, a system capable to insure, on the one hand, homogenity of the provided data and, on the other hand, its efficient processing. One indirect instrument which was used more and more during the last decade in banking supervision is represented by credit registers. The first system is directly associated either to the central bank or the supervision authority, and is, in most of cases, managed by the latter. The second system, the so called credit bureau, is mostly operated by private banks.

  5. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock Dan W

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA standard.

  6. Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly in which the flux density can be altered by a mechanical operation is often significantly smaller than comparable electromagnets and also requires no electrical power to operate. In this paper five permanent magnet designs in which the magnetic flux density can...... and the direction of the magnetic field are measured and compared with numerical simulation and a good agrement is found....... be altered are analyzed using numerical simulations, and compared based on the generated magnetic flux density in a sample volume and the amount of magnet material used. The designs are the concentric Halbach cylinder, the two half Halbach cylinders, the two linear Halbach arrays and the four and six rod...

  7. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  8. Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the

  9. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, B R; Hunter, D G

    2011-01-01

    Surgical management of strabismus remains a challenge because surgical success rates, short-term and long-term, are not ideal. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery has been available for decades as a tool to potentially enhance the surgical outcomes. Intellectually, it seems logical that having a second chance to improve the outcome of a strabismus procedure should increase the overall success rate and reduce the reoperation rate. Yet, adjustable suture surgery has not gained universal acceptance, partly because Level 1 evidence of its advantages is lacking, and partly because the learning curve for accurate decision making during suture adjustment may span a decade or more. In this review we describe the indications, techniques, and published results of adjustable suture surgery. We will discuss the option of ‘no adjustment' in cases with satisfactory alignment with emphasis on recent advances allowing for delayed adjustment. The use of adjustable sutures in special circumstances will also be reviewed. Consistently improved outcomes in the adjustable arm of nearly all retrospective studies support the advantage of the adjustable option, and strabismus surgeons are advised to become facile in the application of this approach. PMID:21760626

  10. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Huang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  11. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  12. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2017-01-01

    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments......, rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  13. Adjustable Fiber Optic Microwave Transversal Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaram, Mehdi; Lutes, George F.; Logan, Ronald T.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1994-01-01

    Microwave transversal filters implemented as adjustable tapped fiber optic delay lines developed. Main advantages of these filters (in comparison with conventional microwave transversal filters) are small size, light weight, no need for matching of radio-frequency impedances, no need for shielding against electromagnetic radiation at suboptical frequencies, no need for mechanical tuning, high stability of amplitude and phase, and active control of transfer functions. Weights of taps in fiber optic delay lines adjusted.

  14. Comparison of a-Se direct-conversion and CsI(Tl) indirect-conversion flat-panel digital detectors: a clinical assessment of image quality for general radiography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Lori L.; Wang, Xiaohui; Wandtke, John; Waldman, David; Davis, Delphine; Foos, David H.; Dupin, Michael; Huang, Weidong; Yorkston, John

    2006-03-01

    An observer study was conducted to compare the diagnostic quality of human-subject images obtained using a-Se (amorphous selenium) and CsI(Tl) (thalium-doped cesium iodide) flat-panel detectors. Each detector was attached to an X-ray source and gantry equipment of similar configuration and was installed in a university hospital radiology department in X-ray rooms within close proximity. One hundred image pairs that represent a stratified sampling of exam types were acquired. For a particular subject, image pairs were captured of the same body part and projection, using each of the two detectors. The images comprising a pair were captured within a few minutes of each other. Using manual exposure methods, the images were captured with technique factors that correspond to average exposure levels equivalent to approximately a 400-speed screen-film system. Raw image data from both digital radiography systems was stored to a research workstation. To achieve images having the same appearance, the same image-processing software was used to render the data from both systems, although different parameters were used in the frequency processing to account for the different MTF and noise properties of the CsI(Tl) and a-Se detectors. The processed images were evaluated by radiologists who used a research workstation that was equipped with a 3 MP flat-panel monitor, and software to facilitate the image comparisons. Radiologists used subjective rank-order criteria to evaluate overall diagnostic quality and preference. Radiologists' ratings indicate that both detectors produce images that have comparable satisfactory diagnostic quality for images captured using exposure technique factors that correspond to a 400-speed screen-film system, but the CsI(Tl) detector produces significantly higher preference, especially for larger and denser exam types.

  15. Indirect decoding edges for one-shot shape acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Limin; Li, Youfu

    2011-04-01

    Determining the correspondence in coded structured light is challenging, but it is very important in one-shot techniques for 3D shape reconstruction. The problem of decoding stripe patterns can be modeled as matching two code sequences. We propose decoding edges indirectly based on the property of the stripe pattern, which can be represented as edge code, color code, or mixed code sequences. While traditional methods match two edge code sequences, indirect decoding matches two color sequences or mixed code sequences. The advantages of the proposed method, including a higher Hamming distance, enforced local coherence, and more code information, make indirect decoding excellent in performance. Previously, the lack of ground truth has prevented direct comparisons of different decoding algorithms. Here we obtain six benchmark datasets using the robust space-time analysis. Five decoding methods are quantitatively evaluated using the ground truth. The comparison results show that our method is robust for complex code situations and that it outperforms the state-of-the-art technique in this area. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  17. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips with ...

  18. University students' adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, V I; Cherian, L

    1998-06-01

    Considerable information is available on the adjustment problems of first-year university students in developed countries, but comparatively little is known about such problems in Asia and Africa. This study of a representative sample of 1257 first-year students conducted at the University of the North showed that 33 to 85% of the first-year students experienced various adjustment problems.

  19. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain

  20. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  1. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  2. 48 CFR 2131.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs. 2131.203 Section 2131.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... FAR 31.203 apply to the allocation of indirect costs. ...

  3. A Cross-Cultural Study of Indirectness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spees, Hiroko

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether or not Japanese people are more indirect than Americans in conversations between same status interlocutors and whether the use of indirectness is influenced by in-group and out-group distinctions for speech acts of requests and complaints. Results reveal that Japanese people may be more direct than assumed, at least when no…

  4. Indirect Costs of Federally Supported Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth T.

    1981-01-01

    Addressed is the problem of increasing indirect costs in federally supported research at universities and colleges. Effects of this increase are examined, using data on National Institutes of Health grants to educational institutions for examples. Discussed is the establishment of uniform indirect cost rates to modify the present policy. (CS)

  5. Indirect Costs of University Research: Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, Tony Vander

    This paper is intended to provide a solid base of information about the treatment of indirect university research costs in various jurisdictions and to highlight some of the factors that have contributed to increased interest in the issues surrounding the funding of indirect costs of research. University research in Ontario has continued to evolve…

  6. Indirect Costs in Universities. ACE Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Raymond J.

    Indirect costs of sponsored research projects and educational programs are as necessary as are the direct costs. This report demonstrates that they are real costs and that sponsors such as the Federal Government receive more than equitable treatment in the computation and application of indirect costs. The areas discussed include: the computation…

  7. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…

  8. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V; Anderson, Kristen G; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L; Brown, Sandra A

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,821) self-reported on peer victimization, school belonging, academic outcomes (GPA, school truancy), and alcohol use (lifetime, past 30 days). Two-group structural equation models revealed (a) direct and indirect paths from peer victimization to academic functioning; (b) indirect, but not direct, effects through school belonging for lifetime drinking; and (c) direct and indirect effects from peer victimization to current drinking. Findings implicate school belonging as a mediator between peer victimization and important outcomes in adolescence.

  9. Adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Barbulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.

  10. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H.; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H.; Granitzka, Patrick W.; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P.; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  11. Indirect excitation of ultrafast demagnetization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodungbo, Boris; Tudu, Bharati; Tudu, Bahrati; Perron, Jonathan; Delaunay, Renaud; Müller, Leonard; Berntsen, Magnus H; Grübel, Gerhard; Malinowski, Grégory; Weier, Christian; Gautier, Julien; Lambert, Guillaume; Zeitoun, Philippe; Gutt, Christian; Jal, Emmanuelle; Reid, Alexander H; Granitzka, Patrick W; Jaouen, Nicolas; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Carron, Sebastian; Pfau, Bastian; von Korff Schmising, Clemens; Schneider, Michael; Eisebitt, Stefan; Lüning, Jan

    2016-01-06

    Does the excitation of ultrafast magnetization require direct interaction between the photons of the optical pump pulse and the magnetic layer? Here, we demonstrate unambiguously that this is not the case. For this we have studied the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnetic cobalt/palladium multilayer capped by an IR-opaque aluminum layer. Upon excitation with an intense femtosecond-short IR laser pulse, the film exhibits the classical ultrafast demagnetization phenomenon although only a negligible number of IR photons penetrate the aluminum layer. In comparison with an uncapped cobalt/palladium reference film, the initial demagnetization of the capped film occurs with a delayed onset and at a slower rate. Both observations are qualitatively in line with energy transport from the aluminum layer into the underlying magnetic film by the excited, hot electrons of the aluminum film. Our data thus confirm recent theoretical predictions.

  12. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  13. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  14. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government's contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. In-shoe center of pressure: indirect force plate vs. direct insole measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbi, Eytan M; Wolf, Alon; Goryachev, Yulia; Yizhar, Ziva; Luger, Elhanan; Debi, Ronen; Haim, Amir

    2012-12-01

    In-shoe center of pressure (COP) measurement is essential in biomechanics. COP can be measured directly utilizing pressure-sensitive insoles, or calculated indirectly via force plate-generated data. While the latter does not require the use of additional measurement hardware (shoe insoles), its precision at calculating in-shoe COP has not been determined. Our purpose was to ascertain the precision of force plate in-shoe COP calculations and enhance their accuracy through a mathematical algorithm. Twelve male students participated in the study. In-shoe COP was measured synchronously via the Pedar-X insole system and AMTI force plates, comparing the measurements of both systems. A mathematical algorithm was created to improve agreement between the systems and comparisons were recalculated. The two methods showed different measurements of in-shoe COP. The medio-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) Pearson correlation coefficients between systems were 0.44 ± 0.35 and 0.99 ± 0.01, and the ML and AP RMS errors were 6.3 ± 3.0 mm and 43.0 ± 12.5 mm, respectively. Using a mathematical algorithm, the differences between the measurements of each system could be reduced significantly (all Pplates give an approximate location of the COP. Using an adjustment model greatly improves the accuracy of the COP trajectory during stance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  17. Indirect interactions between invasive and native plants via pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Müller, Christine B.

    2009-03-01

    In generalised pollination systems, the presence of alien plant species may change the foraging behaviour of pollinators on native plant species, which could result in reduced reproductive success of native plant species. We tested this idea of indirect interactions on a small spatial and temporal scale in a field study in Mauritius, where the invasive strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum, provides additional floral resources for insect pollinators. We predicted that the presence of flowering guava would indirectly and negatively affect the reproductive success of the endemic plant Bertiera zaluzania, which has similar flowers, by diverting shared pollinators. We removed P. cattleianum flowers within a 5-m radius from around half the B. zaluzania target plants (treatment) and left P. cattleianum flowers intact around the other half (control). By far, the most abundant and shared pollinator was the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera, but its visitation rates to treatment and control plants were similar. Likewise, fruit and seed set and fruit size and weight of B. zaluzania were not influenced by the presence of P. cattleianum flowers. Although other studies have shown small-scale effects of alien plant species on neighbouring natives, we found no evidence for such negative indirect interactions in our system. The dominance of introduced, established A. mellifera indicates their replacement of native insect flower visitors and their function as pollinators of native plant species. However, the pollination effectiveness of A. mellifera in comparison to native pollinators is unknown.

  18. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N

    2009-12-18

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "indirect punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then indirect rewarding earns most. Indirect punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.

  19. Gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta

    2013-01-01

    ... as relationships between indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations (categories) and the psychological dimensions of masculinity and femininity, also from the point of view of assessing occupational health...

  20. Indirect Costs of Federally Financed Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, William

    1970-01-01

    Describes how indirect costs, which have been incurred by a school district or an educational agency to support Federally financed projects, may be reimbursed in accordance with 1969 amendments to the ESEA. (JF)

  1. NIH Seeks Reduction in "Indirect Costs."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1983-01-01

    The National Institute of Health (NIH) is currently seeking a reduction in indirect costs associated with the awarding of research funds. Various issues related to these costs, which are causing tension between university administrators and academic researchers, are discussed. (JN)

  2. Understanding and caring for an indirect ophthalmoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Cordero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The binocular indirect ophthalmoscope, or indirect ophthalmoscope, is an optical instrument worn on the examiner’s head, and sometimes attached to spectacles, that is used to inspect the fundus or back of the eye. It produces an stereoscopic image with between 2x and 5x magnification. It is valuable for diagnosis and treatment of retinal tears, holes, and detachments. The pupils must be fully dilated for it to work well.

  3. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20?30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale...

  4. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  5. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Ana Beatriz Cordeiro; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a sample of patients followed at a public health-care facility in Brazil. Factors potentially associated with higher indirect costs in these patients were also investigated. This cross-sectional study included patients between 18 and 65 years old with RA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Patients who were working, on sick leave or retired early due to RA were invited to participate in the survey. A systematic structured interview was conducted in all patients including demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables and an experienced rheumatologist examined all patients. Estimates of the indirect costs in the preceding 12 months were performed using the human-capital approach based on the society perspective. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with higher indirect costs. A total of 192 patients were included in the study. Forty-seven of them (24.5%) had retired early due to RA, 62 others (32.3%) were on sick leave due to RA while 83 patients (43.2%) were working at the time of the interview. Estimated indirect cost for this population was US$ 466,107.81 or US$ 2,423.51 per patient per year. Factors associated with higher costs were RA poor functional class, high socioeconomic status and male patients (p Indirect costs were higher in patients with poor functional classes, high socioeconomic status, and men.

  6. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by a Grantee? Indirect Cost Rates § 75.564 Reimbursement of indirect costs. (a) Reimbursement of... accordance with the indirect cost rate agreement approved by the grantee's cognizant agency. (c) Indirect...; and (6) Grants made exclusively to support conferences. (d) Indirect cost reimbursement on grants...

  7. Adjustment of International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Thomas H., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    International students (N=747) completed a questionnaire to obtain information about their adjustment so that special services could be developed for them. Homesickness was their greatest area of concern, as well as housing, social relationships, the English language, and finances. (RC)

  8. Adjustment to Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Solinge, H.; Krauss Withbourne, S.

    2016-01-01

    Retirement is an important life course event that marks the start of a new life stage in which work is no longer dominant. Thus, employees have to adjust to the significant life changes that accompany the transition and seek to achieve psychological comfort with their retirement life. This entry

  9. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  10. Psychosocial adjustment following ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follick, M J; Smith, T W; Turk, D C

    1984-01-01

    Ostomy patients have been identified as a chronic illness population frequently experiencing adjustment difficulties. The present study, based on the biopsychosocial model (Engel, 1977) of chronic illness, examined a range of post-surgical adjustment difficulties in a sample of 131 ostomy patients. The patient population reported experiencing a significant number of technical, emotional, social, marital/family, and sexual difficulties post-surgically. Technical difficulties were associated with impaired emotional, social, and marital/family functioning. Emotional difficulties were also associated with problematic social, marital/family adjustment, and impaired sexual functioning. Technical problems, emotional difficulties, and social problems were all associated with the patient's perception of having received inadequate preparatory information. Marital/family and sexual maladjustment, on the other hand, were associated with low levels of perceived social support. The results of this investigation are interpreted as supporting the biopsychosocial model of chronic illness, and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed as well as their relation to previous research on adjustment to stressful medical procedures.

  11. Environmentally Adjusted Elasticity Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Saleem

    2005-01-01

    Here, using input, output and nitrogen pollution data related to one state, we propose to extend the elasticity concept to include environmental pollution treated as undesirable output to provide the environmentally adjusted elasticity measures for the period, 1936-1997 in a two-step procedure.

  12. Incisor adjustment in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cyndi

    2009-06-01

    Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.

  13. Verslag van de workshop "Indirecte transmissie", 25 september 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Een samenvatting van 10 presentaties met de bijbehorende discussies: Introduction: indirect transmission; Indirect transmission, implications from a policy point of view; Transmission by air of micro-organisms in poultry: experimental and hatchery studies; Indirect transmission of Campylobacter in

  14. College Students' Social Goals and Psychological Adjustment: Mediation via Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Wang, Cen; Makara, Kara A.; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Xie, Li-Na; Zhong, Ming

    2017-01-01

    University life can be stressful and students may struggle to adjust socially. We examined students' social achievement goals--their orientations towards their relationships with their peers--as one important factor underlying students' social and psychological adjustment in college. When investigating the direct and indirect effects of social…

  15. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  16. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  17. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs...... attention to the transformative implications of conscious strategic maneuvering by incumbent regime actors, when confronting regime structurations. This article provides insight to processes of regime enactment performed by local governments by applying a flow-oriented perspective on regime dynamics......, inspired by Actor-Network Theory to demonstrate that regime incumbent actors can induce gradual regime adjustments at the urban scale. This is done through a case study of an urban development project, where the Municipality of Egedal in Denmark has successfully promoted energy efficient buildings through...

