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Sample records for adjusted indirect comparison

  1. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulkhemair, Dalila

    2009-07-01

    include, independent of any comparator, all randomised controlled trials (RCT that provide a study arm with the intervention of interest. 2. Adjusted indirect comparisons 3. and metaregression analyses include only those studies that provide one study arm with the intervention of interest and another study arm with a common comparator. While the aforementioned methods use conventional metaanalytical techniques, 4. Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC use Bayesian statistics. They are able to analyse a complex network of RCT with multiple comparators simultaneously. During the period from 1999 to 2008 adjusted indirect comparisons are the most commonly used method for indirect comparisons. Since 2006 an increase in the application of the more methodologically challenging MTC is being observed. For the validity check 248 data sets, which include results of a direct and an indirect comparison, are available. The share of statistically significant discrepant results is greatest in the unadjusted indirect comparisons (25,5% [95% CI: 13,1%; 38%], followed by metaregression analyses (16,7% [95% CI: -13,2%; 46,5%], adjusted indirect comparisons (12,1% [95% CI: 6,1%; 18%] and MTC (1,8% [95% CI: -1,7%; 5,2%]. Discrepant results are mainly detected if the basic assumption for an indirect comparison – between-study homogeneity – does not hold. However a systematic over- or underestimation of the results of direct comparisons by any of the indirectly comparing methods was not observed in this sample. Discussion: The selection of an appropriate method for an indirect comparison has to account for its validity, the number of interventions to be compared and the quality as well as the quantity of available studies. Unadjusted indirect comparisons provide, contrasted with the results of direct comparisons, a low validity. Adjusted indirect comparisons and MTC may, under certain circumstances, give results which are consistent with the results of direct comparisons. The limited number of

  2. Matching-adjusted indirect comparisons of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 vs two recombinant factor VIII for the prophylactic treatment of severe hemophilia A

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Nanxin

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Pocoski,1 Nanxin Li,2 Rajeev Ayyagari,2 Nikki Church,1 Monika Maas Enriquez,1 Quer Xiang,2 Sneha Kelkar,3 Ella X Du,2 Eric Q Wu,2 Jipan Xie3 1Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Whippany, NJ, 2Analysis Group, Inc., Boston, MA, 3Analysis Group, Inc., New York, NY, USA Background: No head-to-head trials comparing recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) products currently exist. This was a matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC) study of efficacy of BAY 81-8973 with antihemophilic factor (...

  3. Survival benefit and additional value of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in resectable gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer: a direct and adjusted indirect comparison meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, K; Rouvelas, I; Tsai, J A; Mariosa, D; Lind, P A; Lindblad, M; Ye, W; Lundell, L; Schuhmacher, C; Mauer, M; Burmeister, B H; Thomas, J M; Stahl, M; Nilsson, M

    2015-03-01

    Several phase I/II studies of chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer have reported promising results, but the significance of preoperative radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy has not been proven. In this study, a systematic literature search was performed to capture survival and postoperative morbidity and mortality data in randomised clinical studies comparing preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy or chemotherapy versus surgery alone, or preoperative chemoradiotherapy versus chemotherapy for gastric and/or gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality were extracted from the original studies, individual patient data provided from the principal investigators of eligible studies or the earlier published meta-analysis. The incidences of postoperative morbidities and mortalities were also analysed. In total 18 studies were eligible and data were available from 14 of these. The meta-analysis on overall survival yielded HRs of 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86, P < 0.001) for preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and 0.83 (95% CI 0.67-1.01, P = 0.065) for preoperative chemotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Direct comparison between preoperative chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in an HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.45-1.12, P = 0.146). Combination of direct and adjusted indirect comparisons yielded an HR of 0.86 (95% CI 0.69-1.07, P = 0.171). No statistically significant differences were seen in the risk for postoperative morbidity or mortality between preoperative treatments and surgery alone, or preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy for gastric and GOJ cancer showed significant survival benefit over surgery alone. In comparisons between preoperative chemotherapy and (chemo)radiotherapy, there is a trend towards improved survival when adding radiotherapy, without increased postoperative morbidity or mortality.

  4. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  5. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France. PMID:19671436

  6. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412.322 Section 412.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  7. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Boulkhemair, Dalila; Raspe, Heiner; Lühmann, Dagmar; Schöttker, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Health political background The comparison of the effectiveness of health technologies is not only laid down in German law (Social Code Book V, § 139 and § 35b) but also constitutes a central element of clinical guidelines and decision making in health care. Tools supporting decision making (e. g. Health Technology Assessments (HTA)) are therefore in need of a valid methodological repertoire for these comparisons. Scientific background Randomised controlled head-to-head tri...

  8. Indirect comparisons: a review of reporting and methodological quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Donegan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The indirect comparison of two interventions can be valuable in many situations. However, the quality of an indirect comparison will depend on several factors including the chosen methodology and validity of underlying assumptions. Published indirect comparisons are increasingly more common in the medical literature, but as yet, there are no published recommendations of how they should be reported. Our aim is to systematically review the quality of published indirect comparisons to add to existing empirical data suggesting that improvements can be made when reporting and applying indirect comparisons. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Reviews applying statistical methods to indirectly compare the clinical effectiveness of two interventions using randomised controlled trials were eligible. We searched (1966-2008 Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effects, The Cochrane library, and Medline. Full review publications were assessed for eligibility. Specific criteria to assess quality were developed and applied. Forty-three reviews were included. Adequate methodology was used to calculate the indirect comparison in 41 reviews. Nineteen reviews assessed the similarity assumption using sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, or meta-regression. Eleven reviews compared trial-level characteristics. Twenty-four reviews assessed statistical homogeneity. Twelve reviews investigated causes of heterogeneity. Seventeen reviews included direct and indirect evidence for the same comparison; six reviews assessed consistency. One review combined both evidence types. Twenty-five reviews urged caution in interpretation of results, and 24 reviews indicated when results were from indirect evidence by stating this term with the result. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that the underlying assumptions are not routinely explored or reported when undertaking indirect comparisons. We recommend, therefore, that the quality of indirect comparisons should be improved, in

  9. Indirect costs of disease; an international comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractResults of economic evaluations are often strongly influenced by estimates of indirect costs. International comparability of these estimates may contribute to rational decision-making in health care policy. Hence, estimates should be international comparable. Comparability of these resul

  10. A Comparison between Direct and Indirect Laser Sintering of Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montasser M.Dewidar; Jae-Kyoo LIM; K.W.Dalgarno

    2008-01-01

    Layer manufacture technologies are gaining increasing attention in the manufacturing for the production of polymer mould tooling. Layer manufacture techniques can be used in this potential manufacturing area to produce tooling either indirectly or directly, and powder metal based layer manufacture systems are considered as an effective way of producing rapid tooling. Mechanical properties and accuracy are critical for tooling. This paper reports the results of an experimental study examining the potential of layer manufacturing processes to deliver production tooling for polymer manufacture. A comparison between indirectly selective laser sintering and directly selective laser sintering to provide the tooling was reported. Three main areas were addressed during the study: mechanical strength, accuracy, and build rate. Overviews of the results from the studies were presented.

  11. Comparison Method - Preference Of Adjustment Techniques Among Valuers

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Alias; Noor Hana Asyikin Nor Hanapi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the adjustment techniques applied by valuers in determining the market value of the property. There are several types of adjustment techniques that can be applied in comparison method such as summative percentage, dollar percentage, add and/or subtract percentage, and proper base adjustments. In order to investigate the most preferred adjustment techniques applied by valuers in Malaysia as well as the elements of adjustment, a questionnaire survey is conducted that involv...

  12. [Development of an Excel spreadsheet for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobías, Aurelio; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Roqué, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses in clinical research usually aimed to evaluate treatment efficacy and safety in direct comparison with a unique comparator. Indirect comparisons, using the Bucher's method, can summarize primary data when information from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent. Mixed comparisons allow combining estimates from direct and indirect comparisons, increasing statistical power. There is a need for simple applications for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed comparisons. These can easily be conducted using a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. We developed a spreadsheet for indirect and mixed effects comparisons of friendly use for clinical researchers interested in systematic reviews, but non-familiarized with the use of more advanced statistical packages. The use of the proposed Excel spreadsheet for indirect and mixed comparisons can be of great use in clinical epidemiology to extend the knowledge provided by traditional meta-analysis when evidence from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent.

  13. Conducting Indirect-Treatment-Comparison and Network-Meta-Analysis Studies : Report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoaglin, David C.; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Scott, David A.; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C.; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M.; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for jud

  14. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero;

    2003-01-01

    indicate that distinct mechanical properties may be observed at specific materials. The composition of each material as well as variations on polymerization methods are possibly responsibles for the difference found in microhardness. Therefore, indirect composite resin materials that guarantee both good...

  15. Comparison between direct and indirect cooling core catchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong Ho; Bae, Byung Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The European nuclear design requirements, which should be satisfied by nuclear reactors in Europe, usually recommend a so called core catcher, which is a molten core ex vessel cooling facility, to manage a severe accident at a nuclear reactor. Two different types of core catcher concepts are compared to determine their abilities to manage severe accidents and cool core melts. The study reveals that direct cooling is better for cooling capacity and is convenient to construct, while indirect cooling is better for the management of a severe accident.

  16. Efficacy of anti-leishmania therapy in visceral leishmaniasis among HIV infected patients: a systematic review with indirect comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia F Cota

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic literature review with indirect comparison of studies evaluating therapeutic efficacy and toxicity associated to visceral leishmaniasis (VL therapy among HIV infected individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes of interest were clinical and parasitological cure, mortality, and adverse events. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and Cochrane manual were followed. Sources were MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge databases and manual search of references from evaluated studies. We included all studies reporting outcomes after VL treatment, regardless of their design. Study quality was evaluated systematically by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software v.2.2.048 was used to perform one-group meta-analysis of study arms with the same drug to estimate global rates of success and adverse events with each drug. These estimates were used, when possible, to indirectly compare treatment options, adjusted for CD4 count. Direct comparison was pooled when available. RESULTS: Seventeen studies reporting five treatment regimens and outcome of 920 VL episodes occurring in HIV infected individuals were included. The main outstanding difference in outcome among the treatment regimens was observed in mortality rate: it was around 3 times higher with high-dose antimony use (18.4%, CI 95% 13.3-25%, indirectly compared to lipid formulations of amphotericin B treatment (6.1%, CI 95% 3.9-9.4%. It was observed, also by indirect comparison, higher rates of clinical improvement in study arms using amphotericin B than in study arms using pentavalent antimonial therapy (Sb(v. The parasitological cure, an outcome that presented some degree of risk of selection and verification bias, had rates that varied widely within the same treatment arm, with high heterogeneity, hampering any formal comparison among drugs

  17. Comparison of various NMR methods for the indirect detection of nitrogen-14 nuclei via protons in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming; Trébosc, Julien; O'Dell, Luke A.; Lafon, Olivier; Pourpoint, Frédérique; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    We present an experimental comparison of several through-space Hetero-nuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation experiments, which allow the indirect observation of homo-nuclear single- (SQ) or double-quantum (DQ) 14N coherences via spy 1H nuclei. These 1H-{14N} D-HMQC sequences differ not only by the order of 14N coherences evolving during the indirect evolution, t1, but also by the radio-frequency (rf) scheme used to excite and reconvert these coherences under Magic-Angle Spinning (MAS). Here, the SQ coherences are created by the application of center-band frequency-selective pulses, i.e. long and low-power rectangular pulses at the 14N Larmor frequency, ν0(14N), whereas the DQ coherences are excited and reconverted using rf irradiation either at ν0(14N) or at the 14N overtone frequency, 2ν0(14N). The overtone excitation is achieved either by constant frequency rectangular pulses or by frequency-swept pulses, specifically Wide-band, Uniform-Rate, and Smooth-Truncation (WURST) pulse shapes. The present article compares the performances of four different 1H-{14N} D-HMQC sequences, including those with 14N rectangular pulses at ν0(14N) for the indirect detection of homo-nuclear (i) 14N SQ or (ii) DQ coherences, as well as their overtone variants using (iii) rectangular or (iv) WURST pulses. The compared properties include: (i) the sensitivity, (ii) the spectral resolution in the 14N dimension, (iii) the rf requirements (power and pulse length), as well as the robustness to (iv) rf offset and (v) MAS frequency instabilities. Such experimental comparisons are carried out for γ-glycine and L-histidine.HCl monohydrate, which contain 14N sites subject to moderate quadrupole interactions. We demonstrate that the optimum choice of the 1H-{14N} D-HMQC method depends on the experimental goal. When the sensitivity and/or the robustness to offset are the major concerns, the D-HMQC sequence allowing the indirect detection of 14N SQ coherences should be employed. Conversely

  18. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M; Colombo, Gualtiero B; Allen, Stuart M; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions. PMID:27515119

  19. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Colombo, Gualtiero B.; Allen, Stuart M.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions. PMID:27515119

  20. Duloxetine compared with fluoxetine and venlafaxine: use of meta-regression analysis for indirect comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lançon Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparing duloxetine with existing antidepressant treatments is limited. A comparison of duloxetine with fluoxetine has been performed but no comparison with venlafaxine, the other antidepressant in the same therapeutic class with a significant market share, has been undertaken. In the absence of relevant data to assess the place that duloxetine should occupy in the therapeutic arsenal, indirect comparisons are the most rigorous way to go. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of duloxetine, fluoxetine and venlafaxine versus placebo in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, and performed indirect comparisons through meta-regressions. Methods The bibliography of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and the CENTRAL, Medline, and Embase databases were interrogated using advanced search strategies based on a combination of text and index terms. The search focused on randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials involving adult patients treated for acute phase Major Depressive Disorder. All outcomes were derived to take account for varying placebo responses throughout studies. Primary outcome was treatment efficacy as measured by Hedge's g effect size. Secondary outcomes were response and dropout rates as measured by log odds ratios. Meta-regressions were run to indirectly compare the drugs. Sensitivity analysis, assessing the influence of individual studies over the results, and the influence of patients' characteristics were run. Results 22 studies involving fluoxetine, 9 involving duloxetine and 8 involving venlafaxine were selected. Using indirect comparison methodology, estimated effect sizes for efficacy compared with duloxetine were 0.11 [-0.14;0.36] for fluoxetine and 0.22 [0.06;0.38] for venlafaxine. Response log odds ratios were -0.21 [-0.44;0.03], 0.70 [0.26;1.14]. Dropout log odds ratios were -0.02 [-0.33;0.29], 0.21 [-0.13;0.55]. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were

  1. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

  2. Simulation evaluation of statistical properties of methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Fujian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect treatment comparison (ITC and mixed treatment comparisons (MTC have been increasingly used in network meta-analyses. This simulation study comprehensively investigated statistical properties and performances of commonly used ITC and MTC methods, including simple ITC (the Bucher method, frequentist and Bayesian MTC methods. Methods A simple network of three sets of two-arm trials with a closed loop was simulated. Different simulation scenarios were based on different number of trials, assumed treatment effects, extent of heterogeneity, bias and inconsistency. The performance of the ITC and MTC methods was measured by the type I error, statistical power, observed bias and mean squared error (MSE. Results When there are no biases in primary studies, all ITC and MTC methods investigated are on average unbiased. Depending on the extent and direction of biases in different sets of studies, ITC and MTC methods may be more or less biased than direct treatment comparisons (DTC. Of the methods investigated, the simple ITC method has the largest mean squared error (MSE. The DTC is superior to the ITC in terms of statistical power and MSE. Under the simulated circumstances in which there are no systematic biases and inconsistencies, the performances of MTC methods are generally better than the performance of the corresponding DTC methods. For inconsistency detection in network meta-analysis, the methods evaluated are on average unbiased. The statistical power of commonly used methods for detecting inconsistency is very low. Conclusions The available methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons have different advantages and limitations, depending on whether data analysed satisfies underlying assumptions. To choose the most valid statistical methods for research synthesis, an appropriate assessment of primary studies included in evidence network is required.

  3. COMPARISON OF ADJUSTABLE HIGH-PHASE ORDER INDUCTION MOTORS’ MERITS

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    V.S. Petrushin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of mathematical models of adjustable electrical drives with high-phase order induction motors for their merits analysis at static and dynamical modes. Methodology. At the mathematical modeling main kinds of physical processes taking place in the high-phase order induction motors are considered: electromagnetic, electromechanical, energetic, thermal, mechanical, vibroacoustic ones. Besides, functional as well as mass, frame and value indicators of frequency converters are taking into account which permits to consider technical and economical aspects of the adjustable induction electrical drives. Creation of high-phase order induction motors’ modifications in possible on the base of a stock 3-phase motors of basic design. Polyphase supply of induction motors is guaranteed by a number of the adjustable electrical drives’ power circuits. Results. Modelling of a number of adjustable electrical drives with induction motors of different phase number working on the same load by its character, value and required adjustment range is carried out. At the utilization of the family of characteristics including mechanical ones at different adjustment parameters on which loading mechanism’s characteristics are superimposed regulation curves representing dependences of electrical, energetic, thermal, mechanical, vibroacoustic quantities on the motors’ number of revolutions are obtained. Originality. The proposed complex models of adjustable electrical drives with high-phase order induction motors give a possibility to carry out the grounded choice of the drive’s acceptable variant. Besides, they can be used as design models at the development of adjustable high-phase order induction motors. Practical value. The investigated change of vibroacoustic indicators at static and dynamical modes has been determined decrease of these indicators in the drives with number of phase exceeding 3.

  4. Brief Introduction of Indirect Comparison Software%间接比较软件简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜; 张超; 原瑞霞; 徐畅; 曾宪涛

    2015-01-01

    ITC (Indirect Treatment Comparison)软件及Stata软件indirect程序是研发并专用于间接比较的软件与程序,均具有使用界面友好、简洁、支持菜单操作的特点.ITC软件需要先行使用其他软件计算出直接比较的效应量及可信区间,而Stata-indirect程序可以在Stata内部完成直接比较的结果计算,亦可执行命令操作,从而简化了间接比较复杂的流程.仅能执行“单路径”数据传递合并是两者均存在的不足.从结果来看,两者的结果相似度很高.

  5. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  6. Comparison of multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment models for genetic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márkus, Sz; Mäntysaari, E A; Strandén, I; Eriksson, J-Å; Lidauer, M H

    2014-06-01

    Two heterogeneous variance adjustment methods and two variance models were compared in a simulation study. The method used for heterogeneous variance adjustment in the Nordic test-day model, which is a multiplicative method based on Meuwissen (J. Dairy Sci., 79, 1996, 310), was compared with a restricted multiplicative method where the fixed effects were not scaled. Both methods were tested with two different variance models, one with a herd-year and the other with a herd-year-month random effect. The simulation study was built on two field data sets from Swedish Red dairy cattle herds. For both data sets, 200 herds with test-day observations over a 12-year period were sampled. For one data set, herds were sampled randomly, while for the other, each herd was required to have at least 10 first-calving cows per year. The simulations supported the applicability of both methods and models, but the multiplicative mixed model was more sensitive in the case of small strata sizes. Estimation of variance components for the variance models resulted in different parameter estimates, depending on the applied heterogeneous variance adjustment method and variance model combination. Our analyses showed that the assumption of a first-order autoregressive correlation structure between random-effect levels is reasonable when within-herd heterogeneity is modelled by year classes, but less appropriate for within-herd heterogeneity by month classes. Of the studied alternatives, the multiplicative method and a variance model with a random herd-year effect were found most suitable for the Nordic test-day model for dairy cattle evaluation.

  7. Risk adjustment for inter-hospital comparison of caesarean delivery rates in low-risk deliveries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Stivanello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caesarean delivery (CD rates have been frequently used as quality measures for maternity service comparisons. More recently, primary CD rates (CD in women without previous CD or CD rates within selected categories such as nulliparous, term, cephalic singleton deliveries (NTCS have been used. The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which risk adjustment for clinical and socio-demographic variables is needed for inter-hospital comparisons of CD rates in women without previous CD and in NTCS deliveries. METHODS: Hospital discharge records of women who delivered in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy from January, 2007 to June 2009 and in Tuscany Region for year 2009 were linked with birth certificates. Adjusted RRs of CD in women without a previous Caesarean and NTCS were estimated using Poisson regression. Percentage differences in RR before and after adjustment were calculated and hospital rankings, based on crude and adjusted RRs, were examined. RESULTS: Adjusted RR differed substantially from crude RR in women without a previous Caesarean and only marginally in NTCS group. Hospital ranking was markedly affected by adjustment in women without a previous CD, but less in NTCS. CONCLUSION: Risk adjustment is warranted for inter-hospital comparisons of primary CD rates but not for NTCS CD rates. Crude NTCS CD rates are a reliable estimate of adjusted NTCS CD.

  8. Comparison of Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations in Estimating Resting Metabolic Rate in Underweight Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra ALIASGHARZADEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Underweight as a public health problem in young women is associated with nutritional deficiencies, menstrual irregularity, eating disorders, reduced fertility, etc. Since resting metabolic rate (RMR is a necessary compo-nent in the development of nutrition support therapy, therefore we determined the accuracy of commonly used pre-dictive equations against RMR measured by indirect calorimetry among healthy young underweight females.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 underweight females aged 18-30 years old with body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 in 2013 . After collecting anthropometric data, body composition was measured by bioelec-tric impedance analysis (BIA. RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (FitMate™ and was estimated by 10 commonly used predictive equations. Comparisons were conducted using paired t-test. The accuracy of the RMR equations was evaluated on the basis of the percentage of subjects’ predicted RMR within 10% of measured RMR.Results: The mean BMI of subjects was 17.3±1.3 kg/m2. The measured RMR ranged 736-1490 kcal/day (mean 1084.7±175 kcal/day. Findings indicated that except Muller and Abbreviation, other equations significantly over es-timated RMR, compared to measured value (P<0.05. As an individual prediction accuracy, these predictive equations showed poor performance with the highest accuracy rate of 54.8% for Muller equation (22.1% under and 23.1% over-prediction and 43.3% for Abbreviation equation (31.7% under and 25% over-prediction, the percentage bias was 1.8% and 0.63% and RMSE was 162 and 173 kcal/d, respectively.Conclusion: Although Muller equation gave fairly acceptable prediction, more suitable new equations are needed to be developed to help better management of nutritional plans in young underweight people.

  9. An indirect comparison of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban for atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantha, Simon; Ansell, Jack

    2012-09-01

    New oral anticoagulant drugs are emerging as alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Two agents are direct factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban and apixaban), and the third is a direct thrombin inhibitor (dabigatran). They have been separately compared to warfarin in large randomised trials. Our objective was to indirectly compare the three agents to each other for major efficacy and safety outcomes. Studies were assessed for comparability and the odds ratios of selected outcomes for each anticoagulant versus one another were estimated indirectly. The three cohorts differed significantly in terms of CHADS(2) score and the number of individuals with a past history of stroke, transient ischemic attack or systemic embolism. The estimated odds ratio of stroke or systemic embolism was 1.35 for rivaroxaban vs dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.04), 0.97 for rivaroxaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.81), 1.22 for apixaban versus dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.18), 0.88 for apixaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.34) and 0.90 for apixaban versus rivaroxaban (p=0.43). The estimated odds ratio of major bleeding was 1.10 for rivaroxaban versus dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.36), 1.28 for rivaroxaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.02), 0.74 for apixaban versus dabigatran 150 mg (p=0.004), 0.87 for apixaban versus dabigatran 110 mg (p=0.17) and 0.68 for apixaban versus rivaroxaban (pprevention of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. It appears however that apixaban is associated with less major bleeding than dabigatran 150 mg or rivaroxaban and that rivaroxaban is less effective than dabigatran 150 mg in preventing stroke or systemic embolism. Such an indirect comparison should be used only to generate hypotheses which need to be tested in a dedicated randomised trial comparing the three drugs directly. PMID:22740145

  10. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  11. Comparison of direct and indirect plasma oxidation of NO combined with oxidation by catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jogi, Indrek; Stamate, Eugen; Irimiea, Cornelia;

    2015-01-01

    Direct and indirect plasma oxidation of NOx was tested in a medium-scale test-bench at gas flows of 50 slm (3 m(3)/h). For direct plasma oxidation the synthetic flue gas was directed through a stacked DBD reactor. For indirect plasma oxidation, a DBD reactor was used to generate ozone from pure O-2...... increase of the DBD reactor decreased the long-term efficiency of direct plasma oxidation. At the same time, the efficiency of indirect oxidation increased at elevated reactor temperatures. Additional experiments were carried out to investigate the improvement of indirect oxidation by the introduction of...

  12. Indirect economic effects of new infrastructure : A comparison of Dutch high speed rail variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, J; Romp, WE

    2003-01-01

    New transport infrastructure has a myriad of direct and indirect effects. The indirect effects on population and economic activity are most difficult to estimate. This paper introduces three different models to estimate the impacts of new infrastructure on labour supply and demand, and carefully exp

  13. Measurement of the optical density of packable composites: comparison between direct and indirect digital systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziottin Luiz Felipe Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the optical density of four packable composite resins with widths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm, by means of Digora® (direct and DentScan DentView® (indirect digital imaging systems, in order to compare both methods. Twenty acrylic plates, with the proposed thicknesses, were used, each one containing a sample of each resin. Each acrylic plate was radiographed three times, under a standardized technique. For the Digora® system, an optical plate was used under each resin sample, and, for the DentScan DentView® system, occlusal films were employed, totalizing 60 exposures for each system. Optical plates and films were scanned and three consecutive optical readouts were carried out, totalizing 1,440 readouts. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and revealed that the average optical density of the four resins always increased as thickness increased. Regarding the comparisons between the composite resins, in both analysis the resin with the greater optical density was SurefilTM followed by ProdigyTM Condensable, AlertTM and Solitaire®. The correlations between the results of Digora® and DentScan DentView® were significant for the different thicknesses and materials. The observed tendency is that as the values obtained with the Digora® system increase, so do the values obtained with DentScan DentView®. While thickness increased, the values of optical density in both Digora® and DentScan DentView® tended to approach each other. The Digora® system presented smaller amplitude between the results obtained in adjacent thicknesses.

  14. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜRK, Ayşe Gözde; SABUNCU, Metin; ÜNAL, Sena; ÖNAL, Banu; ULUSOY, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Material and Methods Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (p<0.05), before and after cementation. Results Direct inlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442) and after (p=0.00001466) cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Conclusions Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation

  15. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜRK, Ayşe Gözde; SABUNCU, Metin; ÜNAL, Sena; ÖNAL, Banu; ULUSOY, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Material and Methods Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (pinlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442) and after (p=0.00001466) cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Conclusions Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation. PMID:27556210

  16. Comparison of radiographic measurements obtained with conventional an indirect digital imaging during endontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Buloto Schmitd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of indirect digitized radiographic images taken during endodontic procedures and to compare the measurements recorded with this technique to those obtained from conventional radiographs. Two-hundred conventional periapical radiographs taken at the undergraduate Endodontics Clinic of the Dental School of Bauru were digitized. The conventional and indirect digitized images were compared by three examiners as to the quality and accuracy of the measurements recorded during endodontic treatment, in canal length determination, gutta-percha adaptation, lateral condensation and final obturation. The conventional radiographs were observed on a film viewer, surrounded by a dark card, and measured with magnifying glass and a millimeter ruler; the indirect digitized images were evaluated on the Digora® for Windows software, with free utilization of the bright/contrast tool. Unlike the conventional radiographic images, all indirect digitized images were considered as having a high quality. The distance between the filling material and the root apex was 0.117 mm larger, on average, for the Digora® system (p<0.01. The measurements achieved by the investigated radiographic methods were clinically similar and they are thus equivalent. Changes in brightness and contrast of the images using Digora®software improved the diagnosis.

  17. Comparison of manual direct and automated indirect measurement of hippocampus using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, Frederik L. [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Germany); MRI Unit, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.giesel@dkfz.de; Thomann, Philipp A. [Section of Geriatric Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Hahn, Horst K. [MeVis, Bremen (Germany); Politi, Maria [Neuroradiology, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Stieltjes, Bram; Weber, Marc-Andre [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Germany); Pantel, Johannes [Department of Psychiatry, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, Paul D. [MRI Unit, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Schroeder, Johannes [Section of Geriatric Psychiatry, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Essig, Marco [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: Objective quantification of brain structure can aid diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we aimed to compare direct and indirect quantification approaches for hippocampal formation changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods and materials: Twenty-one healthy volunteers (mean age: 66.2), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (mean age: 66.6), and 10 patients with AD (mean age: 65.1) were enrolled. All subjects underwent extensive neuropsychological testing and were imaged at 1.5 T (Vision, Siemens, Germany; T1w coronal TR = 4 ms, Flip = 13 deg., FOV = 250 mm, Matrix = 256 x 256, 128 contiguous slices, 1.8 mm). Direct measurement of the hippocampal formation was performed on coronal slices using a standardized protocol, while indirect temporal horn volume (THV) was calculated using a watershed algorithm-based software package (MeVis, Germany). Manual tracing took about 30 min, semi-automated measurement less than 3 min time. Results: Successful direct and indirect quantification was performed in all subjects. A significant volume difference was found between controls and AD patients (p < 0.001) with both the manual and the semi-automated approach. Group analysis showed a slight but not significant decrease of hippocampal volume and increase in temporal horn volume (THV) for subjects with mild cognitive impairment compared to volunteers (p < 0.07). A significant correlation (p < 0.001) of direct and indirect measurement was found. Conclusion: The presented indirect approach for hippocampus volumetry is equivalent to the direct approach and offers the advantages of observer independency, time reduction and thus usefulness for clinical routine.

  18. Indirect comparisons of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in CML: case study using baseline population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbach Tran Carpiuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kimbach Tran Carpiuc1, Gianantonio Rosti2, Fausto Castagnetti2, Maarten Treur3, Jennifer Stephens11Pharmerit North America LLC, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Hematology and Oncology, S Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy; 3Pharmerit Europe, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: The use of indirect comparisons to evaluate the relative effectiveness between two or more treatments is widespread in the literature and continues to grow each year. Appropriate methodologies will be essential for integrating data from various published clinical trials into a systematic framework as part of the increasing emphasis on comparative effectiveness research. This article provides a case study example for clinicians using the baseline study population characteristics and response rates of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors in imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic myelogenous leukemia followed by a discussion of indirect comparison methods that are being increasingly implemented to address challenges with these types of comparisons.Keywords: comparative effectiveness research, meta-analysis, BCR–ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia, imatinib mesylate, nilotinib, dasatinib 

  19. Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

    2012-05-01

    The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 μg/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application.

  20. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence and multiplex antinuclear antibody screening in systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Swistowski, Donna R.; Saddic, Nicole; Wang, Hong; Steen, Virginia D.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence antinuclear antibodies (IIF-ANA) are detected in approximately 90% of scleroderma patients, and the staining pattern correlates with scleroderma-specific antibody subsets. Solid-phase ANA assays that are dependent on multiplex bead technology (MULTIPLEX-ANA) are replacing immunofluorescence in many commercial labs; however, performance of these assays has not been compared to IIF-ANA in scleroderma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a proportion of ...

