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Sample records for adjusted indirect comparison

  1. Adjusted indirect treatment comparisons of bioequivalence studies

    Gwaza, L

    2016-01-01

    Generic medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator, however, current regulatory systems do not require direct comparison between all available generics of the same innovator to ensure interchangeability. As such, interchangeability be

  2. Survival benefit and additional value of preoperative chemoradiotherapy in resectable gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction cancer: a direct and adjusted indirect comparison meta-analysis.

    Kumagai, K; Rouvelas, I; Tsai, J A; Mariosa, D; Lind, P A; Lindblad, M; Ye, W; Lundell, L; Schuhmacher, C; Mauer, M; Burmeister, B H; Thomas, J M; Stahl, M; Nilsson, M

    2015-03-01

    Several phase I/II studies of chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer have reported promising results, but the significance of preoperative radiotherapy in addition to chemotherapy has not been proven. In this study, a systematic literature search was performed to capture survival and postoperative morbidity and mortality data in randomised clinical studies comparing preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy or chemotherapy versus surgery alone, or preoperative chemoradiotherapy versus chemotherapy for gastric and/or gastro-oesophageal junction (GOJ) cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall mortality were extracted from the original studies, individual patient data provided from the principal investigators of eligible studies or the earlier published meta-analysis. The incidences of postoperative morbidities and mortalities were also analysed. In total 18 studies were eligible and data were available from 14 of these. The meta-analysis on overall survival yielded HRs of 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86, P < 0.001) for preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and 0.83 (95% CI 0.67-1.01, P = 0.065) for preoperative chemotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Direct comparison between preoperative chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in an HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.45-1.12, P = 0.146). Combination of direct and adjusted indirect comparisons yielded an HR of 0.86 (95% CI 0.69-1.07, P = 0.171). No statistically significant differences were seen in the risk for postoperative morbidity or mortality between preoperative treatments and surgery alone, or preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy for gastric and GOJ cancer showed significant survival benefit over surgery alone. In comparisons between preoperative chemotherapy and (chemo)radiotherapy, there is a trend towards improved survival when adding radiotherapy, without increased postoperative morbidity or mortality.

  3. Real medical benefit assessed by indirect comparison.

    Falissard, Bruno; Zylberman, Myriam; Cucherat, Michel; Izard, Valérie; Meyer, François

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, in data packages submitted for Marketing Approval to the CHMP, there is a lack of relevant head-to-head comparisons of medicinal products that could enable national authorities responsible for the approval of reimbursement to assess the Added Therapeutic Value (ASMR) of new clinical entities or line extensions of existing therapies.Indirect or mixed treatment comparisons (MTC) are methods stemming from the field of meta-analysis that have been designed to tackle this problem. Adjusted indirect comparisons, meta-regressions, mixed models, Bayesian network analyses pool results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), enabling a quantitative synthesis.The REAL procedure, recently developed by the HAS (French National Authority for Health), is a mixture of an MTC and effect model based on expert opinions. It is intended to translate the efficacy observed in the trials into effectiveness expected in day-to-day clinical practice in France.

  4. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412.322 Section 412.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  5. Comparison of direct and indirect radionuclide cystography

    Bower, G.; Lovegrove, F.T.; Geijsel, H.; Van der Schaff, A.; Guelfi, G.

    1985-05-01

    Thirty children were studied using both direct (catheter) and indirect techniques of radionuclide cystography. Of 54 ureters able to be compared, six showed vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) on the direct study but were read as negative on the indirect cystogram, and five showed no reflux on the direct cystogram but were read as positive for VUR on the indirect study. Regarding ureters read as true positives on indirect study, if that ureter has ever shown reflux at any time, or if it drained a scarred kidney specificity was improved to 97% without changing the sensitivity. Concerns about the validity of indirect cystogram results and the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct cystogram has made direct cystography our preferred technique.

  6. Assessment and indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking in cohort studies using relative hazards models.

    Richardson, David B; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cole, Stephen R

    2014-11-01

    Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950-2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950-2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer--a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented.

  7. A scoping review of indirect comparison methods and applications using individual patient data

    Areti Angeliki Veroniki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several indirect comparison methods, including network meta-analyses (NMAs, using individual patient data (IPD have been developed to synthesize evidence from a network of trials. Although IPD indirect comparisons are published with increasing frequency in health care literature, there is no guidance on selecting the appropriate methodology and on reporting the methods and results. Methods In this paper we examine the methods and reporting of indirect comparison methods using IPD. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and CINAHL from inception until October 2014. We included published and unpublished studies reporting a method, application, or review of indirect comparisons using IPD and at least three interventions. Results We identified 37 papers, including a total of 33 empirical networks. Of these, only 9 (27 % IPD-NMAs reported the existence of a study protocol, whereas 3 (9 % studies mentioned that protocols existed without providing a reference. The 33 empirical networks included 24 (73 % IPD-NMAs and 9 (27 % matching adjusted indirect comparisons (MAICs. Of the 21 (64 % networks with at least one closed loop, 19 (90 % were IPD-NMAs, 13 (68 % of which evaluated the prerequisite consistency assumption, and only 5 (38 % of the 13 IPD-NMAs used statistical approaches. The median number of trials included per network was 10 (IQR 4–19 (IPD-NMA: 15 [IQR 8–20]; MAIC: 2 [IQR 3–5], and the median number of IPD trials included in a network was 3 (IQR 1–9 (IPD-NMA: 6 [IQR 2–11]; MAIC: 2 [IQR 1–2]. Half of the networks (17; 52 % applied Bayesian hierarchical models (14 one-stage, 1 two-stage, 1 used IPD as an informative prior, 1 unclear-stage, including either IPD alone or with aggregated data (AD. Models for dichotomous and continuous outcomes were available (IPD alone or combined with AD, as were models for time-to-event data (IPD combined with AD. Conclusions One in three indirect comparison

  8. A Comparison between Direct and Indirect Laser Sintering of Metals

    Montasser M.Dewidar; Jae-Kyoo LIM; K.W.Dalgarno

    2008-01-01

    Layer manufacture technologies are gaining increasing attention in the manufacturing for the production of polymer mould tooling. Layer manufacture techniques can be used in this potential manufacturing area to produce tooling either indirectly or directly, and powder metal based layer manufacture systems are considered as an effective way of producing rapid tooling. Mechanical properties and accuracy are critical for tooling. This paper reports the results of an experimental study examining the potential of layer manufacturing processes to deliver production tooling for polymer manufacture. A comparison between indirectly selective laser sintering and directly selective laser sintering to provide the tooling was reported. Three main areas were addressed during the study: mechanical strength, accuracy, and build rate. Overviews of the results from the studies were presented.

  9. [Development of an Excel spreadsheet for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed treatment comparisons].

    Tobías, Aurelio; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Roqué, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses in clinical research usually aimed to evaluate treatment efficacy and safety in direct comparison with a unique comparator. Indirect comparisons, using the Bucher's method, can summarize primary data when information from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent. Mixed comparisons allow combining estimates from direct and indirect comparisons, increasing statistical power. There is a need for simple applications for meta-analysis of indirect and mixed comparisons. These can easily be conducted using a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet. We developed a spreadsheet for indirect and mixed effects comparisons of friendly use for clinical researchers interested in systematic reviews, but non-familiarized with the use of more advanced statistical packages. The use of the proposed Excel spreadsheet for indirect and mixed comparisons can be of great use in clinical epidemiology to extend the knowledge provided by traditional meta-analysis when evidence from direct comparisons is limited or nonexistent.

  10. Conducting Indirect-Treatment-Comparison and Network-Meta-Analysis Studies : Report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: Part 2

    Hoaglin, David C.; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Scott, David A.; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C.; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M.; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for jud

  11. THE POSSIBILITIES AND RESULTS OF INDIRECT COMPARISON OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Sh. F. Erdes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes two matching-adjusted indirect comparison-based investigations of the efficacy of adalimumab (ADA and secukinumab (SCM in active ankylosing spondylitis, which have been recently reported at the EULAR Congress (London, 2016. One study sponsored by AbbVie was conducted to determine the short-term (16-week comparative clinical and economic efficacy of the test drugs and the other was supported by Novartis to reveal long-term (52-week, only clinical efficacy. Both studies have shown that the short-term efficacy ofADAand SCM is practically similar; however, the latter has a better long-term clinical efficacy. A pharmacoeconomic analysis of both drugs used during the first 12 weeks has demonstrated some advantage ofADA. 

  12. Assessing Students' Writing Skills: A Comparison of Direct & Indirect Methods.

    Koffler, Stephen L.

    This research examined the results from direct and indirect writing assessments to determine the most effective method of discrimination. The New Jersey State Department of Education developed a test for ninth-grade students which was designed to measure the ability to apply writing mechanics to written text and to communicate effectively in…

  13. Comparison between direct and indirect cooling core catchers

    Suh, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong Ho; Bae, Byung Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The European nuclear design requirements, which should be satisfied by nuclear reactors in Europe, usually recommend a so called core catcher, which is a molten core ex vessel cooling facility, to manage a severe accident at a nuclear reactor. Two different types of core catcher concepts are compared to determine their abilities to manage severe accidents and cool core melts. The study reveals that direct cooling is better for cooling capacity and is convenient to construct, while indirect cooling is better for the management of a severe accident.

  14. Efficacy of anti-leishmania therapy in visceral leishmaniasis among HIV infected patients: a systematic review with indirect comparison.

    Gláucia F Cota

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic literature review with indirect comparison of studies evaluating therapeutic efficacy and toxicity associated to visceral leishmaniasis (VL therapy among HIV infected individuals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The outcomes of interest were clinical and parasitological cure, mortality, and adverse events. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and Cochrane manual were followed. Sources were MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge databases and manual search of references from evaluated studies. We included all studies reporting outcomes after VL treatment, regardless of their design. Study quality was evaluated systematically by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software v.2.2.048 was used to perform one-group meta-analysis of study arms with the same drug to estimate global rates of success and adverse events with each drug. These estimates were used, when possible, to indirectly compare treatment options, adjusted for CD4 count. Direct comparison was pooled when available. RESULTS: Seventeen studies reporting five treatment regimens and outcome of 920 VL episodes occurring in HIV infected individuals were included. The main outstanding difference in outcome among the treatment regimens was observed in mortality rate: it was around 3 times higher with high-dose antimony use (18.4%, CI 95% 13.3-25%, indirectly compared to lipid formulations of amphotericin B treatment (6.1%, CI 95% 3.9-9.4%. It was observed, also by indirect comparison, higher rates of clinical improvement in study arms using amphotericin B than in study arms using pentavalent antimonial therapy (Sb(v. The parasitological cure, an outcome that presented some degree of risk of selection and verification bias, had rates that varied widely within the same treatment arm, with high heterogeneity, hampering any formal comparison among drugs

  15. A Dominant Social Comparison Heuristic Unites Alternative Mechanisms for the Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity

    Whitaker, Roger M.; Colombo, Gualtiero B.; Allen, Stuart M.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is a fundamental human trait but our understanding of how it functions remains incomplete. Indirect reciprocity is a particular case in point, where one-shot donations are made to unrelated beneficiaries without any guarantee of payback. Existing insights are largely from two independent perspectives: i) individual-level cognitive behaviour in decision making, and ii) identification of conditions that favour evolution of cooperation. We identify a fundamental connection between these two areas by examining social comparison as a means through which indirect reciprocity can evolve. Social comparison is well established as an inherent human disposition through which humans navigate the social world by self-referential evaluation of others. Donating to those that are at least as reputable as oneself emerges as a dominant heuristic, which represents aspirational homophily. This heuristic is found to be implicitly present in the current knowledge of conditions that favour indirect reciprocity. The effective social norms for updating reputation are also observed to support this heuristic. We hypothesise that the cognitive challenge associated with social comparison has contributed to cerebral expansion and the disproportionate human brain size, consistent with the social complexity hypothesis. The findings have relevance for the evolution of autonomous systems that are characterised by one-shot interactions. PMID:27515119

  16. Duloxetine compared with fluoxetine and venlafaxine: use of meta-regression analysis for indirect comparisons

    Lançon Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparing duloxetine with existing antidepressant treatments is limited. A comparison of duloxetine with fluoxetine has been performed but no comparison with venlafaxine, the other antidepressant in the same therapeutic class with a significant market share, has been undertaken. In the absence of relevant data to assess the place that duloxetine should occupy in the therapeutic arsenal, indirect comparisons are the most rigorous way to go. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy of duloxetine, fluoxetine and venlafaxine versus placebo in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, and performed indirect comparisons through meta-regressions. Methods The bibliography of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research and the CENTRAL, Medline, and Embase databases were interrogated using advanced search strategies based on a combination of text and index terms. The search focused on randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials involving adult patients treated for acute phase Major Depressive Disorder. All outcomes were derived to take account for varying placebo responses throughout studies. Primary outcome was treatment efficacy as measured by Hedge's g effect size. Secondary outcomes were response and dropout rates as measured by log odds ratios. Meta-regressions were run to indirectly compare the drugs. Sensitivity analysis, assessing the influence of individual studies over the results, and the influence of patients' characteristics were run. Results 22 studies involving fluoxetine, 9 involving duloxetine and 8 involving venlafaxine were selected. Using indirect comparison methodology, estimated effect sizes for efficacy compared with duloxetine were 0.11 [-0.14;0.36] for fluoxetine and 0.22 [0.06;0.38] for venlafaxine. Response log odds ratios were -0.21 [-0.44;0.03], 0.70 [0.26;1.14]. Dropout log odds ratios were -0.02 [-0.33;0.29], 0.21 [-0.13;0.55]. Sensitivity analyses showed that results were

  17. Optimization and Comparison of Direct and Indirect Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Plant Cycles for Nuclear Applications

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

    2011-11-01

    between 550 C and 850 C. The UniSim models used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete reactor and power conversion systems. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating ranges of the cycles were adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing properties of CO2 near the critical point. The results of the analyses showed that, for the direct supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved. For the indirect supercritical CO2 power cycle, thermal efficiencies were approximately 10% lower than those obtained for the direct cycle over the same reactor outlet temperature range.

  18. Relevance of indirect comparisons in the German early benefit assessment and in comparison to HTA processes in England, France and Scotland.

    Lebioda, Andrea; Gasche, David; Dippel, Franz-Werner; Theobald, Karlheinz; Plantör, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Early benefit assessment in Germany under the legislative framework of AMNOG (Arzneimittelmarktneuordnungsgesetz) requires direct comparisons of the new drug with appropriate comparators determined by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). In case no head-to-head studies are available for direct comparisons, the submission of indirect comparisons is permitted to assess the additional benefit of the new drug. However, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) states a clear preference for head-to-head trials and defines strict requirements for indirect comparisons to be considered in the benefit assessment. Similar requirements also exist in other countries with mandatory health technology assessments (HTA), like France, England and Scotland. Our evaluation shows that a comparison of the different HTA regarding indirect comparisons is difficult. Overall, external preconditions and methodological requirements are demanding and hardly to fulfill by pharmaceutical companies for implementation of indirect comparisons in early benefit assessment. The determination of the appropriate comparators, outcomes, patient subgroups and study choice are the main target within indirect comparisons for the future. To compare and assess submitted indirect comparisons it would be desirable that a transparent process was established, including the mandatory publication of HTA-reports within Europe and international guidelines, accepted by a large number of HTA-agencies.

  19. Simulation evaluation of statistical properties of methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons

    Song Fujian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect treatment comparison (ITC and mixed treatment comparisons (MTC have been increasingly used in network meta-analyses. This simulation study comprehensively investigated statistical properties and performances of commonly used ITC and MTC methods, including simple ITC (the Bucher method, frequentist and Bayesian MTC methods. Methods A simple network of three sets of two-arm trials with a closed loop was simulated. Different simulation scenarios were based on different number of trials, assumed treatment effects, extent of heterogeneity, bias and inconsistency. The performance of the ITC and MTC methods was measured by the type I error, statistical power, observed bias and mean squared error (MSE. Results When there are no biases in primary studies, all ITC and MTC methods investigated are on average unbiased. Depending on the extent and direction of biases in different sets of studies, ITC and MTC methods may be more or less biased than direct treatment comparisons (DTC. Of the methods investigated, the simple ITC method has the largest mean squared error (MSE. The DTC is superior to the ITC in terms of statistical power and MSE. Under the simulated circumstances in which there are no systematic biases and inconsistencies, the performances of MTC methods are generally better than the performance of the corresponding DTC methods. For inconsistency detection in network meta-analysis, the methods evaluated are on average unbiased. The statistical power of commonly used methods for detecting inconsistency is very low. Conclusions The available methods for indirect and mixed treatment comparisons have different advantages and limitations, depending on whether data analysed satisfies underlying assumptions. To choose the most valid statistical methods for research synthesis, an appropriate assessment of primary studies included in evidence network is required.

  20. Brief Introduction of Indirect Comparison Software%间接比较软件简介

    李胜; 张超; 原瑞霞; 徐畅; 曾宪涛

    2015-01-01

    ITC (Indirect Treatment Comparison)软件及Stata软件indirect程序是研发并专用于间接比较的软件与程序,均具有使用界面友好、简洁、支持菜单操作的特点.ITC软件需要先行使用其他软件计算出直接比较的效应量及可信区间,而Stata-indirect程序可以在Stata内部完成直接比较的结果计算,亦可执行命令操作,从而简化了间接比较复杂的流程.仅能执行“单路径”数据传递合并是两者均存在的不足.从结果来看,两者的结果相似度很高.

  1. Comparison of Indirect Calorimetry and Predictive Equations in Estimating Resting Metabolic Rate in Underweight Females

    Soghra ALIASGHARZADEH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Underweight as a public health problem in young women is associated with nutritional deficiencies, menstrual irregularity, eating disorders, reduced fertility, etc. Since resting metabolic rate (RMR is a necessary compo-nent in the development of nutrition support therapy, therefore we determined the accuracy of commonly used pre-dictive equations against RMR measured by indirect calorimetry among healthy young underweight females.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 104 underweight females aged 18-30 years old with body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 in 2013 . After collecting anthropometric data, body composition was measured by bioelec-tric impedance analysis (BIA. RMR was measured by using indirect calorimetry (FitMate™ and was estimated by 10 commonly used predictive equations. Comparisons were conducted using paired t-test. The accuracy of the RMR equations was evaluated on the basis of the percentage of subjects’ predicted RMR within 10% of measured RMR.Results: The mean BMI of subjects was 17.3±1.3 kg/m2. The measured RMR ranged 736-1490 kcal/day (mean 1084.7±175 kcal/day. Findings indicated that except Muller and Abbreviation, other equations significantly over es-timated RMR, compared to measured value (P<0.05. As an individual prediction accuracy, these predictive equations showed poor performance with the highest accuracy rate of 54.8% for Muller equation (22.1% under and 23.1% over-prediction and 43.3% for Abbreviation equation (31.7% under and 25% over-prediction, the percentage bias was 1.8% and 0.63% and RMSE was 162 and 173 kcal/d, respectively.Conclusion: Although Muller equation gave fairly acceptable prediction, more suitable new equations are needed to be developed to help better management of nutritional plans in young underweight people.

  2. Comparison of multiplicative heterogeneous variance adjustment models for genetic evaluations.

    Márkus, Sz; Mäntysaari, E A; Strandén, I; Eriksson, J-Å; Lidauer, M H

    2014-06-01

    Two heterogeneous variance adjustment methods and two variance models were compared in a simulation study. The method used for heterogeneous variance adjustment in the Nordic test-day model, which is a multiplicative method based on Meuwissen (J. Dairy Sci., 79, 1996, 310), was compared with a restricted multiplicative method where the fixed effects were not scaled. Both methods were tested with two different variance models, one with a herd-year and the other with a herd-year-month random effect. The simulation study was built on two field data sets from Swedish Red dairy cattle herds. For both data sets, 200 herds with test-day observations over a 12-year period were sampled. For one data set, herds were sampled randomly, while for the other, each herd was required to have at least 10 first-calving cows per year. The simulations supported the applicability of both methods and models, but the multiplicative mixed model was more sensitive in the case of small strata sizes. Estimation of variance components for the variance models resulted in different parameter estimates, depending on the applied heterogeneous variance adjustment method and variance model combination. Our analyses showed that the assumption of a first-order autoregressive correlation structure between random-effect levels is reasonable when within-herd heterogeneity is modelled by year classes, but less appropriate for within-herd heterogeneity by month classes. Of the studied alternatives, the multiplicative method and a variance model with a random herd-year effect were found most suitable for the Nordic test-day model for dairy cattle evaluation.

  3. Risk adjustment for inter-hospital comparison of caesarean delivery rates in low-risk deliveries.

    Elisa Stivanello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caesarean delivery (CD rates have been frequently used as quality measures for maternity service comparisons. More recently, primary CD rates (CD in women without previous CD or CD rates within selected categories such as nulliparous, term, cephalic singleton deliveries (NTCS have been used. The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which risk adjustment for clinical and socio-demographic variables is needed for inter-hospital comparisons of CD rates in women without previous CD and in NTCS deliveries. METHODS: Hospital discharge records of women who delivered in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy from January, 2007 to June 2009 and in Tuscany Region for year 2009 were linked with birth certificates. Adjusted RRs of CD in women without a previous Caesarean and NTCS were estimated using Poisson regression. Percentage differences in RR before and after adjustment were calculated and hospital rankings, based on crude and adjusted RRs, were examined. RESULTS: Adjusted RR differed substantially from crude RR in women without a previous Caesarean and only marginally in NTCS group. Hospital ranking was markedly affected by adjustment in women without a previous CD, but less in NTCS. CONCLUSION: Risk adjustment is warranted for inter-hospital comparisons of primary CD rates but not for NTCS CD rates. Crude NTCS CD rates are a reliable estimate of adjusted NTCS CD.

  4. Relevance of indirect comparisons in the German early benefit assessment and in comparison to HTA processes in England, France and Scotland

    Lebioda, Andrea; Gasche, David; Dippel, Franz-Werner; Theobald, Karlheinz; Plantör, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Early benefit assessment in Germany under the legislative framework of AMNOG (Arzneimittelmarktneuordnungsgesetz) requires direct comparisons of the new drug with appropriate comparators determined by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). In case no head-to-head studies are available for direct comparisons, the submission of indirect comparisons is permitted to assess the additional benefit of the new drug. However, the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) states a clear ...

  5. Comparison of direct and indirect plasma oxidation of NO combined with oxidation by catalyst

    Jogi, Indrek; Stamate, Eugen; Irimiea, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Direct and indirect plasma oxidation of NOx was tested in a medium-scale test-bench at gas flows of 50 slm (3 m(3)/h). For direct plasma oxidation the synthetic flue gas was directed through a stacked DBD reactor. For indirect plasma oxidation, a DBD reactor was used to generate ozone from pure O-2...... of the DBD reactor decreased the long-term efficiency of direct plasma oxidation. At the same time, the efficiency of indirect oxidation increased at elevated reactor temperatures. Additional experiments were carried out to investigate the improvement of indirect oxidation by the introduction of catalyst...

  6. The Impact of Adjustment for Socioeconomic Status on Comparisons of Cancer Incidence between Two European Countries

    David W. Donnelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer incidence rates vary considerably between countries and by socioeconomic status (SES. We investigate the impact of SES upon the relative cancer risk in two neighbouring countries. Methods. Data on 229,824 cases for 16 cancers diagnosed in 1995–2007 were extracted from the cancer registries in Northern Ireland (NI and Republic of Ireland (RoI. Cancers in the two countries were compared using incidence rate ratios (IRRs adjusted for age and age plus area-based SES. Results. Adjusting for SES in addition to age had a considerable impact on NI/RoI comparisons for cancers strongly related to SES. Before SES adjustment, lung cancer incidence rates were 11% higher for males and 7% higher for females in NI, while after adjustment, the IRR was not statistically significant. Cervical cancer rates were lower in NI than in RoI after adjustment for age (IRR: 0.90 (0.84–0.97, with this difference increasing after adjustment for SES (IRR: 0.85 (0.79–0.92. For cancers with a weak or nonexistent relationship to SES, adjustment for SES made little difference to the IRR. Conclusion. Socioeconomic factors explain some international variations but also obscure other crucial differences; thus, adjustment for these factors should not become part of international comparisons.