  18. [Indirect costs in health technology assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Wrona, Witold; Macioch, Tomasz; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    In the health technology assessment it is crucial to define the perspective of the analysis. When the societal perspective is chosen it is necessary to include all the costs incurred by the society, also the costs of lost productivity resulting from absence of sick employees from work or their reduced efficiency at work. The aim of this article is to present the notion of indirect costs, their importance in health technology assessment and the methods of calculation. The economic literature has been reviewed for the state of knowledge on indirect costs. Three methods of calculation are described: human capital method, friction cost method or health state valuation. Indirect costs in Western European countries can amount to more than half of total costs attributed to the illness and its treatment. In the literature there is no consensus regarding the proper method of indirect costs calculation. It is necessary to conduct further theoretical and empirical research in the area of indirect costs and enhance discussion among Polish pharmacoeconomists.

  19. Mexican-Origin Parents’ Work Conditions and Adolescents’ Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-origin parents’ work experiences are a distal extra-familial context for adolescents’ adjustment. This two-wave multi-informant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents’ work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents’ adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents’ psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, two-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers’ occupational self-direction on all three aspects of adolescents’ adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents’ adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents’ gender moderated the associations between fathers’ self-direction and girls’ depressive symptoms, and fathers’ experiences of discrimination and boys’ risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents’ adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710

  20. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  2. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  3. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  4. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  5. Indirect Taxes and Public Debt in the 'World of Islam' before 1800

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; S. Cavaciocchi,

    2008-01-01

    Indirect taxes and public debt in the ‘world of Islam’ before 1800. A comparison of Western and Islamic public finance. Wantje Fritschy – Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam – June 2007 The ‘world of islam’ and ‘the West’ before 1800 seem to have displayed different ‘fiscal values’: not only was it

  6. Depression and Social Adjustment in Siblings of Boys with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Nora

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two siblings of autistic boys and 34 other siblings were compared on measures of depression, social adjustment, and family responsibilities. Results showed that siblings of autistic boys scored significantly higher on depression than the comparison group, but not on problems of social adjustment. There were no significant gender…

  7. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  8. Adjustment of nursing home quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirdes John P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This manuscript describes a method for adjustment of nursing home quality indicators (QIs defined using the Center for Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS nursing home resident assessment system, the Minimum Data Set (MDS. QIs are intended to characterize quality of care delivered in a facility. Threats to the validity of the measurement of presumed quality of care include baseline resident health and functional status, pattern of comorbidities, and facility case mix. The goal of obtaining a valid facility-level estimate of true quality of care should include adjustment for resident- and facility-level sources of variability. Methods We present a practical and efficient method to achieve risk adjustment using restriction and indirect and direct standardization. We present information on validity by comparing QIs estimated with the new algorithm to one currently used by CMS. Results More than half of the new QIs achieved a "Moderate" validation level. Conclusions Given the comprehensive approach and the positive findings to date, research using the new quality indicators is warranted to provide further evidence of their validity and utility and to encourage their use in quality improvement activities.

  9. Improving HybrID: How to best combine indirect and direct encoding in evolutionary algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Helms

    Full Text Available Many challenging engineering problems are regular, meaning solutions to one part of a problem can be reused to solve other parts. Evolutionary algorithms with indirect encoding perform better on regular problems because they reuse genomic information to create regular phenotypes. However, on problems that are mostly regular, but contain some irregularities, which describes most real-world problems, indirect encodings struggle to handle the irregularities, hurting performance. Direct encodings are better at producing irregular phenotypes, but cannot exploit regularity. An algorithm called HybrID combines the best of both: it first evolves with indirect encoding to exploit problem regularity, then switches to direct encoding to handle problem irregularity. While HybrID has been shown to outperform both indirect and direct encoding, its initial implementation required the manual specification of when to switch from indirect to direct encoding. In this paper, we test two new methods to improve HybrID by eliminating the need to manually specify this parameter. Auto-Switch-HybrID automatically switches from indirect to direct encoding when fitness stagnates. Offset-HybrID simultaneously evolves an indirect encoding with directly encoded offsets, eliminating the need to switch. We compare the original HybrID to these alternatives on three different problems with adjustable regularity. The results show that both Auto-Switch-HybrID and Offset-HybrID outperform the original HybrID on different types of problems, and thus offer more tools for researchers to solve challenging problems. The Offset-HybrID algorithm is particularly interesting because it suggests a path forward for automatically and simultaneously combining the best traits of indirect and direct encoding.

  10. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  11. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  12. Indirect punishment and generosity towards strangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Schram, A.; Riedl, A.; Cason, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can

  13. Indirect constraints on composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niehoff, Christoph; Stangl, Peter; Straub, David [Excellence Cluster Universe, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Models in which the Higgs boson is implemented as a composite pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of a new strongly interaction sector provide an elegant solution to the hierarchy problem and the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking. In this talk we present ways to constrain these kinds of models indirectly using flavour observables as well as Higgs physics.

  14. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year used for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same...

  15. Broiler breeding strategies using indirect carcass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the consequences of using indirect carcass measurements on the genetic response and rate of inbreeding in broiler breeding programs. In the base breeding scheme, selection candidates were evaluated based on direct carcass measurements on relatives.

  16. 38 CFR 17.261 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect costs. 17.261 Section 17.261 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for... relationship to the planning or program funded by the grant and shall not exceed a percentage greater than the...

  17. Disentangling Directand Indirect Effects of Credence Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of three credence labels (Australian, animal welfare and grass-fed) on US consumer attitudes toward buying beef steaks. Furthermore, it explores the impact of consumer attribute knowledge, usage frequency, education and

  18. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Äystö, J.; Banu, A.; Burjan, V.; Carstoiu, F.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Davidson, T.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Jokinen, J.; Kroha, V.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.; Woods, P. J.; Zhai, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  19. Indirect Costs: Daily Bread, Cake, or Cracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    The tradition of negotiating indirect costs in grants should be abandoned, and research administrators should instead offer different levels of service depending on what the sponsor wants to spend. Three levels of overhead rate are suggested (super, regular, and economy) and their corresponding levels of service are defined. (MSE)

  20. 48 CFR 1631.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Indirect costs. 1631.203 Section 1631.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial...

  1. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  2. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  3. Indirect determination of pediatric blood count reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierk, Jakob; Arzideh, Farhad; Haeckel, Rainer; Rascher, Wolfgang; Rauh, Manfred; Metzler, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Determination of pediatric reference intervals (RIs) for laboratory quantities, including hematological quantities, is complex. The measured quantities vary by age, and obtaining samples from healthy children is difficult. Many widely used RIs are derived from small sample numbers and are split into arbitrary discrete age intervals. Use of intra-laboratory RIs specific to the examined population and analytical device used is not yet fully established. Indirect methods address these issues by deriving RIs from clinical laboratory databases which contain large datasets of both healthy and pathological samples. A refined indirect approach was used to create continuous age-dependent RIs for blood count quantities and sodium from birth to adulthood. The dataset for each quantity consisted of 60,000 individual samples from our clinical laboratory. Patient samples were separated according to age, and a density function of the proportion of healthy samples was estimated for each age group. The resulting RIs were merged to obtain continuous RIs from birth to adulthood. The obtained RIs were compared to RIs generated by identical laboratory instruments, and to population-specific RIs created using conventional methods. This comparison showed a high concordance of reference limits and their age-dependent dynamics. The indirect approach reported here is well-suited to create continuous, intra-laboratory RIs from clinical laboratory databases and showed that the RIs generated are comparable to those created using established methods. The procedure can be transferred to other laboratory quantities and can be used as an alternative method for RI determination where conventional approaches are limited.

  4. 48 CFR 342.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 342.705 Final indirect cost rates. (a) The Division of Cost Allocation, PSC, shall establish indirect cost rates, research patient care rates, and, as... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates...

  5. Lion - tiger - stripes: Neural correlates of indirect semantic priming across processing modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Katharina; Krach, Sören; Sachs, Olga; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-03-01

    "Lions" do not have "stripes". However, via the word "tiger" both words are closely connected within the semantic network. With the present study we pursued two goals: to detect neural correlates of (1) directly and indirectly related word pairs by means of priming, and (2) to assess the effect of presentation modality. Stimuli were presented with a short SOA of 350 ms as subjects performed a lexical decision task during fMRI measurement. Four experimental conditions were compared: directly related (picture-frame), indirectly related (anvil-nail), unrelated (steamboat-needle) and nonword trials (chalk-edan), presented in a uni- (word-word) and cross-modal (auditory-word) version. Behavioral data revealed a modality-independent priming effect only for direct semantic priming. On a neural level, directly linked words led to left-lateralized activations in fronto-temporo-parietal areas. Indirect priming led to right-hemispheric fronto-parietal signal changes. Common areas of activation for uni- and cross-modal priming were found within the left middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus for direct priming and within the right insula for indirect priming. The comparison of the semantic distances (direct>indirect) showed one region activated modality-independent: the precuneus. Direct priming is associated with activation clusters corresponding to a large left-lateralized network. Indirect priming recruits right-hemispheric regions, reflecting widespread semantic fields and attentional components. The modality-independent comparison of direct and indirect priming revealed common areas of activation supporting an amodal rather than multiple semantic systems. The activation related to semantic distances underpins the special role of the precuneus. This region is involved in semantic priming and association processing whereas episodic memory contents might be addressed.

  6. Indirect and verbal victimization by peers among at-risk youth in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2015-04-01

    Verbal and indirect violence among peers in residential care settings (RCSs) are understudied social problems. This study, based on a sample of 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents aged 11-19 in 32 RCSs, examines the prevalence and multilevel correlates of verbal (such as cursing) and indirect (such as social exclusion) forms of victimization by peers in RCSs. Adolescents completed a self-report anonymous questionnaire in their facility. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) is used to examine the links between adolescents' victimization, individual-level characteristics (gender, age, adjustment difficulties, self-efficacy, staff maltreatment experiences and perceived institutional social climate), and RCS-level characteristics (setting type of care, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). Most adolescents reported having been verbally (73%) and indirectly (62%) victimized by their peers at least once in the month prior to filling out the questionnaire. Vulnerability to indirect violence is higher among girls and those with low perception of their social self-efficacy. Younger adolescents, adolescents with higher levels of overall adjustment difficulties, those experiencing high levels of physical maltreatment by RCS staff and those perceiving levels of child friendliness in their RCS as poor, were all more vulnerable to verbal and indirect victimization by peers. Verbal victimization is positively associated with residence in Jewish RCSs and indirect victimization is positively associated with residence in therapeutic settings which contain higher concentrations of vulnerable youth compared with rehabilitative settings. The findings can assist in designing anti-bullying intervention and prevention programs tailored for the at-risk children and institutions identified in the study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbæk explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  8. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances......In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions......’ of newcomers enacting the organizational emergent. The study throws light on the informal socialization in work-related interactions between newcomers and veterans and reveals professional relational histories, as well as the relationship between veteran coworker and hiring manager, to be important aspects...

  9. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  10. Biomechanical Comparison of Fixed-Loop and Adjustable-Loop Cortical Suspensory Devices for Metaphyseal Femoral-Sided Soft Tissue Graft Fixation in Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Darin D; Mitchell, W Ryan; Liu, Wei; Ostrander, Roger V

    2017-06-01

    To compare the displacement, stiffness, and ultimate failure load of a fixed-loop cortical suspensory device with 2 adjustable-loop devices when positioned on metaphyseal bone. Thirty devices (10 of each device) were positioned on the metaphyseal cortex of 30 porcine femora simulating anatomic anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel placement. Bovine tendons were used for soft tissue grafts, and the constructs were then cycled 1,000 times and pulled to failure, measuring displacement, stiffness, and failure load. Initial displacement, cyclic displacement, and total displacement were 2.98 mm, 2.09 mm, and 5.08 mm for the Endobutton CL (ECL), 2.82 mm, 2.27 mm, and 5.09 mm for the Tightrope (TRT), and 4.25 mm, 3.19 mm, and 7.44 mm for the adjustable-loop ToggleLoc Inline with Ziploop (TLZ), respectively. There was no difference between the ECL and the TRT on any measured outcome. Differences between the TLZ and ECL were statistically significant (initial displacement P = .024, cyclic displacement P < .001, and total displacement P < .001), as were those between the TLZ and TRT (initial displacement P = .010, cyclic displacement P = .001, and total displacement P < .001). Failure loads were 804 N, 801 N, and 682 N for the TRT, ECL, and TLZ, respectively, with no statistically significant difference. When positioned on the metaphyseal cortex, there was no difference in the biomechanical performance of the fixed-loop ECL and adjustable-loop TRT, and no lengthening of the TRTs was observed during cycling. However, the TLZ showed statistically significantly lower stiffness and more displacement during cycling with lengthening of the adjustable loop, the clinical significance of which is unknown. When used for femoral-sided soft tissue graft fixation in an anatomically placed femoral tunnel, the adjustable-loop TRT was biomechanically equivalent to the fixed-loop ECL. However, the adjustable-loop TLZ showed displacement during biomechanical testing that

  11. Avaliação de métodos indiretos de digitalização de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto Evaluation of indirect methods of digitization of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Donizeth Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar métodos de digitalização indireta de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta de dez radiografias cefalométricas adquiridas pelo Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE - Instrumentarium, digital direto. As imagens foram inseridas no programa Adobe Photoshop® e cinco pontos cefalométricos foram marcados. Procedeu-se a impressão em transparência e foi feita a digitalização indireta das imagens impressas, por meio das câmeras fotográficas digitais Sony® DSC-W5 e Canon® Rebel XT/EOS 350D, fixas em estativa, nas distâncias de 25cm e 60cm e com o scanner Scan Jet 4C Hewlett Packard®. As imagens diretas e indiretas foram inseridas e calibradas no software Radiocef Studio (Radiomemory®, Brasil, marcando-se o centro dos pontos previamente assinalados. A análise cefalométrica computadorizada gerou três grandezas angulares e quatro lineares, as quais foram submetidas a tratamento estatístico. RESULTADOS: as imagens do scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® demonstraram pequenas alterações significativas, porém, sem relevância clínica. Quando da digitalização a 60cm da radiografia, as duas câmeras causaram distorções que foram significativas mas clinicamente aceitáveis; e, a 25cm, causaram as maiores distorções, com importância clínica, na Canon® Rebel XT. CONCLUSÃO: o scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® com leitor de transparências foi o melhor método e as câmeras operando a 60cm mostraram-se adequadas para digitalização de radiografias. As câmeras na distância de 25cm causaram distorções na imagem que alteraram as medidas lineares, podendo a Canon® Rebel XT comprometer o diagnóstico ortodôntico.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indirect digitization method of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method. METHODS: The sample was composed of ten cephalometric radiographs acquired by Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE

  12. Case-mix adjustment approach to benchmarking prevalence rates of nosocomial infection in hospitals in Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Roumbelaki, Maria; Vounou, Emelia; Kontou, Maria; Papakyriakou, Panikos; Koliou-Mazeri, Maria; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Vrouchos, George; Troulakis, George; Gikas, Achilleas

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of heterogeneous case mix for a benchmarking analysis and interhospital comparison of the prevalence rates of nosocomial infection. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven hospitals located in Cyprus and in the region of Crete in Greece. The survey included all inpatients in the medical, surgical, pediatric, and gynecology-obstetrics wards, as well as those in intensive care units. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to define nosocomial infection. The information collected for all patients included demographic characteristics, primary admission diagnosis, Karnofsky functional status index, Charlson comorbidity index, McCabe-Jackson severity of illness classification, use of antibiotics, and prior exposures to medical and surgical risk factors. Outcome data were also recorded for all patients. Case mix-adjusted rates were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for nosocomial infection risk and an indirect standardization method.Results. The overall prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 7.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.9%-8.3%) among 1,832 screened patients. Significant variation in nosocomial infection rates was observed across hospitals (range, 2.2%-9.6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the mean predicted risk of nosocomial infection across hospitals ranged from 3.7% to 10.3%, suggesting considerable variation in patient risk. Case mix-adjusted rates ranged from 2.6% to 12.4%, and the relative ranking of hospitals was affected by case-mix adjustment in 8 cases (72.8%). Nosocomial infection was significantly and independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.1]). The first attempt to rank the risk of nosocomial infection in these regions demonstrated the importance of accounting for heterogeneous case mix before attempting interhospital comparisons.