  1. Risk adjustment for inter-hospital comparison of primary cesarean section rates: need, validity and parsimony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallolio Laura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cesarean section rates is often used as an indicator of quality of care in maternity hospitals. The assumption is that lower rates reflect in developed countries more appropriate clinical practice and general better performances. Hospitals are thus often ranked on the basis of caesarean section rates. The aim of this study is to assess whether the adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of cesarean section (c-section rates and to assess whether a risk adjustment model based on a limited number of variables could be identified and used. Methods Discharge abstracts of labouring women without prior cesarean were linked with abstracts of newborns discharged from 29 hospitals of the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy from 2003 to 2004. Adjusted ORs of cesarean by hospital were estimated by using two logistic regression models: 1 a full model including the potential confounders selected by a backward procedure; 2 a parsimonious model including only actual confounders identified by the "change-in-estimate" procedure. Hospital rankings, based on ORs were examined. Results 24 risk factors for c-section were included in the full model and 7 (marital status, maternal age, infant weight, fetopelvic disproportion, eclampsia or pre-eclampsia, placenta previa/abruptio placentae, malposition/malpresentation in the parsimonious model. Hospital ranking using the adjusted ORs from both models was different from that obtained using the crude ORs. The correlation between the rankings of the two models was 0.92. The crude ORs were smaller than ORs adjusted by both models, with the parsimonious ones producing more precise estimates. Conclusion Risk adjustment is necessary to compare hospital c-section rates, it shows differences in rankings and highlights inappropriateness of some hospitals. By adjusting for only actual confounders valid and more precise estimates

  2. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF drugs for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis: an indirect comparison meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorlund K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1 Eric Druyts,2 J Antonio Aviña-Zubieta,3,4 Edward J Mills1,21Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaObjective: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of available tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitors (anti-TNFs for the management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA in patients with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs.Methods: We used an exhaustive search strategy covering randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and health technology assessments (HTA published on anti-TNFs for PsA. We performed indirect comparisons of the available anti-TNFs (adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, and infliximab measuring relative risks (RR for the psoriatic arthritis response criteria (PsARC, mean differences (MDs for improvements from baseline for the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ by PsARC responders and non-responders, and MD for the improvements from baseline for the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI. When the reporting of data on intervention group response rates and improvements were incomplete, we used straightforward conversions based on the available data.Results: We retrieved data from 20 publications representing seven trials, as well as two HTAs. All anti-TNFs were significantly better than control, but the indirect comparison did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the anti-TNFs. For PsARC response, golimumab yielded the highest RR and etanercept the second highest; adalimumab and infliximab both yielded notably smaller RRs. For HAQ improvement, etanercept and infliximab yielded the largest MD among PsARC responders

  3. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate...

  4. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization.

  5. Predicting landfalling hurricane numbers from sea surface temperature: a theoretical comparison of direct and indirect methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nzerem, K; Laepple, T; Nzerem, Kechi; Jewson, Stephen; Laepple, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We consider two ways that one might convert a prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) into a prediction of landfalling hurricane numbers. First, one might regress historical numbers of landfalling hurricanes onto historical SSTs, and use the fitted regression relation to predict future landfalling hurricane numbers given predicted SSTs. We call this the direct approach. Second, one might regress \\emph{basin} hurricane numbers onto historical SSTs, estimate the proportion of basin hurricanes that make landfall, and use the fitted regression relation and estimated proportion to predict future landfalling hurricane numbers. We call this the \\emph{indirect} approach. Which of these two methods is likely to work better? We answer this question in the context of a simple abstract model.

  6. The Comparison of Tendency to Addiction and Adjustment in Girls and Boys Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sheydae

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the drug tended to fit 17-12 year old male and female students were holy city of Rabat. Methods: The research design of a comparison. Results: The study subjects consisted of 21 male and 29 female students who cover the charity Fatima Zahra studying in Rabat Karim units were selected by random sampling. Tool: in the study to measure the tendency to addiction People exposed to drug test Dhkrdyan and Bell was used to test adjustment. The results showed an inverse relation between the tendency to addiction in adolescents and that there are significant inconsistencies. The relation between the subscales inconsistency and tendency to addiction, a strong and significant positive relationship between family conflicts to tendency to addiction exists. Inconsistency between the two groups of boys and girls in terms of variables and there is significant risk of addiction. So that the average inconsistency in boys than girls and boys at risk for substance abuse than are females. Conclusions: The tendency to addiction, there are significant adjustment among adolescents and the tendency to addiction in adolescent boys and girls significant adjustment there.

  7. Comparison of Direct and Indirect Gas Reactor Brayton Systems for Nuclear Electric Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas reactor systems are being considered as candidates for use in generating power for the Prometheus-1 spacecraft, along with other NASA missions as part of the Prometheus program. Gas reactors offer a benign coolant, which increases core and structural materials options. However, the gas coolant has inferior thermal transport properties, relative to other coolant candidates such as liquid metals. This leads to concerns for providing effective heat transfer and for minimizing pressure drop within the reactor core. In direct gas Brayton systems, i.e. those with one or more Brayton turbines in the reactor cooling loop, the ability to provide effective core cooling and low pressure drop is further constrained by the need for a low pressure, high molecular weight gas, typically a mixture of helium and xenon. Use of separate primary and secondary gas loops, one for the reactor and one or more for the Brayton system(s) separated by heat exchanger(s), allows for independent optimization of the pressure and gas composition of each loop. The reactor loop can use higher pressure pure helium, which provides improved heat transfer and heat transport properties, while the Brayton loop can utilize lower pressure He-Xe. However, this approach requires a separate primary gas circulator and also requires gas to gas heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the trade-offs between the direct gas reactor Brayton system and the indirect gas Brayton system. It discusses heat exchanger arrangement and materials options and projects heat exchanger mass based on heat transfer area and structural design needs. Analysis indicates that these heat exchangers add considerable mass, but result in reactor cooling and system resiliency improvements

  8. Indirect Haemagglutination Test in Comparison with ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against Invasive Amoebiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, Sankaramoorthy; Meenachi, Chidambaram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of amoebiasis is based on combination of tests like microscopy, imaging, serology and molecular methods. In absence of molecular techniques, serology can be used as an alternative aid. Various serological techniques were reported with different sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic efficiency of these assays mainly depends on the characteristics of antigen that is being used and various conditions of performance. Aim To evaluate the efficiency of recombinant calcium binding domain containing protein by Indirect Haemagglutination Assay (IHA) against a commercial ELISA among amoebic liver abscess cases and control group. Materials and Methods The study was carried out during the period of 2011-2015 and blood samples were collected from suspected amoebiasis cases who were attending the clinics of Medicine and Paediatrics department, JIPMER. A total of 200 sera samples which included 100 Amoebic Liver Abscess (ALA), 50 cases of other parasitic infections and liver diseases and 50 presumed healthy controls were examined by IHA and commercial ELISA. In brief, chick cells were stabilized by Double Aldehyde Sensitization (DAS) method. Optimum Sensitizing Dose (OSD) of the antigen was determined. The test was performed in a U-bottomed microtiter plate with recombinant amoebic antigen (12.5μg/ml), incubated at Room Temperature (RT) for 2 hours. RIDASCREEN Entamoeba IgG ELISA kit which is commercially available was used to evaluate the samples as per manufacturer’s instruction. Results The overall sensitivity and specificity of the IHA was 62% and 96%, respectively when compared to ELISA having sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 90%, respectively. The positive predictive value of the IHA was 91% while negative predictive value was 79%. Similarly, the positive predictive value of the ELISA was 87% while negative predictive value was 74%. Conclusion As serology heavily suffers due to lack of a standardised test system employing the native

  9. Indirect comparison of lixisenatide versus neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin as add-on to metformin and sulphonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier, Marie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: There is currently a lack of evidence from direct comparisons of treatment outcomes with lixisenatide versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH-insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with suboptimal glycaemic control with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs. Hence, the current analysis indirectly compared available evidence on the risk of hypoglycaemia and weight change between lixisenatide and NPH-insulin based on randomized controlled trial (RCT data with exenatide, insulin glargine and placebo as common references. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane database and clinical registries identified English- and German-language articles published from January 1980 to October 2012 reporting data from RCTs. Only publications of trials that reported outcomes from 24 to 30 weeks comparing glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists or basal insulin versus another antidiabetic agent or placebo were included. Hypoglycaemia, patients at glycated haemoglobin (HbA target and discontinuations due to adverse events (AEs were treated as binary variables, with risk ratios and odds ratios (ORs calculated. HbA and body weight were treated as continuous variables with difference in mean change from baseline (MD calculated. Meta-analyses were performed with random effects models and indirect comparisons were performed according to Bucher’s method.Results: Seven RCTs (n=3,301 patients comparing the efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, exenatide, insulin glargine and NPH-insulin with different antidiabetic treatments in adult patients with T2DM were included in the final analysis. In the adjusted indirect comparison, there was a significant difference in symptomatic hypoglycaemia (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = [0.17, 0.85] and in confirmed hypoglycaemia (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.22, 0.96] favouring lixisenatide over NPH-insulin and comparable changes in HbA from baseline (MD = 0.07%; 95% CI = [–0.26%, 0.41%]. In contrast to NPH

  10. Atmospheric water vapor monitoring from local GNSS networks: comparisons of GNSS data adjustment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capponi, Martina; Fermi, Alessandro; Monti Guarnieri, Andrea; Realini, Eugenio; Venuti, Giovanna

    2016-04-01

    Since many years GNSS has been regarded by the meteorological community as one of the systems for atmospheric water vapor remote sensing. Time series of GNSS wet delays are estimated as by-products of accurate positioning. Their assimilation into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being investigated at both research and operational levels, although typically at coarse space resolutions (e.g. few tens of km). A dedicated use of this system for water vapor monitoring at higher resolutions is still under investigation. Ad hoc networks have been designed and implemented to collect data at a high spatial resolution (station inter-distances of 1-10 km), to have an insight into the spatial distribution of GNSS derived wet delays and/or into the impact of such information on high resolution NWP models. Within this research framework the paper reports the comparisons carried out between ZWD time series obtained from the data collected by an Italian and a Japanese dense networks of permanent geodetic GNSS receivers. Tropospheric delays have been estimated by applying different data adjustment strategies: relative positioning and PPP (precise point positioning). For this last strategy two different solutions have been analyzed and compared: the Bernese software batch solution, and the RTNet software Kalman filter solution. Assessment of the results were performed against IGS GNSS delays as well as by comparison with radiosonde-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV).

  11. Comparison Analysis of Indirect FOC Induction Motor Drive using PI, Anti-Windup and Pre Filter Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Hairul Nizam Talib

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the speed performance analysis of indirect Field Oriented Control (FOC induction motor drive by applying Proportional Integral (PI controller, PI with Anti-Windup (PIAW and Pre- Filter (PF. The objective of this experiment is to have quantitative comparison between the controller strategies towards the performance of the motor in term of speed tracking and load rejection capability in low, medium and rated speed operation. In the first part, PI controller is applied to the FOC induction motor drive which the gain is obtained based on determined Induction Motor (IM motor parameters.  Secondly an AWPI strategy is added to the outer loop and finally, PF is added to the system. The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM technique is used to control the voltage source inverter and complete vector control scheme of the IM drive is tested by using a DSpace 1103 controller board. The analysis of the results shows that, the PI and AWPI controller schemes produce similar performance at low speed operation. However, for the medium and rated speed operation the AWPI scheme shown significant improvement in reducing the overshoot problem and improving the setting time. The PF scheme on the other hand, produces a slower speed and torque response for all tested speed operation. All schemes show similar performance for load disturbance rejection capability.

  12. A comparison of consumptive-use estimates derived from the simplified surface energy balance approach and indirect reporting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Kenny, Joan F.; Savoca, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in remote-sensing technology and Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) methods can provide accurate and repeatable estimates of evapotranspiration (ET) when used with satellite observations of irrigated lands. Estimates of ET are generally considered equivalent to consumptive use (CU) because they represent the part of applied irrigation water that is evaporated, transpired, or otherwise not available for immediate reuse. The U.S. Geological Survey compared ET estimates from SSEB methods to CU data collected for 1995 using indirect methods as part of the National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP). Ten-year (2000-2009) average ET estimates from SSEB methods were derived using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1-kilometer satellite land surface temperature and gridded weather datasets from the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS). County-level CU estimates for 1995 were assembled and referenced to 1-kilometer grid cells to synchronize with the SSEB ET estimates. Both datasets were seasonally and spatially weighted to represent the irrigation season (June-September) and those lands that were identified in the county as irrigated. A strong relation (R2 greater than 0.7) was determined between NWUIP CU and SSEB ET data. Regionally, the relation is stronger in arid western states than in humid eastern states, and positive and negative biases are both present at state-level comparisons. SSEB ET estimates can play a major role in monitoring and updating county-based CU estimates by providing a quick and cost-effective method to detect major year-to-year changes at county levels, as well as providing a means to disaggregate county-based ET estimates to sub-county levels. More research is needed to identify the causes for differences in state-based relations.

  13. A Comparison of Adjustment to University between Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chitnev, Veta

    2014-01-01

    Due to large immigrant student numbers enrolled in post-secondary education in Canada, adjustment of immigrant youth to mainstream culture at the university level is an important issue for Canadian educators. However, research on immigrant students’ adjustment while attending Canadian educational institutions is scarce. The purpose of the present thesis was to address this gap by examining Canadian immigrant students’ adjustment to university and to identify potential protective factors that...

  14. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials Estudo comparativo da microdureza de materiais resinosos indiretos

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    Carolina Baptista Miranda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10 as follows: G1 - Artglass; G2 - Sinfony; G3 - Solidex; G4 - Targis. Microhardness was determined by the Vickers indentation technique with a load of 300g for 10 seconds. Four indentations were made on each sample, determining the mean microhardness values for each specimen. Descriptive statistics data for the experimental conditions were: G1 - Artglass (mean ±standard deviation: 55.26 ± 1.15HVN; median: 52.6; G2 - Sinfony (31.22 ± 0.65HVN; 31.30; G3 - Solidex (52.25 ± 1.55HVN; 52.60; G4 - Targis (72.14 ± 2.82HVN; 73.30. An exploratory data analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate statistical test through: (I Levene's for homogeneity of variances; (II ANOVA on ranks (Kruskal-Wallis; (III Dunn's multiple comparison test (0.05. Targis presented the highest microhardness values while Sinfony presented the lowest. Artglass and Solidex were found as intermediate materials. These results indicate that distinct mechanical properties may be observed at specific materials. The composition of each material as well as variations on polymerization methods are possibly responsibles for the difference found in microhardness. Therefore, indirect composite resin materials that guarantee both good esthetics and adequate mechanical properties may be considered as substitutes of natural teeth.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a microdureza de 4 resinas compostas indiretas. Quarenta amostras cilíndricas foram obtidas com o auxílio de uma matriz de teflon, seguindo-se as recomendações dos fabricantes. Foram obtidas 10 amostras para cada material testado, contituindo-se 4 grupos (n=10 como se segue: G1-Artglass; G2-Sinfony; G3-Solidex; G4-Targis. A

  15. Boceprevir and telaprevir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection: an indirect comparison meta-analysis

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    Cooper CL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curtis L Cooper1, Eric Druyts2, Kristian Thorlund3, Jean B Nachega4, Antoine C El Khoury5, Christopher O'Regan6, Edward J Mills2,31Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 5Merck and Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ, 6Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, United KingdomBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the relative efficacy and safety of boceprevir and telaprevir, when used in combination with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, using an indirect comparison meta-analysis.Methods: Published phase II and phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of boceprevir and telaprevir in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infected adult populations were included. The primary outcomes were sustained virologic response, relapse, and discontinuation of all study drugs. Secondary outcomes included the adverse events of anemia, neutropenia, rash, and pruritus. Results: Four boceprevir trials and six telaprevir trials were included. No significant differences were observed for sustained virologic response among either naïve (relative risk [RR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–1.37, P = 0.20 or experienced patients (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52–1.23, P = 0.30. Similarly, for relapse among naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.18–3.45, P = 0.77 and experienced patients (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.90–3.24, P = 0.10, or discontinuation of therapy for naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.28–2.29, P = 0.72 and experienced patients (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69–1.12, P = 0.30. Telaprevir was more likely to be associated with rash and pruritus, and boceprevir was more likely to be associated with neutropenia in certain patient populations.Conclusion: Boceprevir and telaprevir appear

  16. Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison between tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays

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    Chan Koon H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM and/or optic neuritis (ON. A significant proportion of NMOSD patients are seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies. We compared the AQP4 autoantibody detection rates of tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA and cell-based IIFA. Methods Serum of Chinese CNS IDD patients were assayed for AQP4 autoantibodies by tissue-based IIFA using monkey cerebellum and cell-based IIFA using transfected HEK293 cells which express human AQP4 on their cell membranes. Results In total, 128 CNS IDD patients were studied. We found that 78% of NMO patients were seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA versus 61% by tissue-based IFA (p = 0.250, 75% of patients having relapsing myelitis (RM with LETM were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 50% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 0.250, and 33% of relapsing ON patients were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 22% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 1.000; however the differences were not statistically significant. All patients seropositive by tissue-based IIFA were also seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA. Among 29 NMOSD patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, 20 (69% were seropositive by tissue-based IIFA. The 9 patients seropositive by cell-based IIFA while seronegative by tissue-based IIFA had NMO (3, RM with LETM (3, a single attack of LETM (1, relapsing ON (1 and a single ON attack (1. Among 23 NMO or RM patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, comparison between those seropositive (n = 17 and seronegative (n = 6 by tissue-based IIFA revealed no differences in clinical and neuroradiological characteristics between the two groups. Conclusion Cell-based IIFA is slightly more sensitive

  17. Evaluation and Comparison of Individual and Group Sports in the Social Adjustment of Students

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    Seyed Hossein Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the role of sports in youth social adjustment and social skills in their interpersonal relationships and social skills associated with academic achievement and their role in reducing mental and psychological problems ,we conducted this study to examine the role of physical activity in different sport fields. In order to compare the social skills of male students participating in the team and individual sports in Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, we chose 30 randomly as the sample size. In order to gather information, two questionnaires-i-e-demographic questionnaire and social skills questionnaire (social adjustment section Albert J. Petitpas F (2004 with a reliability of 0.90 were used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and T-test were used. Results showed significant differences between team and individual sports athletes with the soccer ranking higher than the rest of the field. Gymnastics athletes would have better social adjustment than the rest of athletes and the rowing athletes had less social adjustment, but this difference was not statistically significant and the results showed no significant relationship between age and marital status with the Social Adjustment. The results of this study confirm a considerable effect of team sports on levels of social adjustment compared with individual sports.

  18. Comparison of the indirect immunobead, radiolabeled, and immunofluorescence assays for immunoglobulin G serum antibodies to human sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative sensitivities of the indirect immunobead test, the indirect flo cytometric immunofluorescence assay, and an indirect radiolabeled antiglobulin assay were compared. Eighteen immunobead test positive sera and 18 negative sera were used as the standard for the other two assays. Of the 18 positive sera, 14 (77%) and 5 (27%) were positive in the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay, respectively. Four (22%) of the low titer immunobead test positive sera were negative by both the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the results of the immunofluorescence assay and the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay (r = 0.73) and between the results of the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the titer of the immunobead test (r = 0.82). The use of an unselected sperm population in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the classical indirect immunofluorescence method using methanol-fixed sperm gave false-positive results in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay and the immunofluorescence assay. These results suggested that immunoglobulin G antisperm antibody positive sera may be reactive both to sperm surface and internalized sperm antigens

  19. Experimental investigation on the comparison of fenugreek drying in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Vipin; Kumar, Anil

    2016-09-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient is an essential parameter for designing of any solar drying system. In this paper heat transfer modeling in term of convective heat transfer coefficient is performed and compared with open sun drying. The data obtained from experimentation under open sun and indirect solar drying conditions have been used to find values of the experimental constant `C' and exponent `n' by regression analysis and, consequently, convective heat transfer coefficient. From this study it is concluded that the convective heat transfer coefficient is decreasing with drying time it is due to decrease in moisture content. Results also showed that convective heat transfer coefficients are more in indirect solar dryer system than under open sun drying.

  20. Comparison of three dimensional isotropic and two dimensional conventional indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Young Cheol; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoo, Jae Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Suk Kyoung [Joeun Madi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy between a three-dimensional (3D) indirect isotropic T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography and a conventional two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted sequences of indirect MR arthrography for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. The study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. In total, 205 patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery for 206 shoulders were included in this study. Both conventional 2D T1-weighted FSE sequences and 3D isotropic T1-weighted FSE sequence were performed in all patients. Two radiologists evaluated the images for the presence of full- or partial-thickness tears in the supraspinatus-infraspinatus (SSP-ISP) tendons and tears in the subscapularis (SSC) tendons. Using the arthroscopic findings as the reference standard, the diagnostic performances of both methods were analyzed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Arthroscopy confirmed 165 SSP-ISP tendon tears and 103 SSC tendon tears. For diagnosing SSP-ISP tendon tears, the AUC values were 0.964 and 0.989 for the 2D sequences and 3D T1-weighted FSE sequence, respectively, in reader I and 0.947 and 0.963, respectively, in reader II. The AUC values for diagnosing SSC tendon tears were 0.921 and 0.925, respectively, for reader I and 0.856 and 0.860, respectively, for reader II. There was no significant difference between the AUC values of the 2D and 3D sequences in either reader for either type of tear. 3D indirect isotropic MR arthrography with FSE sequence and the conventional 2D arthrography are not significantly different in terms of accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears.

  1. Comparison of the resin cement bond strength to an indirect composites treated by Er;YAG laser and sandblast

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    Mansure Mirzaee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Indirect composites are designed to overcome the shortcomings of direct composites such as polymerization shrinkage and low degree of conversion. But, good adhesion of resin cements to indirect composites is still difficult. This research was designed to assess the effect of different powers of Er;YAG laser compared with sandblasting. On the micro tensil bond strength of resin cement to indirect composites.   Materials and Methods: Specimens were prepred using dental resin composite (Gradia GC and metallic mold (15×5×5 mm and were cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 24 blocks were prepared and randomly divided into 12 groups. G1:no treatment (as control, G 2-6: Er; YAG laser irradiation (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Watt, G7: sandblast. Two composite blocks were bonded to each other with Panavia F.2. resin cement. The cylindrical sections with dimensions of 1 mm were tested in a microtensile bond strength tester device using 0.5 mm/min speed until fracture points. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and T-test.   Results: Interaction between lasers irradiation and sandblast treatments were significant (P0.05 whether samples were sandblasted or not. Samples which received 300 mJ of laser showed lower bond strength compared with no laser treatment. Other groups showed no significant difference (P>0.05.   Conclusion: It seems that application of sandblast with proper variables, is a good way to improve bond strength.Laser application had no influence in improving the bond strength between the indirect composite and resin cement.

  2. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

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    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  3. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  4. Evaluation and Comparison of Individual and Group Sports in the Social Adjustment of Students

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Due to the role of sports in youth social adjustment and social skills in their interpersonal relationships and social skills associated with academic achievement and their role in reducing mental and psychological problems ,we conducted this study to examine the role of physical activity in different sport fields. In order to compare the social skills of male students participating in the team and individual sports in Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, we chose 30 randomly as the sample size...

  5. Comparison of three auto-adjusting positive pressure devices in patients with sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G M; Ryan, S; O'connor, T M; McNicholas, W T

    2006-07-01

    Auto-adjustable continuous positive airway pressure (APAP) devices are an emerging treatment alternative to fixed-pressure continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. They have been engineered to automatically adjust the pressure to the optimal level on a continuous basis. However, not all APAP technologies use the same algorithm. Three different APAP devices (Autoset Spirit, Breas PV 10i and RemStar Auto) were compared in a randomised crossover trial in patients already established on fixed-pressure CPAP therapy. The outcome measures were compliance, quality of life and side-effects. Twenty-seven middle-aged patients (25 male) previously diagnosed with severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (median (interquartile range) apnoea/hypopnoea index 48 (29-76)), established on CPAP therapy for >3 yrs, were randomised to each APAP device for 4 weeks. Mean pressure and patient compliance were significantly lower on the Breas PV 10i than on the other APAP devices. The devices were similar in terms of quality of life, daytime sleepiness and upper airway side-effects, but patients evaluated them significantly differently in terms of device features, sleep quality and pressure comfort, with the Breas PV 10i being the least popular. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure devices differ in pressure delivery and patient compliance in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome patients. PMID:16571610

  6. Comparison of harris benedict and Mifflin-ST Jeor equations with indirect calorimetry in evaluating resting energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirkalali Bahareh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: An understanding of energy expenditure in hospitalized patients is necessary to determine optimal energy supply. The metabolic rate can be measured or estimated by equations, but estimation is by far the most common method. AIM: This study tests the degree of agreement between measured resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and predicted resting energy expenditure by Harris Benedict and Mifflin-St Jeor equations. Patients were categorized according to sex and diagnosis. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: In 60 randomly selected patients, aged between 18 and 83 years, resting energy expenditure (REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and compared with the predicted equations of Harris Benedict and Mifflin-St Jeor. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed by using the method of Bland-Altman, one sample t-test and Pearson′s correlation. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between measured and predicted resting energy expenditure by both equations, in all cases as a whole and each group. The only statistically significant difference was seen between measured resting energy expenditure and its predicted equivalent by Mifflin-St equation when patients were categorized according to their sex. Limits of agreements were wide for both equations in all cases and each category so clinical significance was considerable. Conclusions: At a group level Harris-Benedict equation is suitable for predicting REE but at an individual level, both equations have wide limits of agreement and clinically important differences in REE would be obtained.

  7. An Indirect Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Abacavir/Lamivudine + Dolutegravir in Initial Therapy.

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    Josep M Llibre

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis is to perform an indirect comparison of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (E/C/F/TDF to abacavir/lamivudine and dolutegravir (ABC/3TC + DTG by using 2 trials evaluating each of these regimens in comparison to efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF.An indirect comparison was performed by using a generalization of Bucher's methodology to calculate risk differences. Two phase III clinical trials (GS-US-236-0102 and SINGLE-described above were used.Results of the indirect comparison showed no statistically significant risk difference of the efficacy endpoint of achieving HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG for the ITT population at weeks 48, 96 and 144: respectively -3.7% (CI95% = [-10.8%; 3.4%], -5.2% (CI95% = [-13.2%; 2.8%] and -3.1% (CI95% = [-12.0%; 5.7%]. There was no statistically significant differences in the risk difference for serious adverse events (5.7% (CI95% = [-2.2%; 12.3%], drug related adverse event (2.7% (CI95% = [-7.0%;12.4%], drug related serious adverse event (0.8% (CI95% = [-1.6%;3.2%] and death (0.5% (CI95% = [-0.8%;1.8%], respectively, between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG. A significant difference was found for discontinuation due to adverse events with a higher rate for E/C/F/TDF (difference = 8.6% (CI95% = [3.3%; 13.9%]. There was also no statistically significant risk difference of the viral resistance of 1.2% (CI95% = [-1.2; 3.7] between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG at week 48, 1.7% at week 96 (CI95% = [-1.1; 4.5] and 2.2% (CI95% = [-1.0; 5.4] at week 144.

  8. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

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    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  9. Comparison of sire breed solutions for growth traits adjusted by mean expected progeny differences to a 1993 base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhouse, K L; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Buchanan, D S; Marshall, D M

    1998-09-01

    Records on growth traits were obtained from five Midwestern agricultural experiment stations as part of a beef cattle crossbreeding project (NC-196). Records on birth weight (BWT, n =3,490), weaning weight (WWT, n = 3,237), and yearling weight (YWT, n = 1,372) were analyzed within locations and pooled across locations to obtain estimates of breed of sire differences. Solutions for breed of sire differences were adjusted to the common base year of 1993. Then, factors to use with within-breed expected progeny differences (EPD) to obtain across-breed EPD were calculated. These factors were compared with factors obtained from similar analyses of records from the U. S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC). Progeny of Brahman sires mated to Bos taurus cows were heaviest at birth and among the lightest at weaning. Simmental and Gelbvieh sires produced the heaviest progeny at weaning. Estimates of heritability pooled across locations were .34, .19, and .07 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Regression coefficients of progeny performance on EPD of sire were 1.25+/-.09, .98+/-.13, and .62+/-.18 for BWT, WWT, and YWT, respectively. Rankings of breeds of sire generally did not change when adjusted for sire sampling. Rankings were generally similar to those previously reported for MARC data, except for Limousin and Charolais sires, which ranked lower for BWT and WWT at NC-196 locations than at MARC. Adjustment factors used to obtain across-breed EPD were largest for Brahman for BWT and for Gelbvieh for WWT. The data for YWT allow only comparison of Angus with Simmental and of Gelbvieh with Limousin. PMID:9781484

  10. Comparison of Satellite-based Basal and Adjusted Evapotranspiration for Several California Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Lund, C.; Melton, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    There is a continuing need to develop new sources of information on agricultural crop water consumption in the arid Western U.S. Pursuant to the California Water Conservation Act of 2009, for instance, the stakeholder community has developed a set of quantitative indicators involving measurement of evapotranspiration (ET) or crop consumptive use (Calif. Dept. Water Resources, 2012). Fraction of reference ET (or, crop coefficients) can be estimated from a biophysical description of the crop canopy involving green fractional cover (Fc) and height as per the FAO-56 practice standard of Allen et al. (1998). The current study involved 19 fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and Central Coast during 2011-12, growing a variety of specialty and commodity crops: lettuce, raisin, tomato, almond, melon, winegrape, garlic, peach, orange, cotton, corn and wheat. Most crops were on surface or subsurface drip, though micro-jet, sprinkler and flood were represented as well. Fc was retrospectively estimated every 8-16 days by optical satellite data and interpolated to a daily timestep. Crop height was derived as a capped linear function of Fc using published guideline maxima. These variables were used to generate daily basal crop coefficients (Kcb) per field through most or all of each respective growth cycle by the density coefficient approach of Allen & Pereira (2009). A soil water balance model for both topsoil and root zone, based on FAO-56 and using on-site measurements of applied irrigation and precipitation, was used to develop daily soil evaporation and crop water stress coefficients (Ke, Ks). Key meteorological variables (wind speed, relative humidity) were extracted from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) for climate correction. Basal crop ET (ETcb) was then derived from Kcb using CIMIS reference ET. Adjusted crop ET (ETc_adj) was estimated by the dual coefficient approach involving Kcb, Ke, and incorporating Ks. Cumulative ETc

  11. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunoassay and a quantitative indirect fluorescent-antibody test with the conventional indirect fluorescent-antibody test for detecting antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii.

    OpenAIRE

    Violand, S A; Mitchell, T G; Kleeman, K T

    1982-01-01

    Two new methods for the detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a quantitative immunofluorescence assay, were evaluated and compared with the conventional indirect fluorescent-antibody slide test. Each of 100 human sera was assayed twice by the three procedures. Both the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the quantitative immunofluorescence assay correlated well with serologically positive (indirect fluorescent-antibody titer greater than or e...

  12. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Mohan; Hari Mohan Saxena; Puneet Malhotra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cat...