  7. Indirect economic effects of new infrastructure : A comparison of Dutch high speed rail variants

    Oosterhaven, J; Romp, WE

    2003-01-01

    New transport infrastructure has a myriad of direct and indirect effects. The indirect effects on population and economic activity are most difficult to estimate. This paper introduces three different models to estimate the impacts of new infrastructure on labour supply and demand, and carefully exp

  8. Comparison of "Direct" and "Indirect" Nuclear Cystography in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux

    Khriesat Imad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females, ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter and indirect techniques of nuclear cystography (NC. Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct technique while only 20 ureters showed VUR on the indirect technique (sensitivity 62%. Nine ureters, which did not show VUR on the direct cystogram, were read as positive on the indirect cystogram (specificity 82%. The false positive results of indirect nuclear cystogram make it invalid for VUR screening program, while the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct NC has made this the recommended test for screening and follow-up of VUR.

  9. Comparison of "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography in the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux.

    Khriesat, I; Khriesat, S; Hazza, I

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females), ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter) and indirect techniques of nuclear cystography (NC). Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct technique while only 20 ureters showed VUR on the indirect technique (sensitivity 62%). Nine ureters, which did not show VUR on the direct cystogram, were read as positive on the indirect cystogram (specificity 82%). The false positive results of indirect nuclear cystogram make it invalid for VUR screening program, while the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct NC has made this the recommended test for screening and follow-up of VUR.

  10. Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of glycidol fatty acid ester in edible oils.

    Shimizu, Masao; Kudo, Naoto; Shiro, Hiroki; Yasunaga, Koichi; Masukawa, Yoshinori; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Yasumasu, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Two different methods for determining the levels of glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs) in edible oil-the German official indirect method and the direct LC-MS method-are compared. In some cases, the indirect method showed lower GE levels than the direct method. This was investigated using model studies, which revealed two possible causative factors during the acid treatment of the indirect method: (1) incomplete elimination of GE in oil that was high in GEs initially and (2) generation of GEs and/or its relevant compounds in oil that was rich in partial acylglycerol. Both these factors contributed to the subsequent underestimation of GE levels. The above technical limitations of the indirect method found in the present study has led to the inference that the direct method can more precisely determine the GE levels for a wider range of fats and oil products than the indirect method.

  11. Radionuclide cystography in children: comparison of direct (retrograde) and indirect (intravenous) techniques

    Majd, M.; Kass, E.J.; Belman, A.B. (Children' s Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, DC (U.S.A.))

    1985-01-01

    One hundred twenty children with a known history of vesico-ureteral reflux were evaluated by both direct and indirect methods of radionuclide cystography. The indirect studies were technically optimal in only 99 patients. In 20 of them neither the direct cystogram nor the indirect cystogram showed evidence of reflux. In the remaining 79 patients the direct cystograms demonstrated reflux in 112 ureters while the indirect cystograms showed reflux in only 66 ureters, a false negative rate of 41%. Reflux was not demonstrated in any on the indirect study which was not also noted on the direct cystogram. Indirect radionuclide cystography has a low sensitivity for the detection of reflux and should not be used as the initial screening test. If renal scintigraphy is part of the follow-up evaluation of patients with previously documented reflux, an indirect radionuclide cystogram may be obtained. However, the study is only reliable if reflux is noted. A negative study does not necessarily exclude reflux, and the patient should be evaluated further by direct cystography.

  12. Kriging direct and indirect estimates of sulfate deposition: A comparison. Forest Service research paper

    Reams, G.A.; Huso, M.M.P.; Vong, R.J.; McCollum, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    Due to logistical and cost constraints, acidic deposition is rarely measured at forest research or sampling locations. A crucial first step to assessing the effects of acid rain on forests is an accurate estimate of acidic deposition at forest sample sites. The authors examine two methods (direct and indirect) for estimating sulfate deposition at atmospherically unmonitored forest sites. The direct method only uses directly measured deposition data, while the indirect method additionally incorporates precipitation measurements from a spatially denser network of monitoring sites. Sulfate deposition values were estimated by point kriging using both the direct and indirect methods. By using the supplemental data from the precipitation monitoring network, estimates of sulfate deposition improved substantially, particularly at sites that are relatively isolated to the acid deposition monitoring network. Cross-validated procedures indicate that by using the indirect method, a reduction of approximately 20 to 25 percent in the predicted error sum of squares occurred.

  13. Comparison of "Direct" and "Indirect" Nuclear Cystography in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux

    Khriesat Imad; Khriesat Sameer; Hazza Issa

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females), ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter) and indirect techniques of nuclear cystography (NC). Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct tec...

  14. Modeling Human Exposure to Phthalate Esters: A Comparison of Indirect and Biomonitoring Estimation Methods

    Clark, Kathryn E.; David, Raymond M.; Guinn, Richard; Kramarz, Kurt W.; Lampi, Mark A.; Staples, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are potentially exposed to phthalate esters (PEs) through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Studies quantifying exposure to PEs include “biomarker studies” and “indirect studies.” Biomarker studies use measurements of PE metabolites in urine to back-calculate exposure to the parent diester, while indirect studies use the concentration of the PE in each medium of exposure and the rate of intake of that medium to quantify intake of the PE. In this review, exposure estimates from biomarker and indirect studies are compiled and compared for seven PEs to determine if there are regional differences and if there is a preferred approach. The indirect and biomarker methods generally agree with each other within an order of magnitude and discrepancies are explained by difficulties in accounting for use of consumer products, uncertainty concerning absorption, regional differences, and temporal changes. No single method is preferred for estimating intake of all PEs; it is suggested that biomarker estimates be used for low molecular weight PEs for which it is difficult to quantify all sources of exposure and either indirect or biomarker methods be used for higher molecular weight PEs. The indirect methods are useful in identifying sources of exposure while the biomarker methods quantify exposure. PMID:23087593

  15. Indirect treatment comparison of dabrafenib plus trametinib versus vemurafenib plus cobimetinib in previously untreated metastatic melanoma patients

    Adil Daud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer with a high mortality rate and the fastest growing global incidence rate of all malignancies. The introduction of BRAF/MEK inhibitor combinations has yielded significant increases in PFS and OS for melanoma. However, at present, no direct comparisons between different BRAF/MEK combinations have been conducted. In light of this, an indirect treatment comparison was performed between two BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapies for metastatic melanoma, dabrafenib plus trametinib and vemurafenib plus cobimetinib, in order to understand the relative efficacy and toxicity profiles of these therapies. Methods A systematic literature search identified two randomized trials as suitable for indirect comparison: the coBRIM trial of vemurafenib plus cobimetinib versus vemurafenib and the COMBI-v trial of dabrafenib plus trametinib versus vemurafenib. The comparison followed the method of Bucher et al. and analyzed both efficacy (overall survival [OS], progression-free survival [PFS], and overall response rate [ORR] and safety outcomes (adverse events [AEs]. Results The indirect comparison revealed similar efficacy outcomes between both therapies, with no statistically significant difference between therapies for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 − 1.30, PFS (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.79 − 1.40, or ORR (risk ratio [RR] 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 − 1.10. Dabrafenib plus trametinib differed significantly from vemurafenib plus cobimetinib with regard to the incidence of treatment-related AE (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87 − 0.97, any AE grade ≥3 (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 − 0.85 or dose interruption/modification (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60 − 0.99. Several categories of AEs occurred significantly more frequently with vemurafenib plus cobimetinib, while some occurred significantly more frequently with dabrafenib plus trametinib. For severe AEs (grade 3 or

  16. Brief Report: A Comparison of Indirect versus Experimental Strategies for the Assessment of Pica

    Wasano, Lauren C.; Borrero, John C.; Kohn, Carolynn S.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of pica for three individuals with varying levels of intellectual disabilities. In addition, two indirect assessment instruments (the "Motivational Assessment Scale [MAS]", and the "Questions About Behavioral Function [QABF]") were also administered to both the parent and teacher of the child…

  17. Comparison of radiographic measurements obtained with conventional an indirect digital imaging during endontic treatment

    Ligia Buloto Schmitd

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of indirect digitized radiographic images taken during endodontic procedures and to compare the measurements recorded with this technique to those obtained from conventional radiographs. Two-hundred conventional periapical radiographs taken at the undergraduate Endodontics Clinic of the Dental School of Bauru were digitized. The conventional and indirect digitized images were compared by three examiners as to the quality and accuracy of the measurements recorded during endodontic treatment, in canal length determination, gutta-percha adaptation, lateral condensation and final obturation. The conventional radiographs were observed on a film viewer, surrounded by a dark card, and measured with magnifying glass and a millimeter ruler; the indirect digitized images were evaluated on the Digora® for Windows software, with free utilization of the bright/contrast tool. Unlike the conventional radiographic images, all indirect digitized images were considered as having a high quality. The distance between the filling material and the root apex was 0.117 mm larger, on average, for the Digora® system (p<0.01. The measurements achieved by the investigated radiographic methods were clinically similar and they are thus equivalent. Changes in brightness and contrast of the images using Digora®software improved the diagnosis.

  18. COMPARISON OF RADIOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED WITH CONVENTIONAL AND INDIRECT DIGITAL IMAGING DURING ENDODONTIC TREATMENT

    Schmitd, Ligia Buloto; Lima, Tatiana de Castro; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of indirect digitized radiographic images taken during endodontic procedures and to compare the measurements recorded with this technique to those obtained from conventional radiographs. Two-hundred conventional periapical radiographs taken at the undergraduate Endodontics Clinic of the Dental School of Bauru were digitized. The conventional and indirect digitized images were compared by three examiners as to the quality and accuracy of the measurements recorded during endodontic treatment, in canal length determination, gutta-percha adaptation, lateral condensation and final obturation. The conventional radiographs were observed on a film viewer, surrounded by a dark card, and measured with magnifying glass and a millimeter ruler; the indirect digitized images were evaluated on the Digora® for Windows software, with free utilization of the bright/contrast tool. Unlike the conventional radiographic images, all indirect digitized images were considered as having a high quality. The distance between the filling material and the root apex was 0.117 mm larger, on average, for the Digora® system (p<0.01). The measurements achieved by the investigated radiographic methods were clinically similar and they are thus equivalent. Changes in brightness and contrast of the images using Digora® software improved the diagnosis. PMID:19089211

  19. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography

    TÜRK, Ayşe Gözde; SABUNCU, Metin; ÜNAL, Sena; ÖNAL, Banu; ULUSOY, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Material and Methods Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (prestorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Conclusions Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation. PMID:27556210

  20. Indirect comparisons of second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in CML: case study using baseline population characteristics

    Kimbach Tran Carpiuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Kimbach Tran Carpiuc1, Gianantonio Rosti2, Fausto Castagnetti2, Maarten Treur3, Jennifer Stephens11Pharmerit North America LLC, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Department of Hematology and Oncology, S Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy; 3Pharmerit Europe, Rotterdam, The NetherlandsAbstract: The use of indirect comparisons to evaluate the relative effectiveness between two or more treatments is widespread in the literature and continues to grow each year. Appropriate methodologies will be essential for integrating data from various published clinical trials into a systematic framework as part of the increasing emphasis on comparative effectiveness research. This article provides a case study example for clinicians using the baseline study population characteristics and response rates of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors in imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic myelogenous leukemia followed by a discussion of indirect comparison methods that are being increasingly implemented to address challenges with these types of comparisons.Keywords: comparative effectiveness research, meta-analysis, BCR–ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia, imatinib mesylate, nilotinib, dasatinib 

  1. Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.

    Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

    2012-05-04

    The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 μg/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application.

  2. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF drugs for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis: an indirect comparison meta-analysis

    Thorlund K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund,1 Eric Druyts,2 J Antonio Aviña-Zubieta,3,4 Edward J Mills1,21Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 4Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaObjective: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of available tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitors (anti-TNFs for the management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA in patients with an inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs.Methods: We used an exhaustive search strategy covering randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and health technology assessments (HTA published on anti-TNFs for PsA. We performed indirect comparisons of the available anti-TNFs (adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, and infliximab measuring relative risks (RR for the psoriatic arthritis response criteria (PsARC, mean differences (MDs for improvements from baseline for the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ by PsARC responders and non-responders, and MD for the improvements from baseline for the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI. When the reporting of data on intervention group response rates and improvements were incomplete, we used straightforward conversions based on the available data.Results: We retrieved data from 20 publications representing seven trials, as well as two HTAs. All anti-TNFs were significantly better than control, but the indirect comparison did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the anti-TNFs. For PsARC response, golimumab yielded the highest RR and etanercept the second highest; adalimumab and infliximab both yielded notably smaller RRs. For HAQ improvement, etanercept and infliximab yielded the largest MD among PsARC responders

  3. Rate-adjusted spike-LFP coherence comparisons from spike-train statistics.

    Aoi, Mikio C; Lepage, Kyle Q; Kramer, Mark A; Eden, Uri T

    2015-01-30

    Coherence is a fundamental tool in the analysis of neuronal data and for studying multiscale interactions of single and multiunit spikes with local field potentials. However, when the coherence is used to estimate rhythmic synchrony between spiking and any other time series, the magnitude of the coherence is dependent upon the spike rate. This property is not a statistical bias, but a feature of the coherence function. This dependence confounds cross-condition comparisons of spike-field and spike-spike coherence in electrophysiological experiments. Taking inspiration from correction methods that adjust the spike rate of a recording with bootstrapping ('thinning'), we propose a method of estimating a correction factor for the spike-field and spike-spike coherence that adjusts the coherence to account for this rate dependence. We demonstrate that the proposed rate adjustment is accurate under standard assumptions and derive distributional properties of the estimator. The reduced estimation variance serves to provide a more powerful test of cross-condition differences in spike-LFP coherence than the thinning method and does not require repeated Monte Carlo trials. We also demonstrate some of the negative consequences of failing to account for rate dependence. The proposed spike-field coherence estimator accurately adjusts the spike-field coherence with respect to rate and has well-defined distributional properties that endow the estimator with lower estimation variance than the existing adjustment method.

  4. Risk adjustment for inter-hospital comparison of primary cesarean section rates: need, validity and parsimony

    Dallolio Laura

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cesarean section rates is often used as an indicator of quality of care in maternity hospitals. The assumption is that lower rates reflect in developed countries more appropriate clinical practice and general better performances. Hospitals are thus often ranked on the basis of caesarean section rates. The aim of this study is to assess whether the adjustment for clinical and sociodemographic variables of the mother and the fetus is necessary for inter-hospital comparisons of cesarean section (c-section rates and to assess whether a risk adjustment model based on a limited number of variables could be identified and used. Methods Discharge abstracts of labouring women without prior cesarean were linked with abstracts of newborns discharged from 29 hospitals of the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy from 2003 to 2004. Adjusted ORs of cesarean by hospital were estimated by using two logistic regression models: 1 a full model including the potential confounders selected by a backward procedure; 2 a parsimonious model including only actual confounders identified by the "change-in-estimate" procedure. Hospital rankings, based on ORs were examined. Results 24 risk factors for c-section were included in the full model and 7 (marital status, maternal age, infant weight, fetopelvic disproportion, eclampsia or pre-eclampsia, placenta previa/abruptio placentae, malposition/malpresentation in the parsimonious model. Hospital ranking using the adjusted ORs from both models was different from that obtained using the crude ORs. The correlation between the rankings of the two models was 0.92. The crude ORs were smaller than ORs adjusted by both models, with the parsimonious ones producing more precise estimates. Conclusion Risk adjustment is necessary to compare hospital c-section rates, it shows differences in rankings and highlights inappropriateness of some hospitals. By adjusting for only actual confounders valid and more precise estimates

  5. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate...

  6. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization.

  7. Comparison of direct and indirect measurement of the elastocaloric effect in natural rubber

    Xie, Zhongjian; Sebald, Gael; Guyomar, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The directly measured temperature change Δ T upon deformation (elastocaloric effect) of natural rubber was compared with indirect method, which is deduced from the Clausius-Clapeyron factor ( ∂ σ / ∂ T ) ɛ , where σ is the stress and ɛ is the strain. The factor ( ∂ σ / ∂ T ) ɛ can be measured by two different methods. One is to measure the stress vs. strain behavior at different static temperatures. It is found that the Δ T deduction is underestimated or even of opposite sign compared with the directly measured one. These behaviors are different from elastocaloric effect of shape memory alloys. An interpretation based on strain-induced crystallite is proposed. The other characterization is to measure the stress vs. temperature at constant strain. It results in a prediction, which is in good quantitative agreement with the directly measured one. The stress appears then to be a non-state variable, thus questioning the ergodicity of the material.

  8. Indirect comparisons of adverse events and dropout rates in early Parkinson's disease trials of pramipexole, ropinirole, and rasagiline.

    Zagmutt, Francisco J; Tarrants, Marcy L

    2012-07-01

    The comparative safety profiles of monotherapeutic treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) can provide valuable therapeutic information. The objective of this study was to perform an indirect comparison of Adverse Events (AEs) and Dropout Rates (DRs) among clinical trials of pramipexole, ropinirole, and rasagiline. Outcomes analyzed included DRs, total AEs, and AE categories: Cognitive (CG), Gastrointestinal (GI), and Sleep/Fatigue (SF). The odds-ratio (OR) and Credible Interval (CrI) of outcomes between products using placebo as common comparator was calculated using indirect meta-analytical methods. AEs incidences for subjects receiving rasagiline were not significantly different from placebo, whereas DRs were significantly lower than for placebo (OR = 0.55; 95% CrI = 0.34-0.88). Patients receiving pramipexole or ropinirole had higher incidence of all AEs and DRs than patients taking rasagiline, except for the nonsignificant incidence of CG for ropinirole vs. rasagiline (1.76; 0.69-4.70). The incidence of GI (2.11; 1.13-4.06) and SF (2.75; 1.42-5.47) was significantly higher for ropinirole than for pramipexole, whereas the incidence of CG was significantly lower for ropinirole than for pramipexole (0.22; 0.07-0.69). Findings suggest that subjects with early PD treated with rasagiline have fewer AEs and DRs than those treated with pramipexole or ropinirole. GI and SF AEs were highest for subjects treated with ropinirole, while individuals treated with pramipexole exhibited the highest incidence of cognitive AEs.

  9. The Comparison of Tendency to Addiction and Adjustment in Girls and Boys Students

    Reza Sheydae

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the drug tended to fit 17-12 year old male and female students were holy city of Rabat. Methods: The research design of a comparison. Results: The study subjects consisted of 21 male and 29 female students who cover the charity Fatima Zahra studying in Rabat Karim units were selected by random sampling. Tool: in the study to measure the tendency to addiction People exposed to drug test Dhkrdyan and Bell was used to test adjustment. The results showed an inverse relation between the tendency to addiction in adolescents and that there are significant inconsistencies. The relation between the subscales inconsistency and tendency to addiction, a strong and significant positive relationship between family conflicts to tendency to addiction exists. Inconsistency between the two groups of boys and girls in terms of variables and there is significant risk of addiction. So that the average inconsistency in boys than girls and boys at risk for substance abuse than are females. Conclusions: The tendency to addiction, there are significant adjustment among adolescents and the tendency to addiction in adolescent boys and girls significant adjustment there.

  10. Once-daily long-acting beta-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an indirect comparison of olodaterol and indacaterol

    Roskell NS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Neil S Roskell,1 Antonio Anzueto,2 Alan Hamilton,3 Bernd Disse,4 Karin Becker5 1Statistics, Bresmed Health Solutions Ltd, Sheffield, UK; 2School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA; 3Medical Department, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Ltd, Burlington, ON, Canada; 4Medical Department, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany; 5Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim GmbH, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany Purpose: In the absence of head-to-head clinical trials comparing the once-daily, long-acting beta2-agonists olodaterol and indacaterol for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, an indirect treatment comparison by systematic review and synthesis of the available clinical evidence was conducted. Methods: A systematic literature review of randomized, controlled clinical trials in patients with COPD was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of olodaterol and indacaterol. Network meta-analysis and adjusted indirect comparison methods were employed to evaluate treatment efficacy, using outcomes based on trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, Transition Dyspnea Index, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score and response, rescue medication use, and proportion of patients with exacerbations. Results: Eighteen trials were identified for meta-analysis (eight, olodaterol; ten, indacaterol. Olodaterol trials included patients of all severities, whilst indacaterol trials excluded patients with very severe COPD. Concomitant maintenance bronchodilator use was allowed in most olodaterol trials, but not in indacaterol trials. When similarly designed trials/data were analyzed for change from baseline in trough FEV1 (liters, the following mean differences (95% confidence interval were observed: trials excluding concomitant bronchodilator: indacaterol 75 mcg versus olodaterol 5 mcg, –0.005 (–0.077 to 0.067, and indacaterol 150 mcg

  11. Indirect Haemagglutination Test in Comparison with ELISA for Detection of Antibodies against Invasive Amoebiasis

    Dhanalakshmi, Sankaramoorthy; Meenachi, Chidambaram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of amoebiasis is based on combination of tests like microscopy, imaging, serology and molecular methods. In absence of molecular techniques, serology can be used as an alternative aid. Various serological techniques were reported with different sensitivity and specificity. The diagnostic efficiency of these assays mainly depends on the characteristics of antigen that is being used and various conditions of performance. Aim To evaluate the efficiency of recombinant calcium binding domain containing protein by Indirect Haemagglutination Assay (IHA) against a commercial ELISA among amoebic liver abscess cases and control group. Materials and Methods The study was carried out during the period of 2011-2015 and blood samples were collected from suspected amoebiasis cases who were attending the clinics of Medicine and Paediatrics department, JIPMER. A total of 200 sera samples which included 100 Amoebic Liver Abscess (ALA), 50 cases of other parasitic infections and liver diseases and 50 presumed healthy controls were examined by IHA and commercial ELISA. In brief, chick cells were stabilized by Double Aldehyde Sensitization (DAS) method. Optimum Sensitizing Dose (OSD) of the antigen was determined. The test was performed in a U-bottomed microtiter plate with recombinant amoebic antigen (12.5μg/ml), incubated at Room Temperature (RT) for 2 hours. RIDASCREEN Entamoeba IgG ELISA kit which is commercially available was used to evaluate the samples as per manufacturer’s instruction. Results The overall sensitivity and specificity of the IHA was 62% and 96%, respectively when compared to ELISA having sensitivity and specificity of 69% and 90%, respectively. The positive predictive value of the IHA was 91% while negative predictive value was 79%. Similarly, the positive predictive value of the ELISA was 87% while negative predictive value was 74%. Conclusion As serology heavily suffers due to lack of a standardised test system employing the native

  12. Functional comparison of annexin V analogues labeled indirectly and directly with iodine-124

    Dekker, Bronwen [CRUK/UMIST Dept. of Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom)]|[Dept. of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, Univ. of Manchester Inst. for Science and Technology (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bdekker@picr.man.ac.uk; Keen, Heather [CRUK/UMIST Dept. of Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom)]|[Dept. of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, Univ. of Manchester Inst. for Science and Technology, M60 1QD Manchester (United Kingdom); Shaw, David [CRUK/UMIST Dept. of Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom)]|[CRUK Dept. of Immunology, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom); Disley, Lynn [CRUK/UMIST Dept. of Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom); Hastings, David; Julyan, Peter [CRUK/UMIST Dept. of Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom)]|[North Western Medical Physics, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom); Hadfield, John [School of Environment and Life Sciences, Univ. of Salford, M5 4WT Manchester (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew [Dept. of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, Univ. of Manchester Inst. for Science and Technology, M60 1QD Manchester (United Kingdom); Allan, Donald [Physics and Electronic Unit, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom); Watson, Alastair [Dept. of Medicine, Univ of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Zweit, Jamal [CRUK/UMIST Dept. of Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging, Paterson Inst. for Cancer Research, M20 4BX Manchester (United Kingdom)]|[Dept. of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, Univ. of Manchester Inst. for Science and Technology (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jzweit@picr.man.ac.uk

    2005-05-01

    We are interested in imaging cell death in vivo using annexin V radiolabeled with {sup 124}I. In this study, [{sup 124}I]4IB-annexin V and [{sup 124}I]4IB-ovalbumin were made using [{sup 124}I]N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-iodobenzoate prepared by iododestannylation of N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-(tributylstannyl)benzoate. [{sup 124}I]4IB-annexin V binds to phosphatidylserine-coated microtiter plates and apoptotic Jurkat cells and accumulates in hepatic apoptotic lesions in mice treated with anti-Fas antibody, while [{sup 124}I]4IB-ovalbumin does not. In comparison with {sup 124}I-annexin V, [{sup 124}I]4IB-annexin V has a higher rate of binding to phosphatidylserine in vitro, a higher kidney and urine uptake, a lower thyroid and stomach content uptake, greater plasma stability and a lower rate of plasma clearance. Binding of radioactivity to apoptotic cells relative to normal cells in vitro and in vivo appears to be lower for [{sup 124}I]4IB-annexin V than for {sup 124}I-annexin V.