  13. Indirect validation of a retrospective method of exposure assessment used in a nested case-control study of lung cancer and silica exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosemeci, M; McLaughlin, J K; Chen, J Q; Hearl, F; McCawley, M; Wu, Z; Chen, R G; Peng, K L; Chen, A L; Rexing, S H

    1994-02-01

    Validations of retrospective methods of assessment used in occupational epidemiological studies have rarely been published. This study is an indirect validation of a quantitative retrospective assessment of exposure to silica used in a nested case-control study of lung cancer among workers at 29 metal mines and pottery factories in China. Indices of cumulative total dust and cumulative respirable dust were calculated by merging work histories with the historical exposure profile for each subject. To validate indirectly the methods of exposure assessment used in the study of lung cancer, trends for exposure response relation between the two indices of exposure to silica and risk of silicosis were evaluated with 376 patients with silicosis from the study population as the cases, and 1262 controls without silicosis for comparison. Age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) as a measure of risk of silicosis showed striking trends with both indices of exposure to silica. For cumulative respirable dust, the OR (95% confidence interval) rose from 7.6 (5.1-11.4) for low exposure to 20.0 (13.2-30.6) for medium exposure, and to 51.7 (31.0-86.8) for high exposure. The strength of the association between exposure to silica and risk of silicosis suggests that the retrospective assessment of exposure used in the case-control study of lung cancer would accurately reflect an exposure response relation between silica and lung cancer, if it existed.

  14. Indirect Adaptive Attitude Control for a Ducted Fan Vertical Takeoff and Landing Microaerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses an attitude tracking control problem of a ducted fan microaerial vehicle. The proposed indirect adaptive controller can greatly reduce tracking error in the initial stage of the adaptive learning process by using an error compensation strategy and can achieve good capability to eliminate the adverse effect of measurement noises on the convergence of adjustable parameters. Moreover, the learning rate adaptation strategy is proposed to further minimize the adverse effect of large learning rates on the convergence of adjustable parameters. The experimental tests have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller.

  15. Disproportionate Allocation of Indirect Costs at Individual-Farm Level Using Maximum Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lips

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the allocation of indirect or joint costs among farm enterprises, and elaborates two maximum entropy models, the basic CoreModel and the InequalityModel, which additionally includes inequality restrictions in order to incorporate knowledge from production technology. Representing the indirect costing approach, both models address the individual-farm level and use standard costs from farm-management literature as allocation bases. They provide a disproportionate allocation, with the distinctive feature that enterprises with large allocation bases face stronger adjustments than enterprises with small ones, approximating indirect costing with reality. Based on crop-farm observations from the Swiss Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN, including up to 36 observations per enterprise, both models are compared with a proportional allocation as reference base. The mean differences of the enterprise’s allocated labour inputs and machinery costs are in a range of up to ±35% and ±20% for the CoreModel and InequalityModel, respectively. We conclude that the choice of allocation methods has a strong influence on the resulting indirect costs. Furthermore, the application of inequality restrictions is a precondition to make the merits of the maximum entropy principle accessible for the allocation of indirect costs.

  16. Comment traduire en japonais les styles indirect et indirect libre de Madame Bovary ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Sawasaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les difficultés rencontrées lors de la traduction des textes littéraires occidentaux, en japonais, nous examinons le problème des styles indirect et indirect libre. Pour cela, en effectuant une petite mise au point grammaticale, nous comparons sept traductions de Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert, dont les dates de parution s’étendent sur une cinquantaine d’années. Cette période s’apparente, de notre point de vue, à un long itinéraire pour assimiler la notion occidentale des styles direct et indirect, tout en la conciliant avec les particularités du japonais. D’un autre côté, ce travail acharné des traducteurs a influencé quelque peu la langue japonaise. On trouve dans l’annexe tous les textes en japonais examinés.We will examine the difficulties met when translating Western literary texts in Japanese, in particular the problem of indirect and free indirect styles. We will define the grammatical issue and compare seven translations of Madame Bovary, published over a fifty year period. This time can be likened to a long path taken to digest the Western notion of direct and indirect styles, while reconciling it with Japanese language characteristics. On the other hand the translators’ relentless work has somewhat influenced the Japanese language. The annex will present all the Japanese texts examined.

  17. Indirect punishment and generosity towards strangers

    OpenAIRE

    Ule, A.; Schram, A.; Riedl, A.; Cason, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers’ kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who emp...

  18. Indirect costs of inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are lifelong illnesses which have a significant impact on quality of life and personal burden through a reduction in the ability to work, sick leave and restrictions of leisure time. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the indirect costs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The search was carried out in Medline, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, and reference lists of identified articles and reference lists of identified articles were also handsearched. All costs were adjusted to 2013 USD values by using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity. Identified studies were then analysed in order to assess their heterogeneity and possibility of inclusion in the meta-analysis. Eleven of the identified publications presented indirect costs of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The range of estimated yearly indirect costs per patient was large, from $1 159.09 for loss of earnings to $14 135.64 for lost productivity and sick leave for Crohn's disease. The values for ulcerative colitis ranged from $926.49 to $6 583.17. Because of the imprecise definition of methods of indirect cost calculations as well as heterogeneity of indirect cost components, a meta-analysis was not performed. The indirect costs of ulcerative colitis seem to be slightly lower than in the case of Crohn's disease. A small number of studies referring to indirect costs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were identified, which indicates the need to conduct further investigations on this problem.

  19. Direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Eichner, Linda; Gerlier, Laetitia

    2017-04-26

    After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns. As shown analytically for the simple SIR and SIRS transmission models, indirect vaccination effects are bigger than direct ones if the effective reproduction number of disease transmission is close to the critical value of 1. Simulation results for 20-60% vaccination with live influenza vaccine of 2-17 year old children in Germany, averaged over 10 years (2017-26), confirm this result: four to seven times as many influenza cases are prevented among non-vaccinated individuals as among vaccinees. For complications like death due to influenza which occur much more frequently in the unvaccinated elderly than in the vaccination target group of children, indirect benefits can surpass direct ones by a factor of 20 or even more than 30. The true effect of vaccination can be much bigger than what would be expected by only looking at vaccination coverage and vaccine efficacy.

  20. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  1. Discovering relations between indirectly connected biomedical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenborn, Dirk; Schroeder, Michael; Tsatsaronis, George

    2015-01-01

    The complexity and scale of the knowledge in the biomedical domain has motivated research work towards mining heterogeneous data from both structured and unstructured knowledge bases. Towards this direction, it is necessary to combine facts in order to formulate hypotheses or draw conclusions about the domain concepts. This work addresses this problem by using indirect knowledge connecting two concepts in a knowledge graph to discover hidden relations between them. The graph represents concepts as vertices and relations as edges, stemming from structured (ontologies) and unstructured (textual) data. In this graph, path patterns, i.e. sequences of relations, are mined using distant supervision that potentially characterize a biomedical relation. It is possible to identify characteristic path patterns of biomedical relations from this representation using machine learning. For experimental evaluation two frequent biomedical relations, namely "has target", and "may treat", are chosen. Results suggest that relation discovery using indirect knowledge is possible, with an AUC that can reach up to 0.8, a result which is a great improvement compared to the random classification, and which shows that good predictions can be prioritized by following the suggested approach. Analysis of the results indicates that the models can successfully learn expressive path patterns for the examined relations. Furthermore, this work demonstrates that the constructed graph allows for the easy integration of heterogeneous information and discovery of indirect connections between biomedical concepts.

  2. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  3. Comparison of patient-reported outcomes during treatment with adjustable- and fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler versus fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler in patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard D; Patrick, Donald L; Parasuraman, Bhash; Martin, Paula; Goldman, Mitchell

    2010-03-01

    Assessment of patient-reported outcomes is important in evaluating the impact of asthma treatment. This study was conducted to compare effects of adjustable- and fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler with fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler regimens on patient-reported outcomes in patients aged > or =18 years with moderate to severe asthma. In this phase III, randomized, open-label study, 1225 patients were randomized 2:1 to fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5 microg x 2 inhalations (320/9 mug) twice daily or fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 250/50 microg twice daily for 1 month. In the subsequent 6 months, patients receiving fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol continued therapy, whereas those receiving fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol were randomized 1:1 to fixed-dose or adjustable-dose budesonide/formoterol (adjustable from 320/9 microg twice daily to 320/9 microg once daily or 640/18 microg twice daily). Mean improvements from baseline to end of treatment in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (standardized) overall and individual domain scores and the Asthma Control Questionnaire score were clinically important (> or =0.5 points) for all treatments. Patients in both budesonide/formoterol groups reported greater treatment satisfaction on the Asthma Treatment Satisfaction Measure questionnaire than patients in the fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler group for the attributes of timely relief of symptoms (p inhaler regimens versus fixed-dose fluticasone propionate/salmeterol dry powder inhaler.

  4. A new ignition scheme using hybrid indirect-direct drive for inertial confinement fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zhengfeng; Dai, Zhensheng; Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping; Zhang, W Y; He, X T

    2013-01-01

    A new hybrid indirect-direct-drive ignition scheme is proposed for inertial confinement fusion: a cryogenic capsule encased in a hohlraum is first compressed symmetrically by indirect-drive x-rays, and then accelerated and ignited by both direct-drive lasers and x-rays. A steady high-density plateau newly formed between the radiation and electron ablation fronts suppresses the rarefaction at the radiation ablation front and greatly enhances the drive pressure. Meanwhile, multiple shock reflections at the fuel/hot-spot interface are prevented during capsule deceleration. Thus rapid ignition and burn are realized. In comparison with the conventional indirect drive, the hybrid drive implodes the capsule with a higher velocity ($\\sim4.3\\times10^7$ cm/s) and a much lower convergence ratio ($\\sim$25), and the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities is significantly reduced, especially at the fuel/hot-spot interface.

  5. Indirect costs and workplace productivity loss associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Justin S; Hansen, Ryan N; Valderrama, Adriana; Carlson, Josh J

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine indirect costs and workplace productivity loss (defined as an aggregate measure of absenteeism, short-term disability, and long-term disability days) associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from a societal perspective in a commercially insured working-age United States population. The MarketScan(®) Commercial Claims and Encounters and Health and Productivity Management Databases (2007-2013) were used in this study, with controls matched 3:1 to NHL patients. In comparison to controls, NHL patients incurred significantly more workplace productivity loss (31.99 days; 95% CI: 25.24 days, 38.73 days; p indirect costs ($6302.34; 95% CI: $4973.40, $7631.28; p indirect costs.

  6. Emotional expression in school context, social relationships, and academic adjustment in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M; Berger, Rebecca H; Diaz, Anjolii; Terrell, Nathan; Thompson, Marilyn S; Southworth, Jody

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated direct relations of both kindergarteners' (N = 301) naturalistically observed emotion in 2 different school contexts and early kindergarten verbal competence to academic adjustment (i.e., standardized measures of academic achievement, teacher-reported academic skills, teacher-reported and observed school engagement) and if these relations were mediated by teacher-reported conflict with students and by peer acceptance. When controlling for verbal competence, positive emotions expressed in the classroom context positively directly predicted academic skills, whereas positive emotions expressed outside class (lunch/recess) negatively predicted academic skills. Negative emotions observed in the classroom context and during lunch/recess negatively predicted academic achievement. Positive emotions observed in both contexts indirectly predicted higher school engagement through its positive relation to peer acceptance; positive emotions expressed in lunch and recess indirectly predicted higher school engagement via lower teacher-student conflict. Negative emotions observed in both contexts also indirectly predicted lower school engagement via higher teacher-student conflict. Furthermore, verbal competence indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via lower teacher-student conflict. Moreover, verbal competence moderated the association between peer acceptance (but not teacher-student conflict) and academic adjustment. Because verbal competence moderated the associations from peer competence, positive emotions in both contexts indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via higher peer acceptance primarily for children with low, but not high, initial verbal competence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Emotional Expression in School Context, Social Relationships, and Academic Adjustment in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Berger, Rebecca H.; Diaz, Anjolii; Terrell, Nathan; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Southworth, Jody

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated direct relations of both kindergarteners’ (N = 301) naturalistically observed emotion in two different school contexts and early kindergarten verbal competence to academic adjustment (i.e., standardized measures of academic achievement, teacher-reported academic skills, teacher-reported and observed school engagement) and if these relations were mediated by teacher-reported conflict with students and by peer acceptance. When controlling for verbal competence, positive emotions expressed in the classroom context positively directly predicted academic skills, whereas positive emotions expressed outside class (lunch/recess) negatively predicted academic skills. Negative emotions observed in the classroom context and during lunch/recess negatively predicted academic achievement. Positive emotions observed in both contexts indirectly predicted higher school engagement through its positive relation to peer acceptance; positive emotions expressed in lunch and recess indirectly predicted higher school engagement via lower teacher–student conflict. Negative emotions observed in both contexts also indirectly predicted lower school engagement via higher teacher–student conflict. Furthermore, verbal competence indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via lower teacher–student conflict. Moreover, verbal competence moderated the association between peer acceptance (but not teacher–student conflict) and academic adjustment. Because verbal competence moderated the associations from peer competence, positive emotions in both contexts indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via higher peer acceptance primarily for children with low, but not high, initial verbal competence. PMID:26751629

  8. Comparison of crude and adjusted mortality rates from leading causes of death in northeastern Brazil Comparación de las tasas de mortalidad bruta y ajustada debida a las principales causas de muerte en el nordeste del Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth França

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present how the adjustment of incompleteness and misclassification of causes of death in the vital registration (VR system can contribute to more accurate estimates of the risk of mortality from leading causes of death in northeastern Brazil. METHODS: After estimating the total numbers of deaths by age and sex in Brazil's Northeast region in 2002-2004 by correcting for undercount in the VR data, adjustment algorithms were applied to the reported cause-of-death structure. Average anual age-standardized mortality rates were computed by cause, with and without the corrections, and compared to death rates for Brazil's South region after adjustments for potential misdiagnosis. RESULTS: Death rates from ischemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and perinatal conditions were more than 100% higher for both sexes than what was suggested by the routine VR data. Corrected cause-specific mortality rates were higher in the Northeast region versus the South region for the majority of causes of death, including several noncommunicable conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to adjust VR data for undercount of cases reported and misdiagnoses will cause underestimation of mortality risks for the populations of the Northeast region, which are more vulnerable than those in other regions of the country. In order to more reliably understand the pattern of disease, all cause-specific mortality rates in poor populations should be adjusted.OBJETIVO: Presentar de qué manera el ajuste de los datos incompletos y de la clasificación errónea de las causas de muerte registradas en el sistema del registro civil puede ayudar a estimar los riesgos de mortalidad debida a las principales causas de muerte en el nordeste del Brasil. MÉTODOS: Después de calcular el número total de defunciones por edad y sexo en el nordeste del Brasil entre 2002 y 2004 mediante la corrección del subregistro de los datos del registro

  9. Indirect two-sided relative ranking: a robust similarity measure for gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licamele Louis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large amount of gene expression data that exists in the public domain. This data has been generated under a variety of experimental conditions. Unfortunately, these experimental variations have generally prevented researchers from accurately comparing and combining this wealth of data, which still hides many novel insights. Results In this paper we present a new method, which we refer to as indirect two-sided relative ranking, for comparing gene expression profiles that is robust to variations in experimental conditions. This method extends the current best approach, which is based on comparing the correlations of the up and down regulated genes, by introducing a comparison based on the correlations in rankings across the entire database. Because our method is robust to experimental variations, it allows a greater variety of gene expression data to be combined, which, as we show, leads to richer scientific discoveries. Conclusions We demonstrate the benefit of our proposed indirect method on several datasets. We first evaluate the ability of the indirect method to retrieve compounds with similar therapeutic effects across known experimental barriers, namely vehicle and batch effects, on two independent datasets (one private and one public. We show that our indirect method is able to significantly improve upon the previous state-of-the-art method with a substantial improvement in recall at rank 10 of 97.03% and 49.44%, on each dataset, respectively. Next, we demonstrate that our indirect method results in improved accuracy for classification in several additional datasets. These datasets demonstrate the use of our indirect method for classifying cancer subtypes, predicting drug sensitivity/resistance, and classifying (related cell types. Even in the absence of a known (i.e., labeled experimental barrier, the improvement of the indirect method in each of these datasets is statistically significant.