  13. Vertical motions in Northern Victoria Land inferred from GPS: A comparison with a glacial isostatic adjustment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, F.; Negusini, M.; Zanutta, A.; Capra, A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the densification of GPS permanent and episodic trackers in Antarctica, geodetic observations are playing an increasing role in geodynamics research and the study of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). The improvement in geodetic measurements accuracy suggests their use in constraining GIA models. It is essential to have a deeper knowledge on the sensitivity of GPS data to motionsrelated to long-term ice mass changes and the present-day mass imbalance of the ice sheets. In order to investigate the geodynamic phenomena in Northern Victoria Land (NVL), GPS geodetic observations were made during the last decade within the VLNDEF (Victoria Land Network for Deformation control) project. The processed data provided a picture of the motions occurring in NVL with a high level of accuracy and depicts, for the whole period, a well defined pattern of vertical motion. The comparison between GPS-derived vertical displacementsand GIA is addressed, showing a good degree of agreement and highlighting the future use of geodetic GPS measurements as constraints in GIA models. In spite of this agreement, the sensitivity of GPS vertical rates to non-GIA vertical motions has to be carefully evaluated.

  14. Empirical comparison of four baseline covariate adjustment methods in analysis of continuous outcomes in randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shiyuan Zhang,1 James Paul,2 Manyat Nantha-Aree,2 Norman Buckley,2 Uswa Shahzad,2 Ji Cheng,2 Justin DeBeer,5 Mitchell Winemaker,5 David Wismer,5 Dinshaw Punthakee,5 Victoria Avram,5 Lehana Thabane1–41Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 2Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Biostatistics Unit/Centre for Evaluation of Medicines, St Joseph's Healthcare - Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 4Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Science/McMaster University, 5Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaBackground: Although seemingly straightforward, the statistical comparison of a continuous variable in a randomized controlled trial that has both a pre- and posttreatment score presents an interesting challenge for trialists. We present here empirical application of four statistical methods (posttreatment scores with analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, change in scores, and percent change in scores, using data from a randomized controlled trial of postoperative pain in patients following total joint arthroplasty (the Morphine COnsumption in Joint Replacement Patients, With and Without GaBapentin Treatment, a RandomIzed ControlLEd Study [MOBILE] trials.Methods: Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to adjust for baseline measures and to provide an unbiased estimate of the mean group difference of the 1-year postoperative knee flexion scores in knee arthroplasty patients. Robustness tests were done by comparing ANCOVA with three comparative methods: the posttreatment scores, change in scores, and percentage change from baseline.Results: All four methods showed similar direction of effect; however, ANCOVA (-3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -9.5, 1.6; P=0.15 and the posttreatment score (-4.3; 95% CI: -9.8, 1.2; P=0.12 method provided the highest precision of estimate compared with the change score (-3.0; 95% CI: -9.9, 3.8; P=0

  15. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anju; Saxena, Hari Mohan; Malhotra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (pBrucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. PMID:27536032

  16. Sibling comparison of differential parental treatment in adolescence: gender, self-esteem, and emotionality as mediators of the parenting-adjustment association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, M E; Neiderhiser, J M; Simmens, S; Reiss, D; Hetherington, E M

    2000-01-01

    This study employs findings from social comparison research to investigate adolescents' comparisons with siblings with regard to parental treatment. The sibling comparison hypothesis was tested on a sample of 516 two-child families by examining whether gender, self-esteem, and emotionality-which have been found in previous research to moderate social comparison-also moderate sibling comparison as reflected by siblings' own evaluations of differential parental treatment. Results supported a moderating effect for self-esteem and emotionality but not gender. The sibling comparison process was further examined by using a structural equation model in which parenting toward each child was associated with the adjustment of that child and of the child's sibling. Evidence of the "sibling barricade" effect-that is, parenting toward one child being linked with opposite results on the child's sibling as on the target child-was found in a limited number of cases and interpreted as reflecting a sibling comparison process. For older siblings, emotionality and self-esteem moderated the sibling barricade effect but in the opposite direction as predicted. Results are discussed in terms of older siblings' increased sensitivity to parenting as well as the report of differential parenting reflecting the child's level of comfort and benign understanding of differential parenting, which buffers the child against environmental vicissitudes evoking sibling comparison processes. PMID:11194260

  17. A prospective crossover comparison of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and pressure-support ventilation in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breatnach, Cormac

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation with pressure-support ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective, crossover comparison study. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Sixteen ventilated infants and children: mean age = 9.7 months (range = 2 days-4 yrs) and mean weight = 6.2 kg (range = 2.4-13.7kg). INTERVENTIONS: A modified nasogastric tube was inserted and correct positioning was confirmed. Patients were ventilated in pressure-support mode with a pneumatic trigger for a 30-min period and then in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode for up to 4 hrs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected for comparison included activating trigger (neural vs. pneumatic), peak and mean airway pressures, expired minute and tidal volumes, heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, end-tidal CO2 and arterial blood gases. Synchrony was improved in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode with 65% (+\\/-21%) of breaths triggered neurally vs. 35% pneumatically (p < .001) and 85% (+\\/-8%) of breaths cycled-off neurally vs. 15% pneumatically (p = .0001). The peak airway pressure in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was significantly lower than in pressure-support mode with a 28% decrease in pressure after 30 mins (p = .003) and 32% decrease after 3 hrs (p < .001). Mean airway pressure was reduced by 11% at 30 mins (p = .13) and 9% at 3 hrs (p = .31) in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode although this did not reach statistical significance. Patient hemodynamics and gas exchange remained stable for the study period. No adverse patient events or device effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit population, ventilation in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was associated with improved patient-ventilator synchrony and lower peak airway pressure when compared with pressure-support ventilation with a pneumatic trigger. Ventilating patients in this new mode

  18. Binocular indirect argon laser photocoagulator.

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, K

    1981-01-01

    The binocular indirect argon laser photocoagulator was newly designed to enable visualisation of the entire fundus during panretinal laser photocoagulation and to treat retinal tears immediately after buckling procedures of the sclera. The lamp housing of the binocular ophthalmoscope was remodelled and adjusted so that the laser beam and illuminating light are coaxial after leaving the ophthalmoscope. The blocking filter was permanently fixed in the eye-pieces to lighten the weight of the oph...

  19. A comparison of the wear resistance and hardness of two different indirect composite resins with a ceramic material, opposed to human enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Kursad Culhaoglu; Joonge Park

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the two-body wear resistance of two different indirect composites and lithium disilicate porcelain versus human enamel antagonists. Materials and Methods: Ten specimens of each material (BelleGlass NG, Kerr Corp.; SR Adoro, Ivoclar Vivadent AG; IPS e.max, Ivoclar Vivadent AG) were fabricated. Indirect dental composites and all-ceramic restoration were compared by an in vitro tribological test against human teeth antagonist. Wear loss of antagon...

  20. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  1. Multivariate Risk Adjustment of Primary Care Patient Panels in a Public Health Setting: A Comparison of Statistical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirozawa, Anne M; Montez-Rath, Maria E; Johnson, Elizabeth C; Solnit, Stephen A; Drennan, Michael J; Katz, Mitchell H; Marx, Rani

    2016-01-01

    We compared prospective risk adjustment models for adjusting patient panels at the San Francisco Department of Public Health. We used 4 statistical models (linear regression, two-part model, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial) and 4 subsets of predictor variables (age/gender categories, chronic diagnoses, homelessness, and a loss to follow-up indicator) to predict primary care visit frequency. Predicted visit frequency was then used to calculate patient weights and adjusted panel sizes. The two-part model using all predictor variables performed best (R = 0.20). This model, designed specifically for safety net patients, may prove useful for panel adjustment in other public health settings. PMID:27576054

  2. The occurrence of the filled duration illusion: a comparison of the method of adjustment with the method of magnitude estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasuo, Emi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Tomimatsu, Erika; Grondin, Simon; Ueda, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    A time interval between the onset and the offset of a continuous sound (filled interval) is often perceived to be longer than a time interval between two successive brief sounds (empty interval) of the same physical duration. The present study examined whether and how this phenomenon, sometimes called the filled duration illusion (FDI), occurs for short time intervals (40-520 ms). The investigation was conducted with the method of adjustment (Experiment 1) and the method of magnitude estimation (Experiment 2). When the method of adjustment was used, the FDI did not appear for the majority of the participants, but it appeared clearly for some participants. In the latter case, the amount of the FDI increased as the interval duration lengthened. The FDI was more likely to occur with magnitude estimation than with the method of adjustment. The participants who showed clear FDI with one method did not necessarily show such clear FDI with the other method.

  3. A comparison between emotional intelligence and marital satisfaction, andtheir structural relation among discordantand well-adjusted couples in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Abedin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Particular attention is paid to relation between emotion and cognition and complementary aspects of them has found a new dimention in both theorethical and practical domains which introduced by a concept called "Emotional Intelligence" (EI. An important aspect of this subject is to survey the relation between EI and marital adjustment (satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of EI and marital satisfaction, and their correlation among discordant and well-adjusted couples.Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical research designed to compare the levels of EI and marital satisfaction and relation between them in two groups of discordant (25 and well-adjusted (25 married couples. All subjects completed EQ-i, ENRICH, and a demographic sheet. Statistical analysis were done by ANOVA, Tukey and Pearson,s correlation coefficient (r using SPSS-10 program.Results: A significant difference was between EI and marital satisfaction and their component scores among discordant and well adjusted couples. Moreover, there was only a significant relation between EI and marital satisfaction of the well adjusted couples, this was also observed in well adjusted wives and husbands scores.Conclusion: This project demonstrated the relation between EI and marital satisfaction as well as the different levels of them in both groups of discordant and satisfied couples. Also, the study indicated that the EI competencies are a basic and efficacient construct for improving the quality of satisfied marital relationships. Therefore, considering the efficacy and role of EI in the domain of interpersonal and marital relationships, it may aid to resolve or eliminate the problems of discordant couples.

  4. Soil biological quality of grassland fertilized with adjusted cattle manure slurries in comparison with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Boer, H.; Bloem, J.; Schouten, T.; Rutgers, M.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of five fertilizers (including two adjusted manure slurries) and an untreated control on soil biota and explored the effect on the ecosystem services they provided. Our results suggest that the available N (NO3- and NH4+) in the soil plays a central role in the effect of fertil

  5. Relationship between Multiple Sources of Perceived Social Support and Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence: Comparisons across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided…

  6. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  7. A comparison of administrative and physiologic predictive models in determining risk adjusted mortality rates in critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle B Enfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospitals are increasingly compared based on clinical outcomes adjusted for severity of illness. Multiple methods exist to adjust for differences between patients. The challenge for consumers of this information, both the public and healthcare providers, is interpreting differences in risk adjustment models particularly when models differ in their use of administrative and physiologic data. We set to examine how administrative and physiologic models compare to each when applied to critically ill patients. METHODS: We prospectively abstracted variables for a physiologic and administrative model of mortality from two intensive care units in the United States. Predicted mortality was compared through the Pearsons Product coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. A subgroup of patients admitted directly from the emergency department was analyzed to remove potential confounding changes in condition prior to ICU admission. RESULTS: We included 556 patients from two academic medical centers in this analysis. The administrative model and physiologic models predicted mortalities for the combined cohort were 15.3% (95% CI 13.7%, 16.8% and 24.6% (95% CI 22.7%, 26.5% (t-test p-value<0.001. The r(2 for these models was 0.297. The Bland-Atlman plot suggests that at low predicted mortality there was good agreement; however, as mortality increased the models diverged. Similar results were found when analyzing a subgroup of patients admitted directly from the emergency department. When comparing the two hospitals, there was a statistical difference when using the administrative model but not the physiologic model. Unexplained mortality, defined as those patients who died who had a predicted mortality less than 10%, was a rare event by either model. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, while it has been shown that administrative models provide estimates of mortality that are similar to physiologic models in non-critically ill patients with pneumonia, our results

  8. Comparison of the fracture toughness and wear resistance of indirect composites cured by conventional post curing methods and electron beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To compare the fracture toughness and wear resistance of indirect composites cured by conventional post curing methods and electron beam irradiation. Materials and Methods : Forty specimens were randomly assigned into four groups of ten each and were subjected to various post curing methods. Fracture toughness and wear resistance tests were performed and the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results : It was found that Inlay system showed higher values followed by electron beam irradiation. Conclusion : Electron beam irradiation of dental composites gives comparable mechanical properties to other post curing systems. It can be concluded that further studies with increased radiation dose should be performed to improve the mechanical properties of indirect composites.

  9. Serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases: Prospective comparison of the BIOCHIP mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence technique with the conventional multi-step single test strategy

    OpenAIRE

    van Beek Nina; Rentzsch Kristin; Probst Christian; Komorowski Lars; Kasperkiewicz Michael; Fechner Kai; Bloecker Inga M; Zillikens Detlef; Stöcker Winfried; Schmidt Enno

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Various antigen-specific immunoassays are available for the serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. However, a spectrum of different tissue-based and monovalent antigen-specific assays is required to establish the diagnosis. BIOCHIP mosaics consisting of different antigen substrates allow polyvalent immunofluorescence (IF) tests and provide antibody profiles in a single incubation. Methods Slides for indirect IF were prepared, containing BIOCHIPS with the fol...

  10. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western immunoblot for the diagnosis of Lyme disease in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenmayer, J; M. Weber; Bryant, J; Marquez, E; Onderdonk, A.

    1990-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay (IFA), and Western immunoblot were used to test serum samples from 128 dogs for the presence of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi. Sera included 72 samples from dogs suspected of having Lyme disease, 32 samples from dogs residing in areas in which Lyme disease was not considered endemic, and 24 samples from dogs with clinical and serologic evidence of immune-mediated disease (n = 10), Rocky Mountain spotted fe...

  11. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  12. International Comparison of Public Sector Performance: The Use of Anchoring Vignettes to adjust Self-Reported Data

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, N; Robone, S; Smith, P C

    2008-01-01

    International comparison of performance has become an influential lever for change in the provision of public services. For health care, patients’ views and opinions are increasingly being recognized as legitimate means for assessing the provision of services, to stimulate quality improvements, and more recently, in evaluating system performance. This has shifted the focus of analyses towards the use of individual-level surveys of performance from the perspective of the user and raises the is...

  13. Estimating Total Claim Size in the Auto Insurance Industry: a Comparison between Tweedie and Zero-Adjusted Inverse Gaussian Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to estimate insurance claims from an auto dataset using the Tweedie and zero-adjusted inverse Gaussian (ZAIG methods. We identify factors that influence claim size and probability, and compare the results of these methods which both forecast outcomes accurately. Vehicle characteristics like territory, age, origin and type distinctly influence claim size and probability. This distinct impact is not always present in the Tweedie estimated model. Auto insurers should consider estimating total claim size using both the Tweedie and ZAIG methods. This allows for an estimation of confidence interval based on empirical quantiles using bootstrap simulation. Furthermore, the fitted models may be useful in developing a strategy to obtain premium pricing.

  14. 优化我国税制结构的对策思考——基于调整直接税间接税的分析%Reflections on Optimizing the Structure of Tax System in China —— An Analysis of Adjustment to Direct and Indirect Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗红

    2011-01-01

    通过直接税与间接税的配比,针对我国现行税制结构的不合理进行了分析,间接税方面:商品和劳务流转领域两税并存,导致了产业之间的税负不均衡;间接税过多,加重了消费者的税收负担;间接税偏高,容易引发大量的消费外移,不利于扩大内需。直接税方面:个人所得税小修小补,框架上没有根本突破,制度上没有实质的变革;个人房产持有环节缺失,加剧了财产贫富差距。并对进一步优化税制结构的思路、难点提出了对策建议:一是通过改革流转税,降低间接税;二是推进直接税建设,充分发挥税收调节分配的作用。%Through the proportioning between the direct taxation and indirect taxation, irrationality of the current tax system structure is analyzed. In the indirect taxation aspects, goods and labour services tax coexist in the circulation field, which leads to the disequilibrium of tax burden among industries. Excessive indirect taxation could cause tax overburden for consumers. Heavier than desirable indirect taxation could cause a large amount of consumption to move overseas, which goes against boosting domestic demand. In the direct taxation aspects, individual income tax policy has only been modified a little. Actually, its framework hasn' t been broken through at all and there has been no substantial reform in the system. Due to the tax deficiency of individual holding of real estate, the property gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider. Some countermeasures and suggestions on the optimization of tax structure are put forward here, such as reducing the indirect taxation by the reform of turnover tax, boosting the construction of direct taxation and fully taking advantage of the adjustment and distribution function of tax.

  15. Comparison between intraoral indirect and conventional film-based imaging for the detection of dental root fractures: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Werner H; Venturin, Jaqueline S; Noujeim, Marcel; Dove, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    Digital intraoral radiographic systems have been rapidly replacing conventional dental X-ray films for diagnosis of dental diseases. Current scientific literature supports the use of these digital systems for the detection of dental caries, periodontal bone loss, and periapical pathologies. However, relatively few studies have been published addressing the detection of dental root fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoral F-speed film (Insight) with two photostimulable phosphor (PSP) indirect digital systems (ScanX and Digora Optime) for the detection of simulated dental root fractures. Ten raters evaluated images acquired from 10 dry human cadaver mandibles under optimal viewing conditions. These data were analyzed by a 5-point receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for statistical differences. Sensitivity and specificity of these systems were also assessed. Since statistically significant difference between the systems was not observed, the results of this study agreeably support indirect digital PSP plates as an alternative to the evaluated conventional film for the detection of dental root fractures.

  16. Comparison between intraoral indirect and conventional film-based imaging for the detection of dental root fractures: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Werner H; Venturin, Jaqueline S; Noujeim, Marcel; Dove, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    Digital intraoral radiographic systems have been rapidly replacing conventional dental X-ray films for diagnosis of dental diseases. Current scientific literature supports the use of these digital systems for the detection of dental caries, periodontal bone loss, and periapical pathologies. However, relatively few studies have been published addressing the detection of dental root fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoral F-speed film (Insight) with two photostimulable phosphor (PSP) indirect digital systems (ScanX and Digora Optime) for the detection of simulated dental root fractures. Ten raters evaluated images acquired from 10 dry human cadaver mandibles under optimal viewing conditions. These data were analyzed by a 5-point receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for statistical differences. Sensitivity and specificity of these systems were also assessed. Since statistically significant difference between the systems was not observed, the results of this study agreeably support indirect digital PSP plates as an alternative to the evaluated conventional film for the detection of dental root fractures. PMID:23566073

  17. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  18. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premonopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: indirect comparison of dose and schedule in DBCG trials 77, 82, and 89

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.T.; Jensen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant reduction in the risk of recurrence and death was achieved three decades ago with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with operable breast. The major pivotal trials used oral cyclophosphamide (C) days 1-14 with intravenous methotrexate (M) and fluorouracil (F) on days 1 and 8, repeated...... Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), and two succeeding randomised trials in premenopausal patients with node positive breast cancer used three-weekly or four-weekly intravenous CMF in one of the treatment arms. RESULTS: Between November 1977 and January 2001 these trials included 2 213 patients who...... was performed adjusting for the known prognostic factors. In the adjusted analysis a 30% increase in the risk of recurrence was observed for two the intravenous regimens as compared to classical CMF. As concerns survival a significant 40% increase in the risk of death was observed with the four-weekly regimen...

  19. Comparison of the Effect of Dentin Bonding, Dentin Sealing Agents on the Microleakage of Provisional Crowns Fabricated with Direct and Indirect Technique-An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, B; Kumar, M Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Background Postoperative sensitivity after temporization is a common complaint in Fixed Partial Denture patients. It is caused by weak and ill fitting temporary restorations which results in microleakage. This can be controlled by providing good temporary restorations and by coating the exposed dentinal tubules of the prepared tooth with dentin bonding agent or dental varnish. Aim The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of dentin-bonding, dentin sealing agents on the microleakage of temporary crowns made by tooth colored auto polymerizing resin fabricated with direct and indirect technique. Materials and Methods Thirty premolar and molar human teeth were collected which were extracted recently was used for the study. The teeth were marked and divided into 3 groups each containing 10 nos. They were individually mounted with self-cure acrylic resin. It was then mounted on a milling machine and crown preparations done. Temporary crowns were fabricated by direct and indirect method with two types of materials. In group A (Control group), the temporary crowns fabricated with both direct and indirect method were cemented directly with temporary luting cement. In group B dentine-bonding agent (solobond M) was applied once to the prepared surface of each tooth specimen before the cementation of temporary crowns where as in case of group C a single layer of dental varnish is applied prior to crown cementation. The entire specimens were immersed in 1% methylene blue and allowed to undergo thermal treatment. It was then sectioned in a hard tissue microtome. Each section was evaluated for dye penetration into the dentin tubules by comparing it with a visual scale. Statistical Analysis SPSS Version 13 software was used for non-parametric data analysis by a qualified statistician. P-values less than 0.05 (p-valuecrowns fabricated in direct technique showed the least amount of microleakage when compared with group A and group C. Group C (Dental Varnish) specimen

  20. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. B. R.

    2012-09-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

  1. A comparison of two sleep spindle detection methods based on all night averages: individually adjusted versus fixed frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Przemyslaw Ujma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep spindles are frequently studied for their relationship with state and trait cognitive variables, and they are thought to play an important role in sleep-related memory consolidation. Due to their frequent occurrence in NREM sleep, the detection of sleep spindles is only feasible using automatic algorithms, of which a large number is available. We compared subject averages of the spindle parameters computed by a fixed frequency (11-13 Hz for slow spindles, 13-15 Hz for fast spindles automatic detection algorithm and the individual adjustment method (IAM, which uses individual frequency bands for sleep spindle detection. Fast spindle duration and amplitude are strongly correlated in the two algorithms, but there is little overlap in fast spindle density and slow spindle parameters in general. The agreement between fixed and manually determined sleep spindle frequencies is limited, especially in case of slow spindles. This is the most likely reason for the poor agreement between the two detection methods in case of slow spindle parameters. Our results suggest that while various algorithms may reliably detect fast spindles, a more sophisticated algorithm primed to individual spindle frequencies is necessary for the detection of slow spindles as well as individual variations in the number of spindles in general.

  2. Technical Note: Comparison between a direct and the standard, indirect method for dissolved organic nitrogen determination in freshwater environments with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Kronvang, Brian;

    2012-01-01

    Research on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in aquatic systems with high dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, the sum of NO3–, NO2– and NH4+) concentrations is often hampered by high uncertainties regarding the determined DON concentration. The reason is that DON is determined indirectly...... as the difference between total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and DIN. In this standard approach to determine DON concentrations, even small relative measurement errors of the DIN and TDN concentrations propagate into high absolute errors of DON concentrations at high DIN : TDN ratios. To improve the DON measurement...... accuracy at high DIN : TDN ratios, we investigated the DON measurement accuracy of this standard approach according to the DIN : TDN ratio and compared it to the direct measurement of DON by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) for freshwater systems. For this, we used standard compounds and natural samples...

  3. Comparison of indirect hemagglutination and /sup 51/Chromium release tests for detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 antibodies in patients with recurrent herpes infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavalu, L.; Seth, P. (All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. Dept. of Microbiology)

    1980-01-01

    Indirect hemagglutination and /sup 51/Cr release tests (IHAT and 51-CRT respectively) were compared in patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections from whom HSV-1 or HSV-2 was isolated. Both tests were equally sensitive and specific in detecting HSV antibodies. However, IHAT was more specific in detecting homologous HSV antibody response in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Past infections with HSV-1 in the patients with dual infections were detected by determining HSV-type specific antibodies by inhibition of IHAT. Cross absorption studies showed that the antibody reactivity measured by the two tests was qualitatively and quantitatively different. Nevertheless, IHAT has been found to be more appropriate test for seroepidemiologic studies of HSV-2 infections because of its specificity, rapidity and less cost, whereas, 51-CRT appears to measure antibodies against recent and more predominant type of infecting HSV.

  4. Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  5. Serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous skin diseases: Prospective comparison of the BIOCHIP mosaic-based indirect immunofluorescence technique with the conventional multi-step single test strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beek Nina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various antigen-specific immunoassays are available for the serological diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases. However, a spectrum of different tissue-based and monovalent antigen-specific assays is required to establish the diagnosis. BIOCHIP mosaics consisting of different antigen substrates allow polyvalent immunofluorescence (IF tests and provide antibody profiles in a single incubation. Methods Slides for indirect IF were prepared, containing BIOCHIPS with the following test substrates in each reaction field: monkey esophagus, primate salt-split skin, antigen dots of tetrameric BP180-NC16A as well as desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and BP230gC-expressing human HEK293 cells. This BIOCHIP mosaic was probed using a large panel of sera from patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 65, pemphigus foliaceus (PF, n = 50, bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 42, and non-inflammatory skin diseases (n = 97 as well as from healthy blood donors (n = 100. Furthermore, to evaluate the usability in routine diagnostics, 454 consecutive sera from patients with suspected immunobullous disorders were prospectively analyzed in parallel using a the IF BIOCHIP mosaic and b a panel of single antibody assays as commonly used by specialized centers. Results Using the BIOCHIP mosaic, sensitivities of the desmoglein 1-, desmoglein 3-, and NC16A-specific substrates were 90%, 98.5% and 100%, respectively. BP230 was recognized by 54% of the BP sera. Specificities ranged from 98.2% to 100% for all substrates. In the prospective study, a high agreement was found between the results obtained by the BIOCHIP mosaic and the single test panel for the diagnosis of BP, PV, PF, and sera without serum autoantibodies (Cohen’s κ between 0.88 and 0.97. Conclusions The BIOCHIP mosaic contains sensitive and specific substrates for the indirect IF diagnosis of BP, PF, and PV. Its diagnostic accuracy is comparable with the conventional multi

  6. Radioprotection by DMSO against the biological effects of incorporated radionuclides in vivo. Comparison with other radioprotectors and evidence for indirect action of Auger electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was studied for its capacity to protect against the biological effects of chronic irradiation by incorporated radionuclides. Spermatogenesis in mice was used as experimental model and spermatogonial cell survival was the biological endpoint. DMSO was injected intratesticularly 4 h prior to a similar injection of the radiochemical and the spermhead survival determined. Iodine-125 was localized in either the cytoplasm (H125IPDM) or in the DNA (125IUdR) of the tecticular cells. Protection was observed against the high-LET type effects of DNA-bound 125I as well as the low-LET effects of cytoplasmically localized 125I with dose modification factors (DMF) of 3.1±1.0 and 4.4±1.0 respectively. No protection (DMF=1.1±0.1) was observed against the effects of high-LET 5.3 MeV alpha partciles of 210Po. The present findings provide supporting evidence that the mechanism responsible for the extreme biological damage caused by DNA-bound Auger emitters is largely radical mediated and therefore indirect in nature. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  8. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  9. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies. PMID:27708352

  10. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  11. INDIRECT MICROLARYNGOSTROBOSCOPIC SURGERY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAHIEU, HF; DIKKERS, FG

    1992-01-01

    Detailed preoperative laryngostroboscopic examination is a prerequisite for phonosurgical correction of organic dysphonia. Although suspension microlaryngoscopic surgery has proved its value in the past, it excludes functional control during the removal of vocal fold swellings. Using an indirect mic

  12. Adjustment disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Fava ...

  13. Comparison of two types of mass screening for lung cancer in terms of cost-effectiveness. Indirect chest X-ray vs LSCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass screening for lung cancer is widely performed in Japan, with the photofluoroscopic examination and sputum cytology used as the screening methods. However, the clinical efficacy of these screening methods is considered to be inadequate in terms of the survival rate of the screened population. In the previous report we proposed that a specially designed CT technique, called lung cancer screening CT (LSCT), may be useful in screening for lung cancer. In this paper a preliminary comparison is made between the present and future methods of lung cancer screening in terms of cost-effectiveness. A model for cost-effectiveness analysis estimates the net life-years saved by screening and then determines the direct cost of screening including cost of therapy. Various factors are taken into account such as sensitivity of the screening methods, rate of participation in detailed examination, 5-year survival rate of the screened population, cost of the screening method, and average cost of therapy for screen-detected patients and outpatients. An example of the results is as follows: for a population with a lung cancer incidence of 200 x 10-5 person/year and life expectancy of 30 years, the net person years saved are 672 x 10-5 for the present screening method and 2376 x 10-5 for LSCT screening. The cost required to save one person year are 1.46 x 105 yen for the present screening method and 2.03 x 105 yen for LSCT screening. In summary, LSCT screening is about four times better in terms of the net person years saved, but about 1.4 times worse in cost-effectiveness compared with the present method. We conclude that LSCT screening should be promoted steadily to save more lives from lung cancer, although its cost is slightly higher. Our economic position should easily be able to tolerate this amount of increase in cost. (author)

  14. Comparison of indirect and direct approaches using ion-trap and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry for exploring viperid venom proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jay W; Ma, Li; Nelson, Kristina; Sherman, Nicholas E; Serrano, Solange M T

    2006-05-01

    In a sense, the field of snake venom proteomics has been under investigation since the very earliest biochemical studies where it was soon recognized that venoms are comprised of complex mixtures of bioactive molecules, most of which are proteins. Only with the re-emergence of 2D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) and the recent developments in mass spectrometry for the identification/characterization of proteins coupled with venom gland transcriptomes has the field of snake venom proteomics began to flourish and provide exciting insights into the protein composition of venoms and subsequently their pathological activities. In this manuscript we will briefly discuss the state of snake venom proteomics followed by the presentation of several straightforward experiments designed to explore approaches to investigating venom proteomics. The first set of experiments used 1D gel electrophoresis (1D PAGE) of Crotalus atrox venom followed by slice-by-slice analysis of the proteins using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In the second set of experiments, C. atrox and Bothrops jararaca venoms were subjected to in-solution digestion followed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) LC/MS/MS. The peptide ion-maps of these venoms were compared along with the proteins identified. In addition, the results were compared to the results observed from the 1D PAGE approach. From these studies it is clear that sample de-complexation/fractionation before mass spectrometry is still the best approach for maximum proteome coverage. Furthermore, comparison of venom proteomes based on tryptic peptide identities between the proteomes is not particularly effective since there does not appear to be a sufficient number of such identical peptides, derived from related proteins, present in venoms. Finally, as has previously been recognized without either better databases of venom protein sequences or facile and rapid de novo sequencing

  15. Indirect Sexism in Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭卓

    2008-01-01

    This thesis draws attention to one of the most vigorous debate in sociolinguistics,sexism in discourse,despite the chicken-and egg question whether it is our language shape sexism or sexism creates certain language.Unlike most researches conducted in sexism and language in the past,we challenge the traditional notion of linguistic sexism and direct our view to what we call "an indirect sexism" here.We then argue the difference between direct and indirect sexism and depict how such an undercurrent drives secretly and carefully in our daily discourse.