  13. Comparison Analysis of Indirect FOC Induction Motor Drive using PI, Anti-Windup and Pre Filter Schemes

    Md Hairul Nizam Talib

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the speed performance analysis of indirect Field Oriented Control (FOC induction motor drive by applying Proportional Integral (PI controller, PI with Anti-Windup (PIAW and Pre- Filter (PF. The objective of this experiment is to have quantitative comparison between the controller strategies towards the performance of the motor in term of speed tracking and load rejection capability in low, medium and rated speed operation. In the first part, PI controller is applied to the FOC induction motor drive which the gain is obtained based on determined Induction Motor (IM motor parameters.  Secondly an AWPI strategy is added to the outer loop and finally, PF is added to the system. The Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM technique is used to control the voltage source inverter and complete vector control scheme of the IM drive is tested by using a DSpace 1103 controller board. The analysis of the results shows that, the PI and AWPI controller schemes produce similar performance at low speed operation. However, for the medium and rated speed operation the AWPI scheme shown significant improvement in reducing the overshoot problem and improving the setting time. The PF scheme on the other hand, produces a slower speed and torque response for all tested speed operation. All schemes show similar performance for load disturbance rejection capability.

  14. Comparison of indirect methods for the estimation of Boundary Layer height over flat-terrain in a coastal site

    Daniele Contini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of different indirect methods for the calculation of the boundary layer height (BLH using sodar, ultrasonic anemometer and a prognostic model based on single point surface measurements is presented. In particular the automatic spectral routine developed for Remtech sodar is compared with the results obtained with the parameterization of the vertical velocity variance of a minisodar, with the calculation of a prognostic model, with a parameterization based on horizontal velocity spectra and with the BLH evaluated from the intensity of minisodar echoes in stable conditions. The data of a radiosonde system taken in a nearby site was also analysed to get an independent evaluation of BLH for comparison. There is a significant scatter in the data for both the evaluation through the variance of vertical wind speed and the spectral analysis of the horizontal wind velocity although created by different effects. In unstable conditions the different methods give a similar pattern even if the prognostic model in some days predicts a significantly higher BLH with respect to the other methods. In stable nocturnal conditions the performances of the Remtech routine are worse than those in unstable conditions with an evident overestimation of the BLH that it is likely related to the overestimation of vertical turbulence and to the use of multiple range gates in the algorithm. Taking as reference the evaluation of BLH of the sodar, the spectral method applied to ultrasonic anemometer data seems to be affected by the lowest biases and it is a possible candidate, for the development of automatic routines for operational evaluation of BLH possibly with a different parameterisation for stable and unstable cases.

  15. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials Estudo comparativo da microdureza de materiais resinosos indiretos

    Carolina Baptista Miranda

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10 as follows: G1 - Artglass; G2 - Sinfony; G3 - Solidex; G4 - Targis. Microhardness was determined by the Vickers indentation technique with a load of 300g for 10 seconds. Four indentations were made on each sample, determining the mean microhardness values for each specimen. Descriptive statistics data for the experimental conditions were: G1 - Artglass (mean ±standard deviation: 55.26 ± 1.15HVN; median: 52.6; G2 - Sinfony (31.22 ± 0.65HVN; 31.30; G3 - Solidex (52.25 ± 1.55HVN; 52.60; G4 - Targis (72.14 ± 2.82HVN; 73.30. An exploratory data analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate statistical test through: (I Levene's for homogeneity of variances; (II ANOVA on ranks (Kruskal-Wallis; (III Dunn's multiple comparison test (0.05. Targis presented the highest microhardness values while Sinfony presented the lowest. Artglass and Solidex were found as intermediate materials. These results indicate that distinct mechanical properties may be observed at specific materials. The composition of each material as well as variations on polymerization methods are possibly responsibles for the difference found in microhardness. Therefore, indirect composite resin materials that guarantee both good esthetics and adequate mechanical properties may be considered as substitutes of natural teeth.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a microdureza de 4 resinas compostas indiretas. Quarenta amostras cilíndricas foram obtidas com o auxílio de uma matriz de teflon, seguindo-se as recomendações dos fabricantes. Foram obtidas 10 amostras para cada material testado, contituindo-se 4 grupos (n=10 como se segue: G1-Artglass; G2-Sinfony; G3-Solidex; G4-Targis. A

  16. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  17. Boceprevir and telaprevir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection: an indirect comparison meta-analysis

    Cooper CL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curtis L Cooper1, Eric Druyts2, Kristian Thorlund3, Jean B Nachega4, Antoine C El Khoury5, Christopher O'Regan6, Edward J Mills2,31Division of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 4Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 5Merck and Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ, 6Merck Sharp and Dohme Ltd, Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, United KingdomBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the relative efficacy and safety of boceprevir and telaprevir, when used in combination with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, using an indirect comparison meta-analysis.Methods: Published phase II and phase III randomized placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of boceprevir and telaprevir in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infected adult populations were included. The primary outcomes were sustained virologic response, relapse, and discontinuation of all study drugs. Secondary outcomes included the adverse events of anemia, neutropenia, rash, and pruritus. Results: Four boceprevir trials and six telaprevir trials were included. No significant differences were observed for sustained virologic response among either naïve (relative risk [RR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–1.37, P = 0.20 or experienced patients (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.52–1.23, P = 0.30. Similarly, for relapse among naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.18–3.45, P = 0.77 and experienced patients (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.90–3.24, P = 0.10, or discontinuation of therapy for naïve (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.28–2.29, P = 0.72 and experienced patients (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.69–1.12, P = 0.30. Telaprevir was more likely to be associated with rash and pruritus, and boceprevir was more likely to be associated with neutropenia in certain patient populations.Conclusion: Boceprevir and telaprevir appear

  18. Aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: comparison between tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays

    Chan Koon H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM and/or optic neuritis (ON. A significant proportion of NMOSD patients are seropositive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4 autoantibodies. We compared the AQP4 autoantibody detection rates of tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA and cell-based IIFA. Methods Serum of Chinese CNS IDD patients were assayed for AQP4 autoantibodies by tissue-based IIFA using monkey cerebellum and cell-based IIFA using transfected HEK293 cells which express human AQP4 on their cell membranes. Results In total, 128 CNS IDD patients were studied. We found that 78% of NMO patients were seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA versus 61% by tissue-based IFA (p = 0.250, 75% of patients having relapsing myelitis (RM with LETM were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 50% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 0.250, and 33% of relapsing ON patients were seropositive by cell-based IIFA versus 22% by tissue-based IIFA (p = 1.000; however the differences were not statistically significant. All patients seropositive by tissue-based IIFA were also seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA. Among 29 NMOSD patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, 20 (69% were seropositive by tissue-based IIFA. The 9 patients seropositive by cell-based IIFA while seronegative by tissue-based IIFA had NMO (3, RM with LETM (3, a single attack of LETM (1, relapsing ON (1 and a single ON attack (1. Among 23 NMO or RM patients seropositive for AQP4 autoantibodies by cell-based IIFA, comparison between those seropositive (n = 17 and seronegative (n = 6 by tissue-based IIFA revealed no differences in clinical and neuroradiological characteristics between the two groups. Conclusion Cell-based IIFA is slightly more sensitive

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of Individual and Group Sports in the Social Adjustment of Students

    Seyed Hossein Mousavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the role of sports in youth social adjustment and social skills in their interpersonal relationships and social skills associated with academic achievement and their role in reducing mental and psychological problems ,we conducted this study to examine the role of physical activity in different sport fields. In order to compare the social skills of male students participating in the team and individual sports in Islamic Azad University of Zanjan, we chose 30 randomly as the sample size. In order to gather information, two questionnaires-i-e-demographic questionnaire and social skills questionnaire (social adjustment section Albert J. Petitpas F (2004 with a reliability of 0.90 were used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and T-test were used. Results showed significant differences between team and individual sports athletes with the soccer ranking higher than the rest of the field. Gymnastics athletes would have better social adjustment than the rest of athletes and the rowing athletes had less social adjustment, but this difference was not statistically significant and the results showed no significant relationship between age and marital status with the Social Adjustment. The results of this study confirm a considerable effect of team sports on levels of social adjustment compared with individual sports.

  20. Comparison of steps and energy expenditure assessment in adults of Fitbit Tracker and Ultra to the Actical and indirect calorimetry.

    Adam Noah, J; Spierer, David K; Gu, Jialu; Bronner, Shaw

    2013-10-01

    Epidemic levels of inactivity are associated with chronic diseases and rising healthcare costs. To address this, accelerometers have been used to track levels of activity. The Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are some of the newest commercially available accelerometers. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra. Twenty-three subjects were fitted with two Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra accelerometers, two industry-standard accelerometers and an indirect calorimetry device. Subjects participated in 6-min bouts of treadmill walking, jogging and stair stepping. Results indicate the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are reliable and valid for activity monitoring (step counts) and determining energy expenditure while walking and jogging without an incline. The Fitbit and standard accelerometers under-estimated energy expenditure compared to indirect calorimetry for inclined activities. These data suggest the Fitbit and Fitbit Ultra are reliable and valid for monitoring over-ground energy expenditure.

  1. Experimental investigation on the comparison of fenugreek drying in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun

    Shrivastava, Vipin; Kumar, Anil

    2016-09-01

    The convective heat transfer coefficient is an essential parameter for designing of any solar drying system. In this paper heat transfer modeling in term of convective heat transfer coefficient is performed and compared with open sun drying. The data obtained from experimentation under open sun and indirect solar drying conditions have been used to find values of the experimental constant `C' and exponent `n' by regression analysis and, consequently, convective heat transfer coefficient. From this study it is concluded that the convective heat transfer coefficient is decreasing with drying time it is due to decrease in moisture content. Results also showed that convective heat transfer coefficients are more in indirect solar dryer system than under open sun drying.

  2. Comparison of the resin cement bond strength to an indirect composites treated by Er;YAG laser and sandblast

    Mansure Mirzaee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Indirect composites are designed to overcome the shortcomings of direct composites such as polymerization shrinkage and low degree of conversion. But, good adhesion of resin cements to indirect composites is still difficult. This research was designed to assess the effect of different powers of Er;YAG laser compared with sandblasting. On the micro tensil bond strength of resin cement to indirect composites.   Materials and Methods: Specimens were prepred using dental resin composite (Gradia GC and metallic mold (15×5×5 mm and were cured according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 24 blocks were prepared and randomly divided into 12 groups. G1:no treatment (as control, G 2-6: Er; YAG laser irradiation (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Watt, G7: sandblast. Two composite blocks were bonded to each other with Panavia F.2. resin cement. The cylindrical sections with dimensions of 1 mm were tested in a microtensile bond strength tester device using 0.5 mm/min speed until fracture points. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and T-test.   Results: Interaction between lasers irradiation and sandblast treatments were significant (P0.05 whether samples were sandblasted or not. Samples which received 300 mJ of laser showed lower bond strength compared with no laser treatment. Other groups showed no significant difference (P>0.05.   Conclusion: It seems that application of sandblast with proper variables, is a good way to improve bond strength.Laser application had no influence in improving the bond strength between the indirect composite and resin cement.

  3. Comparison of three dimensional isotropic and two dimensional conventional indirect MR arthrography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Yoon, Young Cheol; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoo, Jae Chul [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Suk Kyoung [Joeun Madi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy between a three-dimensional (3D) indirect isotropic T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography and a conventional two-dimensional (2D) T1-weighted sequences of indirect MR arthrography for diagnosing rotator cuff tears. The study was approved by our Institutional Review Board. In total, 205 patients who had undergone indirect shoulder MR arthrography followed by arthroscopic surgery for 206 shoulders were included in this study. Both conventional 2D T1-weighted FSE sequences and 3D isotropic T1-weighted FSE sequence were performed in all patients. Two radiologists evaluated the images for the presence of full- or partial-thickness tears in the supraspinatus-infraspinatus (SSP-ISP) tendons and tears in the subscapularis (SSC) tendons. Using the arthroscopic findings as the reference standard, the diagnostic performances of both methods were analyzed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Arthroscopy confirmed 165 SSP-ISP tendon tears and 103 SSC tendon tears. For diagnosing SSP-ISP tendon tears, the AUC values were 0.964 and 0.989 for the 2D sequences and 3D T1-weighted FSE sequence, respectively, in reader I and 0.947 and 0.963, respectively, in reader II. The AUC values for diagnosing SSC tendon tears were 0.921 and 0.925, respectively, for reader I and 0.856 and 0.860, respectively, for reader II. There was no significant difference between the AUC values of the 2D and 3D sequences in either reader for either type of tear. 3D indirect isotropic MR arthrography with FSE sequence and the conventional 2D arthrography are not significantly different in terms of accuracy for diagnosing rotator cuff tears.

  4. Indirect calorimetry

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Labussière, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of indirect calorimetry to measure the heat production of men and animals has increased rapidly since the pioneering work of Lavoisier. Measurement of the consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide are the basis for the measurement of heat production. Today, applications of indir

  5. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  6. Comparison of Indirect MR Arthrography With Conventional MRI in the Diagnosis of Knee Pathologies in Patients With Knee Pain

    Babaei Jandaghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Knee pain is a common problem in the general population. In order to determine the extent of the injury and the appropriate treatment, MRI provides the most accurate imaging method. This may be done through conventional MRI techniques or by injecting a contrast material (MR arthrography. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of these two methods. Patients and Methods The study involved the diagnostic evaluation on 60 patients with knee pain who received treatment over the course of a one-year period. Referred patients were randomly divided into two groups: indirect MR arthrography was performed on one group, and conventional MRI was performed on the other group. Both groups then underwent arthroscopy. The results from both groups were compared with the arthroscopic findings. Results In all of the pathologies studied, the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. A high rate of accuracy was found between MR arthrography and arthroscopy (P < 0.05 for all knee injuries, however a similar rate of accuracy between conventional MRI and arthroscopy was only seen in patients with damage to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL, the tibio-femoral articular cartilage, and patella chondromalacia (P < 0.05. The highest rate of accuracy was seen in cases where indirect MR arthrography was used for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL damage (K = 1. Conclusions Our results have shown that indirect MR arthrography had greater diagnostic accuracy in regards to the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values than conventional MRI in knee pathologies.

  7. Comparison of direct (X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrophotometry) and indirect (infrared spectrophotometry) methods for the analysis of alpha-quartz in airborne dusts.

    Kauffer, E; Masson, A; Moulut, J C; Lecaque, T; Protois, J C

    2005-11-01

    In this study, the alpha-quartz contents measured by different analytical techniques (X-ray diffraction, direct method; and infrared spectrophotometry, direct and indirect methods) were compared. The analyses were carried out on filters sampled in an industrial setting by means of a Dorr-Oliver cyclone. To verify the methodology used, filters loaded with pure alpha-quartz were also analysed. By and large, the agreement between the two direct methods was close on average, but on the basis of a comparison of the individual results, considerable differences exist. In absolute value, the mean relative deviation between the two techniques was infrared) were on average 13% lower than the results obtained by the two direct methods with a more important difference (23%) for samples where calcite was identified by X-ray diffraction in comparison with those where it was not (8%). This underestimation, which was not owing to dust losses during preparation, is probably explained by the elimination of organic compounds during dust calcinations or by the transformation of mineral compounds. The indirect method introduces additional sample handling operations with more risk of material loss. When the quantity of calcined material was <0.4 mg, the weighing operations necessary to correct any losses of material resulted in considerable variability. In terms of overall uncertainty, it would be better in this case not to carry out correction and to employ an operating mode favouring the recovery of a maximum of material while accepting a bias of about 5-7%.

  8. [Blood flow measurement in arteriovenous fistula. Comparison of 2 ultrasonic methods, direct and indirect by compression of the fistula].

    Deklunder, G; Goullard, L; Lecroart, J L; Foulard, M; Houdas, Y

    1990-05-19

    Measuring blood flow in arteriovenous fistulae in patients under chronic dialysis is of interest to evaluate the repercussions of the fistula on the heart. The apparently simplest method is direct measurement of the mean blood flow velocity by the pulsed doppler technique and ot the cross-section area by ultrasonography, the product of these two values being the blood flow rate. Another method has been proposed, which consists of measuring the cardiac output before and after compression of the fistula, the difference between the two values being supposed to represent the blood flow rate in the fistula. A comparative study of these two methods was conducted in 17 patients aged from 2 to 21 years (mean: 14 years). The direct method gave a figure of 475 ml.min-1.m-2 (SD = 240), while the figure obtained with the indirect method was 471 ml.min-1.m-2 (SD = 227); the difference was statistically not significant. In terms of concept, however, the indirect method is open to much more severe criticism than the direct method, and whenever possible the latter should be preferred when measuring blood flow in arteriovenous fistulae.

  9. Comparison of covariate adjustment methods using space-time scan statistics for food animal syndromic surveillance

    Alton, Gillian D; Pearl, David L.; Bateman, Ken G.; McNab, Bruce; Berke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Background Abattoir condemnation data show promise as a rich source of data for syndromic surveillance of both animal and zoonotic diseases. However, inherent characteristics of abattoir condemnation data can bias results from space-time cluster detection methods for disease surveillance, and may need to be accounted for using various adjustment methods. The objective of this study was to compare the space-time scan statistics with different abilities to control for covariates and to assess t...

  10. Comparison of conditional bias-adjusted estimators for interim analysis in clinical trials with survival data.

    Shimura, Masashi; Gosho, Masahiko; Hirakawa, Akihiro

    2017-02-17

    Group sequential designs are widely used in clinical trials to determine whether a trial should be terminated early. In such trials, maximum likelihood estimates are often used to describe the difference in efficacy between the experimental and reference treatments; however, these are well known for displaying conditional and unconditional biases. Established bias-adjusted estimators include the conditional mean-adjusted estimator (CMAE), conditional median unbiased estimator, conditional uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimator (CUMVUE), and weighted estimator. However, their performances have been inadequately investigated. In this study, we review the characteristics of these bias-adjusted estimators and compare their conditional bias, overall bias, and conditional mean-squared errors in clinical trials with survival endpoints through simulation studies. The coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals for the four estimators are also evaluated. We find that the CMAE reduced conditional bias and showed relatively small conditional mean-squared errors when the trials terminated at the interim analysis. The conditional coverage probability of the conditional median unbiased estimator was well below the nominal value. In trials that did not terminate early, the CUMVUE performed with less bias and an acceptable conditional coverage probability than was observed for the other estimators. In conclusion, when planning an interim analysis, we recommend using the CUMVUE for trials that do not terminate early and the CMAE for those that terminate early. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. An Indirect Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Abacavir/Lamivudine + Dolutegravir in Initial Therapy.

    Josep M Llibre

    Full Text Available The objective of this analysis is to perform an indirect comparison of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (E/C/F/TDF to abacavir/lamivudine and dolutegravir (ABC/3TC + DTG by using 2 trials evaluating each of these regimens in comparison to efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF.An indirect comparison was performed by using a generalization of Bucher's methodology to calculate risk differences. Two phase III clinical trials (GS-US-236-0102 and SINGLE-described above were used.Results of the indirect comparison showed no statistically significant risk difference of the efficacy endpoint of achieving HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG for the ITT population at weeks 48, 96 and 144: respectively -3.7% (CI95% = [-10.8%; 3.4%], -5.2% (CI95% = [-13.2%; 2.8%] and -3.1% (CI95% = [-12.0%; 5.7%]. There was no statistically significant differences in the risk difference for serious adverse events (5.7% (CI95% = [-2.2%; 12.3%], drug related adverse event (2.7% (CI95% = [-7.0%;12.4%], drug related serious adverse event (0.8% (CI95% = [-1.6%;3.2%] and death (0.5% (CI95% = [-0.8%;1.8%], respectively, between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG. A significant difference was found for discontinuation due to adverse events with a higher rate for E/C/F/TDF (difference = 8.6% (CI95% = [3.3%; 13.9%]. There was also no statistically significant risk difference of the viral resistance of 1.2% (CI95% = [-1.2; 3.7] between E/C/F/TDF and ABC/3TC + DTG at week 48, 1.7% at week 96 (CI95% = [-1.1; 4.5] and 2.2% (CI95% = [-1.0; 5.4] at week 144.

  12. A comparison of White and Hispanic women's stories of adjustment to the birth of a child.

    Pollard, Sara E; Nievar, M Angela; Nathans, Laura L; Riggs, Shelley A

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger project designed to inform prevention and treatment of postpartum depression and promote positive mother-child relationships in diverse families, this study describes personal stories of postnatal adjustment from 14 White and 9 Hispanic women recruited from prenatal care clinics. Qualitative interviews conducted in the mothers' primary language (English or Spanish) were analyzed using a modified grounded theory content-analysis approach. The coding scheme developed to capture the women's discourse about their experiences included child temperament and health; intergenerational patterns; work demands and job loss; schedule changes; increased responsibilities; difficulties with parenting tasks; emotional distress; social stressors and resources; coping strategies; and changes in work, personal, social, and marital domains. More White mothers than Hispanic mothers reported changes in time structure, work stressors, use of psychotropic medication, informational support, and social support from other mothers and professionals; however, within-group differences were more evident than were cross-group ethnic differences. Analyses of qualitative interviews led to the integration of Belsky's Determinants of Parenting Model (1984) and the Double ABCX Model of Family Adjustment and Adaptation (McCubbin & Patterson, 1983) into a hybrid third theoretical framework.

  13. Rate-adjusted spike-LFP coherence comparisons from spike-train statistics

    2014-01-01

    Coherence is a fundamental tool in the analysis of neuronal data and for studying multiscale interactions of single and multiunit spikes with local field potentials. However, when the coherence is used to estimate rhythmic synchrony between spiking and any other time series, the magnitude of the coherence is dependent upon the spike rate. This property is not a statistical bias, but a feature of the coherence function. This dependence confounds cross-condition comparisons of spike-field and s...

  14. Comparison of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with indirect immunofluorescence for detection of anti-nuclear antibody

    G.L.S. Sumanth Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of antinuclear antibody (ANA is used as one of the diagnostic criteria for autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD. Both indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA methods are used for this purpose. However, there are lack of data comparing these two tests from India. Methods: We prospectively studed 294 patients clinically suspected to be having ARD between April 2012 and September 2013. They were tested for ANA by IIF and ELISA methods. Representative samples positive by both the tests were processed again by a line immunoassay test to detect the specific antinuclear antibodies. Considering the IIF results as the ‘gold standard’, the utility of ELISA for ANA detection was analyzed. Results: Of the 294 samples processed, 181 (61.5% were from female patients. By IIF 30% of samples in males and 40.3% sample in females tested positive. We found ELISA to have a poor sensitivity (45.8% but good specificity (99.5%. The positive predictive value for ELISA were 98% and negative predictive value 76.2% respectively. Forty four samples positive by both IIF and ELISA were tested by Western blot to detect individual autoantibodies. Of these, only 24 samples showed the presence of one or more bands, while the remaining 20 (45.4% were negative by line immunoassay. In our study anti-nuclear ribonucleoprotein/Smith was the most common ANA detected. Conclusions: The poor sensitivity raises concerns regarding the practice of initial screening for ANA by ELISA

  15. Diagnostic performance of CT and MRI on the detection of symptomatic intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula: a meta-analysis with indirect comparison

    Lin, Yen-Heng [National Taiwan University, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University Hospital in Taipei and Yuan-Lin Branch, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Hospital and Medical College, Taipei (China); Lin, Hsien-Ho [National Taiwan University, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Hon-Man; Lee, Chung-Wei; Chen, Ya-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital in Taipei and Yuan-Lin Branch, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Hospital and Medical College, Taipei (China)

    2016-08-15

    This study aims to review the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in symptomatic dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library were searched until April 2015 for studies which compared CT, MRI, or both with angiography for the detection of DAVF. The diagnostic performances of MRI and CT were indirectly compared using modality as a covariate in the analysis. Thirteen studies met our inclusion criteria. MRI had a sensitivity of 0.90 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.83-0.94) and specificity of 0.94 (95 % CI = 0.90-0.96). CT had a sensitivity of 0.80 (95 % CI = 0.62-0.90) and specificity of 0.87 (95 % CI = 0.74-0.94). MRI showed better diagnostic performance than CT (p = 0.02). Contrast medium use and time-resolved MR angiography did not improve MRI diagnostic performance (p = 0.31 and 0.44, respectively). Both CT and MRI had good diagnostic performance. MRI was better than CT on the detection of symptomatic intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula in the indirect comparison. (orig.)