  10. Comparison of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rats / Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do teste de aglutinação modificado na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and affects a lot of species of carnivores and omnivores, including the human. The rodents are important in the transmition cycle because they act as an infection font to felines, the definitive host of this protozoan. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT for the serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in rats, comparing with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT, which has been considered the golden standard in animal toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Kappa test was used for comparing the serologic tests (IFAT and MAT and for determination of cutoff appropriate to MAT in this animal species. 182 rats were caught on local recycling of solid waste and solid residue storage in Londrina city, Paraná. Out of the 182 rats, nine (4.94% were positive to IFAT at a dilution of 1:16, and 17 (9.34% and five (2.75% were reactive to MAT in dilutions 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. The comparison of results between the techniques presented kappa coefficients of 0.26 and 0.55, respectively at 1:25 and 1:50 dilutions of MAT. It can be concluded that the dilution 1:50 is the most suitable to be used as cutoff for detecting T. gondii antibodies in rats using MAT, because agreed with IFAT.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii que acomete várias espécies carnívoras e onívoras, incluindo o ser humano. Os roedores são importantes na cadeia epidemiológica da doença por servirem de fonte de infecção aos felídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos deste protozoário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT na detecção de anticorpos contra T. gondii em ratos, comparando-o à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose animal. Empregou-se o teste kappa para a comparação dos testes sorológicos (RIFI e MAT e para a determinação do ponto de corte

  11. Indirect costs associated with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yin; Gao, Xin; Mehta, Sonam; Wang, Zhixiao; Faria, Claudio; Schwartzberg, Lee

    2013-10-01

    To compare the indirect costs of productivity loss between metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and early stage breast cancer (EBC) patients, as well as their respective family members. The MarketScan Health and Productivity Management database (2005-2009) was used. Adult BC patients eligible for employee benefits of sick leave and/or short-term disability were identified with ICD-9 codes. Difference in sick leave and short-term disability days was calculated between MBC patients and their propensity score matched EBC cohort and general population (controls) during a 12-month follow-up period. Generalized linear models were used to examine the impact of MBC on indirect costs to patients and their families. A total of 139 MBC, 432 EBC, and 820 controls were eligible for sick leave and 432 MBC, 1552 EBC, and 4682 controls were eligible for short-term disability (not mutually exclusive). After matching, no statistical difference was found in sick leave days and the associated costs between MBC and EBC cohorts. However, MBC patients had significantly higher short-term disability costs than EBC patients and controls (MBC: $6166 ± $9194 vs. EBC: $3690 ± $6673 vs. $558 ± $2487, both p indirect costs compared to EBC patients' families after controlling for key covariates. Productivity loss and associated costs in MBC patients are substantially higher than EBC patients or the general population. These findings underscore the economic burden of MBC from a US societal perspective. Various treatment regimens should be evaluated to identify opportunities to reduce the disease burden from the societal perspective.

  12. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  13. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... or crown is made. Factors as remaining tooth structure, endodontic treatment, number of teeth, caries risk, para-functional habits, material properties, economy etc. will all have an influence, when the dentist guides the patient to choose the best solution. What is best for the tooth – direct or indirect...

  14. Indirect haemagglutination reaction with Sarcocystis dispersa antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Cerná, Z

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the preparation of antigen from Sarcocystis dispersa cystozoites and the procedure of the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). The antibodies against this antigen were detected in experimentally infected mice from day 20 p.i. (1: 640). In the following weeks the antibody titres reached the value of 1: 40,960. The sera of pigs, sheep and horses spontaneously infected with other Sarcocystis species reacted with this antigen in low titres only. The bovine sera gave negative reactions even in cases when Sarcocystis cysts were present in the muscles of the examined animals. A possible application of IHA for the research and diagnostic purposes is discussed.

  15. [Direct and indirect restorations of primary molars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakass, I A; Lakass, O S

    2013-01-01

    In the development of dental and facial system primary teeth undergo a series of topographic and morphological changes. Regular alignment of upper and lower dental arches temporary occlusion depends mostly on genetic factors although type of feeding may also play a significant role. According to the results of the study, conducted in 150 children aged 3 to 8 years we can conclude that the purpose of the modern restoration of deciduous teeth is to restore the aesthetic and functional architectonics of the crown, taking into account its value in the occlusion and articulation, as well as indirect influence of restoration on the growth and development of dental system.

  16. Indirect MR arthrography: techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlensieck, M; Sommer, T; Textor, J; Pauleit, D; Lang, P; Genant, H K; Schild, H H

    1998-01-01

    Indirect MR arthrography is a relatively new MR technique improving articular and periarticular contrast. It is achieved by injection of paramagnetic MR contrast media intravenously instead of intra-articular injection as in direct MR arthrography. After the injection exercising the joint results in considerable signal intensity increase within the joint cavity. Fat saturated MR sequences then yield arthrographic images. The method is less invasive than direct MR arthrography and first results showed comparable sensitivities and specificities for rotator cuff and glenoid labrum pathology. In this article the technique, established and potential future indications, drawbacks and limitations of the method are reviewed.

  17. Indirect MR arthrography: techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Sommer, T.; Textor, J.; Pauleit, D.; Schild, H.H. [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn (Germany); Lang, P.; Genant, H.K. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Indirect MR arthrography is a relatively new MR technique improving articular and periarticular contrast. It is achieved by injection of paramagnetic MR contrast media intravenously instead of intra-articular injection as in direct MR arthrography. After the injection exercising the joint results in considerable signal intensity increase within the joint cavity. Fat saturated MR sequences then yield arthrographic images. The method is less invasive than direct MR arthrography and first results showed comparable sensitivities and specificities for rotator cuff and glenoid labrum pathology. In this article the technique, established and potential future indications, drawbacks and limitations of the method are reviewed. (orig.) With 7 figs., 10 refs.

  18. Psychological adjustment to chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Denise; Geenen, Rinie; Kuijer, Roeline; van Middendorp, Henriët

    2008-07-19

    This Review discusses physiological, emotional, behavioural, and cognitive aspects of psychological adjustment to chronic illness. Reviewing the reports of the past decade, we identify four innovative and promising themes that are relevant for understanding and explaining psychological adjustment. In particular, the emphasis on the reasons why people fail to achieve a healthy adjustment has shifted to the identification of factors that help patients make that adjustment. To promote psychological adjustment, patients should remain as active as is reasonably possible, acknowledge and express their emotions in a way that allows them to take control of their lives, engage in self-management, and try to focus on potential positive outcomes of their illness. Patients who can use these strategies have the best chance of successfully adjusting to the challenges posed by a chronic illness.

  19. Performance comparison of resistance-trained subjects by different methods of adjusting for body mass. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladymir Külkamp

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance (1RM of resistance-trained subjects, using different methods of adjusting for body mass (BM: ratio standard, theoretical allometric exponent (0.67, and specific allometric exponents. The study included 11 male and 11 female healthy non-athletes (mean age = 22 years engaged in regular resistance training for at least 6 months. Bench press (BP, 45° leg press (LP and arm curl (AC exercises were performed, and the participants were ranked (in descending order according to each method. The specific allometric exponents for each exercise were: for men – BP (0.73, LP (0.35, and AC (0.71; and for women – BP (1.22, LP (1.02, and AC (0.85. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no differences between the rankings. However, visual inspection indicated that the participants were often classified differently in relation to performance by the methods used. Furthermore, no adjusted strength score was equal to the absolute strength values (1RM. The results suggest that there is a range of values in which the differences between exponents do not reflect different rankings (below 0.07 points and a range in which rankings can be fundamentally different (above 0.14 points. This may be important in long-term selection of universally accepted allometric exponents, considering the range of values found in different studies. The standardization of exponents may allow the use of allometry as an additional tool in the prescription of resistance training.

  20. THE INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) – ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is too corporate the function of the indirect object between Albanian and English language. The function and the Albanian typical case for indirect object are dative and ablative. This grammatical phenomena is the full contrast between two languages because in English language doesn’t exist dative and ablative us in Albanian. In Albanian and English language, the indirect object is more heterogenic than the direct object. The indirect (direct) object in both of languages...

  1. Acculturation and school adjustment of immigrant youth in six European countries : Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schachner, M.K.; He, J.; Heizmann, B.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2017-01-01

    School adjustment determines long-term adjustment in society. Yet, immigrant youth do better in some countries than in others. Drawing on acculturation research (Berry, 1997; Ward, 2001) and self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), we investigated indirect effects of adolescent immigrants’

  2. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  3. 48 CFR 642.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate of indirect costs. 642.703-2 Section 642.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 642.703-2 Certificate of indirect costs. (b) The head of the contracting...

  4. 48 CFR 42.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.703-2 Certificate of... not be accepted and no agreement shall be made to establish final indirect cost rates unless the costs... contractor has not certified its proposal for final indirect cost rates and a waiver is not appropriate, the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.940-4 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect costs. 35.940-4 Section 35.940-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.940-4 Indirect costs. Indirect costs shall be allowable in...

  6. 48 CFR 1542.703-2 - Certificate of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Certificate of indirect costs. 1542.703-2 Section 1542.703-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 1542.703-2 Certificate of indirect...

  7. Indirect Costs: The Past, Present, and a Possible Institutional Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyblut, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    Federal regulations concerning recovery of indirect costs of university research projects are changing. Institutions should explore possible alternatives for managing reporting of indirect costs for individual projects. One system, reporting indirect cost categories in the same format as direct costs, may give insight into expenditures and help…

  8. 48 CFR 1552.242-70 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... procedures require a Contracting Officer determination of indirect cost rates for its contracts. In those... Contracting Officer of the cognizant agency. Upon establishment of the final indirect cost rates, the.... (b) Until final annual indirect cost rates are established for any period, the Government shall...

  9. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  10. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  11. The indirect strategies of internationalization of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work are, as mentioned in the title, the indirect strategies of internationalization of companies. The first part talks about the new business environment, the factors that lead to changes and their implications. It is at the same time the business context, which must be taken into consideration that determines the success of companies in the new business environment. In this paper, the emphasis is on company business in international markets, and the selection of appropriate strategies of internationalization, which will be responsible for this new business environment. There are many reasons that are discussed in this paper, and would rather indicate that partners from different countries to accept different strategies, rather than opting for a strategy of export, or a strategy of direct investments abroad. The dynamic technical and technological development, and its universal impact, among other relevant factors, put in the first place the importance of different strategies which is achieved through technology transfer, knowledge and experience whereby the exports, as a classic strategy of involvement in international trade, becomes significantly more difficult. Also, the internationalization of enterprises through direct investment abroad, involves many difficulties related to fitting in a foreign enterprise environment, and a high risk strategy. In addition, there is still a large number of countries do not allow wholly owned foreign enterprises. The paper discusses the value of various indirect internationalization strategy, which may be useful for those domestic companies that are in front of problem the choice of acceptable strategies of internationalization.

  12. Indirect MR arthrography: optimization and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlensieck, M; Peterfy, C G; Wischer, T; Sommer, T; Lang, P; Schlippert, U; Genant, H K; Schild, H H

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate and optimize a method for producing magnetic resonance (MR) images similar to MR arthrograms of multiple synovial joints with intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine injection. The authors examined the effects of joint motion, dose of gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mmol/kg), and fat saturation on the enhancement rate of the joint cavity and the degree of image contrast generated among articular structures on MR images in 14 healthy volunteers. Shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle joints of 10 volunteers were imaged with optimized parameters. Indirect MR arthrographic findings in 17 patients with joint disorders (eg, rotator-cuff tears, meniscal tears, and osteoarthritis) were compared with arthroscopic findings. Fat-saturated images obtained after 10 minutes of exercise and administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine were similar to those obtained after intraarticular injection of contrast medium. Exercising the joint yielded the strongest joint-cavity enhancement. Increasing the dose of contrast medium in the unexercised joint did not statistically significantly improve the contrast-to-noise ratio. Rotator cuff tears, meniscal tears, and cartilage defects were better delineated with this method than with unenhanced MR imaging and showed good correlation with arthroscopic results. Indirect MR arthrography of an exercised joint provides homogeneous enhancement and improved delineation of soft-tissue structures.

  13. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  14. Direct and indirect parameters of free thyroxine. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiners, C.; Hoffmann, R.; Moll, E.; Baum, K.; Becker, W.; Eilles, C.; Gerhards, W.; Schick, F.; Spiegel, W.; Wiedemann, W.

    1983-12-01

    Part II of the study concerning the clinical applicability of direct and indirect parameters for free thyroxine evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of the FT/sub 4/-RIAs ImmoPhase, GammaCoat, Liquisol, Amerlex and LisoPhase in relation to FT/sub 4/ index and T/sub 4//TBG ratio. This comparison of methods is done on a thoroughly classified collection (n = 640) of patients with normal and impaired thyroid function including patients with binding protein anomalies (pregnancy, estrogen-medication, phenytoin therapy, renal protein loss). FT/sub 4/ normal ranges of a given kit harmonize well with data of the manufacturers and of the literature. On the other hand, the normal ranges of the various kits are not comparable. The differentiation of euthyroidism from hyper- or hypothyroidism can be made without problems using any of these methods, with the exception of the FT/sub 4/-RIA GammaCoat. As expected, patients with euthyroid goiter show, on the average, slightly lower parameters for FT/sub 4/. In pregnancy all direct and indirect parameters for FT/sub 4/ have a tendency to lower values after the first trimester. This trend is most distinct for the T/sub 4//TBG ratio. A weak negative correlation of FT/sub 4/ parameters with basal TSH, which does not exceed the upper normal range, however, can be interpreted in the sense of a relative hypothyroxinemia. Under contraceptive estrogen medication FT/sub 4/ parameters do not fall outside the normal range, with the exception of the FT/sub 4/-RIA ImmoPhase assay which yields a significantly increased frequency of high FT/sub 4/ levels.

  15. Direct versus indirect revascularization procedures for moyamoya disease: a comparative effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macyszyn, Luke; Attiah, Mark; Ma, Tracy S; Ali, Zarina; Faught, Ryan; Hossain, Alisha; Man, Karen; Patel, Hiren; Sobota, Rosanna; Zager, Eric L; Stein, Sherman C

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic cerebrovascular disease that can lead to devastating neurological outcomes. Surgical intervention is the definitive treatment, with direct, indirect, and combined revascularization procedures currently employed by surgeons. The optimal surgical approach, however, remains unclear. In this decision analysis, the authors compared the effectiveness of revascularization procedures in both adult and pediatric patients with MMD. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed for studies of MMD. Using complication and success rates from the literature, the authors constructed a decision analysis model for treatment using a direct and indirect revascularization technique. Utility values for the various outcomes and complications were extracted from the literature examining preferences in similar clinical conditions. Sensitivity analysis was performed. RESULTS A structured literature search yielded 33 studies involving 4197 cases. Cases were divided into adult and pediatric populations. These were further subdivided into 3 different treatment groups: indirect, direct, and combined revascularization procedures. In the pediatric population at 5- and 10-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between indirect and combination procedures, but both were superior to direct revascularization. In adults at 4-year follow-up, indirect was superior to direct revascularization. CONCLUSIONS In the absence of factors that dictate a specific approach, the present decision analysis suggests that direct revascularization procedures are inferior in terms of quality-adjusted life years in both adults at 4 years and children at 5 and 10 years postoperatively, respectively. These findings were statistically significant (p < 0.001 in all cases), suggesting that indirect and combination procedures may offer optimal results at long-term follow-up.

  16. [Adjustment disorder and DSM-5: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appart, A; Lange, A-K; Sievert, I; Bihain, F; Tordeurs, D

    2017-02-01

    This paper exposes the complexity and discrete characteristic of the adjustment disorder with reference to its clinical and scientific diagnosis. Even though the disorder occurs in frequent clinical circumstances after important life events, such as mobbing, burn-out, unemployment, divorce or separation, pregnancy denial, surgical operation or cancer, the adjustment disorder is often not considered in the diagnosis since better known disorders with similar symptoms prevail, such as major depression and anxiety disorder. Ten years ago, Bottéro had already noticed that the adjustment disorder diagnosis remained rather uncommon with reference to patients he was working with while Langlois assimilated this disorder with an invisible diagnosis. In order to maximize the data collection, we used the article review below and challenged their surveys and results: National Center for Biotechnology Information (NBCI - Pubmed) for international articles and Cairn.info for French literature. Moreover, we targeted the following keywords on the search engine and used articles, which had been published from 1 February 1975 to 31 January 2015: "adjustment", "adjustment disorder" and the French translation "trouble de l'adaptation". One hundred and ninety-one articles matched our search criteria. However, after a closer analysis, solely 105 articles were selected as being of interest. Many articles were excluded since they were related to non-psychiatric fields induced by the term "adaptation". Indeed, the number of corresponding articles found for the adjustment disorder literally pointed-out the lack of existing literature on that topic in comparison to more known disorders such as anxiety disorder (2661 articles) or major depression (5481 articles). This represents up to 50 times more articles in comparison to the number of articles we found on adjustment disorder and up to 20 times more articles for the eating disorder (1994), although the prevalence is not significantly

  17. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    electricity prices for indirect control of active power. The local, dynamic electricity prices are realised as dynamic adjustments of the quasi-stationary global power price. The aims of the dynamic price adjustments are to prevent overloading of the grid, to reduce the grid power losses and to regulate...... the grid voltage. The algorithms generating the local prices are dynamically adjusted according to the actual realised responses to the dynamic prices. Results are presented from an adapted version of the control principle implemented and tested in DTUs experimental research power system, SYSLAB, including...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...

  18. Muon detection with scintillation detectors using indirect SiPM readout

    CERN Document Server

    Struth, Janina

    2010-01-01

    In the scope of this thesis prototypes of silicon photomultipliers with wavelength shifting fibres were measured for muon detection. This indirect readout happens with silizium photomultipliers (SiPM), which are coupled with the fibre. The scintillator was wrapped with different reflective materials to optimise the light amplification. Furthermore two different thicknesses of the scintillator were used to have a comparison between the different light yield. Consequently different scintillator thicknesses were combinded and measured with different wrapping materials to compare their efficiency.