  16. Salary adjustments

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  17. Salary adjustments

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  18. The ability to identify the intraparotid facial nerve for locating parotid gland lesions in comparison to other indirect landmark methods: evaluation by 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan); Kawamoto, Katsuyuki [Tottori University, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    It is important to know whether a parotid gland lesion is in the superficial or deep lobe for preoperative planning. We aimed to investigate the ability of 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with surface coils to identify the intraparotid facial nerve and locate parotid gland lesions, in comparison to other indirect landmark methods. We retrospectively evaluated 50 consecutive patients with primary parotid gland lesions. The position of the facial nerve was determined by tracing the nerve in the stylomastoid foramen and then following it on sequential MR sections through the parotid gland. The retromandibular vein and the facial nerve line (FN line) were also identified. For each radiologist and each method, we determined the diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions and superficial lobe lesions, as well as accuracy. These abilities were compared among the three methods using the Chi-square test with Yates' correction. Mean diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions, the diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions, and accuracy were 92%, 86%, 87%, respectively, for the direct identification method; 67%, 89%, 86%, respectively, for the retromandibular vein method; and 25%, 99%, 90%, respectively, for the FN line method. The direct identification method had significantly higher diagnostic ability for deep lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01), but significantly lower diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01). Direct identification of the intraparotid facial nerve enables parotid gland lesions to be correctly located, particularly those in the deep lobes. (orig.)

  19. Indirect resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ′indirect resin composites,′ composite inlays,′ and ′fiber-reinforced composites.′

  20. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes.

  1. Indirect resin composites

    OpenAIRE

    Nandini Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search ...

  2. Indirect visual cryptography scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiubo; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2015-10-01

    Visual cryptography (VC), a new cryptographic scheme for image. Here in encryption, image with message is encoded to be N sub-images and any K sub-images can decode the message in a special rules (N>=2, 2images are printed on transparency and stacked exactly, the message of original image will be decrypted by human visual system, but any K-1 of them get no information about it. This cryptographic scheme can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, and it has high security. But this scheme lacks of hidden because of obvious feature of sub-images. In this paper, we introduce indirect visual cryptography scheme (IVCS), which encodes sub-images to be pure phase images without visible strength based on encoding of visual cryptography. The pure phase image is final ciphertexts. Indirect visual cryptography scheme not only inherits the merits of visual cryptography, but also raises indirection, hidden and security. Meanwhile, the accuracy alignment is not required any more, which leads to the strong anti-interference capacity and robust in this scheme. System of decryption can be integrated highly and operated conveniently, and its process of decryption is dynamic and fast, which all lead to the good potentials in practices.

  3. Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancies in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis-Comparison of Index Scores from EQ-5D, 15D, and SF-6D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis generated from three generic health-related quality-of-life instruments.......The aim of this study was to compare quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis generated from three generic health-related quality-of-life instruments....

  4. Instruction Sequences with Indirect Jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Middelburg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study sequential programs that are instruction sequences with direct and indirect jump instructions. The intuition is that indirect jump instructions are jump instructions where the position of the instruction to jump to is the content of some memory cell.We consider several kinds of indirect jump instructions. For each kind, we define the meaning of programs with indirect jump instructions of that kind by means of a translation into programs without indirect jump instructions. For each kind, the intended behaviour of a program with indirect jump instructions of that kind under execution is the behaviour of the translated program under execution on interaction with some memory device.

  5. The Adjustment Problems Faced by International and Overseas Chinese Students Studying in Taiwan Universities: A Comparison of Student and Faculty/Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, John R.; Galloway, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 15 years the number of international students studying at universities in Taiwan has increased dramatically; however, to date, there have been few studies that measured the cultural adjustment problems that this diverse group of students experience. To remedy this problem, this study gathered data from 1,174 international students…

  6. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  7. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  8. Sibling Comparison of Differential Parental Treatment in Adolescence: Gender, Self-Esteem, and Emotionality as Mediators of the Parenting-Adjustment Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Simmens, Sam; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E. Mavis

    2000-01-01

    Compared adolescent siblings' evaluations of parental treatment. Found support for a moderating effect for self-esteem and emotionality but not gender. Evidence of the "sibling barricade" effect was limited and interpreted as reflecting a sibling comparison process. For older siblings, emotionality and self-esteem moderated the sibling barricade…

  9. Severity of Disease Estimation and Risk-Adjustment for Comparison of Outcomes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Using Electronic Routine Care Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, Maaike S. M.; Moons, K. (Carl) G.M.; Murphy, Michael V.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Klompas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Valid comparison between hospitals for benchmarking or pay-for-performance incentives requires accurate correction for underlying disease severity (case-mix). However, existing models are either very simplistic or require extensive manual data collection. OBJECTIVE. To develop a disease

  10. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  11. Comparison of the performance of the CMS Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC risk adjuster with the charlson and elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pengxiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS has implemented the CMS-Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC model to risk adjust Medicare capitation payments. This study intends to assess the performance of the CMS-HCC risk adjustment method and to compare it to the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality in Medicare beneficiaries. Methods The study used the 2005-2006 Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW 5% Medicare files. The primary study sample included all community-dwelling fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with a hospital admission between January 1st, 2006 and June 30th, 2006. Additionally, four disease-specific samples consisting of subgroups of patients with principal diagnoses of congestive heart failure (CHF, stroke, diabetes mellitus (DM, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI were also selected. Four analytic files were generated for each sample by extracting inpatient and/or outpatient claims for each patient. Logistic regressions were used to compare the methods. Model performance was assessed using the c-statistic, the Akaike's information criterion (AIC, the Bayesian information criterion (BIC and their 95% confidence intervals estimated using bootstrapping. Results The CMS-HCC had statistically significant higher c-statistic and lower AIC and BIC values than the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality across all samples in analytic files that included claims from the index hospitalization. Exclusion of claims for the index hospitalization generally led to drops in model performance across all methods with the highest drops for the CMS-HCC method. However, the CMS-HCC still performed as well or better than the other two methods. Conclusions The CMS-HCC method demonstrated better performance relative to the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality. The CMS

  12. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ Page contents The ... the moment you are injured. Understanding adjustment and depression Adjustment to paralysis is a process of changing ...

  13. Comparisons of Angus-, Braunvieh-, Chianina-, Hereford-, Gelbvieh-, Maine Anjou-, and Red Poll-sired cows for weight, weight adjusted for body condition score, height, and body condition score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, J A; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2002-12-01

    Data from Angus, Hereford, and top-cross cows (n = 641) from 2- to 8-yr-old daughters of seven breeds of sires included in Cycle II of the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center, comprising cow weight (CW, n = 15,698), height (CH, n = 15,676), and condition score (CS, n = 15,667), were used to estimate breed-group differences. Data were recorded in four seasons of each year (1975 to 1982). The mixed model included cow age, season of measurement, and their interactions, year of birth, pregnancy-lactation code (PL), and breed-group as fixed effects for CW and CS. Analyses of weight adjusted for condition score included CS as covariate. The model for CH excluded PL. Random effects were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. Differences among breed-groups were significant for all traits at different ages and were maintained across ages, with few interchanges in ranking through maturity. Cows were ranked (by breed of sire) in the following order for weight: Red Poll (lightest), Hereford-Angus (reciprocal), Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, Maine Anjou, and Chianina (heaviest). In general, cows sired by breeds of British origin were lighter and shorter than those of continental origin. Differences in weight due to differences in condition seemed to be of small magnitude because making an adjustment for condition score did not affect rankings of breed groups across ages. Differences among breed groups for height were consistent with differences for weight. Cows from Chianina sires were taller than Hereford-Angus cows by 14 to 15 cm across ages. In this study, breed of sire effects were significantly different for the mature size of their daughters.

  14. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis.

  15. The logic of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Lee, James J

    2008-01-22

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence.

  16. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2016-01-01

    , rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  17. A comparison of the forces required to produce tooth movement ex vivo through three types of pre-adjusted brackets when subjected to determined tip or torque values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A P; Waters, N E; Birnie, D J

    1994-11-01

    Friction in fixed appliance systems has received considerable attention in recent literature, although that attributable to varying second order (tip) and third order (torque) adjustments in either the bracket or the archwire has not been fully investigated. The ex vivo study of 0.022 x 0.028-inch slot Minitwin, Activa, and Standard Straight Wire brackets investigates friction when known values of tip or torque were applied to 0.018 x 0.025-inch stainless steel wires. The resistance to sliding of the wire through the ligated brackets was measured on a vertically-mounted Instron testing machine. The results showed that the self-ligating Activa brackets consistently produced less friction than the other conventionally tied brackets. Minitwin brackets were slightly more resistant to movement than the Standard brackets during torquing, but the converse was found when tip was applied. Increasing tip and torque (ranges tested 0-6 degrees and 0-25 degrees, respectively) produced almost linear increases in friction for all brackets, although increasing tip had the more profound effect on friction, particularly in Activa brackets. PMID:7857896

  18. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement – Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. R. Matthews

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea Surface Temperature (SST measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

  19. The Calculation of Language Lateralization Indices in Post-stroke Aphasia: A Comparison of a Standard and a Lesion-Adjusted Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Aimee; Vannest, Jennifer; Maloney, Thomas; Altaye, Mekibib; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The language lateralization index (LI) is a valuable tool in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research, especially in people with post-stroke aphasia. However, there is inconsistent consideration for the overlap of lesions with regions of interest (ROIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether standard LI (SLI) and lesion-adjusted LI (LALI) formulae generate different LI values and language lateralization classification for people with post-stroke chronic aphasia. Methods: SLI and LALI were calculated for an event-related (overt) verb generation task in an anterior and a posterior language ROI. Twelve people with aphasia due to a single left-hemispheric infarct (11 right-handed; 1 left-handed; 77.2 ± 41.7 months post-stroke) were included (eight females; 57 ± 8.88 years). Spearman correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship of the LI values generated by the SLI and the LALI formulas. Fischer’s exact test and a weighted Cohen’s Kappa determined the difference in language lateralization classification and agreement in the classification. Spearman correlation was used to examine the relationship between the difference in lateralization values produced by the LALI and SLI calculations with (1) lesion size, (2) the percentage of lesion overlap in each ROI, and (3) aphasia severity. Results: The two calculation methods were highly correlated and produced similar LI Values, yet yielded significantly different classification for language lateralization. Further, a more leftward LI resulted from application of the LALI formula in 10 participants, in either the anterior ROI (n = 3) or the posterior ROI (n = 7). Finally, for the posterior ROI only, significant correlations were revealed between the two calculation methods and the (1) lesion size and (2) percent of overlap with the ROI. Discussion: While both approaches produce highly correlated LI values, differences

  20. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  1. 直接树脂修复与间接树脂嵌体的临床应用比较%Clinical comparison on restoring posterior teeth with composite resin fillings and indirect resin inlays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪席超; 文静; 于世德

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical performance of resin fillings and inlays in restoring the posterior teeth.Methods 46 posterior teeth were filled with composite resin directly and 50 posterior teeth were restored with indirect resin inlays.Each restoration was evaluated at baseline,after 1 year and 2 years,according to the modified USPHS criteria.Results There was significant difference in marginal discoloration,marginal integrity,secondary carries and wear-resistance between these two groups (P<0.05).The achievement ratio of direct resin fillings was 72.2% and the achievement ratio of indirect resin inlays was 91.3% Conclusion Indirect resin inlays can be suitable for restorations of posterior teeth with more physical property,with less irritation or microleakage.%目的 比较复合树脂及树脂嵌体用于修复后牙缺损的临床治疗效果.方法 选择82例患者,共96颗后牙,临床完成直接树脂修复46个,树脂嵌体50个,术后即刻、1年及2年,参考改良USPHS标准,观察其临床效果.结果 直接树脂修复和间接树脂嵌体修复在边缘着色、边缘密合、继发龋、耐磨性等方面差异有显著性(P<0.05),直接树脂修复成功率为72.2%(26/36),间接树脂嵌体成功率为91.3%(42/ 46).结论 树脂嵌体具有更好的边缘密合性、抗磨损和抗折裂能力,同时对牙髓的刺激更小.

  2. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Kadyrov, A S; Kruppa, A; Pang, D Y

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  3. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  4. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  5. 19 CFR 10.776 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.776 Section 10.776 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.776 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  6. 19 CFR 10.816 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.816 Section 10.816 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.816 Indirect materials. Indirect materials are to be disregarded in determining..., except that the cost of such indirect materials may be included in meeting the value-content...

  7. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  8. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depression and adjustment to my SCI? How do I deal with depression and adjustment to my SCI? ☷ ▾ ... following an SCI? What are the secondary conditions? I have no health insurance, what are my options? ...

  9. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... course an adjustment period as you navigate your new normal. The most important point to remember is ... to rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can ...

  10. Indirect scaling methods for testing quantitative emotion theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Martin; Reisenzein, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Two studies investigated the utility of indirect scaling methods, based on graded pair comparisons, for the testing of quantitative emotion theories. In Study 1, we measured the intensity of relief and disappointment caused by lottery outcomes, and in Study 2, the intensity of disgust evoked by pictures, using both direct intensity ratings and graded pair comparisons. The stimuli were systematically constructed to reflect variables expected to influence the intensity of the emotions according to theoretical models of relief/disappointment and disgust, respectively. Two probabilistic scaling methods were used to estimate scale values from the pair comparison judgements: Additive functional measurement (AFM) and maximum likelihood difference scaling (MLDS). The emotion models were fitted to the direct and indirect intensity measurements using nonlinear regression (Study 1) and analysis of variance (Study 2). Both studies found substantially improved fits of the emotion models for the indirectly determined emotion intensities, with their advantage being evident particularly at the level of individual participants. The results suggest that indirect scaling methods yield more precise measurements of emotion intensity than rating scales and thereby provide stronger tests of emotion theories in general and quantitative emotion theories in particular. PMID:23650936

  11. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanabe, Shoma; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs has been examined in great details. Previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by theoretical analysis of a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equili...

  12. INDIRECT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROLLER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Liye; FANG Yuan; ZHANG Weidong

    2008-01-01

    According to a type of normal nonlinear system, an indirect adaptive fuzzy (IAF) controller has been applied to those systems where no accurate mathematical models of the systems under control are available. To satisfy with system performance, an indirect accelerated adaptive fuzzy (IAAF) controller is proposed, and its general form is presented. The general form IAAF controller ensures necessary control criteria and system's global stability using Lyapunov Theorem. It has been proved that the close-loop system error converges to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. The optimal IAAF controller is derived to guarantee the process's shortest settling time. Simulation results indicate the IAAF controller make the system more stable, accurate, and fast.

  13. Comparison of the doubly labeled water (2H2(18)O) method with indirect calorimetry and a nutrient-balance study for simultaneous determination of energy expenditure, water intake, and metabolizable energy intake in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The doubly labeled water method was compared with indirect calorimetry and a nutrient-balance study for simultaneous determination of rates of CO2 production, energy expenditure, and water intake over 5 days in four preterm infants. Additionally, metabolizable energy (ME) intake estimated using the isotope procedure (as energy expenditure plus an estimate for energy deposition based on weight gain), was compared to ME intake measured in the balance study. Compared to values obtained by traditional methods, calculated CO2 production, energy expenditure, and water intake differed by -1.4 +/- 4.8% (SD), +0.3 +/- 2.6%, and +5.7 +/- 1.4%, respectively; the difference in water intake was significant (p less than 0.05). Calculated ME intakes were 5.3 +/- 19.3% less than measured intakes, but the difference was not significant. These findings indicate that the doubly labeled water method can provide accurate information on rates of CO2 production, energy expenditure, and water intake in preterm infants, but individual estimates of ME intake may be subject to substantial error

  14. Adjustable Fiber Optic Microwave Transversal Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaram, Mehdi; Lutes, George F.; Logan, Ronald T.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1994-01-01

    Microwave transversal filters implemented as adjustable tapped fiber optic delay lines developed. Main advantages of these filters (in comparison with conventional microwave transversal filters) are small size, light weight, no need for matching of radio-frequency impedances, no need for shielding against electromagnetic radiation at suboptical frequencies, no need for mechanical tuning, high stability of amplitude and phase, and active control of transfer functions. Weights of taps in fiber optic delay lines adjusted.

  15. Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly in which the flux density can be altered by a mechanical operation is often significantly smaller than comparable electromagnets and also requires no electrical power to operate. In this paper five permanent magnet designs in which the magnetic flux density can...... be altered are analyzed using numerical simulations, and compared based on the generated magnetic flux density in a sample volume and the amount of magnet material used. The designs are the concentric Halbach cylinder, the two half Halbach cylinders, the two linear Halbach arrays and the four and six rod...... mangle. The concentric Halbach cylinder design is found to be the best performing design, i.e. the design that provides the most magnetic flux density using the least amount of magnet material. A concentric Halbach cylinder has been constructed and the magnetic flux density, the homogeneity...

  16. Mexican-Origin Parents’ Work Conditions and Adolescents’ Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Mexican-origin parents’ work experiences are a distal extra-familial context for adolescents’ adjustment. This two-wave multi-informant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents’ work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents’ adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of ...

  17. Repatriation Adjustment: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Arman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Expatriation is a widely studied area of research in work and organizational psychology. After expatriates accomplish their missions in host countries, they return to their countries and this process is called repatriation. Adjustment constitutes a crucial part in repatriation research. In the present literature review, research about repatriation adjustment was reviewed with the aim of defining the whole picture in this phenomenon. Present research was classified on the basis of a theoretical model of repatriation adjustment. Basic frame consisted of antecedents, adjustment, outcomes as main variables and personal characteristics/coping strategies and organizational strategies as moderating variables.

  18. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is an experimental review of the status and prospects of indirect searches for dark matter. Experiments observe secondary particles such as positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma-rays and neutrinos which could originate from annihilations of dark matter particles in various locations in the galaxy. Data exist from some experiments which have been interpreted as hints of evidence for dark matter. These data and their interpretations are reviewed together with the new experiments which are planned to resolve the puzzles and make new measurements which could give unambiguous results

  19. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marco Cirelli

    2012-11-01

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have brought along have been discussed. The main sources of uncertainties that affect this kind of searches are also listed. [Report number: Saclay T11/206, CERN-PH-TH/2011-257, extended version in arXiv:1202.1454], [Prepared for the Proceedings of Lepton–Photon 2011, Mumbai, India, 22–27 Aug. 2011].

  20. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  1. 19 CFR 10.541 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.541 Section 10.541 Customs... Rules of Origin § 10.541 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.502(j) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced, and...

  2. 19 CFR 10.603 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.603 Section 10.603 Customs... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.603 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.582(m) of this subpart, will be considered to be an originating material without regard...

  3. 19 CFR 10.460 - Indirect materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect materials. 10.460 Section 10.460 Customs... of Origin § 10.460 Indirect materials. An indirect material, as defined in § 10.402(o), will be considered to be an originating material without regard to where it is produced. Example. Chilean Producer...

  4. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions.

  5. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. PMID:23123557

  6. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5-1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000-157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  7. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  8. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  9. A computerized adjustable brain atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computerized brain atlas, adjustable to the patients anatomy, has been developed. It is primarily intended for use in positron emission tomography, but may also be employed in other fields utilizing neuro imaging, such as sterotactic surgery, transmission computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The atlas is based on anatomical information obtained from digitized cryosectioned brains. It can be adjusted to fit a wide range of images from individual brains with normal anatomy. The corresponding transformation is chosen so that the modified atlas agrees with a set of CT or NMR images of the patient. The computerized atlas can be used to improve the quantification and evaluation of PET data by: Aiding and improving the selection of regions of interests. Facilitating comparisons of functional image data from different individuals or groups of individuals. Facilitating the comparison of different examinations of the same patient, thus reducing the need of reproducible fixation systems. Providing external a priori anatomical information to be used in the image reconstruction. Improving the attenuation and scatter corrections. Aiding in selecting a suitable patient orientation during the PET study. By applying the inverse atlas transformation to PET data set it is possible to relate the PET information to the anatomy of the reference atlas. Reformatted PET data from different patients can thus be averaged, and averages from different categories of patients can be compared. The method will facilitate the identification of statistically significant differences in the PET information from different groups of patients. (orig.)

  10. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…

  11. Indirect Instruments of Prudential Supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Dardac

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The qualifying of supervision as “prudential” is used to differentiate it from other forms of supervision, which regards issues related to banking consumer protection. In order to achieve its goal, prudential supervision needs relevant information, provided mostly by the credit institutions their selves. Hence, the existence of a reporting system is essential, a system capable to insure, on the one hand, homogenity of the provided data and, on the other hand, its efficient processing. One indirect instrument which was used more and more during the last decade in banking supervision is represented by credit registers. The first system is directly associated either to the central bank or the supervision authority, and is, in most of cases, managed by the latter. The second system, the so called credit bureau, is mostly operated by private banks.

  12. Aerosols indirectly warm the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mauritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On average, airborne aerosol particles cool the Earth's surface directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud reflectivity, life time, thickness or extent. Here we show that over the central Arctic Ocean, where there is frequently a lack of aerosol particles upon which clouds may form, a small increase in aerosol loading may enhance cloudiness thereby likely causing a climatologically significant warming at the ice-covered Arctic surface. Under these low concentration conditions cloud droplets grow to drizzle sizes and fall, even in the absence of collisions and coalescence, thereby diminishing cloud water. Evidence from a case study suggests that interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation could be responsible for attaining the observed low aerosol concentrations.

  13. Adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Barbulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and economic crisis was the factor that triggered the adjustment of macroeconomic imbalances accumulated in Romania. The current account deficit and budget deficit were two major structural imbalances that have created a high vulnerability for the economy and explained the extent of economic contraction in Romania during the economic crisis. This article identifies the main causes that lead to the need for fiscal adjustment both in the EU and in Romania, as well as main effects of adjustments in respect of their experience in recent years. The article deals with this topic, because the current topical debate in the field of fiscal adjustments implemented both in the EU and our country, and their need for economic activity aimed at economic recovery.

  14. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thoughts and feelings and is something that takes time. The goal of adjusting is to rebuild one's ... updates about our impact > Get the Reeve newsletter International support > Pages in other languages Made with ♡ in ...

  15. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include grieving, taking ... treatment options. Related pages What is a complete vs incomplete injury? What emergency procedures occur following an ...

  16. Adjustments and Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rebuild one's identity and to find a new balance in relationships. The stages of adjustment can include ... a peer mentor Advocate for change Fundraise with Team Reeve Champions Committee Volunteering About Us Our story ...

  17. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  18. Occupational Adjustment of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Zorlu, Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves significantly with the duration of residence. The extent of this initial disadvantage and the rate of adjustment vary across immigrant groups according to the transferability of skills associated with t...

  19. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  20. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions

  1. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  2. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  3. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  4. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness. PMID:26164838

  5. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  6. Scaling of social prestige by direct and indirect psychophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Faleiros-Sousa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The professional social prestige practiced by: Social Assistants, Biologists, Dentists, Nurses, Engineers, Pharmacists, Physicists, Physical Therapists, Phonoaudiologists, Physicians, Psychologists, Chemists, and Sociologists was scaled by psychophysical methods of pair comparisons (indirect and the magnitude estimations (direct. The results showed: 1 both of the methods yield substantially different scaling; 2 the pair comparisons scale (proportion or z is a logarithmic function of the magnitude estimations scale; 3 the pair of comparison scale (proportion or z is a linear function of the logarithms of the magnitude estimations scale; and 4 a high correlation (rho = .95 between the degrees of prestige attributed to the professions obtained by both methods. With these results we can conclude that: 1 the continuous of social prestige (not metric scaled by these two methods yield a relation similar to the obtained in the sensorial continuous (metric; and 2 the continuous of social prestige has the following characteristics: quantitative, prothetic and non-qualitative (metathetic.

  7. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This directs......, inspired by Actor-Network Theory to demonstrate that regime incumbent actors can induce gradual regime adjustments at the urban scale. This is done through a case study of an urban development project, where the Municipality of Egedal in Denmark has successfully promoted energy efficient buildings through...

  8. Mexican-origin parents' work conditions and adolescents' adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Crouter, Ann

    2015-06-01

    Mexican-origin parents' work experiences are a distal extrafamilial context for adolescents' adjustment. This 2-wave multiinformant study examined the prospective mechanisms linking parents' work conditions (i.e., self-direction, work pressure, workplace discrimination) to adolescents' adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, depressive symptoms, risky behavior) across the transition to high school drawing on work socialization and spillover models. We examined the indirect effects of parental work conditions on adolescent adjustment through parents' psychological functioning (i.e., depressive symptoms, role overload) and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship (i.e., parental solicitation, parent-adolescent conflict), as well as moderation by adolescent gender. Participants were 246 predominantly immigrant, Mexican-origin, 2-parent families who participated in home interviews when adolescents were approximately 13 and 15 years of age. Results supported the positive impact of fathers' occupational self-direction on all 3 aspects of adolescents' adjustment through decreased father-adolescent conflict, after controlling for family socioeconomic status and earner status, and underemployment. Parental work pressure and discrimination were indirectly linked to adolescents' adjustment, with different mechanisms emerging for mothers and fathers. Adolescents' gender moderated the associations between fathers' self-direction and girls' depressive symptoms, and fathers' experiences of discrimination and boys' risk behavior. Results suggest that Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' perceptions of work conditions have important implications for multiple domains of adolescents' adjustment across the transition to high school. PMID:25938710

  9. 29 CFR 452.119 - Indirect elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indirect elections. 452.119 Section 452.119 Labor... STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.119 Indirect elections. National...

  10. Indirect search for dark matter with AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarises the potential of AMS in the indirect search for Dark Matter. Observations and cosmology indicate that the Universe may include a large amount of Dark Matter of unknown nature. A good candidate is the Ligthest Supersymmetric Particle in R-Parity conserving models. AMS offers a unique opportunity to study Dark Matter indirect signature in three spectra: gamma, antiprotons and positrons

  11. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  12. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  13. On Multiple Metonymies Within Indirect Speech Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Kosecki Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently structured by more than a single metonymy. The metonymies are related not only to the illocutionary force of the utterances, but also function within the individual lexemes being their parts. An indirect speech act can thus involve not only multiple, but also multi-levelled operation of conceptual metonymy.

  14. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  15. Factors of Politeness and Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪梅

    2016-01-01

    Polite principle is influenced deeply by a nation's history,culture,custom and so on,therefor different countries have different understandings and expressions of politeness and indirect speech acts.This paper shows some main factors influencing a polite speech.Through this article,readers can comprehensively know about politeness and indirect speech acts.

  16. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  17. Indirect Network Effects in New Product Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIndirect network effects are of prime interest to marketers because they affect the growth and takeoff of software availability for, and hardware sales of, a new product. While prior work on indirect network effects in the economics and marketing literature is valuable, these literatures

  18. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same... for allocating indirect costs is the cost accounting period during which such costs are incurred...

  19. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  20. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  1. Indirect Kalman Filter in Mobile Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most successful applications of Kalman filtering are to linearize about some nominal trajectory in state space that does not depend on the measurement data. The resulting filter is usually referred to as simply a linearized Kalman filter. Approach: This study introduced mainly indirect Kalman filter to estimate robot’s position. A developed differential encoder system integrated accelerometer is experimental tested in square shape. Results: Experimental results confirmed that indirect Kalman filter improves the accuracy and confidence of position estimation. Conclusion: In summary, we concluded that indirect Kalman filter has good potential to reduce error of measurement data.

  2. Indirect interactions between invasive and native plants via pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Müller, Christine B.

    2009-03-01

    In generalised pollination systems, the presence of alien plant species may change the foraging behaviour of pollinators on native plant species, which could result in reduced reproductive success of native plant species. We tested this idea of indirect interactions on a small spatial and temporal scale in a field study in Mauritius, where the invasive strawberry guava, Psidium cattleianum, provides additional floral resources for insect pollinators. We predicted that the presence of flowering guava would indirectly and negatively affect the reproductive success of the endemic plant Bertiera zaluzania, which has similar flowers, by diverting shared pollinators. We removed P. cattleianum flowers within a 5-m radius from around half the B. zaluzania target plants (treatment) and left P. cattleianum flowers intact around the other half (control). By far, the most abundant and shared pollinator was the introduced honey bee, Apis mellifera, but its visitation rates to treatment and control plants were similar. Likewise, fruit and seed set and fruit size and weight of B. zaluzania were not influenced by the presence of P. cattleianum flowers. Although other studies have shown small-scale effects of alien plant species on neighbouring natives, we found no evidence for such negative indirect interactions in our system. The dominance of introduced, established A. mellifera indicates their replacement of native insect flower visitors and their function as pollinators of native plant species. However, the pollination effectiveness of A. mellifera in comparison to native pollinators is unknown.

  3. Identification of Methodology of Indirect Assessment of Economy Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the essence of the shadow economy as an objective phenomenon of socio-economic relations and its influence upon national economy security through instruments of pricing, fiscal restrictions, tax control, and banking and insurance regulation. It proves the necessity of use of the indirect method of assessment of the level of economy shadowing along with methods of direct control over the growth of shadowed economic relations, since such an approach would allow rational approach to identification of volumes and level of shadow activity. In the result of the study the article marks out varieties of indirect assessment of economy shadowing (methods of document, accounting and economic analysis, their specific features, advantages and shortcomings and results of practical use. The article reveals approaches and indicators of economic analysis that allow identification of reasons of deviations from the normal economic activity of economic subjects. It provides examples of the indirect method of assessment of the volume of shadowed economy that deal with analysis of demand on money and comparison of rates of the growth of the money supply with the volume of sight drafts with GDP.

  4. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, pballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted. PMID:26867672

  5. Credit Valuation Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk has become a topical issue since the 2007 Credit Crisis, particularly for its impact on the valuation of OTC derivatives. This becomes critical when the credit risk of entities involved in a contract either as underlying or counterparty become highly correlated as is the case during macroeconomic shocks. It impacts the valuation of such contracts through an additional term, the credit valuation adjustment (CVA). This can become large with such correlation. This thesis outlines the...

  6. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  7. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  8. Indirect composite resin materials for posterior applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellard, E; Duke, E S

    1999-12-01

    Indirect composite resin restorations were introduced a number of years ago as possible alternatives to traditional metallic or ceramic-based indirect restorations. However, the earlier formulations did not provide evidence of improvement in mechanical and physical properties over chairside-placed direct composite resin materials. Because they required more tooth structure removal than direct restorations, their use became unpopular and was abandoned by most clinicians. Over the past few years, a new class of composite resin indirect materials has surfaced in the profession. Various technologies have been suggested as reinforcement mechanisms. Fibers, matrix modifications, and an assortment of innovations have been proposed for enhancing indirect composite resin restorations. Applications are from inlay restorations all the way to multi-unit fixed prostheses. This manuscript summarizes some of the progress made in this area. When available, data is presented to provide clinicians with guidelines and indications for the use of these materials.

  9. Indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos - Tsirigotis

    2015-06-01

    The research results indicate that, as compared with the group of heterosexual individuals, in the group of homosexuals there occurs a worsening in psychological functioning, which may be also manifested by an increased indirect self-destructiveness index. The increased intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals may be considered a manifestation of worsened psychological functioning. The homosexual individuals look after their health similarly to heterosexuals.

  10. Indirect self-destructiveness and psychological gender

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Behaviours causing harm to a subject are generally called self-destructive behaviours. For some time now direct/acute self-destructiveness and indirect/chronic self-destructiveness have been distinguished. Human activity is determined to a large degree by not only biological (somatic) sex but also psychological gender. The aim of the study was to examine relationships between indirect self-destructiveness and types of psychological gender. Material and method: 558 individuals (399 fem...

  11. Indirect Network Effects and Trade Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Kikuchi; Kazumichi Iwasa

    2007-01-01

    Indirect network effects exist when the utility of consumers is increasing in the variety of complementary products available for use with an electronic hardware device. In this note, we examine how indirect network effects work as a determinant of trade patterns. For these purposes we construct a simple two-country model of trade with incompatible country-specific hardware technologies. We show that trade patterns are determined by the interaction between hardware differentiation and indirec...