  16. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity-a comparison between binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and RetCam 120

    Shah Parag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the photographic screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using RetCam 120 with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO, which is the current gold standard. Setting and Design: Prospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 RetCam examinations were performed on 27 premature babies. They were stored in a separate file after deleting the identifying information. At the same visit using the BIO with scleral depression, an experienced vitreoretinal surgeon evaluated the fundus in detail. A masked examiner then evaluated the RetCam photographs for presence or absence of ROP, the stage and zone of the disease, and the presence or absence of plus disease. These data were then compared with the BIO findings to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values of the method. Results: ROP was detected in 63 of 87 examinations by BIO and in 56 of 87 RetCam examinations. Nine RetCam examinations were false-negative and two were false-positive. Sensitivity of RetCam was 85.71% (54/63 and specificity was 91.66% (22/24. The positive and negative predictive values were 96.43% and 70.97% respectively. Conclusion: Nine cases having ROP were missed by the RetCam. All these cases were either in zone 3 or the outer part of zone 2, which later regressed. These were missed mostly because of the restricted mobility of the camera head caused by its size and the barrier caused by the lid speculum arms. No case of threshold ROP was missed. RetCam may replace BIO for screening of ROP.

  17. Comparison of Inorganic Carbon System Parameters Measured in the Atlantic Ocean from 1990 to 1998 and Recommended Adjustments

    Wanninkhof, R.

    2003-05-21

    As part of the global synthesis effort sponsored by the Global Carbon Cycle project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. Department of Energy, a comprehensive comparison was performed of inorganic carbon parameters measured on oceanographic surveys carried out under auspices of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and related programs. Many of the cruises were performed as part of the World Hydrographic Program of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and the NOAA Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study. Total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TAlk), fugacity of CO{sub 2}, and pH data from twenty-three cruises were checked to determine whether there were systematic offsets of these parameters between cruises. The focus was on the DIC and TAlk state variables. Data quality and offsets of DIC and TAlk were determined by using several different techniques. One approach was based on crossover analyses, where the deep-water concentrations of DIC and TAlk were compared for stations on different cruises that were within 100 km of each other. Regional comparisons were also made by using a multiple-parameter linear regression technique in which DIC or TAlk was regressed against hydrographic and nutrient parameters. When offsets of greater than 4 {micro}mol/kg were observed for DIC and/or 6 {micro}mol/kg were observed for TAlk, the data taken on the cruise were closely scrutinized to determine whether the offsets were systematic. Based on these analyses, the DIC data and TAlk data of three cruises were deemed of insufficient quality to be included in the comprehensive basinwide data set. For several of the cruises, small adjustments in TAlk were recommended for consistency with other cruises in the region. After these adjustments were incorporated, the inorganic carbon data from all cruises along with hydrographic, chlorofluorocarbon, and nutrient data were combined as a research quality product for the scientific community.

  18. Comparison of Satellite-based Basal and Adjusted Evapotranspiration for Several California Crops

    Johnson, L.; Lund, C.; Melton, F. S.

    2013-12-01

    There is a continuing need to develop new sources of information on agricultural crop water consumption in the arid Western U.S. Pursuant to the California Water Conservation Act of 2009, for instance, the stakeholder community has developed a set of quantitative indicators involving measurement of evapotranspiration (ET) or crop consumptive use (Calif. Dept. Water Resources, 2012). Fraction of reference ET (or, crop coefficients) can be estimated from a biophysical description of the crop canopy involving green fractional cover (Fc) and height as per the FAO-56 practice standard of Allen et al. (1998). The current study involved 19 fields in California's San Joaquin Valley and Central Coast during 2011-12, growing a variety of specialty and commodity crops: lettuce, raisin, tomato, almond, melon, winegrape, garlic, peach, orange, cotton, corn and wheat. Most crops were on surface or subsurface drip, though micro-jet, sprinkler and flood were represented as well. Fc was retrospectively estimated every 8-16 days by optical satellite data and interpolated to a daily timestep. Crop height was derived as a capped linear function of Fc using published guideline maxima. These variables were used to generate daily basal crop coefficients (Kcb) per field through most or all of each respective growth cycle by the density coefficient approach of Allen & Pereira (2009). A soil water balance model for both topsoil and root zone, based on FAO-56 and using on-site measurements of applied irrigation and precipitation, was used to develop daily soil evaporation and crop water stress coefficients (Ke, Ks). Key meteorological variables (wind speed, relative humidity) were extracted from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) for climate correction. Basal crop ET (ETcb) was then derived from Kcb using CIMIS reference ET. Adjusted crop ET (ETc_adj) was estimated by the dual coefficient approach involving Kcb, Ke, and incorporating Ks. Cumulative ETc

  19. Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    Navya P Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4–7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P 0.05. Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures.

  20. Comparison of Indirect CsI/a:Si and Direct a:Se Digital Radiography. An assessment of contrast and detail visualization

    Fischbach, F.; Freund, T.; Pech, M.; Werk, M.; Bassir, C.; Stoever, B.; Felix, R.; Ricke, J. [Humboldt-Univ. Medical School, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2003-11-01

    Purpose: To assess and quantify the image quality at two dose levels for an amorphous Silicon (a:Si) Cesium Iodide (CsI) flat panel system compared with a direct amorphous Selenium (a:Se) digital radiography system. Material and Methods: A contrast detectability test was performed employing the CDRAD-phantom at mAs-values leading to approximately equal phantom entrance doses of 41.4, 57.9, 75.1 and 120.8 {mu}Gy for the a:Se and 39.9, 58.4, 75.6 and 117.9 {mu}Gy for the CsI system. Images were presented to 4 independent observers. For quantitative comparison, the image quality figure (IQF) was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation and the Wilcoxon test. A ROC-analysis was performed employing the TRG-phantom in a high- and a low-dose setting leading to entrance doses of 126.2 and 35 {mu}Gy for the direct, and 125.9 and 34.4 {mu}Gy for the indirect system. Statistical significance was evaluated using the Wilcoxon test. Results: The flat panel a:Si digital system provided superior results compared with the a:Se drum digital system with respect to low-dose settings for CDRAD-phantom and ROC-analysis, ensuring a better image quality with respect to contrast and detail detectability. Higher-dose settings provided similar results for both systems. Conclusion: Image quality of a:Si flat panel digital radiography proved to be superior to a:Se drum digital radiography using low-dose settings. If the primary target is dose reduction indirect flat panel technology should be used. Digital radiography amorphous selenium amorphous silicon chest radiography.

  1. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence assays for diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus using venous blood and finger prick filter paper blood spots.

    Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Blacksell, Stuart D; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Day, Nicholas P J; Newton, Paul N

    2009-05-01

    We performed indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) to compare levels of IgM and IgG antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi in admission-phase serum samples and filter paper blood spots (assayed immediately and stored at 5.4 degrees C and 29 degrees C for 30 days) collected on the same day from 53 adults with suspected scrub typhus and murine typhus admitted to Mahosot Hospital Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic. The sensitivities and specificities of admission-phase filter paper blood spots in comparison to paired sera were between 91% and 95% and 87% and 100%, respectively, for the diagnosis of scrub typhus and murine typhus. The classification of patients as having or not having typhus did not significantly differ after storage of the blood spots for 30 days (P > 0.4) at 5.4 degrees C and 29 degrees C. Because filter paper blood samples do not require sophisticated and expensive storage and transport, they may be an appropriate specimen collection technique for the diagnosis of rickettsial disease in the rural tropics.

  2. Communication Networks and Perceptions of Social Support as Antecedents to College Adjustment: A Comparison between Student Commuters and Campus Residents.

    Somera, Lilnabeth P.; Ellis, Beth Hartman

    1996-01-01

    Presents a two-part study that looks at the impact of social support on college adjustment among "traditional" campus residents and commuters. Begins with a review of social support measures and the relationship between commuting and college adjustment. Finds factors critical to academic adjustment vary in the contexts of commuting students and…

  3. Empirical comparison of four baseline covariate adjustment methods in analysis of continuous outcomes in randomized controlled trials

    Zhang S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Shiyuan Zhang,1 James Paul,2 Manyat Nantha-Aree,2 Norman Buckley,2 Uswa Shahzad,2 Ji Cheng,2 Justin DeBeer,5 Mitchell Winemaker,5 David Wismer,5 Dinshaw Punthakee,5 Victoria Avram,5 Lehana Thabane1–41Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 2Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Biostatistics Unit/Centre for Evaluation of Medicines, St Joseph's Healthcare - Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 4Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Science/McMaster University, 5Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaBackground: Although seemingly straightforward, the statistical comparison of a continuous variable in a randomized controlled trial that has both a pre- and posttreatment score presents an interesting challenge for trialists. We present here empirical application of four statistical methods (posttreatment scores with analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, change in scores, and percent change in scores, using data from a randomized controlled trial of postoperative pain in patients following total joint arthroplasty (the Morphine COnsumption in Joint Replacement Patients, With and Without GaBapentin Treatment, a RandomIzed ControlLEd Study [MOBILE] trials.Methods: Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to adjust for baseline measures and to provide an unbiased estimate of the mean group difference of the 1-year postoperative knee flexion scores in knee arthroplasty patients. Robustness tests were done by comparing ANCOVA with three comparative methods: the posttreatment scores, change in scores, and percentage change from baseline.Results: All four methods showed similar direction of effect; however, ANCOVA (-3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -9.5, 1.6; P=0.15 and the posttreatment score (-4.3; 95% CI: -9.8, 1.2; P=0.12 method provided the highest precision of estimate compared with the change score (-3.0; 95% CI: -9.9, 3.8; P=0

  4. Empirical comparison of maximal voxel and non-isotropic adjusted cluster extent results in a voxel-based morphometry study of comorbid learning disability with schizophrenia.

    Moorhead, T William J; Job, Dominic E; Spencer, Michael D; Whalley, Heather C; Johnstone, Eve C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2005-11-15

    We present an empirical comparison of cluster extent and maximal voxel results in a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study of brain structure. The cluster extents are adjusted for underlying deviation from uniform smoothness. We implement this comparison on a four-group cohort that has previously shown evidence of a neuro-developmental component in schizophrenia (Moorhead, T.W.J., Job, D.E., Whalley, H.C., Sanderson, T.L., Johnstone, E.C. and Lawrie, S.M. 2004. Voxel-based morphometry of comorbid schizophrenia and learning disability: analyses in normalized and native spaces using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. NeuroImage 22: 188-202.). We find that adjusted cluster extent results provide information on the nature of deficits that occur in the schizophrenia affected groups, and these important structural differences are not all shown in maximal voxel results. The maximal voxel and cluster extent results are corrected for multiple comparisons using Random Fields (RF) methods. In order to apply the cluster extent measures, we propose a post-hoc method for determining the primary threshold in the analysis. Unadjusted cluster extent results are reported, for these, no allowance is made for non-isotropic smoothness, and comparison with the adjusted extent results shows that the unadjusted results can be either conservative or anti-conservative depending upon the underlying tissue distributions.

  5. A comparison of titers of anti-Brucella antibodies of naturally infected and healthy vaccinated cattle by standard tube agglutination test, microtiter plate agglutination test, indirect hemagglutination assay, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Anju Mohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT, microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT, indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA as per standard protocols. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963±0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p<0.0001. The mean MAT titers were 2.244±0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200±0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p<0.005. The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284±0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200±0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002. However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678±0.014 and healthy vaccinated cattle (1.367±0.014 was non-significant. The infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals. However, it cannot be ascertained whether these antibodies are due to vaccine or response to infection. Since the infected animals had been vaccinated earlier, the current infection may suggest that vaccination was unable to induce protective levels of antibody. The heightened antibody response after infection may also indicate a secondary immune response to the antigens common to the vaccine strain and wild Brucella organisms. Conclusion: The brucellosis infected animals showed very high titers of agglutinating antibodies compared to the vaccinated animals.

  6. A prospective crossover comparison of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and pressure-support ventilation in a pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit population.

    Breatnach, Cormac

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation with pressure-support ventilation. DESIGN: Prospective, crossover comparison study. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Sixteen ventilated infants and children: mean age = 9.7 months (range = 2 days-4 yrs) and mean weight = 6.2 kg (range = 2.4-13.7kg). INTERVENTIONS: A modified nasogastric tube was inserted and correct positioning was confirmed. Patients were ventilated in pressure-support mode with a pneumatic trigger for a 30-min period and then in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode for up to 4 hrs. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data collected for comparison included activating trigger (neural vs. pneumatic), peak and mean airway pressures, expired minute and tidal volumes, heart rate, respiratory rate, pulse oximetry, end-tidal CO2 and arterial blood gases. Synchrony was improved in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode with 65% (+\\/-21%) of breaths triggered neurally vs. 35% pneumatically (p < .001) and 85% (+\\/-8%) of breaths cycled-off neurally vs. 15% pneumatically (p = .0001). The peak airway pressure in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was significantly lower than in pressure-support mode with a 28% decrease in pressure after 30 mins (p = .003) and 32% decrease after 3 hrs (p < .001). Mean airway pressure was reduced by 11% at 30 mins (p = .13) and 9% at 3 hrs (p = .31) in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode although this did not reach statistical significance. Patient hemodynamics and gas exchange remained stable for the study period. No adverse patient events or device effects were noted. CONCLUSIONS: In a neonatal and pediatric intensive care unit population, ventilation in neurally adjusted ventilatory assist mode was associated with improved patient-ventilator synchrony and lower peak airway pressure when compared with pressure-support ventilation with a pneumatic trigger. Ventilating patients in this new mode

  7. Psychosocial adjustment and marital intimacy among partners of patients with breast cancer: a comparison study with partners of healthy women.

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the psychosocial adjustment of 70 partners of patients with breast cancer by comparing their emotional adjustment and quality of life (QoL) with 70 partners of women without cancer. The role of marital intimacy in their adjustment and the moderating effect of group type were analyzed. The partners of patients with breast cancer presented higher levels of anxious and depressive symptomatology; poor social, psychological, general and physical QoL; and higher levels of intimacy. The moderation analysis showed that higher levels of intimacy predicted lower levels of depression and anxiety and greater QoL only among the partners of cancer patients.

  8. The occurrence of the filled duration illusion: a comparison of the method of adjustment with the method of magnitude estimation.

    Hasuo, Emi; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Tomimatsu, Erika; Grondin, Simon; Ueda, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    A time interval between the onset and the offset of a continuous sound (filled interval) is often perceived to be longer than a time interval between two successive brief sounds (empty interval) of the same physical duration. The present study examined whether and how this phenomenon, sometimes called the filled duration illusion (FDI), occurs for short time intervals (40-520 ms). The investigation was conducted with the method of adjustment (Experiment 1) and the method of magnitude estimation (Experiment 2). When the method of adjustment was used, the FDI did not appear for the majority of the participants, but it appeared clearly for some participants. In the latter case, the amount of the FDI increased as the interval duration lengthened. The FDI was more likely to occur with magnitude estimation than with the method of adjustment. The participants who showed clear FDI with one method did not necessarily show such clear FDI with the other method.

  9. ADJUSTMENT FACTORS AND ADJUSTMENT STRUCTURE

    Tao Benzao

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  10. Soil biological quality of grassland fertilized with adjusted cattle manure slurries in comparison with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Boer, H.; Bloem, J.; Schouten, T.; Rutgers, M.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of five fertilizers (including two adjusted manure slurries) and an untreated control on soil biota and explored the effect on the ecosystem services they provided. Our results suggest that the available N (NO3- and NH4+) in the soil plays a central role in the effect of fertil

  11. Comparison of Methods for Adjusting Incorrect Assignments of Items to Subtests Oblique Multiple Group Method Versus Confirmatory Common Factor Method

    Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    2009-01-01

    A common question in test evaluation is whether an a priori assignment of items to subtests is supported by empirical data. If the analysis results indicate the assignment of items to subtests under study is not supported by data, the assignment is often adjusted. In this study the authors compare t

  12. Comparison of Scores on Two Visual-Motor Tests for Children Referred for Learning or Adjustment Difficulties.

    DeMers, Stephen T.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study compared the performance of school-aged children referred for learning or adjustment difficulties on Beery's Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Koppitz's version of the Bender-Gestalt test. Results indicated that the tests are related but not equivalent when administered to referred populations. (Author/AL)

  13. Comparison of the fracture toughness and wear resistance of indirect composites cured by conventional post curing methods and electron beam irradiation

    Vaishnavi C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To compare the fracture toughness and wear resistance of indirect composites cured by conventional post curing methods and electron beam irradiation. Materials and Methods : Forty specimens were randomly assigned into four groups of ten each and were subjected to various post curing methods. Fracture toughness and wear resistance tests were performed and the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results : It was found that Inlay system showed higher values followed by electron beam irradiation. Conclusion : Electron beam irradiation of dental composites gives comparable mechanical properties to other post curing systems. It can be concluded that further studies with increased radiation dose should be performed to improve the mechanical properties of indirect composites.

  14. The combined geodetic network adjusted on the reference ellipsoid - a comparison of three functional models for GNSS observations

    Kadaj, Roman

    2016-12-01

    The adjustment problem of the so-called combined (hybrid, integrated) network created with GNSS vectors and terrestrial observations has been the subject of many theoretical and applied works. The network adjustment in various mathematical spaces was considered: in the Cartesian geocentric system on a reference ellipsoid and on a mapping plane. For practical reasons, it often takes a geodetic coordinate system associated with the reference ellipsoid. In this case, the Cartesian GNSS vectors are converted, for example, into geodesic parameters (azimuth and length) on the ellipsoid, but the simple form of converted pseudo-observations are the direct differences of the geodetic coordinates. Unfortunately, such an approach may be essentially distorted by a systematic error resulting from the position error of the GNSS vector, before its projection on the ellipsoid surface. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of this error on the determined measures of geometric ellipsoid elements, including the differences of geodetic coordinates or geodesic parameters is presented. Assuming that the adjustment of a combined network on the ellipsoid shows that the optimal functional approach in relation to the satellite observation, is to create the observational equations directly for the original GNSS Cartesian vector components, writing them directly as a function of the geodetic coordinates (in numerical applications, we use the linearized forms of observational equations with explicitly specified coefficients). While retaining the original character of the Cartesian vector, one avoids any systematic errors that may occur in the conversion of the original GNSS vectors to ellipsoid elements, for example the vector of the geodesic parameters. The problem is theoretically developed and numerically tested. An example of the adjustment of a subnet loaded from the database of reference stations of the ASG-EUPOS system was considered for the preferred functional model of the GNSS

  15. The combined geodetic network adjusted on the reference ellipsoid – a comparison of three functional models for GNSS observations

    Kadaj Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adjustment problem of the so-called combined (hybrid, integrated network created with GNSS vectors and terrestrial observations has been the subject of many theoretical and applied works. The network adjustment in various mathematical spaces was considered: in the Cartesian geocentric system on a reference ellipsoid and on a mapping plane. For practical reasons, it often takes a geodetic coordinate system associated with the reference ellipsoid. In this case, the Cartesian GNSS vectors are converted, for example, into geodesic parameters (azimuth and length on the ellipsoid, but the simple form of converted pseudo-observations are the direct differences of the geodetic coordinates. Unfortunately, such an approach may be essentially distorted by a systematic error resulting from the position error of the GNSS vector, before its projection on the ellipsoid surface. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of this error on the determined measures of geometric ellipsoid elements, including the differences of geodetic coordinates or geodesic parameters is presented. Assuming that the adjustment of a combined network on the ellipsoid shows that the optimal functional approach in relation to the satellite observation, is to create the observational equations directly for the original GNSS Cartesian vector components, writing them directly as a function of the geodetic coordinates (in numerical applications, we use the linearized forms of observational equations with explicitly specified coefficients. While retaining the original character of the Cartesian vector, one avoids any systematic errors that may occur in the conversion of the original GNSS vectors to ellipsoid elements, for example the vector of the geodesic parameters. The problem is theoretically developed and numerically tested. An example of the adjustment of a subnet loaded from the database of reference stations of the ASG-EUPOS system was considered for the preferred functional

  16. Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: comparisons across gender.

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in the relationship between sources of perceived support (parent, teacher, classmate, friend, school) and psychological and academic adjustment in a sample of 636 (49% male) middle school students. Longitudinal data were collected at two time points in the same school year. The study provided psychometric support for the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Malecki et al., A working manual on the development of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (2000). Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University, 2003) across gender, and demonstrated gender differences in perceptions of support in early adolescence. In addition, there were significant associations between all sources of support with depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, and academic adjustment, but fewer significant unique effects of each source. Parental support was a robust unique predictor of adjustment for both boys and girls, and classmates' support was a robust unique predictor for boys. These results illustrate the importance of examining gender differences in the social experience of adolescents with careful attention to measurement and analytic issues.

  17. Sensitivity assessment, adjustment, and comparison of mathematical models describing the migration of pesticides in soil using lysimetric data

    Shein, E. V.; Kokoreva, A. A.; Gorbatov, V. S.; Umarova, A. B.; Kolupaeva, V. N.; Perevertin, K. A.

    2009-07-01

    The water block of physically founded models of different levels (chromatographic PEARL models and dual-porosity MACRO models) was parameterized using laboratory experimental data and tested using the results of studying the water regime of loamy soddy-podzolic soil in large lysimeters of the Experimental Soil Station of Moscow State University. The models were adapted using a stepwise approach, which involved the sequential assessment and adjustment of each submodel. The models unadjusted for the water block underestimated the lysimeter flow and overestimated the soil water content. The theoretical necessity of the model adjustment was explained by the different scales of the experimental objects (soil samples) and simulated phenomenon (soil profile). The adjustment of the models by selecting the most sensitive hydrophysical parameters of the soils (the approximation parameters of the soil water retention curve (SWRC)) gave good agreement between the predicted moisture profiles and their actual values. In distinction from the PEARL model, the MARCO model reliably described the migration of a pesticide through the soil profile, which confirmed the necessity of physically founded models accounting for the separation of preferential flows in the pore space for the prediction, analysis, optimization, and management of modern agricultural technologies.

  18. A comparison of administrative and physiologic predictive models in determining risk adjusted mortality rates in critically ill patients.

    Kyle B Enfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospitals are increasingly compared based on clinical outcomes adjusted for severity of illness. Multiple methods exist to adjust for differences between patients. The challenge for consumers of this information, both the public and healthcare providers, is interpreting differences in risk adjustment models particularly when models differ in their use of administrative and physiologic data. We set to examine how administrative and physiologic models compare to each when applied to critically ill patients. METHODS: We prospectively abstracted variables for a physiologic and administrative model of mortality from two intensive care units in the United States. Predicted mortality was compared through the Pearsons Product coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. A subgroup of patients admitted directly from the emergency department was analyzed to remove potential confounding changes in condition prior to ICU admission. RESULTS: We included 556 patients from two academic medical centers in this analysis. The administrative model and physiologic models predicted mortalities for the combined cohort were 15.3% (95% CI 13.7%, 16.8% and 24.6% (95% CI 22.7%, 26.5% (t-test p-value<0.001. The r(2 for these models was 0.297. The Bland-Atlman plot suggests that at low predicted mortality there was good agreement; however, as mortality increased the models diverged. Similar results were found when analyzing a subgroup of patients admitted directly from the emergency department. When comparing the two hospitals, there was a statistical difference when using the administrative model but not the physiologic model. Unexplained mortality, defined as those patients who died who had a predicted mortality less than 10%, was a rare event by either model. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, while it has been shown that administrative models provide estimates of mortality that are similar to physiologic models in non-critically ill patients with pneumonia, our results

  19. Indirection and computer security.

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  20. Convexity Adjustments

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  1. 优化我国税制结构的对策思考——基于调整直接税间接税的分析%Reflections on Optimizing the Structure of Tax System in China —— An Analysis of Adjustment to Direct and Indirect Tax

    罗红

    2011-01-01

    通过直接税与间接税的配比,针对我国现行税制结构的不合理进行了分析,间接税方面:商品和劳务流转领域两税并存,导致了产业之间的税负不均衡;间接税过多,加重了消费者的税收负担;间接税偏高,容易引发大量的消费外移,不利于扩大内需。直接税方面:个人所得税小修小补,框架上没有根本突破,制度上没有实质的变革;个人房产持有环节缺失,加剧了财产贫富差距。并对进一步优化税制结构的思路、难点提出了对策建议:一是通过改革流转税,降低间接税;二是推进直接税建设,充分发挥税收调节分配的作用。%Through the proportioning between the direct taxation and indirect taxation, irrationality of the current tax system structure is analyzed. In the indirect taxation aspects, goods and labour services tax coexist in the circulation field, which leads to the disequilibrium of tax burden among industries. Excessive indirect taxation could cause tax overburden for consumers. Heavier than desirable indirect taxation could cause a large amount of consumption to move overseas, which goes against boosting domestic demand. In the direct taxation aspects, individual income tax policy has only been modified a little. Actually, its framework hasn' t been broken through at all and there has been no substantial reform in the system. Due to the tax deficiency of individual holding of real estate, the property gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider. Some countermeasures and suggestions on the optimization of tax structure are put forward here, such as reducing the indirect taxation by the reform of turnover tax, boosting the construction of direct taxation and fully taking advantage of the adjustment and distribution function of tax.