  19. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  20. Perfectionsism, Coping, and Emotional Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2001-01-01

    Undergraduates (N=204) completed three scales of the student adaptation to college questionnaire. Measures of coping and emotional adjustment revealed differences among the three groups of students labeled adaptive, maladaptive, and non-perfectionists. Perfectionism and coping predicted emotional adjustment but coping as a moderator or mediator in…

  1. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  2. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  3. Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eJiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN, and the implications of this pre-cerebellar ‘detour’ for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spino-cerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of de

  4. Editorial on indirect excitons: Physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    This special issue contains 9 original review papers, research papers and discussion papers on indirect excitons. An exciton is a Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pair. Frenkel excitons dominate optical properties of organic semiconductors, while Wannier-Mott excitons are responsible for the hydrogen-like absorption spectra of inorganic semiconductors at low temperatures. The interest to the physics of excitons has strongly increased in the new century. This interest is motivated by unique bosonic properties of excitons that lead to the phenomena of exciton-polariton lasing and stimulated scattering, build-up of the spontaneous coherence and polarisation in cold exciton gases. In addition to the rich fundamental physics, excitons offer the perspective of applications in opto-electronic devices such as exciton transistors, switches, optical integrated circuits, etc.

  5. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models...... and strangers, therefore, IGEs estimated from a traditional model may be incorrect, and selection based on those estimates will be suboptimal. Here we investigate whether genetic parameters for IGEs are statistically identifiable in group-structured populations when IGEs differ between kin and strangers......, and develop models to estimate such parameters. First, we extend the definition of total breeding value and total heritable variance to cases where IGEs depend on relatedness. Next, we show that the full set of genetic parameters is not identifiable when IGEs differ between kin and strangers. Subsequently, we...

  6. Incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years and risk factors of cancer in Australia and comparison with OECD countries, 1990-2015: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Appleton, Sarah L; Gill, Tiffany K; Ogbo, Felix A; Buckley, Elizabeth; Shi, Zumin; Driscoll, Tim; Adams, Robert; Cowie, Benjamin C; Fitzmaurice, Christina

    2018-02-01

    Comparative evidence on the burden, trend, and risk factors of cancer is limited. Using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we aimed to assess cancer burden - incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) - and attributable risk factors for Australia between 1990 and 2015, and to compare them with those of 34 members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The general GBD cancer estimation methods were used with data input from vital registration systems and cancer registries. A comparative risk assessment approach was used to estimate the population-attributable fractions due to risk factors. In 2015 there were 198,880 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 183,908-217,365) estimated incident cancer cases and 47,562 (95% UI: 46,061-49,004) cancer deaths in Australia. Twenty-nine percent (95% UI: 28.2-29.8) of total deaths and 17.0% (95% UI: 15.0-19.1) of DALYs were caused by cancer in Australia in 2015. Cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung, colon and rectum, and prostate were the most common causes of cancer deaths. Thirty-six percent (95% UI: 33.1-37.9) of all cancer deaths were attributable to behavioral risks. The age-standardized cancer incidence rate (ASIR) increased between 1990 and 2015, while the age-standardized cancer death rate (ASDR) decreased over the same period. In 2015, compared to 34 other OECD countries Australia ranked first (highest) and 24 th based on ASIR and ASDR, respectively. The incidence of cancer has increased over 25 years, and behavioral risks are responsible for a large proportion of cancer deaths. Scaling up of prevention (using strategies targeting cancer risk factors), early detection, and treatment of cancer is required to effectively address this growing health challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of indirect rotor field oriented control-based induction machine performance under inaccurate field-oriented condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Tao, Geng; Wang, Huai

    2017-01-01

    Indirect rotor field oriented control (IRFOC) plays an important role in the high performance induction machine drives. In the indirect rotor field oriented control — based induction machine adjustable speed control system, the rotor field angle is usually obtained by the rotor angular velocity...... and the slip angular velocity. The rotor angular velocity can be sensed by an encoder with sufficient accuracy. However, the slip angular velocity is affected by the rotor parameters variations and the current control performance degradation especially in the field-weakening region. Therefore, the field angle...

  8. Resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Frank A; Horvath, Sebastian D; Guess, Petra C; Blatz, Markus B

    2014-01-01

    Resin bonding is essential for clinical longevity of indirect restorations. Especially in light of the increasing popularity of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-fabricated indirect restorations, there is a need to assess optimal bonding protocols for new ceramic/polymer materials and indirect composites. The aim of this article was to review and assess the current scientific evidence on the resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials. An electronic PubMed database search was conducted from 1966 to September 2013 for in vitro studies pertaining the resin bond to indirect composite and new ceramic/polymer materials. The search revealed 198 titles. Full-text screening was carried out for 43 studies, yielding 18 relevant articles that complied with inclusion criteria. No relevant studies could be identified regarding new ceramic/polymer materials. Most common surface treatments are aluminum-oxide air-abrasion, silane treatment, and hydrofluoric acid-etching for indirect composite restoration. Self-adhesive cements achieve lower bond strengths in comparison with etch-and-rinse systems. Thermocycling has a greater impact on bonding behavior than water storage. Air-particle abrasion and additional silane treatment should be applied to enhance the resin bond to laboratory-processed composites. However, there is an urgent need for in vitro studies that evaluate the bond strength to new ceramic/polymer materials. This article reviews the available dental literature on resin bond of laboratory composites and gives scientifically based guidance for their successful placement. Furthermore, this review demonstrated that future research for new ceramic/polymer materials is required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The systemic lupus erythematosus Tri-Nation study: cumulative indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopalis, Pantelis; Petri, Michelle; Manzi, Susan; Isenberg, David A; Gordon, Caroline; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Penrod, John R; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Pineau, Christian; Fortin, Paul R; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Goulet, Jean-Richard; Choquette, Denis; Grodzicky, Tamara; Esdaile, John M; Clarke, Ann E

    2007-02-15

    We previously reported that patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the US incurred approximately 19% and 12% higher direct medical costs than patients in Canada and the UK, respectively, without experiencing superior outcomes expressed as disease damage or quality of life. In the present study, we compared cumulative indirect costs over 4 years in these patients. A total of 715 patients with SLE (269 US, 231 Canada, 215 UK) were surveyed semiannually for 4 years on employment status and time lost from labor and nonlabor market activities. Cross-country comparisons of indirect costs were performed. In the US, Canada, and the UK, mean 4-year cumulative indirect costs (95% confidence interval [95% CI]) due to diminished labor market activity were $56,745 ($49,919, $63,571), $38,642 ($32,785, $44,500), and $42,213 ($35,859, $48,567), respectively, and cumulative indirect costs due to diminished nonlabor market activity were $5,249 ($2,766, $7,732), $5,455 ($3,290, $7,620), and $8,572 ($5,626, $11,518), respectively. Regression results showed that cumulative indirect costs (95% CI) due to diminished labor market activity in the US were $6,750 ($580, $12,910) greater than in Canada and $10,430 ($4,050, $16,800) greater than in the UK. Indirect costs due to diminished nonlabor market activity in the US were $280 (-$2,950, $3,520) less than in Canada and $2,010 (-$1,490, $5,510) less than in the UK, both results insignificant due to wide CIs. Despite American patients incurring greater direct medical costs than Canadian and British patients, they do not experience superior health outcomes in terms of less productivity loss in either labor market or nonlabor market activities.

  10. Adjusted Clinical Groups: a patient classification system through risk adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Sicras-Mainar, Antonio; Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials. Barcelona, España. Médico doctor en Medicina, especialista en Salud Pública.; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Hospital Germans Trías i Pujol. Badalona, Barcelona, España. médica especialista en Documentación Médica.

    2014-01-01

    Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) are risk adjustment systems that classify people according to their age, sex and medical conditions, these people have a similar consumption of health resources over a given period of time. They were developed by Starfield and Weiner (Johns Hopkins University, USA, 1991), and their objective is to measure the degree of illness among patients based on the levels of comorbidity. Their main applications are: a) the evaluation of the efficiency in the use of hea...

  11. Gender Differentiation of Relationships Between Manifestations of Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study has been to explore the gender differentiation of relationships between individual manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness and particular dimensions of emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 women and 130 men) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CS-DS) and INTE, i.e. the Polish version of the Assessing Emotions Scale (AES). Manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness showed significant correlations with INTE variables, and those correlations were mainly negative. Relationships between specific dimensions of emotional intelligence and specific manifestations of self-destructiveness differed between women and men. One of the most important differences was the relationship between transgression and ability to recognize emotions. The knowledge of the differentiation of the above relationships may allow to orient prophylactic and therapeutic actions, and adjust them to the specific gender.

  12. Network characteristics, perceived social support, and psychological adjustment in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Paul R

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the characteristics of the support networks of 106 mothers of children with ASD and their relationship to perceived social support, depressed mood, and subjective well-being. Using structural equation modeling, two competing sets of hypotheses were assessed: (1) that network characteristics would impact psychological adjustment directly, and (2) that network effects on adjustment would be indirect, mediated by perceived social support. Results primarily lent support to the latter hypotheses, with measures of network structure (network size) and function (proportion of network members providing emotional support) predicting increased levels of perceived social support which, in turn, predicted decreased depressed mood and increased well-being. Results also indicated that increased interpersonal strain in the maternal network was directly and indirectly associated with increased maternal depression, while being indirectly linked to reduced well-being. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  13. Learned Helplessness and Psychological Adjustment: Effects of Age, Gender and Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Harald

    2001-01-01

    Studied the relationships among academic achievement, learned helplessness, and psychological adjustment (self-esteem and depression), controlled for gender and age, for 1,580 students with data collected in grades 3 and 4, 6 and 7, and 8 and 9. Results show that academic achievement is directly and indirectly related to the pattern of…

  14. Preventing Underfeeding and Overfeeding: A Clinician's Guide to the Acquisition and Implementation of Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Amy K; Skillman, Heather E; Haemer, Matthew A; Mourani, Peter M

    2017-05-01

    In critically ill patients, indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard to determine energy needs, as the use of predictive equations can result in underfeeding or overfeeding. The aim of this quality improvement (QI) initiative was to describe the rationale for and implementation of a process to target energy provision according to IC measurements in a tertiary academic medical center pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). To justify the purchase of an indirect calorimeter for clinical use, a needs assessment was conducted, followed by a training and implementation period. PICU patients were selected for IC according to published guidelines. Measured energy expenditure was compared with predicted energy expenditure and the provided energy prescription. The dietitians assessed IC results and adjusted energy prescriptions, if indicated. Thirty-five total tests were completed with 24 patients. Sixty-nine percent of measurements resulted in energy delivery adjustments. Fifteen (47%) energy prescriptions decreased by a mean of 27% ± 11%, and 7 (22%) increased by a mean of 17% ± 15%. Staff and patient/guardians accommodated the use of IC, and PICU dietitian recommendations for IC tests and to adjust nutrition regimens were universally implemented. Data to support the procurement of IC are vital to promote best practice to measure energy expenditure. Critically ill pediatric patients exhibit metabolic alterations that cannot be predicted by standard equations. Our QI initiative demonstrated the implementation and application of IC in the critically ill population and the ability to target energy provision to prevent energy imbalances.

  15. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. [Causal relationships between school adjustment of middle school students and related variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jeongyee

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the causal relationship of familial factors (parental acceptance, autonomy, and family satisfaction), social support (teacher's support and friend's support), school achievement, self-concept, and school adjustment. Based on preceding research, this study established a path model of school adjustment and its related variables. Two thousand six hundred and twenty nine middle school students participated in this study. Data were collected by a visit-survey with an organized questionnaire and was analyzed by the SPSS and AMOS programs. Self-concept showed a significantly direct influence to school adjustment while both family satisfaction and school achievement directly and indirectly influenced school adjustment. Parental acceptance, autonomy, and social support indirectly influenced school adjustment. These results imply that first, family satisfaction and self-concept are essential to solve the problems of school adjustment. Especially friend's support, teacher's support and school achievement should help improve the self-concept and school adjustment. Second, a variety of programs are available for schools to employ in an effort to provide interventions for students who demonstrate school maladjustment. Finally, it is necessary for family, school and society members to comprehensively cooperate to improve school adjustment.

  17. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness Thoughts of suicide Worry Trouble sleeping If you're dealing with a stressful situation in your life, try ...

  18. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Stress management What's the difference between normal stress and an adjustment disorder? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to ...

  19. Household Adjustments to Hurricane Katrina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meri Davlasheridze; Qin Fan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines household adjustments to Hurricane Katrina by estimating the effects of Katrina-induced damages on changes in household demographics and income distributions in the Orleans Parish...

  20. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonlinear indirect combustion noise for compact supercritical nozzle flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, indirect combustion noise generated by the acceleration of entropy perturbations through a supercritical nozzle is investigated in the nonlinear regime and in the low-frequency limit (quasi-static hypothesis). This work completes the study of Huet and Giauque (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 733 (2013) 268-301) for nonlinear noise generation in nozzle flows without shock and particularly focuses on shocked flow regimes. It is based on the analytical model of Marble and Candel for compact nozzles (Journal of Sound and Vibration 55 (1977) 225-243), initially developed for excitations in the linear regime and rederived here for nonlinear perturbations. Full nonlinear analytical solutions are provided in the absence of shock as well as second-order analytical expressions when a shock is present in the diffuser. An analytical evaluation of the shock displacement inside the nozzle caused by the forcing is proposed and maximum possible forcings to avoid unchoke and 'over-choke' are discussed. The accuracy of the second-order model and the nonlinear contributions to the generated waves are then addressed. This model is found to be very accurate for the generated entropy wave with negligible nonlinear contributions. Nonlinearities are more visible, but still limited, for the downstream acoustic wave for large inlet Mach numbers. Analytical developments are validated thanks to comparisons with numerical simulations.

  2. The muon-induced neutron indirect detection EXperiment, MINIDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Carissimo, C.; Gooch, C.; Kneißl, R.; Langford, J.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.

    2017-04-01

    A new experiment to quantitatively measure neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in selected high-Z materials is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, and the results from its first data taking period are presented as well as future plans. Neutron production in high-Z materials is of particular interest as such materials are used for shielding in low-background experiments. The design of next-generation large-scale experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay or direct interactions of dark matter requires reliable Monte Carlo simulations of background induced by muon interactions. The first five months of operation already provided a valuable data set on neutron production and neutron transport in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions obtained with a GEANT4-based package for two different sets of physics models of relevance for neutron production by muons is presented. The rate of muon-induced events is overall a factor three to four higher in data than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. In addition, the time evolution of the muon-induced signal is not well described by the simulations.

  3. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  4. [Adjustment disorder during military service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Florkowski, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Adjustment disorders in soldiers of mandatory military service are one of most frequent causes of early military discharges. Their occurrence brings about economic, social and medical consequences. The analysis of reasons and circumstances for adjustment disorders in solders of mandatory military service accepted by Medical Military Boards as unfit for military service. Studies included 91 cases of soldiers of mandatory military service hospitalised at the Psychiatry Clinical Department of Psychiatry in 10th Clinical Military Hospital in Bydgoszcz for the occurrence of symptoms of adjustment disorder acc. to criteria ICD-10 and certified by Medical Military Boards. The examined soldiers were at the age of 19-24, and the period of their military service ranged from one week to three months. To evaluate statistical correlations chi-square test (chi2) was used. Before the call-up, more than a half of the soldiers revealing symptoms of adjustment disorder lived in the country or in big urban agglomerations. Those soldiers had primary or vocational education certificates and every third was brought up in one-parent family. In the tested population of soldiers there was found a statistical relation between the appearance of adjustment disorders and the education of soldiers' mothers, parents' diseases and factors impeding their military service. Factors conducive to adjustment disorders under conditions of mandatory military service in the studies carried out included: education of soldiers' mothers, raised difficulties while serving in the army and parents' diseases.

  5. Effect of direct and indirect voice training in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Andréia Cristina Muznlinger dos; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Behlau, Mara

    2015-01-01

    To verify the effect of two approaches of vocal training in Speech Language Pathology and Audiology students, a direct and an indirect approach. Participants were 25 female Speech Language Pathology and Audiology students divided into two groups: direct training with vocal exercises, DTG (n=13); and indirect training with vocal orientations, ITG (n=12). The training sessions were conducted by the same speech language pathologist in six weekly sessions of 30 minutes. Both groups underwent multidimensional voice assessment, pre- and post-training: vocal self-assessment; Vocal Symptoms Scale (VSS); auditory perceptual analysis of sustained vowel and connected speech; acoustic analysis of voice through the Vocal Range Profile (VRP) and Speech Range Profile (SRP); and Group Climate Questionnaire, only at the end of training. The DTG showed changes in auditory perceptual analysis of vowel, which was less diverted after training; and expansion of the voice range in the VRP and SRP, which proves best vocal performance. However, the ITG showed no changes in any of the parameters evaluated. In Group Climate, the ITG obtained the highest conflict score in comparison to the DTG, probably because the indirect approach did not favor exchange in the group and did not allow a better quality interaction. The direct approach provided greater benefits to students than the indirect approach, with significant change in voice quality, and can serve as inspiration to Speech Language Pathology and Audiology courses to prevent dysphonia.