  12. Indirect Network Effects and Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Kazumichi; Kikuchi, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Indirect network effects exist when the utility of consumers is increasing in the variety of complementary products available for use with an electronic hardware device. In this paper, we examine how trade liberalization affects production structure in the presence of indirect network effects. For these purposes we construct a simple two-country model of trade with incompatible country-specific hardware technologies. It is shown that, given that both countries' hardware devices remain in the ...

  13. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20–30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale...

  14. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  15. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Wormington, SV; Anderson, KG; Schneider, A.; Tomlinson, KL; Brown, SA

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students’ adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents’ academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects through school belonging. Adolescents from two large samples (middle school: N = 2,808; high school: N = 6,82...

  16. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  17. Exploration of approaches to adjusting brand-name drug prices in Mainland of China: based on comparison and analysis of some brand-name drug prices of Mainland and Taiwan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Geng; Han Sheng; Pu Run; Pan Wynn HT; Shi Luwen

    2014-01-01

    Background Under the circumstance of the New Medical Reform in Mainland of China,lowering drug prices has become an approach to relieving increase of medical expenses,and lowering brand-name medication price is a key strategy.This study,by comparing and analyzing brand-name medication prices between Mainland of China and Taiwan,explores how to adjust brand-name medication prices in Mainland of China in the consideration of the drug administrative strategies in Taiwan.Methods By selecting brand-name drug with generic name and dose types matched in Mainland and Taiwan,calculate the average unit price and standard deviation and test it with the paired t-test.In the mean time,drug administrative strategies between Mainland and Taiwan are also compared systematically.Results Among the 70 brand-name medications with generic names and matched dose types,54 are at higher prices in Mainland of China than Taiwan,which is statistically significant in t-test.Also,among the 47 medications with all of matched generic names,dose types,and manufacturing enterprises,38 are at higher prices in Mainland than Taiwan,and the gap is also statistically significant in t-test.In Mainland of China,brand-name medication took cost-plus pricing and price-based price adjustment,while in Taiwan,brand-name medication took internal and external reference pricing and market-based price adjustment.Conclusions Brand-name drug prices were higher in Mainland of China than in Taiwan.The adjustment strategies of drug orices are scientific in Taiwan and are worth reference by Mainland of China.

  18. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  19. Indirect Adaptive Attitude Control for a Ducted Fan Vertical Takeoff and Landing Microaerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses an attitude tracking control problem of a ducted fan microaerial vehicle. The proposed indirect adaptive controller can greatly reduce tracking error in the initial stage of the adaptive learning process by using an error compensation strategy and can achieve good capability to eliminate the adverse effect of measurement noises on the convergence of adjustable parameters. Moreover, the learning rate adaptation strategy is proposed to further minimize the adverse effect of large learning rates on the convergence of adjustable parameters. The experimental tests have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller.

  20. Analysis of indirect taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodyakova Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the structure and dynamics of indirect taxes for the previous five years and also the influence of indirect taxation upon formation of income of the State Budget of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of indirect taxation in Ukraine. Specific weight of the value added tax, excise tax and customs duty are considered in the structure of tax receipts of the consolidated budget of Ukraine as indirect taxes. The article shows that receipts of the State Budget of Ukraine are mostly provided by indirect taxes. The Ukrainian taxation system is mostly a factor of reduction of the level of economic growth and investment activity in the country and the existing system of administering is not completely capable of excluding the possibility of tax evasion. The prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of organisation of tax control in Ukraine and differentiation of the value added tax rates depending on the level of consumption of goods and level of income of consumers.

  1. COMPARISON OF RAPID IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC TEST AND INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENT ASSAY IN DETECTION OF IgG ANTIBODY AGAINST DENGUS VIRUS%快速免疫色谱测试法与免疫荧光法检测登革病毒IgG抗体的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何似; 陈润; 李世清; 吴护华; 陈燕; 徐珊; 杨建娜; 陈敏红

    2001-01-01

    Aim To compare IgG antibody tests for diagnosis of dengus fever with Denger Fever IgM and IgG Rapid immunochromatographic Test(DRIT, Panbio, Australia) and Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay(IIF). Method DRIT was followed the kit's direction, and the IgG positive result(only IgG was compared in the sutdy) was determined only appearing two amaranth lines,one is in control region, another is in IgG region. Antigen slide in IIF was prepared with dengus virus type 2 isolated in the laboratory and it was performed routinely. Results 56 sera were collected from the suspected patients with dengus fever. Among these specimens, IIF positive rate was 53.6 % (30/56), and DRIT was 46.4 % (26/56), there were no significant difference between the two tests. In comparison with IIF however, when testng 68 sera collected from the asymptom population, positive rate was 54% (37/68)for IIF, and 33.8 % (23/68) for DRIT, there existed significant difference between the two methods( X2= 9.39, P < 001). Conclusion There is no significant difference bwtween IIF and DRIT in test the IgG antibody of the patents. DRIT is a simpl, rapid, and easy method to the determination, but IIF is a ideal routine technique for use in both of the patients and the asymptom population since it's rather economic, and more sensitive.%目的 应用登革热快速免疫色谱测试法(Dengue Fever Rapid Immunochromatographic Test,DRIT)与间接免疫荧光法(Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay,IIF)检测登革病毒IgG抗体进行比较。方法DRIT按说明书操作,在Control线区出现紫红色线的前提下在IgG线区出现紫红色线表明IgG抗体阳性;IIF抗原片系应用本室分离的登革Ⅱ型病毒感染C6/36细胞制备,操作按常规进行。结果检查临床疑似登革热病人血清56份,IIF检测阳性30份,阳性率53.6%。DRIT检查阳性26份,阳性率46.4%,两法符合率91.07%,X2=1.50,P>0.05。检测无症状人血清68份,IIF检查阳性37

  2. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instruction on Fostering Decision-Making Competence in Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effects of different learning environments on the promotion of decision-making competence for the socioscientific issue of genetically modified crops is investigated. The comparison focuses on direct vs. indirect instructions. Therefore on the one hand a sophisticated decision-making strategy was presented to the directly…

  3. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  4. Technical Document for Price Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Tian; Mulugeta Kahsai; Randall Jackson

    2014-01-01

    This document presents the basis for the price adjustment mechanisms in a time series IO model. The essentials of the price adjustment and price change propagation algorithms are presented, along with a matrix permutation algorithm that facilitates the implementation of the price adjustment mechanism. The Matlab function is provided.

  5. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state......) that vanishes for observables commuting with the state. We show that the skew information is a convex function on the manifold of states. It also satisfies other requirements, proposed by Wigner and Yanase, for an effective measure-of-information content of a state relative to a conserved observable. We...... establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...

  6. Adjusting to the Emergent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  7. Indirect and verbal victimization by peers among at-risk youth in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2015-04-01

    Verbal and indirect violence among peers in residential care settings (RCSs) are understudied social problems. This study, based on a sample of 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents aged 11-19 in 32 RCSs, examines the prevalence and multilevel correlates of verbal (such as cursing) and indirect (such as social exclusion) forms of victimization by peers in RCSs. Adolescents completed a self-report anonymous questionnaire in their facility. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) is used to examine the links between adolescents' victimization, individual-level characteristics (gender, age, adjustment difficulties, self-efficacy, staff maltreatment experiences and perceived institutional social climate), and RCS-level characteristics (setting type of care, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). Most adolescents reported having been verbally (73%) and indirectly (62%) victimized by their peers at least once in the month prior to filling out the questionnaire. Vulnerability to indirect violence is higher among girls and those with low perception of their social self-efficacy. Younger adolescents, adolescents with higher levels of overall adjustment difficulties, those experiencing high levels of physical maltreatment by RCS staff and those perceiving levels of child friendliness in their RCS as poor, were all more vulnerable to verbal and indirect victimization by peers. Verbal victimization is positively associated with residence in Jewish RCSs and indirect victimization is positively associated with residence in therapeutic settings which contain higher concentrations of vulnerable youth compared with rehabilitative settings. The findings can assist in designing anti-bullying intervention and prevention programs tailored for the at-risk children and institutions identified in the study. PMID:25626336

  8. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  9. Gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the sex (gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness intensity and its manifestations, as well as relationships between indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations (categories and the psychological dimensions of masculinity and femininity, also from the point of view of assessing occupational health and safety. Materials and Methods: A population of 558 individuals (399 females and 159 males aged 19–25 (mean age: 22.6 was studied. The Polish version of the “Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale” (CS-DS by Kelley adapted by Suchańska was used in order to examine indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations. Gender testing applied the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI by Bem in its adaptation by Kuczyńska. Results: Males’ scores are signifi cantly higher than those of females for the majority of CS-DS scales/indices: Indirect Self-Destructiveness (general index, Poor Health Maintenance (A2, Lack of Planfulness (A4, and Helplessness, Passiveness (A5. Moreover, there are statistically signifi cant correlations between CS-DS scales and the masculinity dimension (positive as well as the femininity dimension (negative. Conclusions: Masculinity is a factor that may predispose towards indirectly self-destructive behaviors, while femininity is a factor protecting against those. The study results may prove useful in preventing indirectly and directly self-destructive behaviors as well as in therapy work with the individuals who display such tendencies or have made attempts on their own lives, in particular taking into account their being of a specifi c sex/gender and in the context of work (especially in diffi cult or dangerous conditions or both.

  10. Emotional expression in school context, social relationships, and academic adjustment in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M; Berger, Rebecca H; Diaz, Anjolii; Terrell, Nathan; Thompson, Marilyn S; Southworth, Jody

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated direct relations of both kindergarteners' (N = 301) naturalistically observed emotion in 2 different school contexts and early kindergarten verbal competence to academic adjustment (i.e., standardized measures of academic achievement, teacher-reported academic skills, teacher-reported and observed school engagement) and if these relations were mediated by teacher-reported conflict with students and by peer acceptance. When controlling for verbal competence, positive emotions expressed in the classroom context positively directly predicted academic skills, whereas positive emotions expressed outside class (lunch/recess) negatively predicted academic skills. Negative emotions observed in the classroom context and during lunch/recess negatively predicted academic achievement. Positive emotions observed in both contexts indirectly predicted higher school engagement through its positive relation to peer acceptance; positive emotions expressed in lunch and recess indirectly predicted higher school engagement via lower teacher-student conflict. Negative emotions observed in both contexts also indirectly predicted lower school engagement via higher teacher-student conflict. Furthermore, verbal competence indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via lower teacher-student conflict. Moreover, verbal competence moderated the association between peer acceptance (but not teacher-student conflict) and academic adjustment. Because verbal competence moderated the associations from peer competence, positive emotions in both contexts indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via higher peer acceptance primarily for children with low, but not high, initial verbal competence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Emotional expression in school context, social relationships, and academic adjustment in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M; Berger, Rebecca H; Diaz, Anjolii; Terrell, Nathan; Thompson, Marilyn S; Southworth, Jody

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated direct relations of both kindergarteners' (N = 301) naturalistically observed emotion in 2 different school contexts and early kindergarten verbal competence to academic adjustment (i.e., standardized measures of academic achievement, teacher-reported academic skills, teacher-reported and observed school engagement) and if these relations were mediated by teacher-reported conflict with students and by peer acceptance. When controlling for verbal competence, positive emotions expressed in the classroom context positively directly predicted academic skills, whereas positive emotions expressed outside class (lunch/recess) negatively predicted academic skills. Negative emotions observed in the classroom context and during lunch/recess negatively predicted academic achievement. Positive emotions observed in both contexts indirectly predicted higher school engagement through its positive relation to peer acceptance; positive emotions expressed in lunch and recess indirectly predicted higher school engagement via lower teacher-student conflict. Negative emotions observed in both contexts also indirectly predicted lower school engagement via higher teacher-student conflict. Furthermore, verbal competence indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via lower teacher-student conflict. Moreover, verbal competence moderated the association between peer acceptance (but not teacher-student conflict) and academic adjustment. Because verbal competence moderated the associations from peer competence, positive emotions in both contexts indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via higher peer acceptance primarily for children with low, but not high, initial verbal competence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751629

  12. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  13. Clinical guidelines for indirect resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, A

    1997-06-01

    Ongoing advances in adhesive dentistry have made it possible to successfully and predictably bond tooth-supporting restorations using conservative preparation techniques. Improvements in the durability and esthetic properties of tooth-colored restorative materials have also increased the range of available treatment options. However, dentists have been slow to accept both direct and indirect posterior esthetics. This article provides a step-by-step technique for practitioners who choose to treat their patients with indirect resin esthetic restorations. It will not discuss other posterior restorative treatment techniques or materials (i.e. gold, porcelain, amalgam, bonded amalgam, or direct resin).

  14. Russia and America’s Adjustment of East Asia Geopolitical Strategy and Their Comparison%俄美两国对东亚地缘战略的调整及比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    With the geopolitical position of East Asia rising,Russia and US have both adjusted their focus of attention in national and geopolitical strategies.With long-term relative advantages,Russia and United States take comprehensive actions in goe-politics,geo-economics and geo-security.They both implement “preferential”policies in strategic investment in East Asia,which are embodied by the adjustment of geopolitical strategy driven by Far East development in Russia and the formulation of the “eastward movement”and “Asia-pacific Re-balance”in US.The motivations and processes of both countries’strategic adjustments are different.The consequence of their increasing involvement is the greater subtlety of geopolitics in this area which has always been confronted with intertwined problems and interests;moreover,it provides the countries in this area with new maneuvering room in re-adjusting geopolitical strategies.%随着东亚地缘战略地位的不断提升及日渐突显,俄美两国纷纷调整国家战略的关注点和地缘战略的着力点,从地缘政治、地缘经济、地缘安全等多个方面不断出击,凭借着长期的、相对的地缘优势条件,持续向东亚地区实施“倾斜性”的战略投入。这表现为俄罗斯远东地区开发带动的地缘战略调整,以及美国的“战略东移”和“亚太再平衡”战略的正式出台及加快落实。俄美两国对东亚地缘战略的调整动机及实施过程多有不同,其加大力度不断介入该地区事务的一个战略后果是,使原本就矛盾交织、利益复杂、格局纠结的东亚地缘形势变得更加微妙,也为域内国家地缘战略的再调整提供了新的背景和回旋空间。

  15. Bias, Accuracy, and Impact of Indirect Genetic Effects in Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, J. A.; Bijma, P.; Pong-Wong, R.; Bermingham, M. L.; Doeschl-Wilson, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Selection for improved host response to infectious disease offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment but has proven difficult in practice, due to low heritability estimates of disease traits. Disease data from field studies is often binary, indicating whether an individual has become infected or not following exposure to an infectious disease. Numerous studies have shown that from this data one can infer genetic variation in individuals’ underlying susceptibility. In a previous study, we showed that with an indirect genetic effect (IGE) model it is possible to capture some genetic variation in infectivity, if present, as well as in susceptibility. Infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual. It is an important factor determining the severity of an epidemic. However, there are severe shortcomings with the Standard IGE models as they do not accommodate the dynamic nature of disease data. Here we adjust the Standard IGE model to (1) make expression of infectivity dependent on the individuals’ disease status (Case Model) and (2) to include timing of infection (Case-ordered Model). The models are evaluated by comparing impact of selection, bias, and accuracy of each model using simulated binary disease data. These were generated for populations with known variation in susceptibility and infectivity thus allowing comparisons between estimated and true breeding values. Overall the Case Model provided better estimates for host genetic susceptibility and infectivity compared to the Standard Model in terms of bias, impact, and accuracy. Furthermore, these estimates were strongly influenced by epidemiological characteristics. However, surprisingly, the Case-Ordered model performed considerably worse than the Standard and the Case Models, pointing toward limitations in incorporating disease dynamics into conventional variance component estimation methodology and software used in animal breeding. PMID

  16. Avaliação de métodos indiretos de digitalização de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto Evaluation of indirect methods of digitization of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Donizeth Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar métodos de digitalização indireta de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta de dez radiografias cefalométricas adquiridas pelo Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE - Instrumentarium, digital direto. As imagens foram inseridas no programa Adobe Photoshop® e cinco pontos cefalométricos foram marcados. Procedeu-se a impressão em transparência e foi feita a digitalização indireta das imagens impressas, por meio das câmeras fotográficas digitais Sony® DSC-W5 e Canon® Rebel XT/EOS 350D, fixas em estativa, nas distâncias de 25cm e 60cm e com o scanner Scan Jet 4C Hewlett Packard®. As imagens diretas e indiretas foram inseridas e calibradas no software Radiocef Studio (Radiomemory®, Brasil, marcando-se o centro dos pontos previamente assinalados. A análise cefalométrica computadorizada gerou três grandezas angulares e quatro lineares, as quais foram submetidas a tratamento estatístico. RESULTADOS: as imagens do scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® demonstraram pequenas alterações significativas, porém, sem relevância clínica. Quando da digitalização a 60cm da radiografia, as duas câmeras causaram distorções que foram significativas mas clinicamente aceitáveis; e, a 25cm, causaram as maiores distorções, com importância clínica, na Canon® Rebel XT. CONCLUSÃO: o scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® com leitor de transparências foi o melhor método e as câmeras operando a 60cm mostraram-se adequadas para digitalização de radiografias. As câmeras na distância de 25cm causaram distorções na imagem que alteraram as medidas lineares, podendo a Canon® Rebel XT comprometer o diagnóstico ortodôntico.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indirect digitization method of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method. METHODS: The sample was composed of ten cephalometric radiographs acquired by Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE

  17. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  18. Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    A number of Seri verbs display a sensitivity to whether a goal, which is a term used for recipients, adressees, etc., is singular or plural. The data presented in this paper are of typological interest. It is argued that Seri has indirect objects, but that there is no one-to-one mapping between the semantic role goal and either the syntactic…

  19. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in retail...

  20. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in a retail...

  1. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  2. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  3. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards. PMID:24591599

  4. Mechanism and Algorithm for Indirect Schema Mapping Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There are a large number of indirect schema mappings between peers in the network. To improve the efficiency of data exchange and queries, indirect mappings are needed to be composed. Direct mappings can be derived directly by the constraints defined between schemas, but not for indirect mappings’ composition. Defined the combination operations of schema elements in indirect mappings, and gave the expression of indirect mappings. Analyzed the composition of indirect mappings, and proposed a strategy, named schema element back, to solve the problem of indirect mapping composition, and gave the indirect mapping composition generation algorithm based on such strategy. Experiments showed that indirect mapping composition can improve the efficiency of data exchange, and compared with other non-full mapping composition generation algorithms, and indirect mapping composition generated by our algorithm based on schema element back strategy can completely eliminate the infection of media schema with no reduction of the composition efficiency.

  5. Indirect measure of X-rays spectra using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology of indirect measure of X-rays spectra, emitted by conventional tubes, was developed recently and its feasibility verified in the first place by Monte Carlo simulations. For that case is intended to measure, by means of plastic scintillators, attenuation curves of dispersed beams previously. In this work were carried out measurements of attenuation curves with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to verify the kindness of the indirect measure method. The attenuation curve was also measured using an ionization chamber brand Capintec (model 192) with the purpose of making a comparison. The results of the attenuation curve measured with both dosimeters present a good resolution inside the statistical fluctuations and the spectral reconstruction using diverse parametric functions is carried out in a quick and simple way with excellent resolutions in the functional form. For this reconstruction method are of fundamental importance the following properties of the used dosimeter: in the first place the repetition of the measures, property that could check; in second place the precision of the measured data and lastly the dosimeter response, this is, the increase of the thermoluminescent signal before an increase of the photons flow of X-rays. This parameter is the gradient of the curve thermoluminescent signal versus the dose imparted to the dosimeter. The measures were realized with a generator of X-rays brand Kevex provided of a conventional tube with tungsten anti cathode that polarizes with high tension to a maximum value of 50 kV and current of 0.5 ma. (Author)

  6. Metric-adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  7. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  8. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in major orthopedic surgery: a systematic review and adjusted indirect comparison of oral anticoagulants%骨科大手术中的静脉血栓的预防:口服抗凝药的系统回顾和间接比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘从威; 万晓; 黎志宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Based on available evidence, we analyzed the efifcacy and safety of dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban versus low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in major orthopedic surgery.Methods: We systematically searched the randomized controlled trials reported in PubMed and Embase and key articles listed in the reference which evaluated apixaban, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban versus LMWHs in patients receiving major orthopedic surgeries. One of the following outcome was to be evaluated: total venous thromboembolism (VTE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), death and major bleeding. Three reviewers assessed each article to determine methodological quality and extracted data independently.Results: The assessed outcomes include total VTE, DVT, PE, death and major bleeding events. 3 authors assessed the methodology quality of each article and extracted data from the literature dependently. For the prevention of total VTE, rivaroxaban and apixaban were superior to dabigatran withRR of 0.37 (95%CI 0.23-0.60) 0.58 (95%CI 0.35-0.96) respectively. There was no signiifcant difference between rivaroxaban and apixaban withRR of 0.64 (95%CI 0.33-1.25). Rivaroxaban increased hemorrhage with anRR of 1.57 (95%CI 1.20-2.07) compared to apixaban, and also increases the overall hemorrhage risk with an RR of 1.25 (95%CI 0.93-1.70) compared to dabigatran. There was no significant difference between apixaban and dabigatran with an RR of 0.78 (95%CI 0.58-1.07).Conclusion: Compared to dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban are more efficacious with similar hemorrhage risk in prevention of total VTE in patients receiving major orthopedic surgery. Compared to apixaban, rivaroxaban has similar efifcacy in prevention of total VTE but it can increase the hemorrhage risk.%目的:基于有效的循证证据,以低分子肝素为对照组,分析达比加群、阿哌沙班和利伐沙班在骨科大手术后预防静脉血栓的有效性与安全性.方法:在PubMed和Embase中系统地检索随机对照试验以及参考文献中关键的文章,这些文章评价了以低分子肝素为对照组,达比加群、阿哌沙班和利伐沙班在进行了骨科大手术的病人中的作用.结果:评价的结果包括总静脉血栓(total VTE)、深静脉血栓(DVT)、肺栓塞(PE)、死亡和主要出血事件(major bleeding).笔者独立地评价了每1篇文章的方法质量同时独立地提取了文献数据.在总静脉血栓预防方面,利伐沙班和阿哌沙班优于达比加群,分别为 [RR=0.37, 95%CI(0.23, 0.60) ]和 [RR=0.58, 95%CI(0.35, 0.96) ].利伐沙班和阿哌沙班之间没有区别[RR=0.64, 95%CI (0.33, 1.25)].利伐沙班与阿哌沙班相比增加了出血风险 [RR=1.57, 95%CI(1.20, 2.07)],利伐沙班与达比加群相比增加了出血风险[RR=1.25, 95%CI (0.93, 1.70) ].阿哌沙班和达比加群在出血方面没有差别[RR=0.78, 95%CI(0.58, 1.07)].结论:在接受骨科大手术病人之中,利伐沙班和阿哌沙班2种药物与达比加群相比,预防静脉血栓的效果更好,出血风险相似.利伐沙班与阿哌沙班相比,预防静脉血栓的效果相似,但是增加了出血的风险.

  9. Indirect Lymphography and its Importance in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect lymphography, which only requires a subcutaneous injection of colloidal gold-198 with a particle diameter of 50 Å in the tributary region of the lymphatic system being explored, makes possible, by scintigraphic recording, a clear representation of the ganglionic lymphatic chains. The problems of collimation in getting optimum definition are discussed. With this method of investigating the lymphatic system, measurement of the time of appearance of the gold in the blood yields indirect information regarding the rate of transit of the colloidal gold particles in the lymphatic vessels. Useful information is also obtained on neoplastic infiltrations of the ganglia and hence it is possible to determine the extent of a metastatic infiltration. Clinical examples are described. In addition, the authors describe a new technique for hepatic lymphography by the transcutaneous, sub-capsular injection of colloidal gold-198. This technique reveals the anterior and posterior mediastinal lymphatic chains. (author)

  10. Scalar Dark Matter: Direct vs. Indirect Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Duerr, Michael; Smirnov, Juri

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the simplest model for dark matter. In this context the dark matter candidate is a real scalar field which interacts with the Standard Model particles through the Higgs portal. We discuss the relic density constraints as well as the predictions for direct and indirect detection. The final state radiation processes are investigated in order to understand the visibility of the gamma lines from dark matter annihilation. We find two regions where one could observe the gamma lines at gamma-ray telescopes. We point out that the region where the dark matter mass is between 100 and 300 GeV can be tested in the near future at direct and indirect detection experiments.

  11. A portable monocular indirect ophthalmoscopic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sislowitz, M J

    1975-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive, and portable method of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is used as the physician's examining eye is aligned in the axis of the patient's eye, a flashlight is held against the examiner's malar area beneath the dominant eye, and the beam of the flashlight is directed to the patient's eye. A plus 30 lens is then interposed 1 or 2 inches in front of the patient's eye and the fundus viewed. PMID:1110195

  12. Spherical Cows in Dark Matter Indirect Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Nicolás; Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is a...

  13. Indirect techniques for astrophysical reaction rates determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammache, F.; Oulebsir, N.; Benamara, S.; De Séréville, N.; Coc, A.; Laird, A.; Stefan, I.; Roussel, P.

    2016-05-01

    Direct measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest can be challenging. Alternative experimental techniques such as transfer reactions and inelastic scattering reactions offer the possibility to study these reactions by using stable beams. In this context, I will present recent results that were obtained in Orsay using indirect techniques. The examples will concern various astrophysical sites, from the Big-Bang nucleo synthesis to the production of radioisotopes in massive stars.

  14. Indirect Kalman Filter in Mobile Robot Application

    OpenAIRE

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The most successful applications of Kalman filtering are to linearize about some nominal trajectory in state space that does not depend on the measurement data. The resulting filter is usually referred to as simply a linearized Kalman filter. Approach: This study introduced mainly indirect Kalman filter to estimate robots position. A developed differential encoder system integrated accelerometer is experimental tested in square shape. Results: Experimental results confirmed...

  15. Indirectness and Politeness in English Requests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language teachers may have long observed learners’grammatically correct, yet situationally inappropriate ver-bal communication. To make sure they conduct speech acts appropriately, language learners should possess communicative skills and pragmatic competence. This paper addresses how to raise learners’pragmatic awareness through making requests in English. By exploring the verbal indirectness and politeness of requests, the paper aims to facilitate learners ’ability to make socially appro-priate utterances.

  16. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  17. Measurements of mixing and indirect CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Reichert, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has collected the world's largest sample of charmed hadrons. This sample is used to measure the mixing parameters in the $D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ system and to search for indirect $CP$ violation. This contribution focuses on measurements of $A_{\\Gamma}$ with $D^*$ and semileptonic $B$ decays and on mixing measurements and a search for $CP$ violation in $D\\to K\\pi$ decays.

  18. Indirect laminate veneer: a conservative novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, Paranjay; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Naveen, Y. G.; Patel, Jayanti R.

    2013-01-01

    Various treatment options and materials are available for restoration of an endodontically treated tooth. Laminate veneer is conservative treatment usually employed for aesthetic correction or improvement. The indirect composite is available in a wide range of shades and specific characterisation is easily performed chair side in the operatory area, which makes it a quick procedure and time saving for both the patient and the dentist. The physical properties and optical properties are good en...

  19. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  20. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  1. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  2. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  3. Automated working distance adjustment for a handheld OCT-Laryngoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Sabine; Bleeker, Sebastian; Ripken, Tammo; Krueger, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique which enables diagnosis of vocal cord tissue structure by non-contact optical biopsies rather than invasive tissue biopsies. For diagnosis on awake patients OCT was adapted to a rigid indirect laryngoscope. The working distance must match the probe-sample distance, which varies from patient to patient. Therefore the endoscopic OCT sample arm has a variable working distance of 40 mm to 80 mm. The current axial position is identified by automated working distance adjustments based on image processing. The OCT reference plane and the focal plane of the sample arm are moved according to position errors. Repeated position adjustment during the whole diagnostic procedure keeps the tissue sample at the optimal axial position. The auto focus identifies and adjusts the working distance within the range of 50 mm within a maximum time of 2.7 s. Continuous image stabilisation reduces axial sample movement within the sampling depth for handheld OCT scanning. Rapid autofocus reduces the duration of the diagnostic procedure and axial position stabilisation eases the use of the OCT laryngoscope. Therefore this work is an important step towards the integration of OCT into indirect laryngoscopes.

  4. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  5. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  6. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials

  7. Comparison of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rats / Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do teste de aglutinação modificado na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and affects a lot of species of carnivores and omnivores, including the human. The rodents are important in the transmition cycle because they act as an infection font to felines, the definitive host of this protozoan. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT for the serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in rats, comparing with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT, which has been considered the golden standard in animal toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Kappa test was used for comparing the serologic tests (IFAT and MAT and for determination of cutoff appropriate to MAT in this animal species. 182 rats were caught on local recycling of solid waste and solid residue storage in Londrina city, Paraná. Out of the 182 rats, nine (4.94% were positive to IFAT at a dilution of 1:16, and 17 (9.34% and five (2.75% were reactive to MAT in dilutions 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. The comparison of results between the techniques presented kappa coefficients of 0.26 and 0.55, respectively at 1:25 and 1:50 dilutions of MAT. It can be concluded that the dilution 1:50 is the most suitable to be used as cutoff for detecting T. gondii antibodies in rats using MAT, because agreed with IFAT.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii que acomete várias espécies carnívoras e onívoras, incluindo o ser humano. Os roedores são importantes na cadeia epidemiológica da doença por servirem de fonte de infecção aos felídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos deste protozoário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT na detecção de anticorpos contra T. gondii em ratos, comparando-o à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose animal. Empregou-se o teste kappa para a comparação dos testes sorológicos (RIFI e MAT e para a determinação do ponto de corte

  8. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  9. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  10. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were

  11. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  12. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauserman, Robert

    2002-03-01

    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents.

  13. Indirect two-sided relative ranking: a robust similarity measure for gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licamele Louis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large amount of gene expression data that exists in the public domain. This data has been generated under a variety of experimental conditions. Unfortunately, these experimental variations have generally prevented researchers from accurately comparing and combining this wealth of data, which still hides many novel insights. Results In this paper we present a new method, which we refer to as indirect two-sided relative ranking, for comparing gene expression profiles that is robust to variations in experimental conditions. This method extends the current best approach, which is based on comparing the correlations of the up and down regulated genes, by introducing a comparison based on the correlations in rankings across the entire database. Because our method is robust to experimental variations, it allows a greater variety of gene expression data to be combined, which, as we show, leads to richer scientific discoveries. Conclusions We demonstrate the benefit of our proposed indirect method on several datasets. We first evaluate the ability of the indirect method to retrieve compounds with similar therapeutic effects across known experimental barriers, namely vehicle and batch effects, on two independent datasets (one private and one public. We show that our indirect method is able to significantly improve upon the previous state-of-the-art method with a substantial improvement in recall at rank 10 of 97.03% and 49.44%, on each dataset, respectively. Next, we demonstrate that our indirect method results in improved accuracy for classification in several additional datasets. These datasets demonstrate the use of our indirect method for classifying cancer subtypes, predicting drug sensitivity/resistance, and classifying (related cell types. Even in the absence of a known (i.e., labeled experimental barrier, the improvement of the indirect method in each of these datasets is statistically significant.