  2. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Pankaj Attri; Maksudbek Yusupov; Ji Hoon Park; Lakshmi Prasanna Lingamdinne; Janardhan Reddy Koduru; Masaharu Shiratani; Eun Ha Choi; Annemie Bogaerts

    2016-01-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the tre...

  3. Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    Navya P Menon; Balagopal R Varma; Sureshkumar Janardhanan; Parvathy Kumaran; Arun Mamachan Xavier; Bhat Sangeetha Govinda

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4–7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digi...

  4. Conceptualizing and measuring illness self-concept: a comparison with self-esteem and optimism in predicting fibromyalgia adjustment.

    Morea, Jessica M; Friend, Ronald; Bennett, Robert M

    2008-12-01

    Illness self-concept (ISC), or the extent to which individuals are consumed by their illness, was theoretically described and evaluated with the Illness Self-Concept Scale (ISCS), a new 23-item scale, to predict adjustment in fibromyalgia. To establish convergent and discriminant validity, illness self-concept was compared to self-esteem and optimism in predicting health status, illness intrusiveness, depression, and life satisfaction. The ISCS demonstrated good reliability (alpha = .94; test-retest r = .80) and was a strong predictor of outcomes, even after controlling for optimism or self-esteem. The ISCS predicted unique variance in health-related outcomes; optimism and self-esteem did not, providing construct validation. Illness self-concept may play a significant role in coping with fibromyalgia and may prove useful in the evaluation of other chronic illnesses.

  5. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premonopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: indirect comparison of dose and schedule in DBCG trials 77, 82, and 89

    Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.T.; Jensen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant reduction in the risk of recurrence and death was achieved three decades ago with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with operable breast. The major pivotal trials used oral cyclophosphamide (C) days 1-14 with intravenous methotrexate (M) and fluorouracil (F) on days 1 and 8, repeated...... Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), and two succeeding randomised trials in premenopausal patients with node positive breast cancer used three-weekly or four-weekly intravenous CMF in one of the treatment arms. RESULTS: Between November 1977 and January 2001 these trials included 2 213 patients who...... was performed adjusting for the known prognostic factors. In the adjusted analysis a 30% increase in the risk of recurrence was observed for two the intravenous regimens as compared to classical CMF. As concerns survival a significant 40% increase in the risk of death was observed with the four-weekly regimen...

  6. Indirect Speech Acts

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  7. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    Matthews, J. B. R.

    2012-09-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

  8. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  9. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  10. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies. PMID:27708352

  11. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  12. Comparison between indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Anaplasma marginale antibodies with recombinant major surface protein 5 and initial body antigens

    Virgínia MG Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs based on recombinant major surface protein 5 (rMSP5 and initial body (IB antigens from a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale were developed to detect antibodies against this rickettsia in cattle. Both tests showed the same sensitivity (98.2% and specificities (100% for rMSP5 and 93.8% for IB ELISA which did not differ statistically. No cross-reactions were detected with Babesia bigemina antibodies, but 5 (rMSP5 ELISA to 15% (IB ELISA of cross-reactions were detected with B. bovis antibodies. However, such difference was not statistically significant. Prevalences of seropositive crossbred beef cattle raised extensively in Miranda county, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were 78.1% by rMSP5 ELISA and 79.7% by IB ELISA. In the analysis of sera from dairy calves naturally-infected with A. marginale, the dynamics of antibody production was very similar between both tests, with maternal antibodies reaching the lowest levels at 15-30 days, followed by an increase in the mean optical densities in both ELISAs, suggesting the development of active immunity against A. marginale. Results showed that all calves were seropositive by one-year old, characterizing a situation of enzootic stability. The similar performances of the ELISAs suggest that both tests can be used in epidemiological surveys for detection of antibodies to A. marginale in cattle.

  13. Mechanism and comparison of needle-type non-thermal direct and indirect atmospheric pressure plasma jets on the degradation of dyes

    Attri, Pankaj; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Park, Ji Hoon; Lingamdinne, Lakshmi Prasanna; Koduru, Janardhan Reddy; Shiratani, Masaharu; Choi, Eun Ha; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-10-01

    Purified water supply for human use, agriculture and industry is the major global priority nowadays. The advanced oxidation process based on atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been used for purification of wastewater, although the underlying mechanisms of degradation of organic pollutants are still unknown. In this study we employ two needle-type atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jets, i.e., indirect (ID-APPJ) and direct (D-APPJ) jets operating at Ar feed gas, for the treatment of methylene blue, methyl orange and congo red dyes, for two different times (i.e., 20 min and 30 min). Specifically, we study the decolorization/degradation of all three dyes using the above mentioned plasma sources, by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, HPLC and a density meter. We also employ mass spectroscopy to verify whether only decolorization or also degradation takes place after treatment of the dyes by the NTP jets. Additionally, we analyze the interaction of OH radicals with all three dyes using reactive molecular dynamics simulations, based on the density functional-tight binding method. This investigation represents the first report on the degradation of these three different dyes by two types of NTP setups, analyzed by various methods, and based on both experimental and computational studies.

  14. [Comparison of the indirect immunofluorescence assay performance of Bartonella henselae antigens obtained by co-cultivation in Vero and HeLa cells].

    Ergin, Cağrı; Akkaya, Yüksel; Kiriş Satılmış, Ozgün; Yılmaz, Cansev

    2011-07-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection is mainly based on serological testing by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Cell line co-cultivation with B.henselae and agar derivated antigens are the two major procedures used for evaluation of anti-Bartonella antibodies. Vero and Hep-2 cell lines are the most commonly used media for co-cultivation both in-house and commercial diagnostic kits production. However, HeLa cells which are easily supplied and grown, also can easily be infected by B.henselae. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of antigens obtained by co-cultivation of B.henselae ATCC 49882 (Houston-1) in Vero and HeLa Cells in IFA serology. Out of 381 sera samples, 127 (33.3%) were found positive and 195 (51.2%) were found negative by IFA performed by both cell line co-cultivations. The total agreement between the methods were found as 84.5% (322/381), and Cohen kappa value was calculated as 0.68 (strong, coherent). As a result, He-La cells were found to be useful for the preparation of B.henselae antigens to be used in IFA for the serologic diagnosis of B.henselae infections. However different genotype strains and cross reactions with other infectious agents should be investigated by further studies before routine applications of HeLa cell co-cultivations procedure is established.

  15. INDIRECT MICROLARYNGOSTROBOSCOPIC SURGERY

    MAHIEU, HF; DIKKERS, FG

    1992-01-01

    Detailed preoperative laryngostroboscopic examination is a prerequisite for phonosurgical correction of organic dysphonia. Although suspension microlaryngoscopic surgery has proved its value in the past, it excludes functional control during the removal of vocal fold swellings. Using an indirect mic

  16. Indirect neutrino oscillations

    Babu, K S; Wilczek, Frank; Pati, Jogesh C; Wilczek, Frank

    1995-01-01

    We show how two different scales for oscillations between e and \\mu neutrinos, characterized by different mixing angles and effective mass scales, can arise in a simple and theoretically attractive framework. One scale characterizes direct oscillations, which can accommodate the MSW approach to the solar neutrino problem, whereas the other can be considered as arising indirectly, through virtual transitions involving the \\tau neutrino with a mass \\sim 1 eV. This indirect transition allows the possibility of observable \\bar \

  17. A comparison of the indirect estimate of mean arterial pressure calculated by the conventional equation and calculated to compensate for a change in heart rate.

    Rogers, G; Oosthuyse, T

    2000-02-01

    The standard equation used to calculate mean arterial pressure (MAP) assumes that diastole persists for 2/3 and systole for 1/3 of each cardiac cycle. This ratio is altered when heart rate increases, and therefore we investigated the efficacy of predicting MAP during exercise using non-invasive indirect methods. Eight subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 3 minute intervals to elicit heart rates between 100-110, 120-130, 140-150, 160-170, and 180-190 beats/min. In the last minute of each 3 min interval an ECG recording was taken and systolic (SP) and diastolic (DP) blood pressure was measured by manual auscultation. MAP was calculated for each heart rate interval by: MAP=DP+1/3(SP-DP) (method A), and MAP= DP + Fs(SP- DP) (method B), where Fs is the fraction of the cardiac cycle comprising systole, measured from the ECG. Fs increased from 0.35+/-0.049 at rest to 0.47+/-0.039 at a heart rate of 180-190 beats/min. MAP measured by method B was consistently greater than MAP calculated by method A at all heart rates greater than resting heart rate (pequation (method A) to derive MAP during exercise (measured as the percentage difference between method A and B) increased linearly with heart rate (r=0.98). The standard MAP equation should not be applied during exercise, as it does not account for the change in the systolic: diastolic period ratio as heart rate increases.

  18. Chiropractic Adjustment

    ... syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation Don't seek chiropractic adjustment ... Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal ...

  19. Indirect Sexism in Discourse

    彭卓

    2008-01-01

    This thesis draws attention to one of the most vigorous debate in sociolinguistics,sexism in discourse,despite the chicken-and egg question whether it is our language shape sexism or sexism creates certain language.Unlike most researches conducted in sexism and language in the past,we challenge the traditional notion of linguistic sexism and direct our view to what we call "an indirect sexism" here.We then argue the difference between direct and indirect sexism and depict how such an undercurrent drives secretly and carefully in our daily discourse.

  20. Indirect airway challenges

    Joos, GF; O'Connor, B; Anderson, SD; Chung, F; Cockcroft, DW; Dahlen, B; DiMaria, G; Foresi, A; Hargreave, FE; Holgate, ST; Inman, M; Lotvall, J; Magnussen, H; Polosa, R; Postma, DS; Riedler, J

    2003-01-01

    Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Di

  1. Indirect resin composites

    Nandini Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ′indirect resin composites,′ composite inlays,′ and ′fiber-reinforced composites.′

  2. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  3. Salary adjustments

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  4. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes.

  5. The ability to identify the intraparotid facial nerve for locating parotid gland lesions in comparison to other indirect landmark methods: evaluation by 3.0 T MR imaging with surface coils

    Ishibashi, Mana; Fujii, Shinya; Nishihara, Keisuke; Matsusue, Eiji; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan); Kawamoto, Katsuyuki [Tottori University, Division of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    It is important to know whether a parotid gland lesion is in the superficial or deep lobe for preoperative planning. We aimed to investigate the ability of 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with surface coils to identify the intraparotid facial nerve and locate parotid gland lesions, in comparison to other indirect landmark methods. We retrospectively evaluated 50 consecutive patients with primary parotid gland lesions. The position of the facial nerve was determined by tracing the nerve in the stylomastoid foramen and then following it on sequential MR sections through the parotid gland. The retromandibular vein and the facial nerve line (FN line) were also identified. For each radiologist and each method, we determined the diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions and superficial lobe lesions, as well as accuracy. These abilities were compared among the three methods using the Chi-square test with Yates' correction. Mean diagnostic ability for deep lobe lesions, the diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions, and accuracy were 92%, 86%, 87%, respectively, for the direct identification method; 67%, 89%, 86%, respectively, for the retromandibular vein method; and 25%, 99%, 90%, respectively, for the FN line method. The direct identification method had significantly higher diagnostic ability for deep lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01), but significantly lower diagnostic ability for superficial lobe lesions than the FN line method (P < 0.01). Direct identification of the intraparotid facial nerve enables parotid gland lesions to be correctly located, particularly those in the deep lobes. (orig.)

  6. 谈施工阶段进度计划的对比与调整%Comparison and Adjustment of Progress Schedules in Construction Stage

    郝国鹏; 吴文平

    2011-01-01

    In a project construction,the construction schedule control is one of the three control objectives of an engineering construction as quality control and cost control.Under the condition of ensuring the project safety and quality,to expedite the construction schedule in order to make the project be completed and used ahead of time,and play a role in engineering functions and investment benefits as early as possible,is the common aspiration of all construction organizations.Because the construction stage has an important factor affecting on the construction schedule,the factors that affect the construction schedule are discussed here firstly.Then the comparison of actual progress and scheduled progress in construction stage and the adjustment method of progress schedule are also introduced emphatically and by combining with practical cases.%工程建设进度控制是工程项目建设中与质量控制、成本控制并列为工程建设控制的三大目标之一。在保证工程安全、质量的前提下,加快施工进度使得工程早竣工、早使用,尽早发挥工程使用功能和投资效益,是所有施工单位的共同愿望。施工阶段对工程进度的影响十分重要,本文从影响施工进度的因素谈起,着重介绍了施工阶段实际进度与计划进度的对比与进度计划的调整方法,并结合实际案例进行了探讨。

  7. Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancies in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis-Comparison of Index Scores from EQ-5D, 15D, and SF-6D

    Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis generated from three generic health-related quality-of-life instruments.......The aim of this study was to compare quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for patients with rheumatoid arthritis generated from three generic health-related quality-of-life instruments....

  8. The Adjustment Problems Faced by International Students in the United States: A Comparison of International Students and Administrative Perceptions at Two Private, Religiously Affiliated Universities

    Galloway, Fred J.; Jenkins, John R.

    2005-01-01

    International students and the faculty and administrators charged with their oversight were surveyed at two religiously affiliated, private universities to determine the extent of their adjustment problems in the United States. Although the international students were found to have only minor adjustment problems in the twelve areas covered by the…

  9. Indirect radioimmunoassay for interferon

    Lyons, S.F.; Schoub, B.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Virology); Chiu, M.N.; Crespi, M. (National Institute for Virology, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1982-10-01

    An indirect radioimmunoassay for testing the antiviral activity of interferon (IFN) is described. Vero cells are seeded in microtitre plates, treated with appropriate dilutions of interferon and challenged with Sindbis virus. Viral yield is measured using specific antibody and radiolabelled protein A. The assay is able to detect IFN levels of 5 international units (I.U.)/ml, has a high degree of reproducibility, and could be easily adapted to various cell and virus combinations. This microsystem is technically simple, allows testing of small volumes of test material, and eliminates subjectivity in reading of endpoints.

  10. Direct and indirect methods for the quantification of leg volume: Comparison between water displacement volumetry, the disk model method and the frustum sign model method, using the correlation coefficient and the limits of agreement

    D.M.K.S. Kaulesar Sukul (D. M K S); P.Th. den Hoed (Pieter); T. Johannes (Tanja); R. van Dolder (R.); E. Benda (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractVolume changes can be measured either directly by water-displacement volumetry or by various indirect methods in which calculation of the volume is based on circumference measurements. The aim of the present study was to determine the most appropriate indirect method for lower leg volume

  11. Age and gender adjusted comparison of clinical features between severe cases infected with H7N9 and H1N1pdm influenza A in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Xiang Huo

    Full Text Available Influenza H7N9 and H1N1pdm can cause severe human infections. It is important to investigate the distinguishing clinical features between these two diseases. Several studies have compared the differences in general, however, age and gender adjusted comparisons may be more useful and informative to the health professionals.A total of 184 severe H1N1pdm patients and 37 severe H7N9 patients from Jiangsu Province were included in this analysis to perform age and gender adjusted comparison of clinical features.After adjusting age and gender, no significant differences in chronic medical conditions or treatment were found between severely ill patients with H7N9 and H1N1pdm. Severely ill patients with H7N9 had significantly longer interval from onset of illness to neuraminidase inhibitor treatment and to death. They were more likely to have complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, liver and renal dysfunctions, and had a significantly higher risk of death.Our results suggests that age and gender should be adjusted as important confounding factors when comparing the clinical features between severe H7N9 and H1N1pdm patients to avoid any misunderstanding regarding the differences between these two diseases particularly in terms of clinical severity and prognosis.

  12. The Adjustment Problems Faced by International and Overseas Chinese Students Studying in Taiwan Universities: A Comparison of Student and Faculty/Staff Perceptions

    Jenkins, John R.; Galloway, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 15 years the number of international students studying at universities in Taiwan has increased dramatically; however, to date, there have been few studies that measured the cultural adjustment problems that this diverse group of students experience. To remedy this problem, this study gathered data from 1,174 international students…

  13. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    D. S. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  14. COMPARISON OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY ADJUSTED FOR AGE AND HEART RATE IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS AND WOMEN WITHOUT RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    D. S. Novikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the 24-hour indicators of heart rate variability (HRV, adjusted for age and 24-hour average heart rate (HR24 in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and women of the control group.Material and methods. Women with RA (n=291 at the age of 20-60 were examined. Women without rheumatic diseases (n=125 were included into control group. The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the results of 24-hour ECG monitoring were assessed in addition to clinical symptoms, RA activity and severity. Transformation of the initial HRV parameters in their logarithms, and the standardization of the logarithms of age and HR24, the calculation of the exponential of the standardized logarithm were performed to remove the effects of age and heart rate on HRV.Results. Time and frequency HRV indices, adjusted for age and HP24 (HRVa in women with RA were lower than these in women of control group. HRVa decline was observed in 14–24% of women with RA. The maximum HRVa decrease was observed among the parameters that reflect an activity of parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (RMSSDn, pNN50n, HFn.Conclusion. The young and middle age women with RA differ from the women of the control group in significant decrease in the time and spectral HRV indices adjusted for age and HR24.

  15. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  16. Ecology: Dynamics of Indirect Extinction.

    Montoya, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The experimental identification of the mechanism by which extinctions of predators trigger further predator extinctions emphasizes the role of indirect effects between species in disturbed ecosystems. It also has deep consequences for the hidden magnitude of the current biodiversity crisis.

  17. Severity of Disease Estimation and Risk-Adjustment for Comparison of Outcomes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Using Electronic Routine Care Data

    van Mourik, Maaike S. M.; Moons, K. (Carl) G.M.; Murphy, Michael V.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Klompas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Valid comparison between hospitals for benchmarking or pay-for-performance incentives requires accurate correction for underlying disease severity (case-mix). However, existing models are either very simplistic or require extensive manual data collection. OBJECTIVE. To develop a disease

  18. Sibling Comparison of Differential Parental Treatment in Adolescence: Gender, Self-Esteem, and Emotionality as Mediators of the Parenting-Adjustment Association.

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Simmens, Sam; Reiss, David; Hetherington, E. Mavis

    2000-01-01

    Compared adolescent siblings' evaluations of parental treatment. Found support for a moderating effect for self-esteem and emotionality but not gender. Evidence of the "sibling barricade" effect was limited and interpreted as reflecting a sibling comparison process. For older siblings, emotionality and self-esteem moderated the sibling barricade…

  19. The logic of indirect speech.

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Lee, James J

    2008-01-22

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence.

  20. The logic of indirect speech

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  1. Comparison of the performance of the CMS Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC risk adjuster with the charlson and elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting mortality

    Li Pengxiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS has implemented the CMS-Hierarchical Condition Category (CMS-HCC model to risk adjust Medicare capitation payments. This study intends to assess the performance of the CMS-HCC risk adjustment method and to compare it to the Charlson and Elixhauser comorbidity measures in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality in Medicare beneficiaries. Methods The study used the 2005-2006 Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW 5% Medicare files. The primary study sample included all community-dwelling fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with a hospital admission between January 1st, 2006 and June 30th, 2006. Additionally, four disease-specific samples consisting of subgroups of patients with principal diagnoses of congestive heart failure (CHF, stroke, diabetes mellitus (DM, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI were also selected. Four analytic files were generated for each sample by extracting inpatient and/or outpatient claims for each patient. Logistic regressions were used to compare the methods. Model performance was assessed using the c-statistic, the Akaike's information criterion (AIC, the Bayesian information criterion (BIC and their 95% confidence intervals estimated using bootstrapping. Results The CMS-HCC had statistically significant higher c-statistic and lower AIC and BIC values than the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality across all samples in analytic files that included claims from the index hospitalization. Exclusion of claims for the index hospitalization generally led to drops in model performance across all methods with the highest drops for the CMS-HCC method. However, the CMS-HCC still performed as well or better than the other two methods. Conclusions The CMS-HCC method demonstrated better performance relative to the Charlson and Elixhauser methods in predicting in-hospital and six-month mortality. The CMS

  2. A Comparison Between Impedance Measured by a Commercial Analyzer and your Value Adjusted by a Theoretical Model in Body Composition Evaluation

    2007-11-02

    equipment with tetrapolar array set of electrodes is used to realize the bioimpedance measurement . The aim of the present work is to show that the... bioimpedance measured is normally sub-estimated and to develop a correction factor to such values. The comparison between the original bioimpedance ...conducted on 10 male subjects. Besides the bioimpedance analysis, anthropometric measures consisting of height, weight and skinfold-thickness were also

  3. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    Eriksson, Tor

    2013-01-01

    , but a brief discussion of cross-country differences and similarities in firmlevel labor adjustment is also provided. For Denmark, remarkable long-term stability in firms’ labor adjustment technologies is observed and the cross-country comparisons reveal striking similarities between countries with very...... diverse labor market institutions....

  4. Comparing historical and modern methods of Sea Surface Temperature measurement – Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    J. B. R. Matthews

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea Surface Temperature (SST measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake temperatures are generally thought to average a few tenths of a °C warmer than simultaneous bucket temperatures. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies comparing shipboard methods by field experiment and adjustments applied to SST datasets to account for variable methods. In opposition to contemporary thinking, I find average bucket-intake temperature differences reported from field studies inconclusive. Non-zero average differences often have associated standard deviations that are several times larger than the averages themselves. Further, average differences have been found to vary widely between ships and between cruises on the same ship. The cause of non-zero average differences is typically unclear given the general absence of additional temperature observations to those from buckets and engine intakes. Shipboard measurements appear of variable quality, highly dependent upon the accuracy and precision of the thermometer used and the care of the observer where manually read. Methods are generally poorly documented, with written instructions not necessarily reflecting actual practices of merchant mariners. Measurements cannot be expected to be of high quality where obtained by untrained sailors using thermometers of low accuracy and precision.

  5. Comparison of calcium hydroxide removal by self-adjusting file, EndoVac, and CanalBrush agitation techniques: An in vitro study

    Sevinç Aktemur Türker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study comparatively evaluated the efficacy of self-adjusting file (SAF, Endovac, and CanalBrush irrigant agitation protocols in removing calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH 2 from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human mandibular canine teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary instruments to size #40 and dressed with Ca(OH 2 . The roots were randomly assigned to four groups according to irrigant agitation protocol used (n = 15. In Group 1: Conventional syringe irrigation (no activation, control; Group 2: Rotary brush agitation (CanalBrush; Group 3: Apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system; and Group 4: Sonic agitation (SAF were used. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM evaluation was done for assessment of Ca(OH 2 removal in the coronal and apical thirds. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: There were statistically significant differences among the groups (P = 0.218. A statistically significant difference was seen between the test groups in Ca(OH 2 removal from the apical third of the canal (P 0.05. The most efficient Ca(OH 2 removal in apical third was recorded in Group 3 (EndoVac and Group 4 (SAF (P < 0.05. In Group 4 (sonic agitation, there was no significantly difference between Ca(OH 2 removal in coronal and apical thirds. Conclusions: SAF and EndoVac showed significantly better performance than CanalBrush and conventional syringe irrigation in removing Ca(OH 2 from apical third of the root canals.

  6. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Kübra Yıldırım

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  7. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    Bertulani, C A; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Kadyrov, A S; Kruppa, A; Pang, D Y

    2015-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions.