  6. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  7. The indirect costs of multiple sclerosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawowczyk, Ewa; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Kawalec, Paweł; Moćko, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to collect and summarize all current data on the indirect costs related to absenteeism and presenteeism associated with multiple sclerosis. Searches were conducted using Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. All collected costs were recalculated to average annual cost per patient, expressed in 2014 prices US$ using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity (scenario 1) and expressed as proportion of specific gross domestic product in current local currency unit to adjust for country's development (scenario 2). Identified studies were then analyzed in order to assess their possible inclusion in the meta-analysis. The authors identified 63 records, of which 23 were eligible for meta-analysis. Overall indirect cost per patient calculated in scenario 1 was as high as US$20,167 with US$22,197 in Europe, US$17,382 in North America and US$153 in Asia. Overall indirect cost per patient calculated in scenario 2 was equal to US$16,939, with US$19,612 in Europe, US$11,592 in North America and US$899 in Asia. Overall indirect costs varied from US$3726 for patients with EDSS score less than 3 to US$19,264 for patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale score grater that 7. This review revealed the great economic burden of multiple sclerosis on society. The authors observed a great variety of the considered components of indirect costs and their definitions. Costs were higher for Europe than for other continents and were also higher for patients with a higher Expanded Disability Status Scale score.

  8. Benchmarking risk-adjusted adult antibacterial drug use in 70 US academic medical center hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Ron E; Hohmann, Samuel F; Medvedev, Sofia; Ibrahim, Omar

    2011-12-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are advised to measure and risk-adjust antimicrobial use to facilitate interhospital comparisons, a process called benchmarking. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a new benchmarking strategy for antibacterials. Hospital-wide adult antibacterial drug use in 2009 was measured as days of therapy (DOT) and length of therapy (LOT) from billing records in 70 US academic medical centers (AMCs). Patients were assigned to 1 of 35 clinical service lines (CSL) based on their Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group. Expected (E) use was determined by indirect standardization and compared with observed (O) use. Of 1,791 ,180 discharged adults, 63.7% received antibacterial drugs; the range by CSL was 14.3% (psychiatry) to 99.7% (lung transplant). Mean ± SD hospital-wide use was 839 ± 106 DOTs (range, 594-1109) and 536 ± 53.0 LOT (range, 427-684) per 1000 patient-days. The ventilator support CSL had the most DOT per discharge, 39.4 ± 9.4 days; the LOT was 21.5 ± 4.5 days. The hospital-wide O/E ratio range was 0.7-1.45; in 5 AMCs the ratio exceeded the 90% confidence interval (CI) and was below the 90% CI in 6. Variability in use was explained by the proportion of treated patients within each CSL and mean LOT and DOT per discharge. Adult antibacterial drug use was benchmarked to expected use adjusted for patient mix, and outlier hospitals were identified. Differences between expected and observed use reflect usage patterns that were benchmarked and are targets for evaluation and intervention.

  9. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W. Michael; Matthews, H. Scott

    2009-09-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO2 price of 80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  10. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  11. Indirect calorimetry: From bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Das Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate determination of energy expenditure (EE is vitally important yet often neglected in clinical practice. Indirect calorimetry (IC provides one of the most sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive measurements of EE in an individual. Over the last couple of decades, this technique has been applied to clinical circumstances such as acute illness and parenteral nutrition. Beyond assessing the nutritional needs, it has also shed light on various aspects of nutrient assimilation, thermogenesis, the energetics of physical exercise, and the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. However, because of little or no experience with IC provided during medical education, the benefits of IC are poorly appreciated. Newer technology, cost-effectiveness, and a better understanding of how to interpret measurements should lead to more frequent use of IC. This review focuses on the physicochemical background of IC, the various indications for use, techniques and instruments, potential pitfalls in measurement, and the recent advances in technology that has adapted the technique to long-term studies in humans.

  12. Indirect Calorimetry: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Riddhi Das; Ramachandran, Roshna; Venkatesan, Padmanaban; Anoop, Shajith; Joseph, Mini; Thomas, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    Accurate determination of energy expenditure (EE) is vitally important yet often neglected in clinical practice. Indirect calorimetry (IC) provides one of the most sensitive, accurate, and noninvasive measurements of EE in an individual. Over the last couple of decades, this technique has been applied to clinical circumstances such as acute illness and parenteral nutrition. Beyond assessing the nutritional needs, it has also shed light on various aspects of nutrient assimilation, thermogenesis, the energetics of physical exercise, and the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. However, because of little or no experience with IC provided during medical education, the benefits of IC are poorly appreciated. Newer technology, cost-effectiveness, and a better understanding of how to interpret measurements should lead to more frequent use of IC. This review focuses on the physicochemical background of IC, the various indications for use, techniques and instruments, potential pitfalls in measurement, and the recent advances in technology that has adapted the technique to long-term studies in humans.

  13. Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.

  14. INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK, REVISION, AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.

  15. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  16. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  17. A SURVEY OF DEATH ADJUSTMENT IN THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Samir; Irfan, Muhammad; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Giasuddin, Noor Ahmed; Sultana, Syeda Naheed

    2015-01-01

    The Death Adjustment Hypothesis (DAH) postulates two key themes. Its first part postulates that death should not be considered the end of existence and the second part emphasizes that the belief in immortal pattern of human existence can only be adopted in a morally rich life with the attitude towards morality and materialism balanced mutually. We wanted to explore Death Adjustment in the Indian subcontinent and the differences among, Indians, Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. We also wanted to find the relationship between death adjustment (i.e., adaptation to death), materialistic thoughts and death adjustment thoughts. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from May 2010 to June 2013. Using a purposive sampling strategy, a sample of 296 participants from the Indian subcontinent [Pakistan (n=100), Bangladesh (n=98) and India (n=98)] was selected. Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MFODS) was used to measure death adjustment. The rest of the variables were measured using lists of respective thoughts, described in elaborated DAH. Analyses were carried out using SPSSv13. The mean death adjustment score for Pakistani, Indian and Bangaldeshi population were 115.26 +/- 26.4, 125.87 +/- 24.3 and 114.91 +/- 21.2, respectively. Death adjustment was better with older age (r=0.20) and with lower scores on materialistic thoughts (r = -0.26). However, this was a weak relation. The three nationalities were compared with each other by using Analysis of variance. Death adjustment thoughts and death adjustment were significantly different when Indians were compared with Bangladeshis (p=0.00) and Pakistanis (p=0.006) but comparison between Bangladeshis and Pakistanis showed no significant difference. Subjects with lesser materialistic thoughts showed better death adjustment. There are differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in adjusting to death.

  18. BENEFITS OF INDIRECT COSTS ALLOCATION WITH COST DRIVERS

    OpenAIRE

    Delia MANEA; Mircea BARBU

    2012-01-01

    Due to the technological developments that has occurred in recent years within the business entities, the cost structure was affected, so that the largest share of the production cost is held by the indirect cost. Traditional management accounting and cost calculation methods allocate indirect cost based on an item which serves as a criterion, key or core distribution. The allocation of indirect cost has the disadvantage of an arbitrary distribution, depending on some basis subjectively chose...

  19. Production Costs Management by Means of Indirect Cost Allocated Model

    OpenAIRE

    Berislav Bolfek; Jasna Vujcic

    2009-01-01

    Management costs in a business system requires planning, budgeting, monitoring and comparing of all kinds of expenses. When calculating a production through the production order system there always seems to appear the same dilemma; which key or keys should be chosen for allocating indirect costs. As a result, in addition to the well-known classical methods for allocating indirect costs, a new method is developed in the form of a Model for allocating indirect costs. By applying the above-menti...

  20. Indirect inference with time series observed with error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    We analyze the properties of the indirect inference estimator when the observed series are contaminated by measurement error. We show that the indirect inference estimates are asymptotically biased when the nuisance parameters of the measurement error distribution are neglected in the indirect...... to estimate the parameters of continuous-time stochastic volatility models with auxiliary specifications based on realized volatility measures. Monte Carlo simulations shows the bias reduction of the indirect estimates obtained when the microstructure noise is explicitly modeled. Finally, an empirical...... application illustrates the relevance of a realistic specification of the microstructure noise distribution to match the features of the observed log-returns at high frequencies....

  1. The mediating roles of coping and adjustment in the relationship between personality and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Harsha N; McIlveen, Peter; Oliver, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Existing literature has documented relationships between personality traits and academic achievement as well as some of the mechanisms underlying these links. However, the pathways by which personality traits are associated with achievement during stressful educational circumstances require further investigation. This study examined a model of the roles of conscientiousness and neuroticism in achievement during the typically stressful university transition, with a focus on coping strategies and academic adjustment to university as mediators in the putative chain of events linking the dispositional traits with achievement. The sample comprised 498 first-year students attending a metropolitan university in Australia. A multiwave design was used with measures of the personality traits administered at the beginning of the semester, measures of coping administered 4 weeks thereafter, and data on academic adjustment collected mid-semester. Students' GPA data were retrieved at the end of the semester. In structural equations analyses, conscientiousness was associated with greater primary control engagement coping and lesser narrow disengagement coping, whereas the opposite was found for neuroticism. Furthermore, conscientiousness and neuroticism were indirectly associated with academic adjustment via the coping strategies, and the personality factors were also indirectly associated with achievement via the coping strategies and academic adjustment linked serially in three-path mediated sequences. The findings of this study replicate existing data concerning the direct and indirect relationships of personality with coping and adjustment, and extend these data by elucidating the pathways through which conscientiousness and neuroticism are linked with achievement during a typically stressful educational event. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Parents' Perceived Discrimination and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese American Families: Mediating Family Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Hazen, Nancy; Benner, Aprile D

    2017-01-01

    Parental discriminatory experiences can have significant implications for adolescent adjustment. This study examined family processes linking parental perceived discrimination to adolescent depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors by using the family stress model and incorporating family systems theory. Participants were 444 Chinese American adolescents (Mage.wave1  = 13.03) and their parents residing in Northern California. Testing of actor-partner interdependent models showed a significant indirect effect from earlier paternal (but not maternal) perceived discrimination to later adolescent adjustment through paternal depressive symptoms and maternal hostility toward adolescents. The results highlight the importance of including both parents and examining actor and partner effects to provide a more comprehensive understanding of how maternal and paternal perceived discrimination differentially and indirectly relate to adolescent adjustment. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Robert

    2002-03-01

    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents.

  4. Improved Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment of Dunhuang Wall Painting Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, K.; Huang, X.; You, H.

    2017-09-01

    Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA) method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  5. IMPROVED CONJUGATE GRADIENT BUNDLE ADJUSTMENT OF DUNHUANG WALL PAINTING IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bundle adjustment with additional parameters is identified as a critical step for precise orthoimage generation and 3D reconstruction of Dunhuang wall paintings. Due to the introduction of self-calibration parameters and quasi-planar constraints, the structure of coefficient matrix of the reduced normal equation is banded-bordered, making the solving process of bundle adjustment complex. In this paper, Conjugate Gradient Bundle Adjustment (CGBA method is deduced by calculus of variations. A preconditioning method based on improved incomplete Cholesky factorization is adopt to reduce the condition number of coefficient matrix, as well as to accelerate the iteration rate of CGBA. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results comparison with conventional method indicate that, the proposed method can effectively conquer the ill-conditioned problem of normal equation and improve the calculation efficiency of bundle adjustment with additional parameters considerably, while maintaining the actual accuracy.

  6. A literature review of indirect costs associated with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Heesoo; George, Mary G; Fang, Jing; Wang, Guijing

    2014-08-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and long-term disability. However, the indirect costs of stroke, such as productivity loss and costs of informal care, have not been well studied. To better understand this, we conducted a literature review of the indirect costs of stroke. A literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EconLit, with the key words stroke, cerebrovascular disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cost-of-illness, productivity loss, indirect cost, economic burden, and informal caregiving was conducted. We identified original research articles published during 1990-2012 in English-language peer-reviewed journals. We summarized indirect costs by study type, cost categories, and study settings. We found 31 original research articles that investigated the indirect cost of stroke. Six of these investigated indirect costs only; the other 25 studies were cost-of-illness studies that included indirect costs as a component. Of the 31 articles, 6 examined indirect costs in the United States, with 2 of these focused solely on indirect costs. Because of diverse methods, kinds of data, and definitions of cost used in the studies, the literature indicated a very wide range internationally in the proportion of the total cost of stroke that is represented by indirect costs (from 3% to 71%). Most of the literature indicates that indirect costs account for a significant portion of the economic burden of stroke, and there is a pressing need to develop proper approaches to analyze these costs and to make better use of relevant data sources for such studies or establish new ones. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fiscal Adjustment in IMF-Supported Adjustment Programmes: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiscal adjustment is an essential element of macro-economic stability and economic growth. Given that economic growth is the most powerful weapon in the fight for higher living standards, poor growth performance in African countries, has been a challenge to economists, policy makers and international development ...

  8. GPU Parallel Bundle Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Maoteng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To deal with massive data in photogrammetry, we introduce the GPU parallel computing technology. The preconditioned conjugate gradient and inexact Newton method are also applied to decrease the iteration times while solving the normal equation. A brand new workflow of bundle adjustment is developed to utilize GPU parallel computing technology. Our method can avoid the storage and inversion of the big normal matrix, and compute the normal matrix in real time. The proposed method can not only largely decrease the memory requirement of normal matrix, but also largely improve the efficiency of bundle adjustment. It also achieves the same accuracy as the conventional method. Preliminary experiment results show that the bundle adjustment of a dataset with about 4500 images and 9 million image points can be done in only 1.5 minutes while achieving sub-pixel accuracy.

  9. Acculturation, personality, and psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2011-12-01

    Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.

  10. Improved hospital-level risk adjustment for surveillance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones MA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To allow direct comparison of bloodstream infection (BSI rates between hospitals for performance measurement, observed rates need to be risk adjusted according to the types of patients cared for by the hospital. However, attribute data on all individual patients are often unavailable and hospital-level risk adjustment needs to be done using indirect indicator variables of patient case mix, such as hospital level. We aimed to identify medical services associated with high or low BSI rates, and to evaluate the services provided by the hospital as indicators that can be used for more objective hospital-level risk adjustment. Methods From February 2001-December 2007, 1719 monthly BSI counts were available from 18 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. BSI outcomes were stratified into four groups: overall BSI (OBSI, Staphylococcus aureus BSI (STAPH, intravascular device-related S. aureus BSI (IVD-STAPH and methicillin-resistant S. aureus BSI (MRSA. Twelve services were considered as candidate risk-adjustment variables. For OBSI, STAPH and IVD-STAPH, we developed generalized estimating equation Poisson regression models that accounted for autocorrelation in longitudinal counts. Due to a lack of autocorrelation, a standard logistic regression model was specified for MRSA. Results Four risk services were identified for OBSI: AIDS (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82, infectious diseases (IRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.97 to 3.76, oncology (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.98 and bone marrow transplants (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.03. Four protective services were also found. A similar but smaller group of risk and protective services were found for the other outcomes. Acceptable agreement between observed and fitted values was found for the OBSI and STAPH models but not for the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models. However, the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models successfully discriminated between hospitals with higher and lower BSI rates. Conclusion The high model goodness

  11. Estimates of patient costs related with population morbidity: can indirect costs affect the results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, M; García-Goñi, M; Ibern, P; Coderch, J; Vall-Llosera, L; Inoriza, J M

    2011-08-01

    A number of health economics studies require patient cost estimates as basic information input. However, the accuracy of cost estimates remains generally unspecified. We propose to investigate how the allocation of indirect costs or overheads can affect the estimation of patient costs and lead to improvements in the analysis of patient cost estimates. Instead of focussing on the costing method, this paper will highlight observed changes in variation explained by a methodology choice. We compare four overhead allocation methods for a specific Spanish population adjusted using the Clinical Risk Groups model. Our main conclusion is that the amount of global variation explained by the risk adjustment model depends mainly on direct costs, regardless of the cost allocation methodology used. Furthermore, the variation explained can be slightly increased, depending on the cost allocation methodology, and is independent of the level of aggregation in the classification system.

  12. Influenza-Related Mortality Trends in Japanese and American Seniors: Evidence for the Indirect Mortality Benefits of Vaccinating Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charu, Vivek; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Chowell, Gerardo; Miller, Mark; Sugaya, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Background The historical Japanese influenza vaccination program targeted at schoolchildren provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the indirect benefits of vaccinating high-transmitter groups to mitigate disease burden among seniors. Here we characterize the indirect mortality benefits of vaccinating schoolchildren based on data from Japan and the US. Methods We compared age-specific influenza-related excess mortality rates in Japanese seniors aged ≥65 years during the schoolchildren vaccination program (1978–1994) and after the program was discontinued (1995–2006). Indirect vaccine benefits were adjusted for demographic changes, socioeconomics and dominant influenza subtype; US mortality data were used as a control. Results We estimate that the schoolchildren vaccination program conferred a 36% adjusted mortality reduction among Japanese seniors (95%CI: 17–51%), corresponding to ∼1,000 senior deaths averted by vaccination annually (95%CI: 400–1,800). In contrast, influenza-related mortality did not change among US seniors, despite increasing vaccine coverage in this population. Conclusions The Japanese schoolchildren vaccination program was associated with substantial indirect mortality benefits in seniors. PMID:22087226

  13. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  14. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. 742.770 Section 742.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Negotiated Indirect Cost Rate Agreement shall not change any monetary ceiling, obligation, or specific cost...