  14. Comparison and Adjustment for Manning Quotas of A Tertiary Comprehensive Hospital in Shanghai%基于政策层面的上海市某三甲医院编制核定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景秀红; 刘霞; 王峦

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Analyze the problems on current manning quotas of a tertiary comprehensive hospital and provide evidence for its sci⁃entific adjustment in public hospitals. Methods:Descriptive analysis and comparative analysis was used to statistical analysis of current staffing and policy documents. Results:The researched hospital should be equipped with 6077 people. More than half of the total labor was supernumerary employment. The vacancy of manning quotas was serious in this tertiary comprehensive hospital and lagged behind the medical and health develop⁃ment. Conclusion:The manning quotas should put particular emphasis on clinical first-line and key discipline because of short case. Current proportion standard of manning quotas need to be urgent revised according to the social and economic development.%目的:分析上海市某三甲医院人员编制核定上存在的问题,为科学核定公立医院人员编制提供理论和实证依据。方法:对人员配置现状进行描述性统计分析,对比现有政策文件分析该院的人员编制情况。结果:经核定测算,医院总编制应配备6077人,缺编现象严重,编外用工占全部用工数量的50%以上;医疗业务扩展、工作量激增的现状与现有编制标准不匹配,现有编制标准落后于医疗卫生发展。结论:在缺编情况下医院编制要向一线和重点学科倾斜,根据社会经济发展修订现行的编制标准。

  15. Indirect associations between multiple items and a mining algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Min; Xu Xiaofei; Deng Shengchun

    2005-01-01

    Indirect association is a high level relationship between items and frequent itemsets in data. Current research approaches on indirect association mining are limited to indirect association between itempairs, which will discovertoo many rules from dataset. A formal definition of indirect association between multiple items is presented, along with an algorithm, SET-NIA,for mining this kind of indirect associations based on anti-monotonicity of indirect associations and frequent itempair support matrix. While the found rules contain same information as compared to the rules found by indirect association between itempairs mining algorithms, this notion brings space-saving in storage ofthe rules as well as superiority for human to understand and apply the rules. Experiments conducted on two real-word datasets show that SET-NIA can effectively find fewer rules than existing algorithms which mine indirect association between itempairs, the experimental results also prove that SET-NIA has better performance than existing algorithms.

  16. Indirect readout in protein-peptide recognition: a different story from classical biomolecular recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua; Zhou, Peng; Deng, Maolin; Shang, Zhicai

    2014-07-28

    Protein-peptide interactions are prevalent and play essential roles in many living activities. Peptides recognize their protein partners by direct nonbonded interactions and indirect adjustment of conformations. Although processes of protein-peptide recognition have been comprehensively studied in both sequences and structures recently, flexibility of peptides and the configuration entropy penalty in recognition did not get enough attention. In this study, 20 protein-peptide complexes and their corresponding unbound peptides were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Energy analysis revealed that configurational entropy penalty introduced by restriction of the degrees of freedom of peptides in indirect readout process of protein-peptide recognition is significant. Configurational entropy penalty has become the main content of the indirect readout energy in protein-peptide recognition instead of deformation energy which is the main source of the indirect readout energy in classical biomolecular recognition phenomena, such as protein-DNA binding. These results provide us a better understanding of protein-peptide recognition and give us some implications in peptide ligand design.

  17. Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eJiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN, and the implications of this pre-cerebellar ‘detour’ for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spino-cerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of de

  18. Indirect interactions in the High Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Roslin

    Full Text Available Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders. We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8% larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%, and that spiders kill many more (38%. Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate

  19. Indirect interactions in the High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  20. Testing νMSM with indirect searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry, E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation); Timiryasov, Inar, E-mail: timirysov@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect 7a, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Moscow State University, Vorobievy Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-18

    We consider neutrino Minimal extension of the Standard Model (νMSM), which by introducing only three sterile neutrinos in sub-electroweak region can explain active neutrino oscillations (via seesaw type-I mechanism), baryon asymmetry of the Universe (leptogenesis via oscillations) and dark matter phenomena (with keV-scale sterile neutrino forming dark matter). We estimate sterile neutrino virtual contributions to various lepton flavor and lepton number violating processes. The contributions are too small, giving no chance for indirect searches to compete with direct measurements in exploring νMSM.

  1. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  2. Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may need to work to help with family finances. All of the changes that they face can ... 2000). Goal instability and adjustment to physical disability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2). 251-265. This ...

  3. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  4. Adjustable Chain Trees for Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  5. Adjustment techniques for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To carry through numerically the different adjustment of experimental data planned by National Institute of Nuclear Research investigators. It is presented the different adjustment techniques of experimental data which are fundamentally for: linear least squares, non linear with restrictions. Methodology: Lineal least squares - Orthogonal decomposition via Householder reflections. No lineal - Method of general lowering and quasi Newton; Levenberg-Marquardt modified - More version. No lineal with restrictions - Quadratic sequential programming method (In process). (Author)

  6. Verslag van de workshop "Indirecte transmissie", 25 september 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Een samenvatting van 10 presentaties met de bijbehorende discussies: Introduction: indirect transmission; Indirect transmission, implications from a policy point of view; Transmission by air of micro-organisms in poultry: experimental and hatchery studies; Indirect transmission of Campylobacter in broilers; Experimental studies to evaluate the transmission of Classical Swine Fever; Underlying mechanisms of transmission - quantification of CSFV excretion; Experimental quantification of transmi...

  7. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theo

  8. Development and standardization of an indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of classical swine fever

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Julio Cesar Muñoz; Oliveira Liliane Guimarães; Braga Alexandre de Carvalho; Trevisol Iara Maria; Roehe Paulo Michel

    1999-01-01

    An indirect enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA-I) was developed and standardized for the serological diagnosis of classical swine fever (CSF). For the comparison, nine hundred and thirty-seven swine serum samples were tested by serum neutralization followed by immunoperoxidase staining (NPLA), considered as the standard. Of these, 223 were positive and 714 negative for neutralizing antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In relation to the NPLA, the ELISA-I presented a 98.2% sensitivi...

  9. Gender Differentiation of Relationships Between Manifestations of Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study has been to explore the gender differentiation of relationships between individual manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness and particular dimensions of emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 women and 130 men) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CS-DS) and INTE, i.e. the Polish version of the Assessing Emotions Scale (AES). Manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness showed significant correlations with INTE variables, and those correlations were mainly negative. Relationships between specific dimensions of emotional intelligence and specific manifestations of self-destructiveness differed between women and men. One of the most important differences was the relationship between transgression and ability to recognize emotions. The knowledge of the differentiation of the above relationships may allow to orient prophylactic and therapeutic actions, and adjust them to the specific gender. PMID:26589424

  10. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  11. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  12. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  13. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  14. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: a look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Ehret, Phillip J; Hummer, Justin F; Prenovost, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment.

  15. Indirect Complexometric Determination of Mercury Using Potassium Iodide as Selective Masking Agent

    OpenAIRE

    RAO, B. Muralidhara

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a indirect complexometric method for the determination of mercury in the presence of co-ions, based on the selective masking ability of potassium iodide. To the mixture of mercury (II) and other metal ion solution, EDTA solution was added in excess of the metal ions present. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 5.0-6.0 using solid hexamine (10 \\pm 2 g) and surplus EDTA was titrated with zinc sulfate solution using xylenol orange indicator. An excess of solid potassium i...

  16. Indirect adaptive fuzzy control for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An indirect adaptive fuzzy control scheme is developed for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems. In this method, two fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the unknown functions, and the parameters of membership functions in fuzzy logic systems are adjusted according to adaptive laws for the purpose of controlling the plant to track a reference trajectory. It is proved that the scheme can not only guarantee the boundedness of the input and output of the closed-loop system, but also make the tracking error converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results indicate the effectiveness of this scheme.

  17. Critic appraisal. Postoperative sensitivity with indirect restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, David; Walter, Ricardo; Swift, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative sensitivity is characterized by short and sharp pain, and often experienced after cementation of indirect restorations. Factors associated with the occurrence of post-cementation sensitivity include type of cement, removal of smear layer by acid-etching, aggressive tooth preparation, inadequate provisional restorations, and patient's age. Its prevention is based on either interfering with mechanoreceptor activity or occluding the dentinal tubules. Regarding the latter, application of dentin desensitizers may be effective for blocking the tubules and significantly reducing dentin permeability and consequently postoperative sensitivity. This Critical Appraisal will present available clinical data where traditional materials such as zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements (GIC) as well as self-adhesive resin-based cements were used. PMID:24761824

  18. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea......, which can draw further advantages from upcoming GPU functionalities. The method has been tested for moderately sized scenes with close to real-time frame rates and it scales with interactive frame rates for more complex scenes.......-time rendering of arbitrary dynamic environments and for interactive preview of feature animations. Through DRM we simulate two diffuse reflections of light, but can also, in combination with traditional real-time methods for specular reflections, simulate more complex light paths. DRM is a GPU-based method...

  19. Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sychov, Maxim [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)], E-mail: msychov@yahoo.com; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: I{sub sc}=14 {mu}A; U{sub oc}=2.3 V; power output -21 {mu}W. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch.

  20. Indirect Collider Signals for Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L

    1999-01-01

    A recent suggestion that quantum gravity may become strong near the weak scale has several testable consequences. In addition to probing for the new large (submillimeter) extra dimensions associated with these theories via gravitational experiments, one could search for the Kaluza Klein towers of massive gravitons which are predicted in these models and which can interact with the fields of the Standard Model. Here we examine the indirect effects of these massive gravitons being exchanged in fermion pair production in \\epem\\ annihilation and Drell-Yan production at hadron colliders. In the latter case, we examine a novel feature of this theory, which is the contribution of gluon gluon initiated processes to lepton pair production. We find that these processes provide strong bounds, up to several TeV, on the string scale which are essentially independent of the number of extra dimensions. In addition, we analyze the angular distributions for fermion pair production with spin-2 graviton exchanges and demonstrat...

  1. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc;

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The...... develop models to estimate such parameters. First, we extend the definition of total breeding value and total heritable variance to cases where IGEs depend on relatedness. Next, we show that the full set of genetic parameters is not identifiable when IGEs differ between kin and strangers. Subsequently, we...... present a reduced model that yields estimates of the total heritable effects on kin, on non-kin and on all social partners of an individual, as well as the total heritable variance for response to selection. Finally we discuss the consequences of analysing data in which IGEs depend on relatedness using a...

  2. Indirect and direct search for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, Michael; Sigl, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an e...

  3. Importance of direct and indirect triggered seismicity

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A; Helmstetter, Agnes; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Using the simple ETAS branching model of seismicity, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes, we quantify the role played by the cascade of triggered seismicity in controlling the rate of aftershock decay as well as in the overall level of seismicity in the presence of a constant external seismicity source. We show that, in this model, the proportion of triggered seismicity is equal to the proportion of secondary plus later-generation aftershocks, and is given by the average number of triggered events per earthquake. Based on these results and on the observation that a large fraction of seismicity are triggered earthquakes, we conclude that similarly a large fraction of aftershocks occurring a few hours or days after a mainshock are triggered indirectly by the mainshock.

  4. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  5. Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Eoghan

    2009-08-01

    Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

  6. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    The regulation capability that may be provided by the individual small-scale distributed energy resources (DER power units) may be insignificant. However, the aggregated response from a large number of DER power units can be significant and thereby provide valuable system services to the power...... electricity prices for indirect control of active power. The local, dynamic electricity prices are realised as dynamic adjustments of the quasi-stationary global power price. The aims of the dynamic price adjustments are to prevent overloading of the grid, to reduce the grid power losses and to regulate the...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...

  7. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  8. ACROSS-BREED ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR EXPECTED PROGENY DIFFERENCES FOR CARCASS TRAITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjustment factors to allow comparison of EPD from several breed associations for birth, weaning and yearling weights have been available for more than 10 years. This paper describes steps to calculate adjustment factors for EPD for four carcass traits: marbling score (MAR), fat thickness (FAT), rib...

  9. NIA2: A fast indirect association mining algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Min; XU Xiao-fei; DENG Sheng-chun; WEN Xiao-xian

    2005-01-01

    Indirect association is a high level relationship between items and frequent item sets in data. There are many potential applications for indirect associations, such as database marketing, intelligent data analysis,web - log analysis, recommended system, etc. Existing indirect association mining algorithms are mostly based on the notion of post - processing of discovery of frequent item sets. In the mining process, all frequent item sets need to be generated first, and then they are filtered and joined to form indirect associations. We have presented an indirect association mining algorithm (NIA) based on anti - monotonicity of indirect associations whereas k candidate indirect associations can be generated directly from k - 1 candidate indirect associations,without all frequent item sets generated. We also use the frequent itempair support matrix to reduce the time and memory space needed by the algorithm. In this paper, a novel algorithm (NIA2) is introduced based on the generation of indirect association patterns between itempairs through one item mediator sets from frequent itempair support matrix. A notion of mediator set support threshold is also presented. NIA2 mines indirect association patterns directly from the dataset, without generating all frequent item sets. The frequent itempair support matrix and the notion of using tm as the support threshold for mediator sets can significantly reduce the cost of joint operations and the search process compared with existing algorithms. Results of experiments on a realword web log dataset have proved NIA2 one order of magnitude faster than existing algorithms.

  10. Influenza-related mortality trends in Japanese and American seniors: evidence for the indirect mortality benefits of vaccinating schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Charu

    Full Text Available The historical Japanese influenza vaccination program targeted at schoolchildren provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the indirect benefits of vaccinating high-transmitter groups to mitigate disease burden among seniors. Here we characterize the indirect mortality benefits of vaccinating schoolchildren based on data from Japan and the US.We compared age-specific influenza-related excess mortality rates in Japanese seniors aged ≥65 years during the schoolchildren vaccination program (1978-1994 and after the program was discontinued (1995-2006. Indirect vaccine benefits were adjusted for demographic changes, socioeconomics and dominant influenza subtype; US mortality data were used as a control.We estimate that the schoolchildren vaccination program conferred a 36% adjusted mortality reduction among Japanese seniors (95%CI: 17-51%, corresponding to ∼1,000 senior deaths averted by vaccination annually (95%CI: 400-1,800. In contrast, influenza-related mortality did not change among US seniors, despite increasing vaccine coverage in this population.The Japanese schoolchildren vaccination program was associated with substantial indirect mortality benefits in seniors.

  11. Nonlinear indirect combustion noise for compact supercritical nozzle flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, indirect combustion noise generated by the acceleration of entropy perturbations through a supercritical nozzle is investigated in the nonlinear regime and in the low-frequency limit (quasi-static hypothesis). This work completes the study of Huet and Giauque (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 733 (2013) 268-301) for nonlinear noise generation in nozzle flows without shock and particularly focuses on shocked flow regimes. It is based on the analytical model of Marble and Candel for compact nozzles (Journal of Sound and Vibration 55 (1977) 225-243), initially developed for excitations in the linear regime and rederived here for nonlinear perturbations. Full nonlinear analytical solutions are provided in the absence of shock as well as second-order analytical expressions when a shock is present in the diffuser. An analytical evaluation of the shock displacement inside the nozzle caused by the forcing is proposed and maximum possible forcings to avoid unchoke and 'over-choke' are discussed. The accuracy of the second-order model and the nonlinear contributions to the generated waves are then addressed. This model is found to be very accurate for the generated entropy wave with negligible nonlinear contributions. Nonlinearities are more visible, but still limited, for the downstream acoustic wave for large inlet Mach numbers. Analytical developments are validated thanks to comparisons with numerical simulations.

  12. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die.

  13. The Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX

    CERN Document Server

    Abt, I; Carissimo, C; Gooch, C; Kneissl, R; Langford, J; Liu, X; Majorovits, B; Palermo, M; Schulz, O; Vanhoefer, L

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment to quantitatively measure neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in selected high-Z materials is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, and the results from its first data taking period are presented as well as future plans. Neutron production in high-Z materials is of particular interest as such materials are used for shielding in low-background experiments. The design of next-generation large-scale experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay or direct interactions of dark matter requires reliable Monte Carlo simulations of background induced by muon interactions. The first five months of operation already provided a valuable data set on neutron production and neutron transport in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions obtained with two GEANT4- based packages is presented. The rate of muon-induced events is overall a factor three to four higher in data than predicted by the Monte Carlo...

  14. Serodiagnosis of Oesophagostomum Columbianum infection in Goats using indirect ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ahmad

    Full Text Available To determine the seroprevalence of Oesophagostomum columbianum antibodies in goats in Kashmnir, a study was conducted in Srinagar and Ganderbal Districts, located in central parts of Kashmir valley. ELISA was standardized and evaluated to detect goat Oesophagostomosis in experimental and clinical cases using somatic whole adult antigen of Oesophagostomum columbianum. Plate ELISA was standardized using 5μg/well antigen concentration with 1:100 and 1:1000 of sera and conjugate dilution. Indirect plate ELISA was able to demonstrate the antibody titer at different weeks post infection in experimental goats. A comparison of plate ELISA on suspected field sera and faecal sample examination by floatation method revealed that 68 (34.34% samples were found to be positive using ELISA and twelve by faecal examination. The highest prevalence was found in lower age groups in both the seasons, with the increase in age, the infection level decreased. The prevalence was higher in wet season as compared to dry season. The results were stastically significant (P < 0.05. No sex predisposition was seen. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA was 80.0%, and 21.42%, respectively. This test is therefore quite sensitive for clinical cases; an early diagnosis, however lacks specificity of faecal examination were 10.81% and 90.0%, respectively. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 503-506

  15. Body Segment Inertial Parameters of elite swimmers Using DXA and indirect Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel ROSSI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As accurate body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs are difficult to obtain in motion analysis, this study computed individual BSIPs from DXA scan images. Therefore, by co-registering areal density data with DXA grayscale image, the relationship between pixel color gradient and the mass within the pixel area could be established. Thus, one can calculate BSIPs, including segment mass, center of mass (COM and moment of inertia about the sagittal axis (Ixx. This technique calculated whole body mass very accurately (%RMSE of < 1.5% relatively to results of the generic DXA scanner software. The BSIPs of elite male and female swimmers, and young adult Caucasian males (n = 28, were computed using this DXA method and 5 other common indirect estimation methods. A 3D surface scan of each subject enabled mapping of key anthropometric variables required for the 5 indirect estimation methods. Mass, COM and Ixx were calculated for seven body segments (head, trunk, head + trunk, upper arm, forearm, thigh and shank. Between-group comparisons of BSIPs revealed that elite female swimmers had the lowest segment masses of the three groups (p < 0.05. Elite male swimmers recorded the greatest inertial parameters of the trunk and upper arms (p < 0.05. Using the DXA method as the criterion, the five indirect methods produced errors greater than 10% for at least one BSIP in all three populations. Therefore, caution is required when computing BSIPs for elite swimmers via these indirect methods, DXA accurately estimated BSIPs in the frontal plane.

  16. Adjustment or updating of models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  17. Self-Adjusting Stack Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, Matthew A; Chen, Yan; Acar, Umut A

    2011-01-01

    Self-adjusting computation offers a language-based approach to writing programs that automatically respond to dynamically changing data. Recent work made significant progress in developing sound semantics and associated implementations of self-adjusting computation for high-level, functional languages. These techniques, however, do not address issues that arise for low-level languages, i.e., stack-based imperative languages that lack strong type systems and automatic memory management. In this paper, we describe techniques for self-adjusting computation which are suitable for low-level languages. Necessarily, we take a different approach than previous work: instead of starting with a high-level language with additional primitives to support self-adjusting computation, we start with a low-level intermediate language, whose semantics is given by a stack-based abstract machine. We prove that this semantics is sound: it always updates computations in a way that is consistent with full reevaluation. We give a comp...

  18. An adjustable contracted CI method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  19. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  20. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals’ willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation. PMID:25349390

  1. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor-Serra Ferran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit, dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs, co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others, referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants. The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50. The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights and synthetic (by centre and physician indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000 will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression

  2. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  3. Indirect tax reform and the role of exemptions

    OpenAIRE

    John Creedy

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the question of whether indirect tax rates should be uniform, using four different modelling strategies. First, marginal tax reform is examined. This is concerned with the optimal direction of small changes in effective indirect tax rates and requires considerably less information than the calculation of optimal rates. Second, the welfare effects of a partial shift from the current indirect tax system in Australia towards a goods and services tax (GST) are considered, with...

  4. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Binken, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theory tells us. Systems are composed of complementary and interdependent products, such as hardware and software. For instance, a video game system is composed of the video game console, on the one han...

  5. Catchment- and reach-scale controls on the distribution and expectation of geomorphic channel adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisenby, Peyton E.; Fryirs, Kirstie A.

    2016-05-01

    Variability in channel function (behavior) can be assessed by characterizing different forms of adjustment over time. Here, historical channel adjustments in three tributary systems of the Lockyer Valley, Southeast Queensland (SEQ) are analyzed in order to evaluate the range of catchment- and reach-scale controls on channel behavior. Over 300 individual adjustments and 13 forms of adjustment were identified over a ˜130 year time span. We measured the width-to-depth ratio (W:D), mean stream power (ω), and basin area (A) at the location of all observed adjustments. The most common forms of adjustment were avulsions, lateral expansion of the channel, and bend adjustments. The tributary systems behave distinctly different from one another according to statistical comparisons between the W:D, ω, and A data for these forms of adjustment. We find that it is possible to develop process domains or typologies for forms of geomorphic adjustment found in the Lockyer Valley. These domains or typologies provide the foundations for synoptic comparisons between catchments and assessing the expectation of channel adjustment (forecasting), which should be included in process-based river management practice.

  6. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  7. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  8. Spherical Cows in Dark Matter Indirect Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, Nicolás; Slatyer, Tracy R

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently...

  9. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  10. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of herit......This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...

  11. Indirect Coupling between Two Cavity Photon Systems via Ferromagnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Hyde, Paul; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally realize indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with the ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). We find that some indirectly coupled modes of our system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. These indirectly coupled microwave modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. This work has potential for use in controllable optical devices and information processing technologies.

  12. Indirect Effects of Environmental Change in Resource Competition Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Adler, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic environmental change can affect species directly by altering physiological rates or indirectly by changing competitive outcomes. The unknown strength of competition-mediated indirect effects makes it difficult to predict species abundances in the face of ongoing environmental change. Theory developed with phenomenological competition models shows that indirect effects are weak when coexistence is strongly stabilized, but these models lack a mechanistic link between environmental change and species performance. To extend existing theory, we examined the relationship between coexistence and indirect effects in mechanistic resource competition models. We defined environmental change as a change in resource supply points and quantified the resulting competition-mediated indirect effects on species abundances. We found that the magnitude of indirect effects increases in proportion to niche overlap. However, indirect effects also depend on differences in how competitors respond to the change in resource supply, an insight hidden in nonmechanistic models. Our analysis demonstrates the value of using niche overlap to predict the strength of indirect effects and clarifies the types of indirect effects that global change can have on competing species. PMID:26655983

  13. Realization of SVM Algorithm for Indirect Matrix Converter and Its Application in Power Factor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with AC-DC-AC converter, matrix converter (MC has several advantages for its bidirectional power flow, controllable power factor, and the absence of large energy storage in dc-link. The topology of MC includes direct matrix converter (DMC and indirect matrix converter (IMC. IMC has received great attention worldwide because of its easy implementation and safe commutation. Space vector PWM (SVM algorithm for indirect matrix converter is realized on DSP and CPLD platform in this paper. The control of the rectifier and inverter in IMC can be decoupled because of the intermediate dc-link. The space vector modulation scheme for IMC is discussed and the PWM sequences for the rectifier and inverter are generated. And a two-step commutation of zero current switching (ZCS in the rectifier is achieved. Input power factor of IMC can be changed by adjusting the angle of the reference current vector. Experimental tests have been conducted on a RB-IGBT based indirect matrix converter prototype. The results verify the performance of the SVM algorithm and the ability of power factor correction.

  14. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  15. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  16. Sensitivity of forecast rainfall verification to a radar adjustment technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartaglione, N. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Camerino, Camerino (Italy); Mariani, S. [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Accadia, C. [EUMETSAT, Darmstadt (Germany); Casaioli, M. [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici, Rome (Italy); Gabella, M. [Dept. of Electronics, Polytechnics of Turin, Turin (Italy); Michaelides, S.C. [Cyprus Meteorological Service, Nicosia (Cyprus); Speranza, A. [Dept. of Mathematics and Informatics, Univ. of Camerino, Camerino (Italy)

    2006-10-15

    A ground-based radar (GR) has to measure rain from close to the radar to large distances from it. Consequently, the scattering volume of the GR changes significantly. As an advantage, the scattering volume of a space-borne radar is of similar size at all locations, thus allowing the compensation of the decreasing spatial resolution of the GR with range (range-adjustment). Adjustment with range is here performed by means of data observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) using a {proportional_to}10 dB per decade factor. For instance, about 8 dB are added to the measured reflectivity at 100 km, while 2 dB are subtracted at 10 km from the radar site. Thus, two different radar datasets, the range-adjusted data and the original ones, can be compared with forecast precipitation. In the framework of the EU VOLTAIRE project (fifth framework programme), where observations from rain gauges, GR, TRMM PR and forecast precipitation were available for the island of Cyprus, such a kind of study was performed. The chosen comparison method was a contiguous rain area (CRA) analysis. Three pattern-matching criteria, involving mean square error, mean absolute error and correlation, have been used to match forecast and observed precipitation patterns. In this paper, we show that the results of the comparison in a selected case study are sensitive to the application of a range-adjustment technique. Observational analysis, obtained by merging rain gauge data with the adjusted GR data, seems to give more stable results when changing the pattern-matching criterion, and proposing it as the better field reconstruction in the comparison. (orig.)

  17. Indirect ELISA with Recombinant GP5 for Detecting Antibodies to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Chen; Hong Tian; Jian-Hui He; Jin-Yin Wu; You-jun Shang; Xiang-tao Liu

    2011-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is caused by the PRRS virus(PRRSV), which has six structural proteins(GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5, M and N). GP5 and N protein are important targets for serological detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and other methods. Toward this goal, we developed an indirect ELISA with recombinant GP5 antigens and this method was validated by comparison to the LSI PRRSV-Ab ELISA kit. The results indicated that the optimal concentration of coated recombinant antigen was 0.2 μg/well for a serum dilution of 1:40. The rate of agreement with the LSI PRRSV-Ab kit was 88.7%(266/300). These results support the potential use of recombinant GP5 as an antigen for indirect ELISA to detect PRRSV antibodies in pigs.

  18. Multi-toning Image Adjustment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Xiao-juan; PENG Qun-sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the different lighting environments or other reasons, the pixel colors may be quite different in one image which causes distinct visual discontinuities. It makes the analysis and processing of such an image more difficult and sometime impossible. In this paper, a unified multi-toning image adjustment method is proposed to solve this problem. First, a novel unsupervised clustering method was proposed to partition the source and the target image into a certain number of subsets with similar color statistics. By matching the texture characteristics and luminance distribution between the blocks, it can create optimized correspondence. Then, the color information was transferred from the matched pixels in the source blocks to the target ones. Graph cut method was used to optimize the seams between different subsets in the final step. This method can automatically perform color adjustment of a multi-toning image. It is simple and efficient. Various results show the validity of this method.

  19. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Hai-bo; Jian-kun Yang; Ji-chun Tan; De-zhi Su; Wen-liang Wang; Xiu-jian Li; Hui Jia

    2010-01-01

    Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6), pp.678-...

  20. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Meghan A.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2012-01-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers’ and fathers’ parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perf...

  1. MEANING CONSTRUCTION IN INDIRECT COMMUNICATION: EMPIRICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Filipović-Kovačević

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an applied cognitive linguistic research into the mental process of meaning construction taking place in the minds of message recipients in the communication process. The object of research are advertisements in which a special type of indirect, soft-selling advertising strategy is used; this strategy involves associating logically unrelated concepts. The aim of the research is to experimentally test how message recepients arrive at implicitly expressed meaning in advertisements. For that purpose an experiment focusing on one carefully chosen advertisement was conducted in which the examinees were asked to explain the meaning of the advertisement as well as to explain how they had arrived at that meaning. The examinees` answers were analyzed and interpreted with a special focus on the following issues: a the linguistic and visual elements which prompted the examinees to reason in a certain direction, b the ways in which the given linguistic and visual elements in the advertisement were elaborated into certain scenarios on the basis of extralinguistic, i.e. encyclopedic knowledge, and c the spotted analogies between the logically unrelated elements in the advertisement. The main hypothesis was that the cognitive mechanism of conceptual integration is at the back of interpreting meaning. Thus, the Theory of Conceptual Integration was applied to the analysed data obtained in the experiment. The analysis showed that the elements which the examinees spotted in the advertisement, whole scenarios which they built from them, analogies and mixed mental pictures correspond to the elements, relations, mental spaces, mappings, projections and blended spaces in conceptual integration.

  2. Indirectly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics of indirectly driven targets for inertial confinement fusion - so called hohlraum targets - is investigated. Scaling relations for radiation heat waves in high-Z and low-Z materials are derived from one-dimensional multigroup simulation. A two-temperature model is developed for radiation cavities including fusion capsules. The efficiency of X-ray transfer to the capsule by multiple absorption and re-emission inside the cavity is obtained as a function of cavity areas and materials. Using gold for the cavity wall and carbon for the capsule ablator, transfer efficiencies between 50% and 33% are obtained for area ratios between 5 and 10, respectively. Also, the hydrodynamic efficiency of X-ray driven capsule implosion and the dependence of the implosion velocity on the hohlraum temperature are given analytically, derived from the rocket model. With carbon ablators, hydroefficiencies of up to 20% can be achieved. Under optimal conditions, an implosion velocity of 3 x 107 cm/s is reached with a temperature of about 210 eV of the capsule ablator and about 250 eV of the cavity wall. Assuming 70-90% conversion efficiency of beam energy into X-rays (not analysed in this paper), overall coupling efficiencies in the range of 5-10% seem to be possible. One-dimensional simulations of full reactor size targets (10MJ driver pulses) are presented. The model results compare well with the simulations. Limit in scaling down to smaller systems are discussed; the scaling relation for the required enhancement of implosion velocity and hohlraum temperature is derived. (author). 21 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab

  3. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  4. Indirect searches for gravitino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Michael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica and Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC

    2011-11-15

    The gravitino in models with a small violation of R-parity is a well-motivated decaying dark matter candidate that leads to a cosmological scenario that is consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis and thermal leptogenesis. The gravitino lifetime is cosmologically long-lived since its decays are suppressed by the Planck-scale as well as the small R-parity violating parameter. We discuss the signals in different cosmic-ray species coming from the decay of gravitino dark matter, namely gamma rays, positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons and neutrinos. Comparison to cosmic-ray data can be used to constrain the parameters of the model. (orig.)

  5. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality as a Moderator for the Influences of Parents' Religiousness on Adolescents' Religiousness and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…

  6. 34 CFR 75.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 75.561 Section 75.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met... Education is the cognizant agency, the Secretary approves an indirect cost rate for a grantee other than...