  8. The Calculation of Language Lateralization Indices in Post-stroke Aphasia: A Comparison of a Standard and a Lesion-Adjusted Formula

    Dietz, Aimee; Vannest, Jennifer; Maloney, Thomas; Altaye, Mekibib; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Holland, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The language lateralization index (LI) is a valuable tool in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research, especially in people with post-stroke aphasia. However, there is inconsistent consideration for the overlap of lesions with regions of interest (ROIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether standard LI (SLI) and lesion-adjusted LI (LALI) formulae generate different LI values and language lateralization classification for people with post-stroke chronic aphasia. Methods: SLI and LALI were calculated for an event-related (overt) verb generation task in an anterior and a posterior language ROI. Twelve people with aphasia due to a single left-hemispheric infarct (11 right-handed; 1 left-handed; 77.2 ± 41.7 months post-stroke) were included (eight females; 57 ± 8.88 years). Spearman correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship of the LI values generated by the SLI and the LALI formulas. Fischer’s exact test and a weighted Cohen’s Kappa determined the difference in language lateralization classification and agreement in the classification. Spearman correlation was used to examine the relationship between the difference in lateralization values produced by the LALI and SLI calculations with (1) lesion size, (2) the percentage of lesion overlap in each ROI, and (3) aphasia severity. Results: The two calculation methods were highly correlated and produced similar LI Values, yet yielded significantly different classification for language lateralization. Further, a more leftward LI resulted from application of the LALI formula in 10 participants, in either the anterior ROI (n = 3) or the posterior ROI (n = 7). Finally, for the posterior ROI only, significant correlations were revealed between the two calculation methods and the (1) lesion size and (2) percent of overlap with the ROI. Discussion: While both approaches produce highly correlated LI values, differences

  9. 直接树脂修复与间接树脂嵌体的临床应用比较%Clinical comparison on restoring posterior teeth with composite resin fillings and indirect resin inlays

    洪席超; 文静; 于世德

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical performance of resin fillings and inlays in restoring the posterior teeth.Methods 46 posterior teeth were filled with composite resin directly and 50 posterior teeth were restored with indirect resin inlays.Each restoration was evaluated at baseline,after 1 year and 2 years,according to the modified USPHS criteria.Results There was significant difference in marginal discoloration,marginal integrity,secondary carries and wear-resistance between these two groups (P<0.05).The achievement ratio of direct resin fillings was 72.2% and the achievement ratio of indirect resin inlays was 91.3% Conclusion Indirect resin inlays can be suitable for restorations of posterior teeth with more physical property,with less irritation or microleakage.%目的 比较复合树脂及树脂嵌体用于修复后牙缺损的临床治疗效果.方法 选择82例患者,共96颗后牙,临床完成直接树脂修复46个,树脂嵌体50个,术后即刻、1年及2年,参考改良USPHS标准,观察其临床效果.结果 直接树脂修复和间接树脂嵌体修复在边缘着色、边缘密合、继发龋、耐磨性等方面差异有显著性(P<0.05),直接树脂修复成功率为72.2%(26/36),间接树脂嵌体成功率为91.3%(42/ 46).结论 树脂嵌体具有更好的边缘密合性、抗磨损和抗折裂能力,同时对牙髓的刺激更小.

  10. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rempel, D. [University of California Berkeley/San Francisco (United States). Ergonomics Laboratory

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  11. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  12. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations

    Tanabe, Shoma; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs has been examined in great details. Previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by theoretical analysis of a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equili...

  13. INDIRECT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE FUZZY CONTROLLER

    ZHU Liye; FANG Yuan; ZHANG Weidong

    2008-01-01

    According to a type of normal nonlinear system, an indirect adaptive fuzzy (IAF) controller has been applied to those systems where no accurate mathematical models of the systems under control are available. To satisfy with system performance, an indirect accelerated adaptive fuzzy (IAAF) controller is proposed, and its general form is presented. The general form IAAF controller ensures necessary control criteria and system's global stability using Lyapunov Theorem. It has been proved that the close-loop system error converges to a small neighborhood of equilibrium point. The optimal IAAF controller is derived to guarantee the process's shortest settling time. Simulation results indicate the IAAF controller make the system more stable, accurate, and fast.

  14. Weather Radar Adjustment Using Runoff from Urban Surfaces

    Ahm, Malte; Rasmussen, Michael Robdrup

    2017-01-01

    Weather radar data used for urban drainage applications are traditionally adjusted to point ground references, e.g., rain gauges. However, the available rain gauge density for the adjustment is often low, which may lead to significant representativeness errors. Yet, in many urban catchments......, rainfall is often measured indirectly through runoff sensors. This paper presents a method for weather radar adjustment on the basis of runoff observations (Z-Q adjustment) as an alternative to the traditional Z-R adjustment on the basis of rain gauges. Data from a new monitoring station in Aalborg......, Denmark, were used to evaluate the flow-based weather radar adjustment method against the traditional rain-gauge adjustment. The evaluation was performed by comparing radar-modeled runoff to observed runoff. The methodology was both tested on an events basis and multiple events combined. The results...

  15. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.

    2009-02-26

    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  16. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Marco Cirelli

    2012-11-01

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have brought along have been discussed. The main sources of uncertainties that affect this kind of searches are also listed. [Report number: Saclay T11/206, CERN-PH-TH/2011-257, extended version in arXiv:1202.1454], [Prepared for the Proceedings of Lepton–Photon 2011, Mumbai, India, 22–27 Aug. 2011].

  17. Energy expenditure evaluation in humans and non-human primates by SenseWear Armband. Validation of energy expenditure evaluation by SenseWear Armband by direct comparison with indirect calorimetry.

    Francesca Casiraghi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare and validate the use of SenseWear Armband (SWA placed on the arm (SWA ARM and on the back (SWA BACK in healthy humans during resting and a cycle-ergometer exercise and to evaluate the SWA to estimate Resting Energy Expenditure (REE and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE in healthy baboons. METHODS: We studied 26 (15F/11M human subjects wearing SWA in two different anatomical sites (arm and back during resting and a cycle-ergometer test and directly compared these results with indirect calorimetry evaluation (IC, performed at the same time. We then inserted the SWA in a metabolic jacket for baboons and evaluated the TEE and REE in free living condition for 6 days in 21 (8F/13M non-human primates. RESULTS: In humans we found a good correlation between SWA place on the ARM and on the BACK with IC during the resting experiment (1.1±0.3 SWAs, 1±0.2 IC kcal/min and a slight underestimation in the SWAs data compared with IC during the cycle-ergometer exercise (5±1.9 SWA ARM, 4.5±1.5 SWA BACK and 5.4±2.1 IC kcal/min. In the non-human primate (baboons experiment SWA estimated a TEE of 0.54±0.009 kcal/min during free living and a REE of 0.82±0.06 kcal/min. CONCLUSION: SWA, an extremely simple and inexpensive apparatus, provides quite accurate measurements of energy expenditure in humans and in baboons. Energy expenditure data obtained with SWA are highly correlated with the data obtained with "gold standard", IC, in humans.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression....

  19. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions.

  20. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Raciborski, Filip; Kłak, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5-1%). According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000-157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems): M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  1. Comparison of adjustable permanent magnetic field sources

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly in which the flux density can be altered by a mechanical operation is often significantly smaller than comparable electromagnets and also requires no electrical power to operate. In this paper five permanent magnet designs in which the magnetic flux density can be alte...

  2. Ares I-X Launch Abort System, Crew Module, and Upper Stage Simulator Vibroacoustic Flight Data Evaluation, Comparison to Predictions, and Recommendations for Adjustments to Prediction Methodology and Assumptions

    Smith, Andrew; Harrison, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was selected as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle (FTV) is an early operational model of CLV, with specific emphasis on CLV and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage (FS). The in-flight test also includes recovery of the FS. The random vibration response from the ARES 1-X flight will be reconstructed for a few specific locations that were instrumented with accelerometers. This recorded data will be helpful in validating and refining vibration prediction tools and methodology. Measured vibroacoustic environments associated with lift off and ascent phases of the Ares I-X mission will be compared with pre-flight vibration predictions. The measured flight data was given as time histories which will be converted into power spectral density plots for comparison with the maximum predicted environments. The maximum predicted environments are documented in the Vibroacoustics and Shock Environment Data Book, AI1-SYS-ACOv4.10 Vibration predictions made using statistical energy analysis (SEA) VAOne computer program will also be incorporated in the comparisons. Ascent and lift off measured acoustics will also be compared to predictions to assess whether any discrepancies between the predicted vibration levels and measured vibration levels are attributable to inaccurate acoustic predictions. These comparisons will also be helpful in assessing whether adjustments to prediction methodologies are needed to improve agreement between the

  3. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give

  4. ADJUSTABLE CHIP HOLDER

    2009-01-01

    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  5. Indirect photobiomodulation in functional networks

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Bo

    2012-12-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a non-damaged modulation of laser irradiation or monochromatic light (LI) on a biosystem function. It depends on whether the function is in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH), a negative feedback response for the function to be performed perfectly. Many redundant pathways (RPs) maintain the same cellular function. The full activation of any of RPs can maintain a normal function in its FSH, but partial activation of all the RPs can only maintain a dysfunctional function far from its FSH. A PBM may self-adaptively modulate the activation of a partially activated RP of a normal function until it is fully activated and the normal function is then upgraded. This PBM is called indirect PBM (iPBM). The iPBM on cells such as tumor cells, myoblast cells and fibroblasts and other biosystems and their applications would be reviewed in this paper.

  6. Aerosols indirectly warm the Arctic

    T. Mauritsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On average, airborne aerosol particles cool the Earth's surface directly by absorbing and scattering sunlight and indirectly by influencing cloud reflectivity, life time, thickness or extent. Here we show that over the central Arctic Ocean, where there is frequently a lack of aerosol particles upon which clouds may form, a small increase in aerosol loading may enhance cloudiness thereby likely causing a climatologically significant warming at the ice-covered Arctic surface. Under these low concentration conditions cloud droplets grow to drizzle sizes and fall, even in the absence of collisions and coalescence, thereby diminishing cloud water. Evidence from a case study suggests that interactions between aerosol, clouds and precipitation could be responsible for attaining the observed low aerosol concentrations.

  7. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  8. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  9. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  10. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  11. Indirect discrimination and breast screening.

    Botha, J L; Manku-Scott, T K; Moledina, F; Williams, A

    1993-01-01

    Uptake of screening services in inner-city communities has been low, particularly in older age groups, lower social classes, and ethnic minorities. In Leicester City, where up to 25% of the population belong to ethnic minorities, this may have important implications for breast screening. We randomly sampled 701 inner-city women aged 45 to 64 years, stratified by neighborhood and by women's "likely home language." Trained interviewers succeeded in interviewing 79% of those eligible, and we report here a preliminary analysis of 413 respondents. Knowledge of breast cancer and screening varied markedly and significantly by actual language: 60.4% of English-speaking and 12.5% of non-English-speaking women correctly answered 10 or more questions (of 14) about breast cancer and screening (chi 2(1) = 89.884; P = .000). Despite that, 80% or more women stated their intention to attend for screening and assessment if necessary, irrespective of neighborhood, language, age, or social class. We suggest that the difference in knowledge between language groups arose from indirect discrimination in the way in which health-related information is disseminated in British society. However, after providing appropriate screening information, we report similarly high intended acceptance rates in the two language groups.

  12. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  13. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  14. Indirect Relativistic Effect in Electron-Alkali-Atom Collision

    LIU Yi-Bao; PANG Wen-Ning; DING Hai-Bing; SHANG Ren-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present detailed studies on the differential cross section (DCS) and total cross section (TCS) in electronalkali-atom collision processes by using two types of distorted wave methods, the ordinary distorted wave method and the indirect-relativistic distorted wave method. We find that the indirect relativistic effect in the target atom can be neglected in the TCS calculation in the processes; however, with an increase of the atomic number, this effect becomes significant in the DCS calculation. Then, based on the density matrix theory, the orientation and alignment parameters of excited caesium P states scattered by electrons at low incident energy are calculated,and comparisons are made for the two series between the two methods. The results show that accordance is reached at scattering angles smaller than 45°, but considerable difference appears at angles larger than 45° due to the relativistic effect.

  15. Scaling of social prestige by direct and indirect psychophysical methods

    Fátima Faleiros-Sousa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The professional social prestige practiced by: Social Assistants, Biologists, Dentists, Nurses, Engineers, Pharmacists, Physicists, Physical Therapists, Phonoaudiologists, Physicians, Psychologists, Chemists, and Sociologists was scaled by psychophysical methods of pair comparisons (indirect and the magnitude estimations (direct. The results showed: 1 both of the methods yield substantially different scaling; 2 the pair comparisons scale (proportion or z is a logarithmic function of the magnitude estimations scale; 3 the pair of comparison scale (proportion or z is a linear function of the logarithms of the magnitude estimations scale; and 4 a high correlation (rho = .95 between the degrees of prestige attributed to the professions obtained by both methods. With these results we can conclude that: 1 the continuous of social prestige (not metric scaled by these two methods yield a relation similar to the obtained in the sensorial continuous (metric; and 2 the continuous of social prestige has the following characteristics: quantitative, prothetic and non-qualitative (metathetic.

  16. The Indirectness of Young Goodman Brown

    袁臣

    2010-01-01

    Young Goodman Brown is one the best short fictions written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in 1835. The indirectness of the Young Goodman Brown can be seen from the produce, narration and the characteristics of the short fiction. The indirectness of expression or description leaves enough space for readers to understand the theme of the short fiction by themselves.

  17. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Catalina-Adriana IVANUS

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  18. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  19. Factors of Politeness and Indirect Speech Acts

    杨雪梅

    2016-01-01

    Polite principle is influenced deeply by a nation's history,culture,custom and so on,therefor different countries have different understandings and expressions of politeness and indirect speech acts.This paper shows some main factors influencing a polite speech.Through this article,readers can comprehensively know about politeness and indirect speech acts.

  20. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  1. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same... for allocating indirect costs is the cost accounting period during which such costs are incurred...

  2. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  3. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  4. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  5. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero;

    2003-01-01

    ) as follows: G1 - Artglass; G2 - Sinfony; G3 - Solidex; G4 - Targis. Microhardness was determined by the Vickers indentation technique with a load of 300g for 10 seconds. Four indentations were made on each sample, determining the mean microhardness values for each specimen. Descriptive statistics data...

  6. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  7. Indirect Kalman Filter in Mobile Robot Application

    Surachai Panich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The most successful applications of Kalman filtering are to linearize about some nominal trajectory in state space that does not depend on the measurement data. The resulting filter is usually referred to as simply a linearized Kalman filter. Approach: This study introduced mainly indirect Kalman filter to estimate robot’s position. A developed differential encoder system integrated accelerometer is experimental tested in square shape. Results: Experimental results confirmed that indirect Kalman filter improves the accuracy and confidence of position estimation. Conclusion: In summary, we concluded that indirect Kalman filter has good potential to reduce error of measurement data.

  8. Direct and indirect laryngoscopy: equipment and techniques.

    Collins, Stephen R

    2014-06-01

    Visualization of the larynx by direct or indirect means is referred to as laryngoscopy and is the principal aim during airway management for passage of a tracheal tube. This paper presents a brief background regarding the development and practice of laryngoscopy and examines the equipment and techniques for both direct and indirect methods. Patient evaluation during the airway examination is discussed, as are predictors for difficult intubation. Laryngoscope blade design, newer intubating techniques, and a variety of indirect laryngoscopic technologies are reviewed, as is the learning curve for these techniques and devices.

  9. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, pballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted.

  10. Indirect composite resin materials for posterior applications.

    Shellard, E; Duke, E S

    1999-12-01

    Indirect composite resin restorations were introduced a number of years ago as possible alternatives to traditional metallic or ceramic-based indirect restorations. However, the earlier formulations did not provide evidence of improvement in mechanical and physical properties over chairside-placed direct composite resin materials. Because they required more tooth structure removal than direct restorations, their use became unpopular and was abandoned by most clinicians. Over the past few years, a new class of composite resin indirect materials has surfaced in the profession. Various technologies have been suggested as reinforcement mechanisms. Fibers, matrix modifications, and an assortment of innovations have been proposed for enhancing indirect composite resin restorations. Applications are from inlay restorations all the way to multi-unit fixed prostheses. This manuscript summarizes some of the progress made in this area. When available, data is presented to provide clinicians with guidelines and indications for the use of these materials.

  11. Metric adjusted skew information

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  12. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Fabiana Rocha

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  13. Indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals

    Konstantinos - Tsirigotis

    2015-06-01

    The research results indicate that, as compared with the group of heterosexual individuals, in the group of homosexuals there occurs a worsening in psychological functioning, which may be also manifested by an increased indirect self-destructiveness index. The increased intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals may be considered a manifestation of worsened psychological functioning. The homosexual individuals look after their health similarly to heterosexuals.

  14. A stochastic version of the brass PF ratio adjustment of age-specific fertility schedules.

    Jack Baker

    Full Text Available Estimates of age-specific fertility rates based on survey data are known to suffer down-bias associated with incomplete reporting. Previously, William Brass (1964, 1965, 1968 proposed a series of adjustments of such data to reflect more appropriate levels of fertility through comparison with data on children-ever-born by age, a measure of cohort-specific cumulative fertility. His now widely-used Parity/Fertility or PF ratio method makes a number of strong assumptions, which have been the focus of an extended discussion in the literature on indirect estimation. However, while it is clear that the measures used in making adjusted age-specific fertility estimates with this method are captured with statistical uncertainty, little discussion of the nature of this uncertainty around PF-ratio based estimates of fertility has been entertained in the literature. Since both age-specific risk of childbearing and cumulative parity (children ever born are measured with statistical uncertainty, an unknown credibility interval must surround every PF ratio-based estimate. Using the standard approach, this is unknown, limiting the ability to make statistical comparisons of fertility between groups or to understand stochasticity in population dynamics. This paper makes use of approaches applied to similar problems in engineering, the natural sciences, and decision analysis--often discussed under the title of uncertainty analysis or stochastic modeling--to characterize this uncertainty and to present a new method for making PF ratio-based fertility estimates with 95 percent uncertainty intervals. The implications for demographic analysis, between-group comparisons of fertility, and the field of statistical demography are explored.

  15. A stochastic version of the brass PF ratio adjustment of age-specific fertility schedules.

    Baker, Jack; Alcantara, Adélamar; Ruan, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of age-specific fertility rates based on survey data are known to suffer down-bias associated with incomplete reporting. Previously, William Brass (1964, 1965, 1968) proposed a series of adjustments of such data to reflect more appropriate levels of fertility through comparison with data on children-ever-born by age, a measure of cohort-specific cumulative fertility. His now widely-used Parity/Fertility or PF ratio method makes a number of strong assumptions, which have been the focus of an extended discussion in the literature on indirect estimation. However, while it is clear that the measures used in making adjusted age-specific fertility estimates with this method are captured with statistical uncertainty, little discussion of the nature of this uncertainty around PF-ratio based estimates of fertility has been entertained in the literature. Since both age-specific risk of childbearing and cumulative parity (children ever born) are measured with statistical uncertainty, an unknown credibility interval must surround every PF ratio-based estimate. Using the standard approach, this is unknown, limiting the ability to make statistical comparisons of fertility between groups or to understand stochasticity in population dynamics. This paper makes use of approaches applied to similar problems in engineering, the natural sciences, and decision analysis--often discussed under the title of uncertainty analysis or stochastic modeling--to characterize this uncertainty and to present a new method for making PF ratio-based fertility estimates with 95 percent uncertainty intervals. The implications for demographic analysis, between-group comparisons of fertility, and the field of statistical demography are explored.

  16. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  17. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    SONG Yingchun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  18. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  19. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  20. Indirect combustion noise of auxiliary power units

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Parrish, Sarah A.; Xu, Jun; Schuster, Bill

    2013-08-01

    Recent advances in noise suppression technology have significantly reduced jet and fan noise from commercial jet engines. This leads many investigators in the aeroacoustics community to suggest that core noise could well be the next aircraft noise barrier. Core noise consists of turbine noise and combustion noise. There is direct combustion noise generated by the combustion processes, and there is indirect combustion noise generated by the passage of combustion hot spots, or entropy waves, through constrictions in an engine. The present work focuses on indirect combustion noise. Indirect combustion noise has now been found in laboratory experiments. The primary objective of this work is to investigate whether indirect combustion noise is also generated in jet and other engines. In a jet engine, there are numerous noise sources. This makes the identification of indirect combustion noise a formidable task. Here, our effort concentrates exclusively on auxiliary power units (APUs). This choice is motivated by the fact that APUs are relatively simple engines with only a few noise sources. It is, therefore, expected that the chance of success is higher. Accordingly, a theoretical model study of the generation of indirect combustion noise in an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is carried out. The cross-sectional areas of an APU from the combustor to the turbine exit are scaled off to form an equivalent nozzle. A principal function of a turbine in an APU is to extract mechanical energy from the flow stream through the exertion of a resistive force. Therefore, the turbine is modeled by adding a negative body force to the momentum equation. This model is used to predict the ranges of frequencies over which there is a high probability for indirect combustion noise generation. Experimental spectra of internal pressure fluctuations and far-field noise of an RE220 APU are examined to identify anomalous peaks. These peaks are possible indirection combustion noise. In the case of the

  1. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  2. Use of Local Dynamic Electricity Prices for Indirect Control of DER Power Units

    Nørgård, Per Bromand; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2013-01-01

    electricity prices for indirect control of active power. The local, dynamic electricity prices are realised as dynamic adjustments of the quasi-stationary global power price. The aims of the dynamic price adjustments are to prevent overloading of the grid, to reduce the grid power losses and to regulate...... wind power, solar power, flexible load and electrical storage. The local power price generation is based on the actual Nord Pool DK2 Spot prices on hourly basis as the quasi-stationary global electricity price, and the local SYSLAB's power exchange with the national grid as basis for the dynamic price...

  3. Indirect Adaptive Attitude Control for a Ducted Fan Vertical Takeoff and Landing Microaerial Vehicle

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses an attitude tracking control problem of a ducted fan microaerial vehicle. The proposed indirect adaptive controller can greatly reduce tracking error in the initial stage of the adaptive learning process by using an error compensation strategy and can achieve good capability to eliminate the adverse effect of measurement noises on the convergence of adjustable parameters. Moreover, the learning rate adaptation strategy is proposed to further minimize the adverse effect of large learning rates on the convergence of adjustable parameters. The experimental tests have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Maltreatment and Social Support on Children's Social Competence Across Reporters.

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Grein, Katherine

    2016-11-22

    Children's social competence is a key characteristic of resilience, yet little research has assessed contributing factors to this construct. The objectives of this study were to examine direct and indirect effects of maltreatment on children's social competence, the promotive role of child and caregiver social support, and factors contributing to reports of child social competence across informants. Structural equation modeling evaluated the influence of CPS report history, child adjustment, and child and caregiver social support on child social competence in n = 783 caregiver-child dyads. CPS report history (age 0-8) was indirectly related to low social competence through child adjustment problems. Social support was a significant promotive factor of child social competence, with caregiver social supports predicting higher levels of parent-reported child social competence. Child social support predicted self-reported child social competence. Findings reinforce the assertion that both caregiver and child social support networks are critical to promoting child well-being after adversity.

  5. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instruction on Fostering Decision-Making Competence in Socioscientific Issues

    Bottcher, Florian; Meisert, Anke

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effects of different learning environments on the promotion of decision-making competence for the socioscientific issue of genetically modified crops is investigated. The comparison focuses on direct vs. indirect instructions. Therefore on the one hand a sophisticated decision-making strategy was presented to the directly…

  6. L’indirection en communication publique

    Gauthier, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Le texte a pour objectif d’analyser le recours à l’indirection dans les débats télévisés tenus à l’occasion des élections canadiennes et québécoises depuis une quarantaine d’années. Dans un premier temps, le procédé expressif de l’indirection est caractérisé. Ensuite, sont discutés les huit procédés distincts d’indirection utilisés dans les débats télévisés. Des exemples sont donnés de ces huit procédés. Une analyse quantitative de leur utilisation dans les débats est aussi faite. Finalement,...

  7. Dark matter dynamics and indirect detection

    Bertone, Gianfranco; /Fermilab; Merritt, David; /Rochester Inst. Tech.

    2005-04-01

    Non-baryonic, or ''dark'', matter is believed to be a major component of the total mass budget of the universe. We review the candidates for particle dark matter and discuss the prospects for direct detection (via interaction of dark matter particles with laboratory detectors) and indirect detection (via observations of the products of dark matter self-annihilations), focusing in particular on the Galactic center, which is among the most promising targets for indirect detection studies. The gravitational potential at the Galactic center is dominated by stars and by the supermassive black hole, and the dark matter distribution is expected to evolve on sub-parsec scales due to interaction with these components. We discuss the dominant interaction mechanisms and show how they can be used to rule out certain extreme models for the dark matter distribution, thus increasing the information that can be gleaned from indirect detection searches.