  15. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the

  16. Evaluating the incidence of indirect tax reforms in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1983 and 1996, income inequality moved from 0.49 to 0.44 and subsequently to 0.41 in 2001. The indirect tax structure has a role to play in inequality reduction policies. Using the 1983/84, 1996 and the 2001 Cameroon household surveys, this study reveals that the indirect tax reforms of 1994 and 1999 have been ...

  17. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  18. 48 CFR 2052.216-71 - Indirect cost rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....216-71 Section 2052.216-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... (JAN 1993) (a) Pending the establishment of final indirect rates which must be negotiated based on... may not be obligated to pay any additional amounts for indirect costs above the ceiling rates set...

  19. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  20. A Primer on the Indirect Costs of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGB Reports, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Questions and answers by the Association of American Universities address some issues in the complex matter of indirect costs for research projects, including the different kinds of costs, federal treatment of them, the federal indirect cost system, cost allocation, the memorandum of understanding, variation among institutions' costs, and cost…

  1. Indirect Costs: A Guide for Foundations and Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Rick; And Others

    Indirect costs are costs for activities that benefit more than one project and for which it is difficult to determine how much each project should pay. Developed to provide the staffs of foundations and their nonprofit grant applicants with a basic understanding of the issues associated with indirect costs, the guide is based on more than two…

  2. A Report on the Indirect Costs of Academic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Policy implications of the indirect costs of academic research were studied as part of a federally-supported project called "Studies of the Impacts of Federal Health-Related Research Expenditures upon Institutions of Higher Education." Since proposals for substantial changes in federal regulations governing reimbursements for the indirect costs of…

  3. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO... Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. A contractor, subcontractor, or person providing a service shall be...

  4. Adolescent adjustment over six years in HIV-affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Stein, Judith A; Lester, Patricia

    2006-08-01

    To assess predictors of adjustment of adolescents of parents with HIV (PWH) at three and six years after the delivery of either a coping skills intervention or a standard care condition. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted with 288 parents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their adolescent children. Indicators of adolescent adjustment at both three and six years were examined as a function of intervention condition, demographics, prior behaviors, and parental bonds using structural equation modeling (SEM). Adolescent adjustment at six years was also examined as a function of death of the PWH. Protective factors: Youth in the intervention condition reported significantly less substance use three and six years later. In addition, positive parental bonds reported at baseline reduced emotional distress at three years and increased positive future expectations at six years. Substance use at three years predicted heightened sexual risk behaviors, continued substance use, and lower future expectations at six years. Early emotional distress and being Latino predicted increased emotional distress at three years. Parental death by three years predicted more sexual risk behavior and lowered future expectations at six years. A time-limited, family based intervention with adolescents of PWH demonstrated both direct and indirect benefits lasting into early adulthood, especially in decreasing substance use, and identifies key risk factors for problematic adjustment, including the death of a PWH.

  5. The direct and indirect costs of both overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Anne; Kearns, Karen; O'Neill, Ciaran; Sharp, Linda; Staines, Anthony; O'Dwyer, Victoria; Fitzgerald, Sarah; Perry, Ivan J

    2014-04-16

    The rising prevalence of overweight and obesity places a financial burden on health services and on the wider economy. Health service and societal costs of overweight and obesity are typically estimated by top-down approaches which derive population attributable fractions for a range of conditions associated with increased body fat or bottom-up methods based on analyses of cross-sectional or longitudinal datasets. The evidence base of cost of obesity studies is continually expanding, however, the scope of these studies varies widely and a lack of standardised methods limits comparisons nationally and internationally. The objective of this review is to contribute to this knowledge pool by examining direct costs and indirect (lost productivity) costs of both overweight and obesity to provide comparable estimates. This review was undertaken as part of the introductory work for the Irish cost of overweight and obesity study and examines inconsistencies in the methodologies of cost of overweight and obesity studies. Studies which evaluated the direct costs and indirect costs of both overweight and obesity were included. A computerised search of English language studies addressing direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity in adults between 2001 and 2011 was conducted. Reference lists of reports, articles and earlier reviews were scanned to identify additional studies. Five published articles were deemed eligible for inclusion. Despite the limited scope of this review there was considerable heterogeneity in methodological approaches and findings. In the four studies which presented separate estimates for direct and indirect costs of overweight and obesity, the indirect costs were higher, accounting for between 54% and 59% of the estimated total costs. A gradient exists between increasing BMI and direct healthcare costs and indirect costs due to reduced productivity and early premature mortality. Determining precise estimates for the increases is mired by the

  6. Modified habitats influence kelp epibiota via direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Underwood, Antony J; Coleman, Ross A

    2011-01-01

    Addition of man-made structures alters abiotic and biotic characteristics of natural habitats, which can influence abundances of biota directly and/or indirectly, by altering the ecology of competitors or predators. Marine epibiota in modified habitats were used to test hypotheses to distinguish between direct and indirect processes. In Sydney Harbour, kelps on pier-pilings supported greater covers of bryozoans, particularly of the non-indigenous species Membranipora membranacea, than found on natural reefs. Pilings influenced these patterns and processes directly due to the provision of shade and indirectly by altering abundances of sea-urchins which, in turn, affected covers of bryozoans. Indirect effects were more important than direct effects. This indicates that artificial structures affect organisms living on secondary substrata in complex ways, altering the biodiversity and indirectly affecting abundances of epibiota. Understanding how these components of habitats affect ecological processes is necessary to allow sensible prediction of the effects of modifying habitats on the ecology of organisms.

  7. Indirect cost burden of migraine in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Kevin; Wang, Sara; Rupnow, Marcia F T

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the indirect cost burden associated with migraine. Data were obtained from Thomson-Medstat's Health and Productivity Management (HPM) database for the 2002 through 2003 calendar years. The migraine cohort was composed of patients who had a diagnosis of migraine or migraine-specific abortive prescription medication, or both. A control cohort of patients without migraine was matched to patients in the migraine cohort. The average annual indirect burden of illness (BOI) of migraine and a national indirect BOI were estimated. Annual indirect expenditures were significantly higher in the migraine group compared with the control group ($4453 vs $1619; Ppresenteeism, was estimated to be $12 billion (mostly attributed to absenteeism). Migraine imparts a substantial indirect cost burden. Projected to a national level, this amounts to an annual cost to US employers of approximately $12 billion.

  8. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework......The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...... for systematic classification of indirect control strategies. The concepts developed then enable a discussion of control performance and valuation of direct- and indirect control strategies....

  9. Indirect costs of obesity: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogdon, J G; Finkelstein, E A; Hylands, T; Dellea, P S; Kamal-Bahl, S J

    2008-09-01

    This study reviews the recent literature on the relationship between obesity and indirect (non-medical) costs. Medline and Web of Science searches were conducted to identify published studies from 1992 to present that report indirect costs by obesity status; 31 studies were included. The indirect costs were grouped into six categories: costs associated with absenteeism, disability, premature mortality, presenteeism, workers' compensation, and total indirect costs. Compared with non-obese workers, obese workers miss more workdays due to illness, injury, or disability. Costs of premature mortality vary substantially across countries. The results for presenteeism and workers' compensation were mixed. More research is needed to determine obesity's causal role in increasing indirect costs, especially for workers' compensation and presenteeism. Cohort and longitudinal study designs should be a priority.

  10. Realization of SVM Algorithm for Indirect Matrix Converter and Its Application in Power Factor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with AC-DC-AC converter, matrix converter (MC has several advantages for its bidirectional power flow, controllable power factor, and the absence of large energy storage in dc-link. The topology of MC includes direct matrix converter (DMC and indirect matrix converter (IMC. IMC has received great attention worldwide because of its easy implementation and safe commutation. Space vector PWM (SVM algorithm for indirect matrix converter is realized on DSP and CPLD platform in this paper. The control of the rectifier and inverter in IMC can be decoupled because of the intermediate dc-link. The space vector modulation scheme for IMC is discussed and the PWM sequences for the rectifier and inverter are generated. And a two-step commutation of zero current switching (ZCS in the rectifier is achieved. Input power factor of IMC can be changed by adjusting the angle of the reference current vector. Experimental tests have been conducted on a RB-IGBT based indirect matrix converter prototype. The results verify the performance of the SVM algorithm and the ability of power factor correction.

  11. A Single-center, Open-label, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of the Indirect Bonding Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Kataoka, Tomoki; Hoshijima, Mitsuhiro; Komori, Hiroki; Fujisawa, Atsuro; Kamioka, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Although accurate bracket placement is essential for orthodontic treatment, many practitioners apply brackets indiscriminately with direct or indirect bonding techniques. Nonetheless, there have been few prospective clinical comparisons of the 2 techniques. We will therefore conduct a single-center, randomized control trial in 100 patients aged 12 years and diagnosed with malocclusion. All patients will receive orthodontic treatment using brackets with direct or indirect bonding techniques. The primary endpoints will be the total treatment time, occlusal index, discomfort at bonding, and oral hygiene after bonding. This study will clarify whether indirect bonding can improve the efficiency of orthodontic treatment.

  12. Bicultural Efficacy and College Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hardin L. K.; And Others

    The retention of ethnic minorities is a major problem in American colleges and universities. This study deals with the factors that affect adjustment to college and, in particular, to achievement of "bicultural efficacy" for this group. Bicultural efficacy is defined as an individual's expectations that he or she can (or cannot) manage the stress…

  13. Technological Change: Helping Workers Adjust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems in employment shifts and unemployment caused by new technologies in offices and factories. Addresses the Job Training Partnership Act (Title III) which was established as the primary assistance vehicle for displaced workers. Calls for workers to receive sufficient time to adjust to technologies. (TW)

  14. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...

  15. Risk-adjusted models for adverse obstetric outcomes and variation in risk-adjusted outcomes across hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Spong, Catherine Y; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Thorp, John M; Leveno, Kenneth J; Caritis, Steve N; Shubert, Phillip J; Tita, Alan T; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E; Van Dorsten, J Peter

    2013-11-01

    Regulatory bodies and insurers evaluate hospital quality using obstetrical outcomes, however meaningful comparisons should take preexisting patient characteristics into account. Furthermore, if risk-adjusted outcomes are consistent within a hospital, fewer measures and resources would be needed to assess obstetrical quality. Our objective was to establish risk-adjusted models for 5 obstetric outcomes and assess hospital performance across these outcomes. We studied a cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States from March 2008 through February 2011. Hospitals were ranked according to their unadjusted and risk-adjusted frequency of venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, peripartum infection, severe perineal laceration, and a composite neonatal adverse outcome. Correlations between hospital risk-adjusted outcome frequencies were assessed. Venous thromboembolism occurred too infrequently (0.03%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.04%) for meaningful assessment. Other outcomes occurred frequently enough for assessment (postpartum hemorrhage, 2.29%; 95% CI, 2.20-2.38, peripartum infection, 5.06%; 95% CI, 4.93-5.19, severe perineal laceration at spontaneous vaginal delivery, 2.16%; 95% CI, 2.06-2.27, neonatal composite, 2.73%; 95% CI, 2.63-2.84). Although there was high concordance between unadjusted and adjusted hospital rankings, several individual hospitals had an adjusted rank that was substantially different (as much as 12 rank tiers) than their unadjusted rank. None of the correlations between hospital-adjusted outcome frequencies was significant. For example, the hospital with the lowest adjusted frequency of peripartum infection had the highest adjusted frequency of severe perineal laceration. Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The direct and indirect costs among U.S. privately insured employees with hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenboeck, Anna; Foster, Shonda; Ivanova, Jasmina; Diener, Melissa; Bergman, Rachel; Birnbaum, Howard; Kinchen, Kraig; Swindle, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    While previous studies have noted that hypogonadism (HG) may pose a significant economic and quality-of-life burden, no studies have evaluated the impact of HG on healthcare utilization and costs in the United States. Compare direct (health care) and indirect (disability leave or medical absence) costs between privately insured U.S. employees with HG and controls without HG. The study sample included 4,269 male employees, ages 35-64, with ≥ 2 HG diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: 257.2x) or ≥ 1 HG diagnosis and ≥ 1 claim for testosterone therapy, 1/1/2005-3/31/2009, identified from a large, private insurance administrative database that includes medical, prescription drug, and disability claims data. The index date was the most recent HG diagnosis that had continuous eligibility for at least 1 year before (baseline period) and 1 year after (study period). Employees with HG were matched 1:1 on age, region, salaried vs. nonsalaried employment status, and index year to controls without HG. Descriptive analyses compared demographic characteristics, comorbidities, resource utilization, direct and indirect costs inflated to USD 2009. Multivariate analyses adjusting for baseline characteristics were used to estimate risk-adjusted costs. HG employees and controls had a mean age of 51 years. HG employees compared with controls had higher baseline comorbidity rates, including hyperlipidemia (50.2% vs. 25.3%), hypertension (37.7% vs. 21.1%), back/neck pain (32.0% vs. 15.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (7.1% vs. 0.3%) (all P indirect costs ($3,204 vs. $1,450); HG-related direct costs were $832 (all P < 0.0001). Risk-adjusted direct ($9,291 vs. $5,248) and indirect ($2,729 vs. $1,840) costs were also higher for HG employees (all P < 0.0001). Employees with HG had higher comorbidity rates and costs compared with controls. Given the low HG-related costs, a primary driver of

  17. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  18. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: a look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Ehret, Phillip J; Hummer, Justin F; Prenovost, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marginal Adaptation of Indirect Composite, Glass-Ceramic Inlays and Direct Composite: An In Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mahboub

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This experimental in vitro study compared marginal adaptation of indirect composite, glass-ceramic inlays and direct composite.Materials and Methods: Seventy-five recently extracted human molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=25 and mesio-occluso-distal cavities with the same dimensions were prepared in the teeth. Indirect composite and glass-ceramic inlays were fabricatedfollowing manufacturer's instructions and the marginal gap was measured by a stereomicroscope at magnification 40× before cementation. After cementation of inlays and restoring the third group by direct composite, all the specimens were thermocycled and the marginal gaps were measured exactly as previously described. Repeated measure ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test were used for pairwise comparison of occlusal, proximal, and gingival marginal gaps in each group. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test wereused for comparison of mean marginal gap in the three groups and for comparison of marginal gap before and after cementation in inlays, paired T-test was used.Results: The marginal gap of direct composite (19.96 μm was significantly lower than that of indirect composite inlay (48.47 μm, which in itself was significantly lower than that of glass-ceramic inlay (60.96 μm. In all the restorations, marginal gap in the gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal and proximal margins. The marginal gap of inlays did not change after cementation and thermocycling.Conclusion: This study indicated that the marginal gaps of the evaluated restorations are less than 100 μm, which is clinically acceptable.

  20. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  1. Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Eoghan

    2009-08-01

    Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

  2. Adjustment in the World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman

    1987-01-01

    There is a widespread view that world payments imbalances can be remedied through increased demand in surplus countries and reduced demand in deficit countries, without any need for real exchange rate changes. In fact shifts in demand and real exchange rate adjustment are necessary couplets, not substitutes. The essential reason for this complementarity is that a much higher fraction of a marginal dollar of US than of foreign spending falls on US output. As a result, a redistribution of world...

  3. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  4. The prediction of difficult intubation in obese patients using mirror indirect laryngoscopy: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Arne O; Desciak, Matthew; Reddy, Venugopal; Falcucci, Octavio A; Vaida, Sonia J; Pott, Leonard M

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation in obese patients is higher than in the general population. Classical predictors of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation have been shown to be unreliable. We prospectively evaluated indirect mirror laryngoscopy as a predictor of difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients. 60 patients with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30, scheduled to undergo general anesthesia, were enrolled. Indirect mirror laryngoscopy was performed and was graded 1-4 according to Cormack and Lehane. A view of grade 3-4 was classified as predicting difficult laryngoscopy. Additional assessments for comparison were the Samsoon and Young modification of the Mallampati airway classification, Wilson Risk Sum Score, neck circumference, and BMI. The view obtained upon direct laryngoscopy after induction of general anesthesia was classified according to Cormack and Lehane as grade 1-4. Sixty patients met the inclusion criteria; however, 8 (13.3%) patients had an excessive gag reflex, and examination of the larynx was not possible. 15.4% of patients who underwent direct laryngoscopy had a Cormack and Lehane grade 3 or 4 view and were classified as difficult. Mirror laryngoscopy had a tendency toward statistical significance in predicting difficult laryngoscopy in these patients. This study is consistent with previous studies, which have demonstrated that no one individual traditional test has proven to be adequate in predicting difficult airways in the obese population. However, the new application of an old test - indirect mirror laryngoscopy - could be a useful additional test to predict difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients.