  7. 34 CFR 75.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General indirect cost rates; exceptions. 75.560 Section... principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at 34 CFR 74.27; (3... CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have obtained a current indirect cost rate agreement from its...

  8. 34 CFR 75.564 - Reimbursement of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reimbursement of indirect costs. 75.564 Section 75.564 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met... accordance with the restrictions in 34 CFR 76.564 through 76.569. (e)(1) Indirect costs for a group...

  9. 34 CFR 76.561 - Approval of indirect cost rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of indirect cost rates. 76.561 Section 76.561 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must.... (a) If the Department of Education is the cognizant agency, the Secretary approves an indirect...

  10. 34 CFR 76.560 - General indirect cost rates; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the cost principles for— (1) Institutions of higher education, at 34 CFR 74.27; (2) Hospitals, at... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General indirect cost rates; exceptions. 76.560 Section... organizations, at 34 CFR 80.22. (b) A grantee must have a current indirect cost rate agreement to...

  11. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  12. Preliminary Study of Indirect Neutron Radiography Method at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Guo-hai; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; HE; Lin-feng; WANG; Yu; WU; Mei-mei; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    The Indirect Neutron Radiography is a powerful technique for non-destructively measuring specimens with radioactivity in the nuclear industrial field.China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR)is an excellent platform for Indirect Neutron Radiography and the experimental conditions based on CARR,mainly the first and the second exposure time,have been calculated and analyzed by the Monte Carlo

  13. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the non-liter

  14. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  15. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  16. Correlations between direct and indirect strength test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kallu Raj; Roghanchi Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties associated with performing direct compression strength tests on rocks lead to the devel-opment of indirect test methods for the rock strength assessment. Indirect test methods are simple, more economical, less time-consuming, and easily adaptable to the field. The main aim of this study was to derive correlations between direct and indirect test methods for basalt and rhyolite rock types from Carlin trend deposits in Nevada. In the destructive methods, point load index, block punch index, and splitting tensile strength tests are performed. In the non-destructive methods, Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests are performed. Correlations between the direct and indirect compression strength tests are developed using linear and nonlinear regression analysis methods. The results show that the splitting tensile strength has the best correlation with the uniaxial compression strength. Furthermore, the Poisson’s ratio has no correlation with any of the direct and indirect test results.

  17. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. PMID:25079674

  18. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin;

    2012-01-01

    correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework......The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...... for systematic classification of indirect control strategies. The concepts developed then enable a discussion of control performance and valuation of direct- and indirect control strategies....

  19. Direct and Indirect Relations between Perceived Parental Acceptance, Perceptions of the Self, and Emotional Adjustment during Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Jacqueline V.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 214 sixth- and seventh-graders (50% girls) found that boys had lower anxiety and depression and higher self-worth and satisfaction with physical appearance. For girls, parental acceptance significantly predicted girls' self-worth, perceived attractiveness, and social and school competence. (SK)

  20. Focal Adjustment for Star Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-bo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Technique of measuring intensity distribution and size of spot image developed has been discussed, which is especially suitable for defocus adjustment in ground test of star tracker. A novel approach for choosing a proper defocusing position has been proposed based on collimator, Gaussian surface fitting method, and other ordinary instruments. It proves to be practical and adequate in the development of distant object tracking such as star tracker.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(6, pp.678-682, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.36

  1. Marginal Adaptation of Indirect Composite, Glass-Ceramic Inlays and Direct Composite: An In Vitro Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mahboub

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This experimental in vitro study compared marginal adaptation of indirect composite, glass-ceramic inlays and direct composite.Materials and Methods: Seventy-five recently extracted human molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=25 and mesio-occluso-distal cavities with the same dimensions were prepared in the teeth. Indirect composite and glass-ceramic inlays were fabricatedfollowing manufacturer's instructions and the marginal gap was measured by a stereomicroscope at magnification 40× before cementation. After cementation of inlays and restoring the third group by direct composite, all the specimens were thermocycled and the marginal gaps were measured exactly as previously described. Repeated measure ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test were used for pairwise comparison of occlusal, proximal, and gingival marginal gaps in each group. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test wereused for comparison of mean marginal gap in the three groups and for comparison of marginal gap before and after cementation in inlays, paired T-test was used.Results: The marginal gap of direct composite (19.96 μm was significantly lower than that of indirect composite inlay (48.47 μm, which in itself was significantly lower than that of glass-ceramic inlay (60.96 μm. In all the restorations, marginal gap in the gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal and proximal margins. The marginal gap of inlays did not change after cementation and thermocycling.Conclusion: This study indicated that the marginal gaps of the evaluated restorations are less than 100 μm, which is clinically acceptable.

  2. Which is Easier, Adjusting to a Similar or to a Dissimilar Culture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The intuitively paradoxical research proposition that it could be as difficult for business expatriates to adjust to a similar as to a dissimilar host culture is tested in this exploratory study. Based on data from a mail survey, a comparison of American business expatriates in Canada and Germany...... respectively did not reveal any difference in their extent of adjustment. Besides a significant between-group difference in cultural distance, confirming that the American expatriates perceived Canada as more culturally similar to America than Germany, no significant inter-group differences were detected for...... general adjustment, interaction adjustment, work adjustment and psychological adjustment.  Neither was there a difference in the time-related variable; time to proficiency. Although highly tentative, the suggestion that the degree of cultural similarity/dissimilarity may be irrelevant as to how easily...

  3. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meghan A; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers' and fathers' parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with lower parenting self-efficacy, but self-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting satisfaction. For fathers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting stress, whereas higher levels of self-oriented parenting perfectionism were associated with higher parenting self-efficacy, lower parenting stress, and greater parenting satisfaction. These findings support the distinction between societal- and self-oriented perfectionism, extend research on perfectionism to interpersonal adjustment in the parenting domain, and provide the first evidence for the potential consequences of holding excessively high standards for parenting. PMID:22328797

  4. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  5. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  6. Binding energies of indirect excitons in double quantum well systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossokhaty, Alex; Schmult, Stefan; Dietsche, Werner; von Klitzing, Klaus; Kukushkin, Igor

    2011-03-01

    A prerequisite towards Bose-Einstein condensation is a cold and dense system of bosons. Indirect excitons in double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (DQWs) are believed to be suitable candidates. Indirect excitons are formed in asymmetric DQW structures by mass filtering, a method which does not require external electric fields. The exciton density and the electron-hole balance can be tuned optically. Binding energies are measured by a resonant microwave absorption technique. Our results show that screening of the indirect excitons becomes already relevant at densities as low as ~ 5 × 109 cm-2 and results in their destruction.

  7. Indirect Taxes in Romania – an Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Penu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect taxes have a significant weight in the GDP. Statistical data reveals that the new states that joined the EU in its funding sources to the greatest extent through indirect taxes. They reveal, on the one hand, reducing the tax burden on the producer, and on the other hand, the difficulty faced by the country in direct tax collection, but also some problems of social nature. This article proposes an econometric analysis of the relationship between indirect taxes and household final consumption expenditure.

  8. Anchoring Adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hammad, Siddiqi

    2015-01-01

    An anchoring adjusted Capital Asset Pricing Model (ACAPM) is developed in which the payoff volatilities of well-established stocks are used as starting points that are adjusted to form volatility judgments about other stocks. Anchoring heuristic implies that such adjustments are typically insufficient. ACAPM converges to CAPM with correct adjustment, so CAPM is a special case of ACAPM. The model provides a unified explanation for the size, value, and momentum effects in the stock market. A ke...

  9. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  10. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  11. IFRSs and Czech Accounting Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulcová, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the master´s thesis is the comparison of the financial statements prepared in compliance with Czech accounting legislation and in compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IAS/IFRS). This thesis deals with the differences in reporting under Czech accounting legislation and IAS/IFRS in selected company and subsequent assessment of the impact of changes to the image of the company.

  12. Neighborhood Assets and Adolescent Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Oliva Delgado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study analyzing the relationship between some dimensions or developmental assets in the neighborhood, as measured by the Scale for the Assessment of Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood, and adjustment and life satisfaction of adolescent boys and girls. The sample consisted of 2400 adolescents (1068 boys and 1332 girls between ages 12 and 17 who were secondary students in public and private schools in Western Andalusia. The results showed significant relationships between most dimensions of the scale (youth empowerment, attachment to neighbourhood safety and social control and internalizing and externalizing problems, substance use and life satisfaction of participants. Moreover, the data provide evidence about the external validity of the scale used in the study. From the results some suggestions for intervention in the community environment are extracted.

  13. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain. PMID:22029555

  14. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  15. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  16. Indirect Cost Recovery as an Issue of Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The history of the debate over federal efforts to reduce indirect cost recovery in federal research grants to universities is outlined and discussed by a former university administrator involved in the policy's formation. (MSE)

  17. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  18. A study on consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Wang Yuxin; Feng Jicai

    2009-01-01

    A consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding method has been studied. This method is different from the traditional TIG welding because it introduces an MIG welding torch into the traditional TIG welding system. An indirect arc is generated between the consumable electrode of the MIG welding torch and the tungsten electrode of the TIG welding torch, but not generated between the tungsten electrode of the welding torch and the base metal. Welding current flows from the consumable electrode to the tungsten electrode in the free-burning indirect arc. The consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding not only rapidly melts the welding wire but also effectively restrains the excessive fusion of the base metal. The welding experiment and the theoretical analysis confirm that this method can obtain a high deposition rate and a low dilution ratio during the welding process.

  19. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  20. Relationship between the Personality and Gender and the Adjustment to a Foreign Culture: Comparative Research between Expatriates and Business Trip Travelers

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Ornoy; Goni Levi- Nishri; Liad Uziel

    2014-01-01

    The research examines how personality characteristics and gender influence adjustment to a foreign culture among workers participating in one of two international assignment types: expatriation and frequent business trips. The research presents first evidence of relationships between personality and adjustment among business travelers, joins previous findings of relationships between personality characteristics and adjustment to a foreign culture among expatriates, and enables comparison betw...

  1. Indirect NMR detection of 235U in gaseous uranium hexafluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Ursu, I.; Demco, D.E.; Bogdan, M.; Fitori, P.; Darabont, A.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility to use nuclear magnetic resonance in indirect detection of the 235U nucleus in gaseous UF6 is discussed. The 19F absorption spectra linewidths in gaseous UF6 was investigated as a function of 235U enrichment, revealing a dependence on the isotope concentration. The 19F-235U indirect scalar coupling modulated by 235U quadrupole relaxation is the relaxation mechanism responsible for this enrichment effect.

  2. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indirect costs of GHG projects are very important in the evaluation of such projects. In many cases they are more important than the direct costs. This paper has shown what such costs consist of and how they may be estimated. As countries prepare their mitigation strategies, it is very important that they develop tools for the assessment of these indirect costs and use these tools in the appropriate manner. Hopefully, this paper will point them in the right direction. (au) 11 refs

  3. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amit Sharma; Manish Dev Shrimali

    2011-11-01

    The dynamics of indirectly coupled Lorenz circuits is investigated experimentally. The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev. E 81, 046216 (2010) is verified by physical experiments with electronic circuits. Two chaotic systems coupled through a common dynamic environment shows the verity of synchronization behaviours such as anti-phase synchronization, in-phase synchronization, identical synchronization, anti-synchronization, etc.

  4. Drug Addiction and Manifestations of Indirect Self- Destructiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis; Wojciech Gruszczyński; Marta Tsirigotis-Maniecka

    2015-01-01

    Use and particularly abuse of psychoactive substances is considered a typical form of self-destructive behaviour; addiction itself, meanwhile is regarded as one of the forms of self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness is considered behaviour whose negative consequences are mediated by additional factors, while the relationship between the behaviour and harm is considered probable. Indirect self-destructiveness understood in that way includes not only undertaking but also abandoning...

  5. Indirect Network Effects, Trade Liberalization, and Excess Standardization

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasa, Kazumichi; Kikuchi, Toru

    2007-01-01

    Indirect network effects exist when the utility of consumers is increasing in the variety of complementary software products available for use with an electronic hardware device. In this study, we examine how trade liberalization affects production structure in the presence of indirect network effects. For these purposes we construct a simple two-country model of trade with two incompatible hardware technologies. It is shown that, given that both types of hardware exist before trade liberaliz...

  6. Optimization of heat exchanger for indirectly heated water heater

    OpenAIRE

    Kaduchová Katarína; Lenhard Richard; Jandačka Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Due to the optimization of geometrical parameters of the heat exchanger in indirect heated water heaters created a mathematical model of heating hot water, by which I have subsequently made the simulation of the device to change its geometrical parameters. Based on these results, the impacts of the geometrical parameters affect the performance of the heat exchanger. The results of the optimization to create a CFD model which watched at the behavior of optimized heat exchanger for indirect hea...

  7. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  8. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise;

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition...... of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from...... the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases) aged 50-70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22-125) extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person...

  9. Prokaryotic Expression and Applicability Comparison of FiveBrucella Proteins as Antigens in Indirect ELISAs%布鲁氏菌5种蛋白的原核表达及其作为间接ELISA检测用抗原的适用性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 南文龙; 巩明霞; 张悦勇; 彭大新; 陈义平

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the applicability of different coating antigens in indirect-ELISA(iELISA)for detecting Brucella antibodies,BP26,OMP16,CP39,SP41and eryC ofBrucella were expressed with prokaryotic system,purified and used as coating antigens respectively in iELISA assays and their effects were compared. The results showed the expressed recombinant BP26,OMP16,CP39,SP41and eryC were about 38 ku,21ku,30ku,51ku and 38ku respectively, and all of them were recognized byBrucella positive serum. All the five iELISA assays had no cross-reactivity with bovine tuberculosis or bovine viral diarrhea sera. Detection of 28 reference serum samples showed that the iELISA with BP26 as coating antigen had the highest P/N value. A parallel detection of 48 clinical serum samples was carried out, and compared to the results of commercial kits(IDEXX),the agreements were 87.5 % for BP26-iELISA,87.5 % for OMP16-iELISA,89.6 % for CP39-iELISA,85.4 % for SP41-iELISA and 79.2 % for eryC-iELISA. In conclusion,the effect of BP26 used as antigen in iELISA was relatively ideal.%为比较布鲁氏菌蛋白BP26、OMP16、CP39、SP41、eryC作为间接ELISA检测用抗原的适用性,本研究原核表达并纯化了这5种蛋白,分别以其作为包被抗原,对反应条件进行优化,建立了布鲁氏菌病5种血清抗体间接ELISA检测方法。结果显示,重组蛋白BP26、OMP16、CP39、SP41、eryC大小分别约为32 ku、21 ku、30 ku、51 ku和38 ku,均可被布鲁氏菌阳性血清所识别,具有良好的免疫反应性。利用5种重组蛋白作为包被抗原建立的间接ELISA方法,与牛结核、牛病毒性腹泻等常见牛病阳性血清之间无交叉反应;对28份阴、阳性参考血清进行检测,以BP26作为包被抗原建立的间接ELISA P/N值最高。利用建立的方法和IDEXX试剂盒对48份临床血清样品进行平行检测,重组蛋白BP26、OMP16、CP39、SP41、eryC相应ELISA方法的符合率分别为87.5%、87.5%、89.6%

  10. Automatic Adjustment of Wide-Base Google Street View Panoramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussias-Alexakis, E.; Tsironisa, V.; Petsa, E.; Karras, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection) is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  11. Social Adjustment of Women With and Without a Substance Abusing Partner

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Clifton R.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Clements, Nicolle T.; Benishek, Lois A.; Nick, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Little normative information is available about the psychosocial functioning of women who have a substance abusing intimate partner. This study examined whether the social adjustment of women who indicate that they have a substance abusing partner (n=69) is compromised relative to that of women who indicate that their partner does not abuse substances (n=68). Women with a substance abusing partner reported compromised social adjustment relative to a comparison sample both overall and in five ...

  12. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  13. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  14. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  15. Risk-adjusted monitoring of blood-stream infection in paediatric intensive care: a data linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    Harron, K.; WADE, A.; Muller-Pebody, B; Goldstein, H.; Parslow, R.; Gray, J.; Hartley, J. C.; Mok, Q; Gilbert, R.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: National monitoring of variation in the quality of infection control in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) requires comparisons of risk-adjusted rates. To inform the development of a national monitoring system, we evaluated the effects of risk-adjustment and outcome definition on comparisons of blood-stream infection (BSI) rates in PICU, using linkage of risk-factor data captured by national audit (PICANet) with laboratory records of BSI. METHODS: Admission data for two children...

  16. 77 FR 63804 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning Indirect Cost Rates. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this... Information Collection 9000- 0069, Indirect Cost Rates, by any of the following methods:...

  17. Indirect and Mixed Direct-Indirect Heat Integration of Batch Processes Based on Pinch Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Favrat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper introduces a methodology for the heat integration of industrial batch processes. Based on Pinch Analysis principles, this methodology resorts to intermediate heat storage to prevent adverse effects on the operating flexibility, which are often associated with direct heat exchange only. A systematic procedure, backed with a graphical representation, allows the determination of the minimum number of heat storage units assuming vertical heat transfer and their range of feasible operation as a function of the amount of heat recovery. Understanding the cause and the bottleneck effect of the socalled storage pinch, heuristic rules are proposed to screen major options corresponding to minimum cost solutions. For a given number of heat storage units, these rules could be automated to a large extent, making the procedure suitable for targeting purposes. The operating temperature of the heat storage units can be optimized with ease, while other continuous degrees of freedom are more difficult to address using the proposed methodology. Preliminary guidelines are proposed to extend the methodology to mixed direct-indirect heat integration.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS’00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000 and revised

  18. Statistical implications of adjustments of raw ILI (In-Line Inspection) data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timashev, Svyatoslav A.; Bushinskaya, Anna V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Ural Branch. Sciences and Engineering Center ' Reliability and Safety of Large Systems and Machines'

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes the implications and inferences that inevitably arise when deliberate 'adjustments' of raw MFL ILI data are made when delivering the final report on conducted ILI and/or performing defect sizing and reliability assessments needed for pipeline integrity management plans (IMPs). The root causes of data adjustments are discussed, main types of adjustments are classified and the consequences as related to pipeline residual life, reliability and safety are described. A comparison is performed between adjustment and the full statistical analysis (FSA), as applied to raw ILI and verification data. The consequences of defect data adjustment as related to pipeline reliability and POF and possible litigation issues are discussed. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the application of the FSA method to the results of ILI and verification measurements on pipelines that are located on three continents. Some assessments of the actual reliability of pipelines with defects are given. (author)

  19. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  20. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  1. An adjustment cost model of distributional dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew, Yoseph; Basu, Parantap

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the distributional e¤ects of adjustment cost in an environment with incomplete capital market. We find that a higher adjustment cost for human capital acquisition slows down the intergenerational mobility and results in a persistent inequality across generations. A low depreciation cost of human capital contributes to longer life of the capital which could elevate this adjustment cost and hence contribute to this inequality persistence. A lower total factor productivity could hurt...

  2. Trade Liberalization and Trade Adjustment Assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, K. C.; Staiger, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the relationship between trade adjustment subsidies and successful reciprocal trade liberalization. We consider economies that are faced with a periodic need to move resources out of a declining import-competing sector, and that are attempting to sustain cooperative but self-enforcing trade agreements in the face of these adjustment needs. If the limitations associated with enforcement of international trade agreements are sufficiently severe, trade adjustment assistance can facili...

  3. Attitude-adjusting table for neutron monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron monochromator attitude-adjusting table is one of the mechanical components for most monochromatic neutron scattering spectrometer. It is mainly used for mounting crystal monochromator, and getting monochromatic neutron by adjusting the attitude of monochromator remotely. The table has a compact volume and five adjusting axes with high resolution. It combines optic mechanical electronic technique with computer control technique. This device will be applied to the neutron residual stress spectrometer on CARR firstly. (authors)

  4. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  5. Implementation of Risk Adjustment for Medicare

    OpenAIRE

    Ingber, Melvin J.

    2000-01-01

    The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) implemented risk adjustment for Medicare capitated organizations January 2000. The risk adjustment system used, the Principal Inpatient Diagnostic Cost Group (PIPDCG) method, had to be incorporated into the payment structure mandated by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA). This article describes how risk adjustment was integrated into the payment system within the rules of the BBA, and how fee-for-service (FFS) and health maintenance organizat...

  6. Is Emotional Adjustment Status Predictor of the IUD Survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Farajzadegan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of emotional adjustment on IUD continuation to understand why persons with similar clinical problems have different interpretation and select different strategies to cope with their complaints.Materials and Methods: This historical cohort study was carried out on 12 randomly chosen health centers of Isfahan province in 2007. Two hundred forty eight literate and married women aged 15-49 years who had chosen IUD as a contraceptive method since 2002 entered the study. After explaining the aim of study and taking informed consent, women completed the demographic, individual characteristics and 32 questions in emotional domain of Bell’s Adjustment Inventory (adult form. May 2007 was considered the end time of IUD consumption as a defined outcome. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS version 15. T–test, chi–square, Mann–Whitney, General Linear Model, Regression were used for data analysis.Results: During this period 60% (146 of women preserved their IUD and 40% (98 of them removed their IUD. The mean score of emotional adjustment was 16.16±6.28 in IUD preserved women in comparison to 18.23±5.63 in IUD removed women. Poor ,moderate and good  grades of emotional adjustment were 54%, 40% and 6% in IUD preserved woman vs 72.4% , 24.5% and 3.1% in IUD removed women.Conclusion: Psychological factors such as emotional adjustment can influence IUD survival; so improved counseling and good candidate selection before IUD insertion is recommended.

  7. Selection for components of complex characteristics - indirect selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hierarchy of complexity exists in plant characteristics. The efficiency of indirect selection for a complex characteristic by a sub-trait depends on the heritability of the complex characteristic (hsub(c)), the heritability of the sub-trait (hsub(s)), and the genotypic correlation between sub-trait and complex characteristic (rsub(s.c)). In 1961 hsub(s)Xrsub(s.c)>hsub(c) was postulated, when indirect selection becomes more efficient than direct selection. Numerical examples for this relationship are given and a table for indirect selection for yield in wheat is elaborated. Efficiency ranking of sub-traits in indirect selection may change with climate, conditions of cultivation, the level of other sub-traits, the level of the complex characteristic already reached by breeding, and the breeding material. An example shows that regression analysis for different sub-traits on the same complex characteristic, and an estimation of the differences of the within - and the between - variety slopes, may help to select the more efficient sub-trait. In another example, where simultaneous selection was made for two polygenic characteristics, one directly and the other indirectly by two sub-traits, less than half the F5-lines had to be continued, when using the more efficient sub-trait. (author)

  8. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Mach, Megan E; Martone, Rebecca G; Singh, Gerald G; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M A

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  9. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  10. Variance Analysis and Adaptive Sampling for Indirect Light Path Reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Qin; Xin Sun; Jun Yan; Qi-Ming Hou; Zhong Ren; Kun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the estimation variance of a set of global illumination algorithms based on indirect light path reuse. These algorithms usually contain two passes — in the first pass, a small number of indirect light samples are generated and evaluated, and they are then reused by a large number of reconstruction samples in the second pass. Our analysis shows that the covariance of the reconstruction samples dominates the estimation variance under high reconstruction rates and increasing the reconstruction rate cannot effectively reduce the covariance. We also find that the covariance represents to what degree the indirect light samples are reused during reconstruction. This analysis motivates us to design a heuristic approximating the covariance as well as an adaptive sampling scheme based on this heuristic to reduce the rendering variance. We validate our analysis and adaptive sampling scheme in the indirect light field reconstruction algorithm and the axis-aligned filtering algorithm for indirect lighting. Experiments are in accordance with our analysis and show that rendering artifacts can be greatly reduced at a similar computational cost.

  11. Stability Concerns for Indirect Consumer Control in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    by an external third party, and indirect consumer control through incentives and price signals. In this work we present a simple formulation of indirect control, where the behavior of each consumer, is governed by local optimization of energy consumption. The local optimization accounts for both cost of energy...... and distribution losses, as well as any discomfort incurred by consumers from any shift in energy consumption. Our work will illustrate that in the simplest formulation of indirect control, the stability is greatly affected of both the behavior of consumers, and the number of consumers to include. We will show how......Demand side management will be an important tool for maintaining a balanced electrical grid in the future, when the penetration of volatile resources, such as wind and solar energy increases. Recent research focuses on two different management approaches, namely direct consumer control...

  12. Measuring indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Aisleen; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2016-08-17

    Widespread introduction of rotavirus vaccines has led to major reductions in the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis worldwide. Vaccine effectiveness is diminished, however, in low income countries, that harbour the greatest burden of rotavirus attributed morbidity and mortality. Indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine (herd immunity and herd protection) could increase population level impact and improve vaccine cost effectiveness in such settings. While rotavirus vaccine indirect effects have been demonstrated in high and middle income countries, there are very little data from low income countries where force of infection, population structures and vaccine schedules differ. Targeted efforts to evaluate indirect effects of rotavirus vaccine in low income countries are required to understand the total impact of rotavirus vaccine on the global burden of rotavirus disease. PMID:27443593

  13. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unfamiliar individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse help to the bad should be assessed. Here we propose a new simple norm called 'Staying' that prescribes to abstain from assessment, with the focal individual's image remaining unchanged, if its opponent has a bad image. We fully analyse the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and unveil that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation, compared to the prevailing social norms which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The excellence of Staying suggests the limi...

  14. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (Pzirconia. PMID:27555895

  15. Inertial fusion energy development approaches for direct and indirect drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration of different driver and target requirements for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants together with the potential energy gains of direct and indirect-drive targets leads to different optimal combinations of driver and target options for each type of target. In addition, different fusion chamber concepts are likely to be most compatible with these different driver and target combinations. For example, heavy-ion drivers appear to be well matched to indirect-drive targets with all-liquid-protected-wall chambers requiring two-sided illuminations, while diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are better matched to direct-drive targets with chambers using solid walls or flow-guiding structures to allow spherically symmetric illuminations. R and D on the critical issues of drivers, targets and chambers for both direct and indirect-drive options should be pursued until the ultimate gain of each type of target for IFE is better understood. (author)

  16. Direct and indirect metabolic CO2 release by humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Duarte

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct CO2 released by respiration of humans and domesticated animals, as well as the CO2 derived from the decomposition of their resulting wastes was calculated in order to ascertain the direct and indirect metabolic contribution of humanity to CO2 release. Human respiration was estimated to release 0.6 Gt C year−1 and that of their associated domestic animals was estimated to release 1.5 Gt C year−1, to which an indirect release of 1.0 Gt C year−1, derived from decomposition of the organic waste and garbage produced by humans and their domestic animals, must be added. These combined direct and indirect metabolic sources, estimated at 3.1 Gt C year−1, has increased 7 fold since pre-industrial times and is forecasted to continue to rise over the 21st century.

  17. The application of artificial neural networks in indirect cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniak, Agnieszka

    2013-10-01

    Estimating of the costs of construction project is one of the most important task in the management of the project. The total costs can be divided into direct costs that are related to executing the works, and indirect costs that accompany delivery. A precise costs estimation is usually a highly labour and time-intensive task especially when using manual calculation methods. This paper presents Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to predicting index of indirect cost of construction projects in Poland. A quantitative study was undertaken on the factors conditioning indirect costs of polish construction projects and a determination was made of the actual costs incurred by enterprises during project implementation. As a result of these studies, a data set was assembled covering 72 real-life cases of building projects constructed in Poland.

  18. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  19. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  20. Direct and indirect costs of Multiple Sclerosis in Baix Llobregat (Catalonia, Spain, according to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubieras Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is an incurable chronic disease that predominantly affects young adults. It has a high socio-economic impact which increases as disability progresses. An assessment of the real costs of MS may contribute to our knowledge of the disease and to treat it more efficiently. Our objective is to assess the direct and indirect costs of MS from a societal perspective, in patients monitored in our MS Unit (Baix Llobregat, Catalonia and grouped according to their disability (EDSS. Methods We analysed data from 200 MS patients, who answered a questionnaire on resource consumption, employment and economical status. Mean age was 41.6 years, mean EDSS 2.7, 65.5% of patients were female, 79.5% had a relapsing-remitting course, and 67.5% of them were receiving immunomodulatory treatment (IT. Patients were grouped into five EDSS stages. Data from the questionnaires, hospital charts, Catalan Health Service tariffs, and figures from Catalan Institute of Statistics were used to calculate the direct and indirect costs. The cost-of-illness method, and the human capital approach for indirect costs, were applied. Sensitivity analyses were performed to strengthen results. Results The mean total annual cost of MS per patient results 24272 euros. This cost varied according to EDSS: 14327 euros (EDSS = 0, 18837 euros (EDSS = 1–3, 27870 euros (EDSS = 3.5–5.5, 41198 euros (EDSS = 6–7 and 52841 euros (EDSS>7.5. When the mean total annual costs was adjusted by the mean % of patients on IT in our Unit (31% the result was 19589 euros. The key-drivers for direct costs were IT in low EDSS stages, and caregiver costs in high stages. Indirect costs were assessed in terms of the loss of productivity when patients stop working. Direct costs accounted for around 60% of total costs in all EDSS groups. IT accounts from 78% to 11% of direct costs, and decreased as disability progressed. Conclusion The total mean social costs of MS in a

  1. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  2. Reflux Laryngitis: Correlation between the Symptoms Findings and Indirect Laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo Dilen da; Niedermeier, Bruno Taccola; Portinho, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Introduction The indirect laryngoscopy has an important role in the characterization of reflux laryngitis. Although many findings are nonspecific, some strongly suggest that the inflammation is the cause of reflux. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between reflux symptoms and the findings of indirect laryngoscopy. Methods We evaluated 27 patients with symptoms of pharyngolaryngeal reflux disease. Results Laryngoscopy demonstrated in all patients the presence of hypertrophy of the posterior commissure and laryngeal edema. The most frequent symptoms were the presence of dry cough and foreign body sensation. Conclusion There was a correlation between the findings at laryngoscopy and symptoms of reflux.

  3. Pulsewidth Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Indirect Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Poh Chiang, Loh; Gao, Feng;

    2008-01-01

    , an indirect matrix converter is constructed by connecting a front-end bidirectional rectification stage to a conventional two-level inversion stage with no bulky capacitive or inductive energy storage connected to their intermediate dc link. Through the proper modulation and compensation of the resulting...... converter, sinusoidal input current and output voltage can be achieved with minimized rectification switching loss, rendering the indirect matrix converter as a competitive choice for interfacing the utility grid to, e.g., defense facilities that require a different frequency supply. As an improvement...

  4. Examination of Newton's Method Used for Indirect Frequency Offset Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dzubera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the topic of an indirect carrier frequency offset estimation and elimination. The main goal is to modify a conventional method as an attempt to develop a different approach and then to compare the performance of the modified method with the performance of the conventional one. The conventional approach is here represented by the gradient optimization method called the steepest descent. It is the base for the modification which utilizes Newton's method for the indirect carrier offset estimation. Both algorithms are implemented as phase-locked loops in a model of communication system. The simulation is processed in Matlab.