  8. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  9. Gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the sex (gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness intensity and its manifestations, as well as relationships between indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations (categories and the psychological dimensions of masculinity and femininity, also from the point of view of assessing occupational health and safety. Materials and Methods: A population of 558 individuals (399 females and 159 males aged 19–25 (mean age: 22.6 was studied. The Polish version of the “Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale” (CS-DS by Kelley adapted by Suchańska was used in order to examine indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations. Gender testing applied the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI by Bem in its adaptation by Kuczyńska. Results: Males’ scores are signifi cantly higher than those of females for the majority of CS-DS scales/indices: Indirect Self-Destructiveness (general index, Poor Health Maintenance (A2, Lack of Planfulness (A4, and Helplessness, Passiveness (A5. Moreover, there are statistically signifi cant correlations between CS-DS scales and the masculinity dimension (positive as well as the femininity dimension (negative. Conclusions: Masculinity is a factor that may predispose towards indirectly self-destructive behaviors, while femininity is a factor protecting against those. The study results may prove useful in preventing indirectly and directly self-destructive behaviors as well as in therapy work with the individuals who display such tendencies or have made attempts on their own lives, in particular taking into account their being of a specifi c sex/gender and in the context of work (especially in diffi cult or dangerous conditions or both.

  10. Exploration of approaches to adjusting brand-name drug prices in Mainland of China: based on comparison and analysis of some brand-name drug prices of Mainland and Taiwan, China

    Weng Geng; Han Sheng; Pu Run; Pan Wynn HT; Shi Luwen

    2014-01-01

    Background Under the circumstance of the New Medical Reform in Mainland of China,lowering drug prices has become an approach to relieving increase of medical expenses,and lowering brand-name medication price is a key strategy.This study,by comparing and analyzing brand-name medication prices between Mainland of China and Taiwan,explores how to adjust brand-name medication prices in Mainland of China in the consideration of the drug administrative strategies in Taiwan.Methods By selecting brand-name drug with generic name and dose types matched in Mainland and Taiwan,calculate the average unit price and standard deviation and test it with the paired t-test.In the mean time,drug administrative strategies between Mainland and Taiwan are also compared systematically.Results Among the 70 brand-name medications with generic names and matched dose types,54 are at higher prices in Mainland of China than Taiwan,which is statistically significant in t-test.Also,among the 47 medications with all of matched generic names,dose types,and manufacturing enterprises,38 are at higher prices in Mainland than Taiwan,and the gap is also statistically significant in t-test.In Mainland of China,brand-name medication took cost-plus pricing and price-based price adjustment,while in Taiwan,brand-name medication took internal and external reference pricing and market-based price adjustment.Conclusions Brand-name drug prices were higher in Mainland of China than in Taiwan.The adjustment strategies of drug orices are scientific in Taiwan and are worth reference by Mainland of China.

  11. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  12. Clinical guidelines for indirect resin restorations.

    Shannon, A

    1997-06-01

    Ongoing advances in adhesive dentistry have made it possible to successfully and predictably bond tooth-supporting restorations using conservative preparation techniques. Improvements in the durability and esthetic properties of tooth-colored restorative materials have also increased the range of available treatment options. However, dentists have been slow to accept both direct and indirect posterior esthetics. This article provides a step-by-step technique for practitioners who choose to treat their patients with indirect resin esthetic restorations. It will not discuss other posterior restorative treatment techniques or materials (i.e. gold, porcelain, amalgam, bonded amalgam, or direct resin).

  13. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  14. Adjusting to the Emergent

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  15. Bias, Accuracy, and Impact of Indirect Genetic Effects in Infectious Diseases

    Lipschutz-Powell, Debby; Woolliams, J. A.; Bijma, P.; Pong-Wong, R.; Bermingham, M. L.; Doeschl-Wilson, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Selection for improved host response to infectious disease offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment but has proven difficult in practice, due to low heritability estimates of disease traits. Disease data from field studies is often binary, indicating whether an individual has become infected or not following exposure to an infectious disease. Numerous studies have shown that from this data one can infer genetic variation in individuals’ underlying susceptibility. In a previous study, we showed that with an indirect genetic effect (IGE) model it is possible to capture some genetic variation in infectivity, if present, as well as in susceptibility. Infectivity is the propensity of transmitting infection upon contact with a susceptible individual. It is an important factor determining the severity of an epidemic. However, there are severe shortcomings with the Standard IGE models as they do not accommodate the dynamic nature of disease data. Here we adjust the Standard IGE model to (1) make expression of infectivity dependent on the individuals’ disease status (Case Model) and (2) to include timing of infection (Case-ordered Model). The models are evaluated by comparing impact of selection, bias, and accuracy of each model using simulated binary disease data. These were generated for populations with known variation in susceptibility and infectivity thus allowing comparisons between estimated and true breeding values. Overall the Case Model provided better estimates for host genetic susceptibility and infectivity compared to the Standard Model in terms of bias, impact, and accuracy. Furthermore, these estimates were strongly influenced by epidemiological characteristics. However, surprisingly, the Case-Ordered model performed considerably worse than the Standard and the Case Models, pointing toward limitations in incorporating disease dynamics into conventional variance component estimation methodology and software used in animal breeding. PMID

  16. Emotional expression in school context, social relationships, and academic adjustment in kindergarten.

    Hernández, Maciel M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; VanSchyndel, Sarah K; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M; Berger, Rebecca H; Diaz, Anjolii; Terrell, Nathan; Thompson, Marilyn S; Southworth, Jody

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated direct relations of both kindergarteners' (N = 301) naturalistically observed emotion in 2 different school contexts and early kindergarten verbal competence to academic adjustment (i.e., standardized measures of academic achievement, teacher-reported academic skills, teacher-reported and observed school engagement) and if these relations were mediated by teacher-reported conflict with students and by peer acceptance. When controlling for verbal competence, positive emotions expressed in the classroom context positively directly predicted academic skills, whereas positive emotions expressed outside class (lunch/recess) negatively predicted academic skills. Negative emotions observed in the classroom context and during lunch/recess negatively predicted academic achievement. Positive emotions observed in both contexts indirectly predicted higher school engagement through its positive relation to peer acceptance; positive emotions expressed in lunch and recess indirectly predicted higher school engagement via lower teacher-student conflict. Negative emotions observed in both contexts also indirectly predicted lower school engagement via higher teacher-student conflict. Furthermore, verbal competence indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via lower teacher-student conflict. Moreover, verbal competence moderated the association between peer acceptance (but not teacher-student conflict) and academic adjustment. Because verbal competence moderated the associations from peer competence, positive emotions in both contexts indirectly predicted higher academic adjustment via higher peer acceptance primarily for children with low, but not high, initial verbal competence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for real...

  18. 19 CFR 18.26 - Indirect exportation.

    2010-04-01

    ... merchandise to be exported and provide such evidence of exportation as required by the port director under... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.26 Section 18.26 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Exportation from Customs Custody of Merchandise Unentered...

  19. 19 CFR 18.43 - Indirect exportation.

    2010-04-01

    .... port to another for actual exportation at the second port, any export declarations required to be... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect exportation. 18.43 Section 18.43 Customs... TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Merchandise Not Otherwise Subject to Customs Control...

  20. Disentangling Directand Indirect Effects of Credence Labels

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of three credence labels (Australian, animal welfare and grass-fed) on US consumer attitudes toward buying beef steaks. Furthermore, it explores the impact of consumer attribute knowledge, usage frequency, education and opin

  1. Have Indirect Emissions from Biofuels Been Exaggerated?

    Kicklighter, D. W.; Gurgel, A.; Melillo, J. M.; Reilly, J. M.; Cronin, T.; Felzer, B. S.; Paltsev, S.; Schlosser, C. A.; Sokolov, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    The production of biofuels may lead to enhanced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land to the atmosphere either by directly converting land to biofuel crops, or indirectly, by causing the displacement of food production and other land uses which then require additional land conversions. The importance of indirect GHG emissions from biofuel-related displacement of food production and other land uses is not known and is highly controversial. Here, we examine the direct and indirect land-use emissions over the 21st century from an expanded global bioenergy program, using a linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling system under two different land use policies. We account for the dynamics of potential carbon losses or gains from land-use change along with nitrous oxide emissions from increased N fertilizer application. We find that: 1) indirect emissions from land use are responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; 2) increased nitrous oxide emissions over the century are more important to the GHG balance than the carbon losses themselves; 3) the GHG effects of biofuels change in both sign and magnitude over time so that the GHG cost/benefit of biofuels depends on the time horizon considered; and 4) the economics of biofuels become favorable sooner with the protection of forests. While biofuels can be an effective low carbon energy source from a GHG balance perspective, the associated land conversions may lead to an unacceptable loss of other ecosystem services.

  2. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  3. Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri.

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    A number of Seri verbs display a sensitivity to whether a goal, which is a term used for recipients, adressees, etc., is singular or plural. The data presented in this paper are of typological interest. It is argued that Seri has indirect objects, but that there is no one-to-one mapping between the semantic role goal and either the syntactic…

  4. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  5. Avaliação de métodos indiretos de digitalização de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto Evaluation of indirect methods of digitization of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method

    Cleomar Donizeth Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar métodos de digitalização indireta de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta de dez radiografias cefalométricas adquiridas pelo Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE - Instrumentarium, digital direto. As imagens foram inseridas no programa Adobe Photoshop® e cinco pontos cefalométricos foram marcados. Procedeu-se a impressão em transparência e foi feita a digitalização indireta das imagens impressas, por meio das câmeras fotográficas digitais Sony® DSC-W5 e Canon® Rebel XT/EOS 350D, fixas em estativa, nas distâncias de 25cm e 60cm e com o scanner Scan Jet 4C Hewlett Packard®. As imagens diretas e indiretas foram inseridas e calibradas no software Radiocef Studio (Radiomemory®, Brasil, marcando-se o centro dos pontos previamente assinalados. A análise cefalométrica computadorizada gerou três grandezas angulares e quatro lineares, as quais foram submetidas a tratamento estatístico. RESULTADOS: as imagens do scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® demonstraram pequenas alterações significativas, porém, sem relevância clínica. Quando da digitalização a 60cm da radiografia, as duas câmeras causaram distorções que foram significativas mas clinicamente aceitáveis; e, a 25cm, causaram as maiores distorções, com importância clínica, na Canon® Rebel XT. CONCLUSÃO: o scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® com leitor de transparências foi o melhor método e as câmeras operando a 60cm mostraram-se adequadas para digitalização de radiografias. As câmeras na distância de 25cm causaram distorções na imagem que alteraram as medidas lineares, podendo a Canon® Rebel XT comprometer o diagnóstico ortodôntico.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indirect digitization method of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method. METHODS: The sample was composed of ten cephalometric radiographs acquired by Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE

  6. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Döppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  7. A New Approach to Calculate Indirect GWPs using the UIUC 2-D CRT and RTM Model

    Li, Y.; Youn, D.; Patten, K.; Wuebbles, D.

    2006-12-01

    Global warming potentials (GWPs) are defined to be the total impact over time of adding a unit mass of a greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Indirect GWPs are due to ozone depletion effects in the stratosphere for a certain compound and therefore stand for the long-term global cooling effects. Previously, indirect GWPs were calculated using a box model, which was not able to consider the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, the UIUC 2-D CRT model was used as the computational tool to derive ozone changes. The 2-D model has more realistic chemical, physical, and dynamical processes in the atmosphere and a relatively complete transport system, which makes it useful for a more accurate analysis. Furthermore, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) radiative transfer model (RTM) is employed to derive the corresponding time-dependent radiative forcings from the 2-D CRT outputs. Two Halon compounds, Halon-1211 and Halon-1301, were selected to be studied for their indirect GWPs. The results showed that instantaneous and stratospheric adjusted indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -10004.8 and -10237.1 for Halon-1211, while for Halon-1301 they are -19218.0 and -19627.6. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 and -1301 presented here are two to three times smaller compared to the results in WMO (2006) draft. Further analysis on indirect GWPs will be carried out using our 3-D MOZART-3 model.

  8. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  9. Relevance of indirect transmission for wildlife disease surveillance

    Martin Lange

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological models of infectious diseases are essential tools in support of risk assessment, surveillance design and contingency planning in public and animal health. Direct pathogen transmission from host to host is an essential process of each host-pathogen system and respective epidemiological modelling concepts. It is widely accepted that numerous diseases involve indirect transmission through pathogens shed by infectious hosts to their environment. However, epidemiological models largely do not represent pathogen persistence outside the host explicitly. We hypothesize that this simplification might bias management-related model predictions for disease agents that can persist outside their host for a certain time span. We adapted an individual-based, spatially explicit epidemiological model that can mimic both transmission processes. One version explicitly simulated indirect pathogen transmission through a contaminated environment. A second version simulated direct host-to-host transmission only. We aligned the model variants by the transmission potential per infectious host (i.e. basic reproductive number R0 and the spatial transmission kernel of the infection to allow unbiased comparison of predictions. The quantitative model results are provided for the example of surveillance plans for early detection of foot-and-mouth disease in wild boar, a social host.We applied systematic sampling strategies on the serological status of randomly selected host individuals in both models. We compared between the model variants the time to detection and the area affected prior to detection, measures that strongly influence mitigation costs. Moreover, the ideal sampling strategy to detect the infection in a given time frame was compared between both models.We found the simplified, direct transmission model to underestimate necessary sample size by up to one order of magnitude, but to overestimate the area put under control measures. Thus, the model

  10. Metric-adjusted skew information

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  11. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes. As a re......Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes....... As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  12. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    Ghilani, Charles D

    2011-01-01

    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  13. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... or crown is made. Factors as remaining tooth structure, endodontic treatment, number of teeth, caries risk, para-functional habits, material properties, economy etc. will all have an influence, when the dentist guides the patient to choose the best solution. What is best for the tooth – direct or indirect...... rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...

  14. Indirect emissions from biofuels: how important?

    Melillo, Jerry M; Reilly, John M; Kicklighter, David W; Gurgel, Angelo C; Cronin, Timothy W; Paltsev, Sergey; Felzer, Benjamin S; Wang, Xiaodong; Sokolov, Andrei P; Schlosser, C Adam

    2009-12-04

    A global biofuels program will lead to intense pressures on land supply and can increase greenhouse gas emissions from land-use changes. Using linked economic and terrestrial biogeochemistry models, we examined direct and indirect effects of possible land-use changes from an expanded global cellulosic bioenergy program on greenhouse gas emissions over the 21st century. Our model predicts that indirect land use will be responsible for substantially more carbon loss (up to twice as much) than direct land use; however, because of predicted increases in fertilizer use, nitrous oxide emissions will be more important than carbon losses themselves in terms of warming potential. A global greenhouse gas emissions policy that protects forests and encourages best practices for nitrogen fertilizer use can dramatically reduce emissions associated with biofuels production.

  15. Time Spent in Indirect Nursing Care

    1983-09-01

    WAIl TIME 9 741 5.3 5.3 1000 -.- *; ICTAL 13932 100.0 100.0 VALID CASES 13932 PI SSING CASES 0 18-G °. Table 10 Darnal1 TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT NURSING...91C 4 1668 180C 18.0 67.8 LPN 5 192 29 1 2.1 69.9 91B 91F 91G 6 1452 15.6 15.6 85.5 AIDE 7 762 8.2 8.2 93.7 WARD CLERK 8 582 6.3 6.3 100.0 ICTAL 9282...27o8 94.9 SATURDAY 7 168 5.1 .o1 100.0 ICTAL 3276 100.0 300.0 VALID CASES 3276 MISSING CASES 0 24-C Table 3 ’I" Ft Devens TIME SPENT IN INDIRECT

  16. Comment traduire en japonais les styles indirect et indirect libre de Madame Bovary ?

    Hisaki Sawasaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les difficultés rencontrées lors de la traduction des textes littéraires occidentaux, en japonais, nous examinons le problème des styles indirect et indirect libre. Pour cela, en effectuant une petite mise au point grammaticale, nous comparons sept traductions de Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert, dont les dates de parution s’étendent sur une cinquantaine d’années. Cette période s’apparente, de notre point de vue, à un long itinéraire pour assimiler la notion occidentale des styles direct et indirect, tout en la conciliant avec les particularités du japonais. D’un autre côté, ce travail acharné des traducteurs a influencé quelque peu la langue japonaise. On trouve dans l’annexe tous les textes en japonais examinés.We will examine the difficulties met when translating Western literary texts in Japanese, in particular the problem of indirect and free indirect styles. We will define the grammatical issue and compare seven translations of Madame Bovary, published over a fifty year period. This time can be likened to a long path taken to digest the Western notion of direct and indirect styles, while reconciling it with Japanese language characteristics. On the other hand the translators’ relentless work has somewhat influenced the Japanese language. The annex will present all the Japanese texts examined.

  17. Indirectness and Politeness in English Requests

    周伟

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language teachers may have long observed learners’grammatically correct, yet situationally inappropriate ver-bal communication. To make sure they conduct speech acts appropriately, language learners should possess communicative skills and pragmatic competence. This paper addresses how to raise learners’pragmatic awareness through making requests in English. By exploring the verbal indirectness and politeness of requests, the paper aims to facilitate learners ’ability to make socially appro-priate utterances.

  18. Measurements of mixing and indirect CP violation

    Reichert, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has collected the world's largest sample of charmed hadrons. This sample is used to measure the mixing parameters in the $D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ system and to search for indirect $CP$ violation. This contribution focuses on measurements of $A_{\\Gamma}$ with $D^*$ and semileptonic $B$ decays and on mixing measurements and a search for $CP$ violation in $D\\to K\\pi$ decays.

  19. Afghanistan, Counterinsurgency, and the Indirect Approach

    2010-04-01

    separation of Indirect and Direct brands of warfare is unrealistic. As SOCOM Commander Admiral Eric T. Olson noted, the two forms “are intertwined and...Islamic insurgent threat burst into the world’s eye with terrorist strikes in New York, Bali , Madrid, and many other cities. The exercises and more...military cooperation proved timely as the Islamic insurgent threat burst into the world’s eye with terrorist strikes in New York, Bali , Madrid, and

  20. Indirect Dark Matter Searches with MAGIC Telescopes

    Satalecka, Konstancja; MAGIC Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years the indirect dark matter (DM) searches became a hot topic, with several experimental results showing hints of DM signal. The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes are two $17$\\,m diameter Cherenkov telescopes, located on the Canary island La Palma (Spain). MAGIC carries out a broad DM search program, including observations of dwarf galaxies, galaxy clusters and other DM dominated objects. In these proceedings recent MAGIC results from this field ar...

  1. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  2. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  3. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in major orthopedic surgery: a systematic review and adjusted indirect comparison of oral anticoagulants%骨科大手术中的静脉血栓的预防:口服抗凝药的系统回顾和间接比较

    刘从威; 万晓; 黎志宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Based on available evidence, we analyzed the efifcacy and safety of dabigatran, apixaban and rivaroxaban versus low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) as venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in major orthopedic surgery.Methods: We systematically searched the randomized controlled trials reported in PubMed and Embase and key articles listed in the reference which evaluated apixaban, dabigatran, or rivaroxaban versus LMWHs in patients receiving major orthopedic surgeries. One of the following outcome was to be evaluated: total venous thromboembolism (VTE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), death and major bleeding. Three reviewers assessed each article to determine methodological quality and extracted data independently.Results: The assessed outcomes include total VTE, DVT, PE, death and major bleeding events. 3 authors assessed the methodology quality of each article and extracted data from the literature dependently. For the prevention of total VTE, rivaroxaban and apixaban were superior to dabigatran withRR of 0.37 (95%CI 0.23-0.60) 0.58 (95%CI 0.35-0.96) respectively. There was no signiifcant difference between rivaroxaban and apixaban withRR of 0.64 (95%CI 0.33-1.25). Rivaroxaban increased hemorrhage with anRR of 1.57 (95%CI 1.20-2.07) compared to apixaban, and also increases the overall hemorrhage risk with an RR of 1.25 (95%CI 0.93-1.70) compared to dabigatran. There was no significant difference between apixaban and dabigatran with an RR of 0.78 (95%CI 0.58-1.07).Conclusion: Compared to dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban are more efficacious with similar hemorrhage risk in prevention of total VTE in patients receiving major orthopedic surgery. Compared to apixaban, rivaroxaban has similar efifcacy in prevention of total VTE but it can increase the hemorrhage risk.%目的:基于有效的循证证据,以低分子肝素为对照组,分析达比加群、阿哌沙班和利伐沙班在骨科大手术后预防静脉血栓的有效性与安全性.方法:在PubMed和Embase中系统地检索随机对照试验以及参考文献中关键的文章,这些文章评价了以低分子肝素为对照组,达比加群、阿哌沙班和利伐沙班在进行了骨科大手术的病人中的作用.结果:评价的结果包括总静脉血栓(total VTE)、深静脉血栓(DVT)、肺栓塞(PE)、死亡和主要出血事件(major bleeding).笔者独立地评价了每1篇文章的方法质量同时独立地提取了文献数据.在总静脉血栓预防方面,利伐沙班和阿哌沙班优于达比加群,分别为 [RR=0.37, 95%CI(0.23, 0.60) ]和 [RR=0.58, 95%CI(0.35, 0.96) ].利伐沙班和阿哌沙班之间没有区别[RR=0.64, 95%CI (0.33, 1.25)].利伐沙班与阿哌沙班相比增加了出血风险 [RR=1.57, 95%CI(1.20, 2.07)],利伐沙班与达比加群相比增加了出血风险[RR=1.25, 95%CI (0.93, 1.70) ].阿哌沙班和达比加群在出血方面没有差别[RR=0.78, 95%CI(0.58, 1.07)].结论:在接受骨科大手术病人之中,利伐沙班和阿哌沙班2种药物与达比加群相比,预防静脉血栓的效果更好,出血风险相似.利伐沙班与阿哌沙班相比,预防静脉血栓的效果相似,但是增加了出血的风险.

  4. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  5. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  6. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  7. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.

    2015-01-01

    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  8. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    Wilkinson, Darren J

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  9. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  10. Comparison of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rats / Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do teste de aglutinação modificado na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ratos

    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and affects a lot of species of carnivores and omnivores, including the human. The rodents are important in the transmition cycle because they act as an infection font to felines, the definitive host of this protozoan. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT for the serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in rats, comparing with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT, which has been considered the golden standard in animal toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Kappa test was used for comparing the serologic tests (IFAT and MAT and for determination of cutoff appropriate to MAT in this animal species. 182 rats were caught on local recycling of solid waste and solid residue storage in Londrina city, Paraná. Out of the 182 rats, nine (4.94% were positive to IFAT at a dilution of 1:16, and 17 (9.34% and five (2.75% were reactive to MAT in dilutions 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. The comparison of results between the techniques presented kappa coefficients of 0.26 and 0.55, respectively at 1:25 and 1:50 dilutions of MAT. It can be concluded that the dilution 1:50 is the most suitable to be used as cutoff for detecting T. gondii antibodies in rats using MAT, because agreed with IFAT.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii que acomete várias espécies carnívoras e onívoras, incluindo o ser humano. Os roedores são importantes na cadeia epidemiológica da doença por servirem de fonte de infecção aos felídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos deste protozoário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT na detecção de anticorpos contra T. gondii em ratos, comparando-o à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose animal. Empregou-se o teste kappa para a comparação dos testes sorológicos (RIFI e MAT e para a determinação do ponto de corte

  11. Indirect two-sided relative ranking: a robust similarity measure for gene expression data

    Licamele Louis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large amount of gene expression data that exists in the public domain. This data has been generated under a variety of experimental conditions. Unfortunately, these experimental variations have generally prevented researchers from accurately comparing and combining this wealth of data, which still hides many novel insights. Results In this paper we present a new method, which we refer to as indirect two-sided relative ranking, for comparing gene expression profiles that is robust to variations in experimental conditions. This method extends the current best approach, which is based on comparing the correlations of the up and down regulated genes, by introducing a comparison based on the correlations in rankings across the entire database. Because our method is robust to experimental variations, it allows a greater variety of gene expression data to be combined, which, as we show, leads to richer scientific discoveries. Conclusions We demonstrate the benefit of our proposed indirect method on several datasets. We first evaluate the ability of the indirect method to retrieve compounds with similar therapeutic effects across known experimental barriers, namely vehicle and batch effects, on two independent datasets (one private and one public. We show that our indirect method is able to significantly improve upon the previous state-of-the-art method with a substantial improvement in recall at rank 10 of 97.03% and 49.44%, on each dataset, respectively. Next, we demonstrate that our indirect method results in improved accuracy for classification in several additional datasets. These datasets demonstrate the use of our indirect method for classifying cancer subtypes, predicting drug sensitivity/resistance, and classifying (related cell types. Even in the absence of a known (i.e., labeled experimental barrier, the improvement of the indirect method in each of these datasets is statistically significant.