  5. It's a Long Way Home: International Student Adjustment to Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa, Sushama; Dundes, Lauren

    2003-01-01

    Compared the adjustment of 182 international students to a comparison sample of U.S. students to determine if they have greater difficulty adjusting to college life. Found that international students are more likely to feel lonely, homesick, and as if they had left part of themselves at home. Also confirmed the importance of social networks in…

  6. Bend case study : indirect land use and growth impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    To improve environmental analysis of indirect land use impacts of highway capacity improvements, this study analyzed the land use and growth patterns of 20 Oregon communities over 20 years. Using a Geographic Information System and aerial photos, gro...

  7. Albany case study : indirect land use and growth impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    To improve environmental analysis of indirect land use impacts of highway capacity improvements, this study analyzed the land use and growth patterns of 20 Oregon communities over 20 years. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and aerial photo...

  8. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  9. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  10. Indirect determination of particle shape of fine aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Three methods developed by various agencies for measuring indirectly the particle shapes of fine aggregates were used along with a visual classification procedure to study aggregates from eight commercial sources along with a reference sand. The meth...

  11. Indirect Peer Aggression in Adolescence and Reproductive Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that indirect aggression during adolescence is a strategy to compete with same-sex peer rivals for resources, status, and mating opportunities. We collected survey data on 143 young adults to determine retrospectively, the amount of indirect aggressive behavior they perpetrated and the amount of indirect victimization they experienced in middle school and high school. We also collected information about reproductive opportunities such as age at first sexual intercourse and number of lifetime sex partners to determine whether aggression or victimization could be used to predict measures of reproductive opportunity. We performed a principal components analysis to develop factors from 16 aggression and victimization variables. Results indicate that females who reported indirect aggression toward peers had earlier ages at first sexual intercourse and females who were more victimized in adolescence experienced later ages at first sexual intercourse. We discuss these results in terms of intrasexual competition and evolutionary theory.

  12. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  13. 24 CFR 882.410 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent adjustments. 882.410 Section... Policies § 882.410 Rent adjustments. (a) Annual and special adjustments. Contract Rents will be adjusted as... schedule of Contract Rents, provided that the unit is in decent, safe, and sanitary condition and that the...

  14. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b) The...

  15. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  16. Indirect composite onlay restorations in primary molars: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, Patricia; Oliveira, Luciana Butini; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Rodrigues, Célia Regina Martins Delgado

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe a clinical case of oral rehabilitation, in a 4-year-old patient, using indirect composite onlay restorations. Eight severely decayed primnary molars were restored. The clinical findings after 4 years demonstrated the efficiency of the technique as well as its indication in extensive restorations in Pediatric Dentistry, reestablishing function and aesthetics of these primary teeth. The indirect composite onlay restorations seem to wear at rate compatible with primary tooth wear and maintain a smooth, continuous anatomic form.

  17. Predictors of negotiated NIH indirect rates at US institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S Claiborne; Desmond-Hellmann, Susan; Hauser, Stewart; Vermillion, Eric; Mia, Nilo

    2015-01-01

    The United States (US) Department of Health and Human Services and the Office of Naval Research negotiate institutional rates for payments of overhead costs associated with administration and space usage, commonly known as indirect rates. Such payments account for a large proportion of spending by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Little has been published about differences in rates and their predictors. Negotiated indirect rates for on-campus research grants were requested from the Council on Governmental Relations for the 100 institutions with greatest NIH funding in 2010. NIH funding, cost of living (ACCRA Index for 2008), public vs. private status, negotiating governmental organization (Department of Health and Human Services or Office of Naval Research), US Census Region, and year were assessed as predictors of institutional indirect rates using generalized estimating equations with all variables included in the model. Overall, 72 institutions participated, with 207 reported indirect rates for the years 2006, 2008, and 2010. Indirect rates ranged from 36.3% to 78%, with an average of 54.5%. Mean rates increased from 53.6% in 2006 to 55.4% in 2010 (pinstitutions had 6.2% (95% CI 3.7%-8.7%; pinstitutions. Rates in the Northeast were highest (Midwest 4.0% lower; West 4.9% lower; South 5.2% lower). Greater NIH funding (p = 0.025) and cost of living (p = 0.034) also predicted indirect rates while negotiating governmental organization did not (p = 0.414). Negotiated indirect rates for governmental research grants to academic centers vary widely. Although the association between indirect rates and cost of living may be justified, the cause of variation in rates by region, public-private status, and NIH funding levels is unclear.

  18. Performance improvement of direct- and indirect-fired heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sams, G.W.; Hunter, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    The operating performance of direct and indirect heaters is discussed, and principles and guidelines that can be applied to effect improvements in efficiency are presented. This paper also discusses the associated heater efficiencies and several useful operating techniques to approach the maximum, steady-state heater efficiency. The techniques presented apply to all types of direct-and indirect-fired heaters: salt bath heaters, propane vaporizers, heater/treaters, production heaters, and glycol and amine regenerators.

  19. Indirect mission support costs at the Naval Postgraduate School

    OpenAIRE

    Drapp, Brian T

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis provides Naval Postgraduate School management and administrators with a tool for reviewing and possibly reducing indirect mission support costs. This thesis develops a computerized activity-based costing model for indirect mission support costs at the Naval Postgraduate School by identifying cost drivers and associated cost flows for resources and support activities. Cost drivers and associated cost flows were identified th...

  20. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  1. Indirect effects of sea otter recovery on temperate reef fish

    OpenAIRE

    Silberg, Joshua Neal

    2015-01-01

    The loss or recovery of apex predators can have profound positive or negative ecological and socio-economic impacts. Effects of predator depletion or recovery are frequently accompanied by time lags, which are often context-dependent. In temperate rocky reef ecosystems, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) trigger a cascade of direct and indirect effects driving transitions between kelp-depleted and kelp-dominated states. We quantified the indirect effects of sea otter recovery on copper rockfish (Seb...

  2. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor-Serra Ferran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit, dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs, co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others, referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants. The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50. The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights and synthetic (by centre and physician indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000 will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression

  3. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhansky, I.V., E-mail: rozhansky@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg 195251 (Russian Federation); Krainov, I.V.; Averkiev, N.S. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2015-06-01

    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum. - Highlights: • A resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers mediated by a 1D conducting channel is considered. • It is shown that the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to resonant tunnel coupling of a magnetic bound state with the delocalized states. • The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. • Pecularities of the indirect exchange mediated by a carbon nanotube has been investigated.

  5. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  6. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Kato-Shimizu

    Full Text Available Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  7. Microleakage under orthodontic brackets bonded with the custom base indirect bonding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagci, Ahmet; Uysal, Tancan; Ulker, Mustafa; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare microleakage of orthodontic brackets between enamel-composite and composite-bracket interfaces at the occlusal and gingival margins, bonded using indirect bonding systems with that of a conventional direct bonding method. Forty freshly extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the brackets were bonded to teeth directly according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Group 2 consisted of 20 teeth bonded indirectly with Transbond XT (3M-Unitek), as the adhesive, and Sondhi Rapid Set A/B Primer (3M-Unitek), a filled resin primer. After bonding, the specimens were further sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5 per cent basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage at the enamel-composite and composite-bracket interfaces from both the occlusal and gingival margins. Statistical analyses were performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests with Bonferroni correction. The gingival sides of group 1 displayed a higher median microleakage score than the occlusal side at the enamel-composite interface but this was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). All occlusal margins in both groups showed no microleakage under orthodontic brackets at the enamel-composite or composite-bracket interfaces. Comparisons of the microleakage scores between the direct and the indirect bonding groups at the enamel-composite and composite-bracket interfaces indicated no statistically significant microleakage differences at the gingival and occlusal margins (P > 0.05). The type of bonding method (direct versus indirect) did not significantly affect the amount of microleakage at the enamel-composite-bracket complex.

  8. Noogenic psychological characteristics and adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Masten

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article is concerned with noogenic personality characteristics of adolescents involved in military training in relation to psychic and psychosomatic symptoms. A selected sample of 107 conscripts was questioned regarding their psychical and psychosomatic symptoms in the first and in the sixth month of their military training. They were also questioned regarding personal meaning of life, as well as regarding their values and attitudes toward the army. Individuals maintaining their personal meaning of life, have less psychical and psychosomatic symptoms after coming to army than the others. The findings do not support the hypothesis that after five months of military training the number of symptoms decreases. In most participants the symptoms mostly remained at the same level after five months of training, for one third of respondents the number of symptoms increased significantly. In 9 % of military recruits number of symptoms decreased. The evaluation of differences in the number of symptoms between two assessments showed, that personal meaning, values and attitudes toward army discriminate the groups with different levels of adjustment to military service. Participants with the same level of symptoms after five months are less hedonistic, have more positive attitudes toward army and higher rates on meaning scales. The data are interpreted in the context of theory that adjustment to stressing life events is mediated by noogenic personality characteristics.

  9. Standardization and application of indirect plate ELISA for immunodiagnosis of paramphistomosis in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Shivjot; Singla, L D; Hassan, S S; Juyal, P D

    2009-12-01

    Indirect plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was standardized and evaluated for its effectiveness in immunodiagnosis of paramphistomosis in experimental and clinical cases in sheep, goat, cattle and buffaloes by using somatic whole adult antigen of Paramphistomum epiclitum and Gastrothylax crumenifer. Plate enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized using 2 μg/ml of antigen concentration with 1:200 and 1:1,000 of sera and conjugate dilution. Indirect Plate ELISA was able to demonstrate the antibody titre at different weeks postinfection in experimental sheep. Immune response at weekly interval varied in all the four experimental sheep. A paired t-test between two types of somatic antigens (P. epiclitum and G. crumenifer) showed that experimental sheep sera showed more affinity for homologous antigen as compared to heterologous antigen. A comparison of plate ELISA on suspected field sera and fecal samples examination by sedimentation method revealed that 77 samples were found to be positive by ELISA but only seven by fecal examination. Sensitivity of plate ELISA was found to be 85.71%, whereas specificity was 23.65% indicating that this test is quite sensitive for clinical cases; an early diagnosis, however, lacks specificity. In comparison to ELISA test the sensitivity and specificity of fecal examination were 7.79 and 88%, respectively.

  10. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality as a Moderator for the Influences of Parents' Religiousness on Adolescents' Religiousness and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…

  11. Management of End-Stage Ankle Arthritis: Cost-Utility Analysis Using Direct and Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Simon, Matthew S; Hamid, Kamran S; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2015-07-15

    Total ankle replacement and ankle fusion are costly but clinically effective treatments for ankle arthritis. Prior cost-effectiveness analyses for the management of ankle arthritis have been limited by a lack of consideration of indirect costs and nonoperative management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of operative and nonoperative treatments for ankle arthritis with inclusion of direct and indirect costs in the analysis. Markov model analysis was conducted from a health-systems perspective with use of direct costs and from a societal perspective with use of direct and indirect costs. Costs were derived from the 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars; effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Model transition probabilities were derived from the available literature. The principal outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In the direct-cost analysis for the base case, total ankle replacement was associated with an ICER of $14,500/QALY compared with nonoperative management. When indirect costs were included, total ankle replacement was both more effective and resulted in $5900 and $800 in lifetime cost savings compared with the lifetime costs following nonoperative management and ankle fusion, respectively. At a $100,000/QALY threshold, surgical management of ankle arthritis was preferred for patients younger than ninety-six years and total ankle replacement was increasingly more cost-effective in younger patients. Total ankle replacement, ankle fusion, and nonoperative management were the preferred strategy in 83%, 12%, and 5% of the analyses, respectively; however, our model was sensitive to patient age, the direct costs of total ankle replacement, the failure rate of total ankle replacement, and the probability of arthritis after ankle fusion. Compared with nonoperative treatment for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis, total ankle

  12. The Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect-Detection EXperiment. MINIDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Matteo

    2016-06-06

    A new experiment to measure muon-induced neutrons is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, is presented and its installation and commissioning in the Tuebingen Shallow Underground Laboratory are described. Results from its first data taking period, run I, are presented. Muon-induced neutrons are not only an interesting physics topic by itself, but they are also an important source of background in searches for possible new rare phenomena like neutrinoless double beta decay or directly observable interactions of dark matter. These subjects are of great importance to understand the development of the early universe. Therefore, a new generation of ton-scale experiments which require extremely low background levels is under consideration. Reliable Monte Carlo simulations are needed to design such future experiments and estimate their background levels and sensitivities. The background due to muon-induced neutrons is hard to estimate, because of inconsistencies between different experimental results and discrepancies between measurements and Monte Carlo predictions. Especially for neutron production in high-Z materials, more experimental data and related simulation studies are clearly needed. MINIDEX addresses exactly this subject. Already the first five months of data taking provided valuable data on neutron production, propagation and interaction in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions are presented. In particular, the predictions of two Monte Carlo packages, based on GEANT4, are compared to the data. The data show an overall 70-100% higher rate of muon-induced events than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. These packages also predict a faster time evolution of the muon-induced signal than observed in the data. Nevertheless, the time until the signal from the muon-induced events is completely collected was correctly predicted by the Monte Carlos. MINIDEX is foreseen

  13. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  14. Dyadic coping mediates the relationship between parents' grief and dyadic adjustment following the loss of a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Sara; Narciso, Isabel; Pereira, Marco

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine forms of dyadic coping (DC) as mediators of the association between parents' grief response and dyadic adjustment and to determine whether these indirect effects were moderated by the child's type of death, timing of death, and age. The study design was cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 197 bereaved parents. Participants completed the Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale, Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Dyadic Coping Inventory. Significant indirect effects of parents' grief response on dyadic adjustment were found through stress communication by oneself and by the partner, positive and negative DC by the partner, and joint DC. The timing of death moderated the association between grief response and dyadic adjustment and between joint DC and dyadic adjustment. Grief response was negatively associated with dyadic adjustment only when the death occurred after birth. Grief response was negatively associated with joint DC, which, in turn, was positively associated with dyadic adjustment, when the death occurred both before and after birth. However, the association was stronger in the latter. Specific forms of DC might be mechanisms through which grief response is associated with dyadic adjustment and should be promoted in clinical practice.

  15. Parental Psychological Control and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Adolescent Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations between parental psychological control and aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms among adolescents from predominantly disadvantaged backgrounds. The indirect effects of psychological control on adolescent adjustment through adolescent emotion regulation (anger and sadness regulation) were examined as well as the moderating effects of adolescent emotion regulation. Design 206 adolescents (ages 10–18) reported on parental psychological control and their own depressive symptoms, and parents and adolescents reported on adolescent emotion regulation and aggressive behavior. Indirect effect models were tested using structural equation modeling; moderating effects were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Results The associations between parental psychological control and adolescent aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms were indirect through adolescents’ anger regulation. Moderation analyses indicated that the association between parental psychological control and adolescent depressive symptoms was stronger among adolescents with poor sadness regulation and the association between psychological control and aggressive behavior was stronger among older adolescents with poor anger regulation. Conclusions Psychological control is negatively associated with adolescent adjustment, particularly among adolescents who have difficulty regulating emotions. Emotion regulation is one mechanism through which psychological control is linked to adolescent adjustment, particularly anger dysregulation, and this pattern holds for both younger and older adolescents and for both boys and girls. PMID:25057264

  16. Neighborhood Assets and Adolescent Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Oliva Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study analyzing the relationship between some dimensions or developmental assets in the neighborhood, as measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood, and adjustment and life satisfaction of adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 2400 adolescents (1068 boys and 1332 girls between ages 12 and 17 who were secondary students in public and private schools in Western Andalusia. The results showed significant relationships between most dimensions of the scale (youth empowerment, attachment to neighbourhood safety and social control and internalizing and externalizing problems, substance use and life satisfaction of participants. Moreover, the data provide evidence about the external validity of the scale used in the study. From the results some suggestions for intervention in the community environment are extracted.

  17. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of body weight on adult wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Indirect associations of combat exposure with post-deployment physical symptoms in U.S. soldiers: roles of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartana, Phillip J; Wilk, Joshua E; Balkin, Thomas J; Hoge, Charles W

    2015-05-01

    To characterize the indirect associations of combat exposure with post-deployment physical symptoms through shared associations with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and insomnia symptoms. Surveys were administered to a sample of U.S. soldiers (N = 587) three months after a 15-month deployment to Iraq. A multiple indirect effects model was used to characterize direct and indirect associations between combat exposure and physical symptoms. Despite a zero-order correlation between combat exposure and physical symptoms, the multiple indirect effects analysis did not provide evidence of a direct association between these variables. Evidence for a significant indirect association of combat exposure and physical symptoms was observed through PTSD, depression, and insomnia symptoms. In fact, 92% of the total effect of combat exposure on physical symptoms scores was indirect. These findings were evident even after adjusting for the physical injury and relevant demographics. This is the first empirical study to suggest that PTSD, depression and insomnia collectively and independently contribute to the association between combat exposure and post-deployment physical symptoms. Limitations, future research directions, and potential policy implications are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.