  5. Perawatan Indirect Pulp Capping pada Gigi Tetap Muda (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanty Ariany

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for young permanent teeth with deep carious lesion that on radiographic examination close to the pulp and without symptoms and sign of pulp degeneration are indirect pulp capping. The aim of this technique is to maintain pulp vitality. Material used for this treatment must be able to stimulate reparative dentin, such as calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide eugenol, glass ionomer cement and bonding agent. This paper reported indirect pulp capping on young permanent tooth with deep carious lesion. After 7 months of observation there was no symptom and on radiographic examination showed reparative dentin.

  6. A review of indirect searches for particle dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    The indirect detection of dark matter annihilation and decay using observations of photons, charged cosmic rays, and neutrinos offers a promising means of identifying the particle nature of this elusive component of the universe. The last decade has seen substantial advances in observational data sets, complemented by new insights from numerical simulations, which together have enabled for the first time strong constraints on dark matter particle models, and have revealed several intriguing hints of possible signals. This review provides an introduction to indirect detection methods and an overview of recent results in the field.

  7. Indirect linear locally distributed damping of coupled systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick BEYRATH

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove indirect internal stabilization results for different coupled systems with linear locally distributed damping (coupled wave equations, wave equations with different speeds of propagation. In our case, a linear local damping term appears only in the first equation whereas no damping term is applied to the second one (this is indirect stabilization, see [11]. Using thepiecewise multiplier method we prove that the full system is stabilized and that the total energy of the solution of this system decays polynomially.

  8. Ultrafast tuneable optical delay line based on indirect photonic transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Beggs, Daryl M; Kampfrath, Tobias; Rotenberg, Nir; Kuipers, L; Krauss, Thomas F; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.213901

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an indirect photonic transition and demonstrate its use in a dynamic delay line to alter the group velocity of an optical pulse. Operating on an ultrafast time scale, we show continuously tuneable delays of up to 20 ps, using a slow light photonic crystal waveguide only 300 $\\mu$m in length. Our approach is flexible, in that individual pulses in a pulse stream can be controlled independently, which we demonstrate by operating on pulses separated by just 30 ps. The two-step indirect transition is demonstrated here with a 30% conversion efficiency.

  9. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  10. 75 FR 59684 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service... analyzed by USDA's Economic Research Service and reviewed by the Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers... adjustment assistance in FY 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Trade Adjustment Assistance for...

  11. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  12. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  13. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  14. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  15. Research on Adjust Time of Premium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  16. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  17. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2... applicable) penalty amount 20 U.S.C. 1015(c)(5) Provides for a fine of up to $25,000 for failure by...

  18. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  19. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  20. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  1. Population-Level Impact of Ontario's Infant Rotavirus Immunization Program: Evidence of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Wilson

    Full Text Available To evaluate the direct and indirect population impact of rotavirus (RV immunization on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE in Ontario before and after the publicly-funded RV immunization program.Administrative data was used to identify ED visits and hospitalizations for all Ontarians using ICD-10 codes. We used two outcome definitions: RV-specific AGE (RV-AGE and codes representing RV-, other viral and cause unspecified AGE ("overall AGE". The pre-program and public program periods were August 1, 2005 to July 31, 2011; and August 1, 2011 to March 31, 2013, respectively. A negative binominal regression model that included the effect of time was used to calculate rates and rate ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for RV-AGE and overall AGE between periods, after adjusting for age, seasonality and secular trends. Analyses were conducted for all ages combined and age stratified.Relative to the pre-program period, the adjusted RRs for RV-AGE and overall AGE hospitalizations in the public program period were 0.29 (95%CI: 0.22-0.39 and 0.68 (95%CI: 0.62-0.75, respectively. Significant reductions in RV-AGE hospitalizations were noted overall and for the following age bands: = 65 years (RR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.72-0.90. The program was associated with adjusted RRs of 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20-0.52 for RV-AGE ED visits and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96 for overall AGE ED visits.This large, population-based study provides evidence of the impact of RV vaccine in preventing hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE, including herd effects.

  2. The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome in Georgia: direct and indirect costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brimmer Dana J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating chronic illness affecting at least 4 million people in the United States. Understanding its cost improves decisions regarding resource allocation that may be directed towards treatment and cure, and guides the evaluation of clinical and community interventions designed to reduce the burden of disease. Methods This research estimated direct and indirect costs of CFS and the impact on educational attainment using a population-based, case-control study between September 2004 and July 2005, Georgia, USA. Participants completed a clinical evaluation to confirm CFS, identify other illnesses, and report on socioeconomic factors. We estimated the effect of CFS on direct medical costs (inpatient hospitalizations, provider visits, prescription medication spending, other medical supplies and services and loss in productivity (employment and earnings with a stratified sample (n = 500 from metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia. We adjusted medical costs and earnings for confounders (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and geographic strata using econometric models and weighted estimates to reflect response-rate adjusted sampling rates. Results Individuals with CFS had mean annual direct medical costs of $5,683. After adjusting for confounding factors, CFS accounted for $3,286 of these costs (p Conclusions Study results indicate that chronic fatigue syndrome may lead to substantial increases in healthcare costs and decreases in individual earnings. Studies have estimated up to 2.5% of non-elderly adults may suffer from CFS. In Georgia, a state with roughly 5.5 million people age 18-59, illness could account for $452 million in total healthcare expenditures and $1.2 billion of lost productivity.

  3. Attachment for sucker rod depth adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, N.D.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a surface unit of an oil well pumping system, having a walking beam, a suspended carrier bar and an interconnected sucker rod assembly for stroking a reciprocating down-hole pump. It comprises a cross bar having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly and adapted to be transversely supported by the carrier bar; a depth adjusting bar, having a centrally located passage therein for the sucker rod assembly, positioned at a selected fixed dimension above and parallel to the cross bar and adapted to operatively support the sucker rod assembly; clamping means for fixing the sucker rod relative to the depth adjusting bar; and hydraulically extendable means supportively connecting the depth adjusting bar to the cross bar on at least each side of the carrier bar for adjusting the selected fixed dimension and maintaining the adjustment during operation.

  4. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ] ACTION: Notice and request for...

  5. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads.

  6. Development of subcontractor indirect cost and other direct cost at the DOE Fernald Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) took great strides in the development of cost estimates at Fernald. There have been many opportunities to improve on how the policies and procedures pertaining to cost estimates were to be implemented. As FERMCO took over the existing Fernald facility, the Project Controls Division began to format the estimating procedures and tools to do business at Fernald. The Estimating Department looked at the problems that pre-existed at the site. One of the key problems that FERMCO encountered was how to summarized the direct and indirect accounts of each subcontracted estimate. Direct costs were broken down by prime and sub-prime accounts. This presented a level of detail that had not been experienced at the site before; it also created many issues concerning accounts and definitions to be applied to ''all other accounts associated with a project.'' Existing subcontract indirect cost accounts were reviewed from existing historical estimates. It was found that some were very detailed and some were not. The Estimating Department was given the task of standardizing the accounts and percentages for each of the subcontractor indirect costs. Then, as the project progressed, the percentages could be revised with actual estimates, subcontract comparisons, or with level of effort (LOE) accounts, which would represent qualified people assigned a task for the completion of each project. The approach is to assign particular employees to perform a specific task within a project from start to finish, and then to reassign the individual(s) to a new project (if it was available) integrating the expertise available with the skills required by the other operable units

  7. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra; Mediciones indirectas de espectros de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  8. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan Xiang; Sano, Hideki; Ahn, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese immigrant students' cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students' demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in…

  9. Indirect remote sensing of a cryptic forest understorey invasive species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, C; De Leeuw, J; van Andel, J; Skidmore, AK; Lekhak, HD; van Duren, IC; Norbu, N

    2006-01-01

    Remote sensing has successfully been applied to map the distribution of canopy dominating invasive species. Many invaders however, do not dominate the canopy, and remote sensing has so far not been applied to map such species. In this study, an indirect method was used to map the seed production of

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  11. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Indirect Complaint among Japanese ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This interlanguage pragmatics study of linguistic expressions of affect focuses on how Japanese learners of English may express themselves in an affect-laden speech act of indirect complaint. The English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' data are compared with the baseline data of native speakers of Japanese (JJ) and American English (AA). The…

  12. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.

  13. The trojan horse method as indirect technique in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A; Spitaleri, C; Cherubini, S; Crucilla, V; Fu, C; Gulino, M; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Pizzone, R G; Puglia, S M R; Rapisarda, G G; Romano, S; Sergi, M L [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria - Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Elekes, Z; Fueloep, Z; Gyuerky, G; Kiss, G; Mukhamedzhanov, A [ATOMKI - Debrecen (Hungary); Goldberg, V [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Rolfs, C [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany)], E-mail: tumino@lns.infn.it (and others)

    2008-05-15

    The Trojan Horse Method is a successful indirect technique for nuclear astrophysics. It allows one to measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to the relevant energies, providing a successful alternative path to measure the astrophysical S(E) factor. The basic features will be discussed and some recent results will be presented.

  14. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  15. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO SUPPLIERS OF GOODS AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS §...

  16. 12 CFR 1.100 - Indirect general obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect general obligations. 1.100 Section 1.100 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INVESTMENT SECURITIES... acquisition or operation of public projects in the areas of education, medical care,...

  17. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  18. Indirect measurement of the spectral distribution of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements of the spectral distribution of X-rays is often not possible since photon flux may be too high. It is therefore necessary to use indirect methods; two of these are described, i.e. reduction of photon flux by absorption and measurement of scattered photons at a target. The calculation of primary spectral distribution is discussed and illustrated. (orig.)

  19. Children Mix Direct and Indirect Speech: Evidence from Pronoun Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates children's acquisition of the distinction between direct speech (Elephant said, "I get the football") and indirect speech ("Elephant said that he gets the football"), by measuring children's interpretation of first, second, and third person pronouns. Based on evidence from various linguistic sources, we…

  20. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  1. Indirect heat integration across plants using hot water circles☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenglin Chang; Yufei Wang; Xiao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Total site heat integration (TSHI) provides more opportunities for energy saving in industry clusters. Some design methods including direct integration using process streams and indirect integration using intermediate-fluid cir-cuits, i.e., steam, dowtherms and hot water, have been proposed during last few decades. Indirect heat integration is preferred when the heat sources and sinks are separated in independent plants with rather long distance. This improves energy efficiency by adaption of intermediate fluid circle which acts as a utility provider for plants in a symbiotic network. However, there are some significant factors ignored in conventional TSHI, i.e. the investment of pipeline, cost of pumping and heat loss. These factors simultaneously determine the possibility and perfor-mance of heat integration. This work presents a new methodology for indirect heat integration in low tempera-ture range using hot water circuit as intermediate-fluid medium. The new methodology enables the targeting of indirect heat integration across plants considering the factors mentioned earlier. An MINLP model with economic objective is established and solved. The optimization results give the mass flow rate of intermediate-fluid, diam-eter of pipeline, the temperature of the circuits and the matches of heat exchanger networks (HENS) automati-cally. Finally, the application of this proposed methodology is il ustrated with a case study.

  2. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia.

  3. Social Dilemmas and Indirect Reciprocity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acosta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is an evolutionary theory of altruism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Its explanation of cooperation incorporates information on the reputation people hold of other people regarding whether they are cooperative or not. This study systematically reviewed the current empirical literature on indirect reciprocity in social dilemma situations. The following databases were consulted: ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and OVID, using has key words "indirect reciprocity" AND "dilemma" OR "cooperation" OR "charity". Twenty-three articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria (papers written in English and studies whose methodology was based on experimental games and the theories, objectives, the main types of samples used, and main results were analyzed. The results show that the games used were the indirect reciprocity and public goods games, which may vary according to the objectives. It was found that reputation is a key variable that helps to promote cooperation. In turn, information on previous cooperation helps to build reputation, which is subsequently involved in the decision to cooperate with others. Finally, we highlight the need for more experimental studies that incorporate other explanatory variables and evaluate them in new contexts.

  4. Lack of Noradrenergic Modulation of Indirect Semantic Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyne S. Cios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine and dopamine are both believed to affect signal-to-noise in the cerebral cortex. Dopaminergic agents appear to modulate semantic networks during indirect semantic priming, but do not appear to affect problem solving dependent on access to semantic networks. Noradrenergic agents, though, do affect semantic network dependent problem solving. We wished to examine whether noradrenergic agents affect indirect semantic priming. Subjects attended three sessions: one each after propranolol (40 mg (noradrenergic antagonist, ephedrine (25 mg (noradrenergic agonist, and placebo. During each session, closely related, distantly related, and unrelated pairs were presented. Reaction times for a lexical decision task on the target words (second word in the pair were recorded. No decrease in indirect semantic priming occurred with ephedrine. Furthermore, across all three drugs, a main effect of semantic relatedness was found, but no main effect of drug, and no drug/semantic relatedness interaction effect. These findings suggest that noradrenergic agents, with these drugs and at these doses, do not affect indirect semantic priming with the potency of dopaminergic drugs at the doses previously studied. In the context of this previous work, this suggests that more automatic processes such as priming and more controlled searches of the lexical and semantic networks such as problem solving may be mediated, at least in part, by distinct mechanisms with differing effects of pharmacological modulation.

  5. Estimating Indirect Genetic Effects: Precision of Estimates and Optimum Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant both in natural and domestic populations. Such social interactions cause phenotypes of individuals to depend on genes carried by other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGE). Because IGEs have drastic effects on the rate a

  6. 48 CFR 342.705 - Final indirect cost rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final indirect cost rates. 342.705 Section 342.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACT... necessary, fringe benefit, computer, and other special costing rates for use in contracts awarded to...

  7. Fiscal costs of monetary policy: indirect effects of an interest rate shock on Brazilian public net debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CARVALHO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The paper estimates the fiscal cost of an increase in the Brazilian policy interest rate - the SELIC - by considering not only the direct effect on the yield of public bonds that are indexed to the SELIC, but also indirect effects on: (i the yield of public bonds that are indexed to the exchange rate and inflation, and (ii the stock of public net debt through adjustments in the value of international reserves measured in domestic currency. Projections are based on the estimation of the relationship between interest rates, exchange rates and inflation by means of a vector auto-regression. We conclude that the inclusion of such indirect effects has an ambiguous effect on the response of the implicit interest rate on public net debt to shocks in the SELIC, when adjustments in the value of international reserves are not considered. However, the inclusion of the latter amplifies the fiscal cost of a more restrictive monetary policy. These results call for a better coordination between monetary, fiscal and exchange rate policies in Brazil.

  8. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  9. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  10. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  11. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  12. Effectiveness of indirect evaporative cooling and thermal mass in a hot arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Eduardo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia/Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Civil, Departamento de Construcao Civil, Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165. Curitiba PR, CEP. 80230-901 (Brazil); Gonzalez Cruz, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno (IFAD), Universidad del Zulia, Nucleo Tecnico de LUZ, Av. Goajira (16) con Calle 67, Maracaibo, CP 4011-A-526 (Venezuela); Givoni, Baruch [Department of Architecture, School of Arts and Architecture, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA, and Ben Gurion University (Israel)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we compare results of a long-term temperature monitoring in a building with high thermal mass to indoor temperature predictions of a second building that uses an indirect evaporative cooling system as a means of passive cooling (Vivienda Bioclimatica Prototipo -VBP-1), for the climatic conditions of Sde Boqer, Negev region of Israel (local latitude 30 52'N, longitude 34 46'E, approximately 480 m above sea level). The high-mass building was monitored from January through September 2006 and belongs to a student dormitory complex located at the Sde Boqer Campus of Ben-Gurion University. VBP-1 was designed and built in Maracaibo, Venezuela (latitude 10 34'N, longitude 71 44'W, elevation 66 m above sea level) and had its indoor air temperatures, below and above a shaded roof pond, as well as the pond temperature monitored from February to September 2006. Formulas were developed for the VBP-1, based on part of the whole monitoring period, which represent the measured daily indoor maximum, average and minimum temperatures. The formulas were then validated against measurements taken independently in different time periods. The developed formulas were here used for estimating the building's thermal and energy performance at the climate of Sde Boqer, allowing a comparison of two different strategies: indirect evaporative cooling and the use of thermal mass. (author)

  13. Optimal Control for Bufferbloat Queue Management Using Indirect Method with Parametric Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Radwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because memory buffers become larger and cheaper, they have been put into network devices to reduce the number of loss packets and improve network performance. However, the consequences of large buffers are long queues at network bottlenecks and throughput saturation, which has been recently noticed in research community as bufferbloat phenomenon. To address such issues, in this article, we design a forward-backward optimal control queue algorithm based on an indirect approach with parametric optimization. The cost function which we want to minimize represents a trade-off between queue length and packet loss rate performance. Through the integration of an indirect approach with parametric optimization, our proposal has advantages of scalability and accuracy compared to direct approaches, while still maintaining good throughput and shorter queue length than several existing queue management algorithms. All numerical analysis, simulation in ns-2, and experiment results are provided to solidify the efficiency of our proposal. In detailed comparisons to other conventional algorithms, the proposed procedure can run much faster than direct collocation methods while maintaining a desired short queue (≈40 packets in simulation and 80 (ms in experiment test.

  14. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  15. Indirect Manipulation of a Sphere on a Flat Disk Using Force Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Hara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to verify if only the use of robotic force feedback enables indirect and dynamic manipulations which are difficult for human beings to perform. Human beings usually control the trajectory of an object using visual feedback; force/tactile information are secondarily employed because they are further qualitative in comparison with visual information. However, it is supposed that robots have the potential to perform such the tasks without visual information because force/tactile information can be also used quantitatively in the control system. This paper especially focuses on an indirect manipulation of a sphere on a flat plate realized by employing only force information. In this paper, we propose a very simple method to estimate the position of the sphere on the plate which is put on a multi-fingered robot and try to control the trajectory by changing the fingertip heights based on the error between the desired and estimated positions. We also analyze the stability of the proposed control system with an approximate Lyapunov\\'s stability criterion. Finally, this paper shows very attractive robotic demonstrations based on the proposed method.

  16. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  17. Evaluation of direct and indirect health education in students' knowlege and attitude about AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shojaiyzadeh D

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This inverstigation is a quasi-experimental study comparing the effects of two methods of health education on student's knowledge and attitudes about AIDS. The target population consisted of 218 male undergraduates studying in Payame Noor University in Saghez, Iran. A random sample of 106 students was selected using sample random sampling method. The students were randomly divided into two experimental groups. One group was educated about AIDS using a direct method of health education and indirect method was used for the other group. Using pretest/posttest method of data collection, analysis of the data showed a significant difference between each group's knowledge and attitudes before and after the educational programs. Comparison of the two educational methods showed no significant difference on student's knowledge about AIDS. However, method one (using a direct method of health education was significantly more effective in changing student's attitudes towards AIDS than method 2 (using an indirect method of health education.

  18. Universal size dependence of auger constants in direct- and indirect-gap semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robel, Istvan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gresback, Ryan [U OF MINNESOTA; Kortshagen, Uwe [U OF MINNESOTA

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) spatial confinement of electronic wave functions in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) results in a significant enhancement of multi-electron phenomena including non radiative Auger recombination. In this process, a conduction-band electron recombines with a valence-band hole by transferring the recombination energy to a third carrier. Significant interest in Auger recombination in NCs has been stimulated by recent studies ofNC lasing, and generation-III photovoltaics enabled by carrier multiplication because in both of these prospective applications Auger recombination represents a dominant carrier-loss mechanism. Here, we perform a side-by-side comparison of Auger recombination rates in NCs of several different compositions including Ge, PbSe, InAs, and CdSe. We observe that the only factor, which has a significant effect on the measured recombination rates, is the size of the NCs but not the details of the material's electronic structure. Most surprisingly, comparable rates are measured for nanocrystals of directand indirect-gap semiconductor NCs despite a dramatic four-to-five orders of magnitude difference in respective bulk-semiconductor Auger constants. This unusual observation can be explained by confinement-induced relaxation of momentum conservation, which smears out the difference between direct- and indirect-gap materials.

  19. Merging Children's Oncology Group Data with an External Administrative Database Using Indirect Patient Identifiers: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Li

    Full Text Available Clinical trials data from National Cancer Institute (NCI-funded cooperative oncology group trials could be enhanced by merging with external data sources. Merging without direct patient identifiers would provide additional patient privacy protections. We sought to develop and validate a matching algorithm that uses only indirect patient identifiers.We merged the data from two Phase III Children's Oncology Group (COG trials for de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML with the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS. We developed a stepwise matching algorithm that used indirect identifiers including treatment site, gender, birth year, birth month, enrollment year and enrollment month. Results from the stepwise algorithm were compared against the direct merge method that used date of birth, treatment site, and gender. The indirect merge algorithm was developed on AAML0531 and validated on AAML1031.Of 415 patients enrolled on the AAML0531 trial at PHIS centers, we successfully matched 378 (91.1% patients using the indirect stepwise algorithm. Comparison to the direct merge result suggested that 362 (95.7% matches identified by the indirect merge algorithm were concordant with the direct merge result. When validating the indirect stepwise algorithm using the AAML1031 trial, we successfully matched 157 out of 165 patients (95.2% and 150 (95.5% of the indirectly merged matches were concordant with the directly merged matches.These data demonstrate that patients enrolled on COG clinical trials can be successfully merged with PHIS administrative data using a stepwise algorithm based on indirect patient identifiers. The merged data sets can be used as a platform for comparative effectiveness and cost effectiveness studies.

  20. Regard sur le complément indirect dans la grammaire française à partir du complément direct dans la grammaire espagnole

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Jiménez Juliá; Isabel González Rey

    2012-01-01

    The «complement indirect», in contrast to the «complement direct», has been described by French traditional and current grammars as the functional complement adjoined to the verb through a preposition. This characterization is far from accurate, for it comprises different syntactic behaviours under a single label. The present paper aims to point out the functional diversity that can be discovered within this ambiguous «complement indirect». A brief comparison with descriptions in current Span...

  1. Structure and evolution of CyI cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes in the indirect- and direct-developing sea urchins Heliocidaris tuberculata and Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, J H; Kissinger, J C; Raff, R A

    1995-02-14

    The CyI cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes of Heliocidaris erythrogramma (He), a direct-developing sea urchin, and H. tuberculata, an indirect developer, were isolated and compared to the homologous CyI gene of another indirect developer, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Comparisons show that despite the differences in development, the actin gene structures and sequences are highly similar. The coding and 3' untranslated regions are conserved. The 5' He regulatory region has an inserted repeat element, but is otherwise similar to its homologues in the arrangement of presumptive transcription control elements.

  2. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  3. A note on how to iterate adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagschal, Jehudah J.; Yeivin, Yehuda [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2002-08-01

    We study the elementary problem of adjusting a given parameter library by one measured response so that calculating the response with the adjusted library reproduces the measured value. We formulate the problem of the least-squares adjustment for non-linear responses, and offer a reasoned iteration scheme to solve it. A numerical example illustrates the success of the proposed procedure. Our scheme is identical to that suggested by Perey, and thus adds insight, offers justification, and also serves as a formal proof of the latter. (author)

  4. Prescriptions for Happy Marriage: Adjustments and Satisfactions of Couples Married for 50 or More Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporakowski, Michael J.; Hughston, George A.

    1978-01-01

    Couples who were married 50 or more years were interviewed about what they felt were the most important factors in happy marriage. Their marital satisfactions were assessed over the stages of the family life cycle. Indices of their marital adjustment and personality were examined using a self-perceived, other comparison technique. (Author)

  5. Radiation-initiated conversion of paraffins to engine fuel: Direct and indirect initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metreveli, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of gasoline and diesel fuel has been investigated using three various radiation-induced ways: (1) cracking of wax, (2) synthesis from methane, (3) high-temperature conversion of wax dilute solution in methane. The wax, synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch method, initially contained a mixture of C17-C120 linear paraffins. The yield of wax conversion to liquid mixture (C4-C27 alkenes and 61.5% alkanes) via mode (1) was 0.83±0.09 μmole/J, whereas yield of gas conversion to liquid mixture (C5-C13 alkanes) via mode (2) was 0.95±0.02 μmole/J. In the dilute solution wax underwent indirect action of radiation. In comparison with (1) the mode (3) produces similar amount of lighter fuel containing 80% of alkanes (C5-C15). At the same time degree of methane fixation is almost three times higher.

  6. The Influence of Non-Esterification Biodiesel in AN Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel as alternative energy source of the traditional petroleum fuels has increased interest, because environmental pollution based exhaust emissions from vehicle became serious. The advantage of biodiesel produced from esterification of vegetable and animal oils can be used without the modification of existing diesel engine, but glycerin is generated by production process. In this study, the usability of non-esterification biodiesel as an alternative fuel was investigated in an indirect injection diesel engine. The non-esterification biodiesel has not generated glycerin in esterification process and reduced the 20 percent of cost because it has not used methanol in the production process. Experiments were conducted by using the 5, 10 and 20 percentage of biodiesel and 4 and 8 percentage of biodiesel with 1 and 2 percentage of WDP in baseline diesel fuel. The smoke emission of biodiesel was reduced in comparison with diesel fuel, but power, torque and brake specific energy consumption was similar to diesel fuel.

  7. Prediction of Welding Deformation and Residual Stresses in Fillet Welds Using Indirect Couple Field FE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Khurram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fillet welds are extensively used in shipbuilding, automobile and other industries. Heat concentrated at a small area during welding induces distortions and residual stresses, affecting the structural strength. In this study, indirect coupled-field method is used to predict welding residual stresses and deformation in a fillet joint due to welding on both sides. 3-D nonlinear thermal finite element analysis is performed in ANSYS software followed by a structural analysis. Symmetrical boundary conditions are applied on half of the model for simplification. Results of FE structure analysis predict residual stresses in the specimen. A comparison of simulation results with experimental values proves the authenticity of the technique. The present study can be extended for complex structures and welding techniques.

  8. Decoupling indirect topographic cross-talk in band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sang Mo; Mazet, Lucie; Okatan, M. Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Niu, Gang; Schroeder, Thomas; Schamm-Chardon, Sylvie; Dubourdieu, Catherine; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2016-06-01

    All scanning probe microscopies are subjected to topographic cross-talk, meaning the topography-related contrast in functional images. Here, we investigate the signatures of indirect topographic cross-talk in piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) imaging and spectroscopy and its decoupling using band excitation (BE) method in ferroelectric BaTiO3 deposited on the Si substrates with free standing nanopillars of diameter 50 nm. Comparison between the single-frequency PFM and BE-PFM results shows that the measured signal can be significantly distorted by topography-induced shifts in the contact resonance frequency and cantilever transfer function. However, with proper correction, such shifts do not affect PFM imaging and hysteresis loop measurements. This suggests the necessity of an advanced approach, such as BE-PFM, for detection of intrinsic sample piezoresponse on the topographically non-uniform surfaces.

  9. Direct-to-indirect bandgap transitions in ⟨ 110 ⟩ silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, I. J. T.; Ulyashin, A. G.; Løvvik, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    The bandstructure of ⟨ 110 ⟩ silicon nano wires (SiNWs) with diameters (d) up to 6.1 nm were studied using density functional theory. Three types of surface termination were investigated: H, F, and OH; all giving quantum confinement induced direct bandgaps in the investigated size range. Comparison of the calculated results to reported experimental values showed that trends in the bandstructure behaviour were well reproduced. By studying the relative decrease of global and local minima in the conduction band minimum with increasing d, it was possible to predict a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition at d = 9.2, 9.5, and 11.4 nm for H, F, and OH terminated NWs, respectively.

  10. Overpaying morbidity adjusters in risk equalization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, R C; van Vliet, R C J A; van de Ven, W P M M

    2016-09-01

    Most competitive social health insurance markets include risk equalization to compensate insurers for predictable variation in healthcare expenses. Empirical literature shows that even the most sophisticated risk equalization models-with advanced morbidity adjusters-substantially undercompensate insurers for selected groups of high-risk individuals. In the presence of premium regulation, these undercompensations confront consumers and insurers with incentives for risk selection. An important reason for the undercompensations is that not all information with predictive value regarding healthcare expenses is appropriate for use as a morbidity adjuster. To reduce incentives for selection regarding specific groups we propose overpaying morbidity adjusters that are already included in the risk equalization model. This paper illustrates the idea of overpaying by merging data on morbidity adjusters and healthcare expenses with health survey information, and derives three preconditions for meaningful application. Given these preconditions, we think overpaying may be particularly useful for pharmacy-based cost groups. PMID:26420555

  11. Price adjustments by a gasoline retail chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use daily data to examine price responses in the Swedish gasoline market to changes in the Rotterdam spot price, exchange rates and taxes. The distribution of price adjustments by a leading retail chain, for the period January 1980 to December 1996, is symmetric with no small adjustments. An error correction model shows that, in the short run, prices gradually move towards the long-run equilibrium in response to cost shocks. There is some evidence that, also in the short run, prices are stickier downwards than upwards. Prices respond more rapidly to exchange rate movements than to the spot market price. Our analysis emphasizes that to fully understand price adjustments it is necessary to examine data sets where the sample frequency at least matches that of price adjustments

  12. Speed of adjustment: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Arioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the speed of adjustment for leverage ratios of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul, in order to investigate the prediction of the trade-off theory, regarding capital structure rebalancing. For this purpose, we estimate the speed of adjustment by using Generalized Method of Moments system estimation technique. The results of this estimation suggest the speed of adjustment as approximately 29%. This significant speed of adjustment is consistent with the prediction of trade-off theory, which suggests that firms follow target capital structures and when the firms' leverage ratios deviate from these targets; they make financial decisions with the goal of closing the gap between the previous year's leverage and target leverage of the current period.

  13. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  14. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.

  15. Annual adjustments to 2016 financial benefits

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by the Council in December 2015, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2016.  

  16. A neutron collimator with adjustable radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adjustable neutron collimator for neutron therapy purposes is described. The collimator is designed to give a very sharp radiation field and a high freedom of choice for the radiation geometrics. (L.E.)

  17. Vietnamese Amerasians: Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Amerasians and offers suggestions for directions in psychotherapy. Provides a brief chronology of Amerasian emigration and associated psychological issues, followed by a discussion of myths and generalizations about Amerasians, research findings, and adjustment issues. (RJM)

  18. Continuity Adjustment for Control Charts for Attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.K. Chan; T.K. Mak; B. Tao

    2003-01-01

    A unified approach is proposed for making a continuity adjustment on some control charts for attributes, e.g., np-chart and c-chart, through adding a uniform (0, 1) random observation to the conventional sample statistic (e.g., npi and ci). The adjusted sample statistic then has a continuous distribution. Consequently, given any Type I risk α (the probability that the sample statistic is on or beyond the control limits),control charts achieving the exact value of α can be readily constructed. Guidelines are given for when to use the continuity adjustment control chart, the conventional Shewhart control chart (with ±3 standard deviations control limits), and the control chart based on the exact distribution of the sample statistic before adjustment.

  19. Annual adjustments to 2013 financial benefits

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2012, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2013. HR Department

  20. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Anees; Van der Zee, K.I.; Sanders, G

    2003-01-01

    The adaptation of expatriate families to a host country seems crucial to successful fulfilment of international business assignments. The present study focused on personality, family characteristics and characteristics of expatriates' work life as determinants of the intercultural adjustment of expa