  12. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  13. Food assistance programmes are indirectly associated with anaemia status in children <5 years old in Mexico.

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa B; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Villalpando, Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Anaemia in children is a public health concern in Mexico; Federal food assistance programmes are being implemented to prevent it. We undertook this research to investigate the indirect association between food assistance programmes (FAP) and anaemia through dietary and socio-economic conditions of beneficiary children. A structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to assess associations among FAP, dietary and socio-economic conditions, as well as anaemia. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted based on a sample of 1214 households with children Prospera and rescue from malnutrition with amaranth (RMA) and a comparison group in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The SEM and a decomposition effect analysis revealed the existence of a significant indirect association of FAP on the prevalence of anaemia via dietary and socio-economic conditions in children under 5 years old. The Prospera assistance programme showed a significant indirect positive association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=0·027, P<0·031), and the RMA programme showed a significant indirect negative association with the prevalence of anaemia (standard coefficient=-0·029, P=0·047). There was a direct association between FAP and dietary and socio-economic conditions. FAP could indirectly modify the prevalence of anaemia in young children with a direct improvement on dietary and socio-economic conditions. The unexpected finding of the association between RMA, dietary and socio-economic conditions and the prevalence of anaemia reflects differences in the focus of the programmes.

  14. Indirect associations between multiple items and a mining algorithm

    Ni Min; Xu Xiaofei; Deng Shengchun

    2005-01-01

    Indirect association is a high level relationship between items and frequent itemsets in data. Current research approaches on indirect association mining are limited to indirect association between itempairs, which will discovertoo many rules from dataset. A formal definition of indirect association between multiple items is presented, along with an algorithm, SET-NIA,for mining this kind of indirect associations based on anti-monotonicity of indirect associations and frequent itempair support matrix. While the found rules contain same information as compared to the rules found by indirect association between itempairs mining algorithms, this notion brings space-saving in storage ofthe rules as well as superiority for human to understand and apply the rules. Experiments conducted on two real-word datasets show that SET-NIA can effectively find fewer rules than existing algorithms which mine indirect association between itempairs, the experimental results also prove that SET-NIA has better performance than existing algorithms.

  15. Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians

    Burgarth, Daniel [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco, E-mail: daniel@burgarth.de, E-mail: kmaruyama@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.

  16. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    Bauserman, Robert

    2002-03-01

    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents.

  17. Indirect readout in protein-peptide recognition: a different story from classical biomolecular recognition.

    Yu, Hua; Zhou, Peng; Deng, Maolin; Shang, Zhicai

    2014-07-28

    Protein-peptide interactions are prevalent and play essential roles in many living activities. Peptides recognize their protein partners by direct nonbonded interactions and indirect adjustment of conformations. Although processes of protein-peptide recognition have been comprehensively studied in both sequences and structures recently, flexibility of peptides and the configuration entropy penalty in recognition did not get enough attention. In this study, 20 protein-peptide complexes and their corresponding unbound peptides were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Energy analysis revealed that configurational entropy penalty introduced by restriction of the degrees of freedom of peptides in indirect readout process of protein-peptide recognition is significant. Configurational entropy penalty has become the main content of the indirect readout energy in protein-peptide recognition instead of deformation energy which is the main source of the indirect readout energy in classical biomolecular recognition phenomena, such as protein-DNA binding. These results provide us a better understanding of protein-peptide recognition and give us some implications in peptide ligand design.

  18. Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control

    Juan eJiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN, and the implications of this pre-cerebellar ‘detour’ for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spino-cerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of de

  19. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  20. Adjustment of Tsunami Source Parameters By Adjoint Methods

    Pires, C.; Miranda, P.

    Tsunami waveforms recorded at tide gauges can be used to adjust tsunami source pa- rameters and, indirectly, seismic focal parameters. Simple inversion methods, based on ray-tracing techniques, only used a small fraction of available information. More elab- orate techniques, based on the Green's functions methods, also have some limitations in their scope. A new methodology, using a variational approach, allows for a much more general inversion, which can directly optimize focal parameters of tsunamigenic earthquakes. Idealized synthetic data and an application to the 1969 Gorringe Earth- quake are used to validate the methodology.

  1. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theo

  2. Indirect inference with time series observed with error

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    We analyze the properties of the indirect inference estimator when the observed series are contaminated by measurement error. We show that the indirect inference estimates are asymptotically biased when the nuisance parameters of the measurement error distribution are neglected in the indirect...

  3. Indirect and direct search for dark matter

    Klasen, M.; Pohl, M.; Sigl, G.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an emphasis on the complementarity between direct detection in dedicated laboratory experiments, indirect detection in the cosmic radiation, and searches at particle accelerators.

  4. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  5. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  6. Fishing top predators indirectly affects condition and reproduction in a reef-fish community.

    Walsh, S M; Hamilton, S L; Ruttenberg, B I; Donovan, M K; Sandin, S A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the indirect effects of fishing on energy allocation in non-target prey species, condition and reproductive potential were measured for five representative species (two-spot red snapper Lutjanus bohar, arc-eye hawkfish Paracirrhites arcatus, blackbar devil Plectroglyphidodon dickii, bicolour chromis Chromis margaritifer and whitecheek surgeonfish Acanthurus nigricans) from three reef-fish communities with different levels of fishing and predator abundance in the northern Line Islands, central Pacific Ocean. Predator abundance differed by five to seven-fold among islands, and despite no clear differences in prey abundance, differences in prey condition and reproductive potential among islands were found. Body condition (mean body mass adjusted for length) was consistently lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the four prey species. Mean liver mass (adjusted for total body mass), an indicator of energy reserves, was also lower at sites with higher predator abundance for three of the prey species and the predator. Trends in reproductive potential were less clear. Mean gonad mass (adjusted for total body mass) was high where predator abundance was high for only one of the three species in which it was measured. Evidence of consistently low prey body condition and energy reserves in a diverse suite of species at reefs with high predator abundance suggests that fishing may indirectly affect non-target prey-fish populations through changes in predation and predation risk.

  7. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'

    2005-01-01

      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  8. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  9. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  10. Improved hospital-level risk adjustment for surveillance of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections: a retrospective cohort study

    Jones MA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To allow direct comparison of bloodstream infection (BSI rates between hospitals for performance measurement, observed rates need to be risk adjusted according to the types of patients cared for by the hospital. However, attribute data on all individual patients are often unavailable and hospital-level risk adjustment needs to be done using indirect indicator variables of patient case mix, such as hospital level. We aimed to identify medical services associated with high or low BSI rates, and to evaluate the services provided by the hospital as indicators that can be used for more objective hospital-level risk adjustment. Methods From February 2001-December 2007, 1719 monthly BSI counts were available from 18 hospitals in Queensland, Australia. BSI outcomes were stratified into four groups: overall BSI (OBSI, Staphylococcus aureus BSI (STAPH, intravascular device-related S. aureus BSI (IVD-STAPH and methicillin-resistant S. aureus BSI (MRSA. Twelve services were considered as candidate risk-adjustment variables. For OBSI, STAPH and IVD-STAPH, we developed generalized estimating equation Poisson regression models that accounted for autocorrelation in longitudinal counts. Due to a lack of autocorrelation, a standard logistic regression model was specified for MRSA. Results Four risk services were identified for OBSI: AIDS (IRR 2.14, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.82, infectious diseases (IRR 2.72, 95% CI 1.97 to 3.76, oncology (IRR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.98 and bone marrow transplants (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.03. Four protective services were also found. A similar but smaller group of risk and protective services were found for the other outcomes. Acceptable agreement between observed and fitted values was found for the OBSI and STAPH models but not for the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models. However, the IVD-STAPH and MRSA models successfully discriminated between hospitals with higher and lower BSI rates. Conclusion The high model goodness

  11. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  12. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness.

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  13. Comparison of Three Comprehensive Adjustment Modes of Environment Factors in Modern Industrial Cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii%3种杏鲍菇工厂化栽培环境综合控制模式的比较

    潘伟彬; 蔡跃庆

    2015-01-01

    通过对杏鲍菇工厂化栽培的主要环境因素(温度、湿度、光照强度、CO 2浓度)的综合调控,比较了3个不同调控模式在平均总产量、单袋产量、商品菇比例和生产稳定性、同步性方面的表现。结果表明,模式3(菌丝恢复期温度设置在16~19℃、CO 2浓度控制在2000~3000 mg/kg,原基形成期温度15~18℃、CO 2浓度2500~4000 mg/kg,菇蕾形成期温度14~17℃、CO 2浓度3500~5000 mg/kg,子实体生长期温度13~16℃、CO 2浓度4000~6000 mg/kg,子实体成熟期温度13~15℃、CO 2浓度4000~5000 mg/kg;原基形成期和菇蕾形成期前期光照强度500~600 lx;子实体生长期相对湿度控制在90%~95%,其余时期控制在80%~85%)的效果最优。%Three comprehensive adjustment modes were established in the industrial cultivation of P leurotus eryngii by regulating main environmental factors including temperature,humidity,light intensity and CO 2 concentration.Three regulation modes were compared in the average total yield,the yield per bag,the commercial mushroom proportion and the stability and synchronization of products. The results showed that the third mode has the best effect.(that is,in the recovery period of hyphae, the temperature was arranged between 1 6~1 9 ℃ with CO 2 concentration controlled between 2 000~3 000 mg/kg;in the period of primordium formation,the temperature was arranged between 15 ~18℃ with CO 2 concentration controlled between 2 500~4 000 mg/kg;in mushroom bud formation,the temperature was arranged between 14~17 ℃ with CO 2 concentration between 3 500~5 000 mg/kg;in fruit body growth,the temperature was controlled between 13~1 6 ℃ with CO 2 concentration be-tween 4 000~6 000 mg/kg;in fruit body maturity,the temperature was arranged between 13~15 ℃with CO 2 concentration between 4 000~5 000 mg/kg;in the period of primordium formation and the early stage of the mushroom bud formation,light intensity was arranged between 500~600 lx;in the

  14. Indirect and direct search for dark matter

    Klasen, Michael; Sigl, Günter

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the matter in the universe is still unidentified and under investigation by both direct and indirect means. Many experiments searching for the recoil of dark-matter particles off target nuclei in underground laboratories have established increasingly strong constraints on the mass and scattering cross sections of weakly interacting particles, and some have even seen hints at a possible signal. Other experiments search for a possible mixing of photons with light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles that could also constitute dark matter. Furthermore, annihilation or decay of dark matter can contribute to charged cosmic rays, photons at all energies, and neutrinos. Many existing and future ground-based and satellite experiments are sensitive to such signals. Finally, data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN are scrutinized for missing energy as a signature of new weakly interacting particles that may be related to dark matter. In this review article we summarize the status of the field with an e...

  15. Indirect Collider Signals for Extra Dimensions

    Hewett, J L

    1999-01-01

    A recent suggestion that quantum gravity may become strong near the weak scale has several testable consequences. In addition to probing for the new large (submillimeter) extra dimensions associated with these theories via gravitational experiments, one could search for the Kaluza Klein towers of massive gravitons which are predicted in these models and which can interact with the fields of the Standard Model. Here we examine the indirect effects of these massive gravitons being exchanged in fermion pair production in \\epem\\ annihilation and Drell-Yan production at hadron colliders. In the latter case, we examine a novel feature of this theory, which is the contribution of gluon gluon initiated processes to lepton pair production. We find that these processes provide strong bounds, up to several TeV, on the string scale which are essentially independent of the number of extra dimensions. In addition, we analyze the angular distributions for fermion pair production with spin-2 graviton exchanges and demonstrat...

  16. Importance of direct and indirect triggered seismicity

    Helmstetter, A; Helmstetter, Agnes; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Using the simple ETAS branching model of seismicity, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes, we quantify the role played by the cascade of triggered seismicity in controlling the rate of aftershock decay as well as in the overall level of seismicity in the presence of a constant external seismicity source. We show that, in this model, the proportion of triggered seismicity is equal to the proportion of secondary plus later-generation aftershocks, and is given by the average number of triggered events per earthquake. Based on these results and on the observation that a large fraction of seismicity are triggered earthquakes, we conclude that similarly a large fraction of aftershocks occurring a few hours or days after a mainshock are triggered indirectly by the mainshock.

  17. Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source

    Sychov, Maxim [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)], E-mail: msychov@yahoo.com; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: I{sub sc}=14 {mu}A; U{sub oc}=2.3 V; power output -21 {mu}W. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch.

  18. Indirect determinations of the top quark mass

    Giudice, Gian F; Strumia, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We give a complete analysis of indirect determinations of the top quark mass in the Standard Model by introducing a systematic procedure to identify observables that receive quantum corrections enhanced by powers of $M_t$. We propose to use flavour physics as a tool to extract the top quark mass. Although present data give only a poor determination, we show how future theoretical and experimental progress in flavour physics can lead to an accuracy in $M_t$ well below 2 GeV. We revisit determinations of $M_t$ from electroweak data, showing how an improved measurement of the $W$ mass leads to an accuracy well below 1 GeV.

  19. Indirect adaptive fuzzy control for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems

    2008-01-01

    An indirect adaptive fuzzy control scheme is developed for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems. In this method, two fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the unknown functions, and the parameters of membership functions in fuzzy logic systems are adjusted according to adaptive laws for the purpose of controlling the plant to track a reference trajectory. It is proved that the scheme can not only guarantee the boundedness of the input and output of the closed-loop system, but also make the tracking error converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. Simulation results indicate the effectiveness of this scheme.

  20. Effect of direct and indirect face-bow transfer on the horizontal condylar guidance values: A pilot study

    Aditi Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of direct and indirect face-bow transfer on the horizontal condylar guidance (HCG values obtained on the semi-adjustable articulator. Materials and Methods: A total of 15 subjects of age 20-30 years, of either sex were selected. Two sets of maxillary and mandibular casts were obtained. A single arbitrary face-bow record was used for mounting the maxillary casts by direct and indirect transfer for each subject. The mandibular casts were mounted using maximum intercuspation record. Protrusive records were made in Alu wax and used to program the directly and indirectly transferred casts. HCG values obtained from cephalometric records were taken as control. The data was subjected to ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: Mean values of HCG obtained in direct face-bow transfer were 24.93°, indirect transfer −27.66°, and cephalometric analysis −32.73°. One-way ANOVA test indicated that there was a significant difference between all the groups (P < 0.05. Tukey′s test with Bonferroni′s correction (P < 0.01 was significant for direct and indirect transfer (P = 0.008, and direct transfer and cephalometric readings (P = 0.0046. A nonsignificant difference was found between indirect transfer and cephalometric readings (P = 0.047. Conclusion : There is a statistically significant difference in HCG values obtained from direct and indirect face-bow transfer records. Lateral cephalograms gave higher mean HCG values than those obtained from protrusive records. Mean HCG values obtained from indirect face-bow transfers are significantly more than those obtained from direct transfers and are also closer to the values obtained from the lateral cephalograms.

  1. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: a look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes.

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Ehret, Phillip J; Hummer, Justin F; Prenovost, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment.

  2. The indirect costs of multiple sclerosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Stawowczyk, Ewa; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Kawalec, Paweł; Moćko, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to collect and summarize all current data on the indirect costs related to absenteeism and presenteeism associated with multiple sclerosis. Searches were conducted using Medline, Embase and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases. All collected costs were recalculated to average annual cost per patient, expressed in 2014 prices US$ using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity (scenario 1) and expressed as proportion of specific gross domestic product in current local currency unit to adjust for country's development (scenario 2). Identified studies were then analyzed in order to assess their possible inclusion in the meta-analysis. The authors identified 63 records, of which 23 were eligible for meta-analysis. Overall indirect cost per patient calculated in scenario 1 was as high as US$20,167 with US$22,197 in Europe, US$17,382 in North America and US$153 in Asia. Overall indirect cost per patient calculated in scenario 2 was equal to US$16,939, with US$19,612 in Europe, US$11,592 in North America and US$899 in Asia. Overall indirect costs varied from US$3726 for patients with EDSS score less than 3 to US$19,264 for patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale score grater that 7. This review revealed the great economic burden of multiple sclerosis on society. The authors observed a great variety of the considered components of indirect costs and their definitions. Costs were higher for Europe than for other continents and were also higher for patients with a higher Expanded Disability Status Scale score.

  3. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  4. NIA2: A fast indirect association mining algorithm

    NI Min; XU Xiao-fei; DENG Sheng-chun; WEN Xiao-xian

    2005-01-01

    Indirect association is a high level relationship between items and frequent item sets in data. There are many potential applications for indirect associations, such as database marketing, intelligent data analysis,web - log analysis, recommended system, etc. Existing indirect association mining algorithms are mostly based on the notion of post - processing of discovery of frequent item sets. In the mining process, all frequent item sets need to be generated first, and then they are filtered and joined to form indirect associations. We have presented an indirect association mining algorithm (NIA) based on anti - monotonicity of indirect associations whereas k candidate indirect associations can be generated directly from k - 1 candidate indirect associations,without all frequent item sets generated. We also use the frequent itempair support matrix to reduce the time and memory space needed by the algorithm. In this paper, a novel algorithm (NIA2) is introduced based on the generation of indirect association patterns between itempairs through one item mediator sets from frequent itempair support matrix. A notion of mediator set support threshold is also presented. NIA2 mines indirect association patterns directly from the dataset, without generating all frequent item sets. The frequent itempair support matrix and the notion of using tm as the support threshold for mediator sets can significantly reduce the cost of joint operations and the search process compared with existing algorithms. Results of experiments on a realword web log dataset have proved NIA2 one order of magnitude faster than existing algorithms.

  5. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  6. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment

    2010-01-01

    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  7. Rational suicide, assisted suicide, and indirect legal paternalism.

    Schramme, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This article argues in favour of three related claims: First, suicide is not an immoral act. If people autonomously choose to kill themselves, this ought to be respected. Second, we can deem the desire to die comprehensible, and even rational, when the person contemplating suicide does not see a meaning in her life. This assessment is not based on a metaphysically dubious comparison between the actual life of a person and the supposed state of being dead. Third, from the first two theses it does not automatically follow that we should allow other people to help someone who autonomously and rationally chooses to die to pursue this plan. To argue against indirect legal paternalism, the practice of legally preventing someone else to assist a person to perform a suicide or to be killed on request, needs additional reasons. It is argued that assisted suicide and voluntary active euthanasia can indeed be justified by establishing a claim of persons who want to die but are not able to kill themselves. This mainly means that being really free to die should be interpreted as involving the means to fulfil one's desire to die.

  8. Nonlinear indirect combustion noise for compact supercritical nozzle flows

    Huet, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, indirect combustion noise generated by the acceleration of entropy perturbations through a supercritical nozzle is investigated in the nonlinear regime and in the low-frequency limit (quasi-static hypothesis). This work completes the study of Huet and Giauque (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 733 (2013) 268-301) for nonlinear noise generation in nozzle flows without shock and particularly focuses on shocked flow regimes. It is based on the analytical model of Marble and Candel for compact nozzles (Journal of Sound and Vibration 55 (1977) 225-243), initially developed for excitations in the linear regime and rederived here for nonlinear perturbations. Full nonlinear analytical solutions are provided in the absence of shock as well as second-order analytical expressions when a shock is present in the diffuser. An analytical evaluation of the shock displacement inside the nozzle caused by the forcing is proposed and maximum possible forcings to avoid unchoke and 'over-choke' are discussed. The accuracy of the second-order model and the nonlinear contributions to the generated waves are then addressed. This model is found to be very accurate for the generated entropy wave with negligible nonlinear contributions. Nonlinearities are more visible, but still limited, for the downstream acoustic wave for large inlet Mach numbers. Analytical developments are validated thanks to comparisons with numerical simulations.

  9. The Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX

    Abt, I; Carissimo, C; Gooch, C; Kneissl, R; Langford, J; Liu, X; Majorovits, B; Palermo, M; Schulz, O; Vanhoefer, L

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment to quantitatively measure neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in selected high-Z materials is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, and the results from its first data taking period are presented as well as future plans. Neutron production in high-Z materials is of particular interest as such materials are used for shielding in low-background experiments. The design of next-generation large-scale experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay or direct interactions of dark matter requires reliable Monte Carlo simulations of background induced by muon interactions. The first five months of operation already provided a valuable data set on neutron production and neutron transport in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions obtained with two GEANT4- based packages is presented. The rate of muon-induced events is overall a factor three to four higher in data than predicted by the Monte Carlo...

  10. The muon-induced neutron indirect detection EXperiment, MINIDEX

    Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Carissimo, C.; Gooch, C.; Kneißl, R.; Langford, J.; Liu, X.; Majorovits, B.; Palermo, M.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L.

    2017-04-01

    A new experiment to quantitatively measure neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons in selected high-Z materials is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, and the results from its first data taking period are presented as well as future plans. Neutron production in high-Z materials is of particular interest as such materials are used for shielding in low-background experiments. The design of next-generation large-scale experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay or direct interactions of dark matter requires reliable Monte Carlo simulations of background induced by muon interactions. The first five months of operation already provided a valuable data set on neutron production and neutron transport in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions obtained with a GEANT4-based package for two different sets of physics models of relevance for neutron production by muons is presented. The rate of muon-induced events is overall a factor three to four higher in data than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. In addition, the time evolution of the muon-induced signal is not well described by the simulations.

  11. Use of surveillance data for prevention of healthcare-associated infection: risk adjustment and reporting dilemmas.

    O'Neill, Eoghan

    2009-08-01

    Healthcare-associated or nosocomial infection (HCAI) is of increasing importance to healthcare providers and the public. Surveillance is crucial but must be adjusted for risk, especially when used for interhospital comparisons or for public reporting.

  12. Body Segment Inertial Parameters of elite swimmers Using DXA and indirect Methods

    Marcel ROSSI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As accurate body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs are difficult to obtain in motion analysis, this study computed individual BSIPs from DXA scan images. Therefore, by co-registering areal density data with DXA grayscale image, the relationship between pixel color gradient and the mass within the pixel area could be established. Thus, one can calculate BSIPs, including segment mass, center of mass (COM and moment of inertia about the sagittal axis (Ixx. This technique calculated whole body mass very accurately (%RMSE of < 1.5% relatively to results of the generic DXA scanner software. The BSIPs of elite male and female swimmers, and young adult Caucasian males (n = 28, were computed using this DXA method and 5 other common indirect estimation methods. A 3D surface scan of each subject enabled mapping of key anthropometric variables required for the 5 indirect estimation methods. Mass, COM and Ixx were calculated for seven body segments (head, trunk, head + trunk, upper arm, forearm, thigh and shank. Between-group comparisons of BSIPs revealed that elite female swimmers had the lowest segment masses of the three groups (p < 0.05. Elite male swimmers recorded the greatest inertial parameters of the trunk and upper arms (p < 0.05. Using the DXA method as the criterion, the five indirect methods produced errors greater than 10% for at least one BSIP in all three populations. Therefore, caution is required when computing BSIPs for elite swimmers via these indirect methods, DXA accurately estimated BSIPs in the frontal plane.

  13. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  14. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  15. An adjustable contracted CI method

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼

    1999-01-01

    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  16. Adjustment or updating of models

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  17. Spherical cows in dark matter indirect detection

    Bernal, Nicolás; Necib, Lina; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-12-01

    Dark matter (DM) halos have long been known to be triaxial, but in studies of possible annihilation and decay signals they are often treated as approximately spherical. In this work, we examine the asymmetry of potential indirect detection signals of DM annihilation and decay, exploiting the large statistics of the hydrodynamic simulation Illustris. We carefully investigate the effects of the baryons on the sphericity of annihilation and decay signals for both the case where the observer is at 8.5 kpc from the center of the halo (exemplified in the case of Milky Way-like halos), and for an observer situated well outside the halo. In the case of Galactic signals, we find that both annihilation and decay signals are expected to be quite symmetric, with axis ratios very different from 1 occurring rarely. In the case of extragalactic signals, while decay signals are still preferentially spherical, the axis ratio for annihilation signals has a much flatter distribution, with elongated profiles appearing frequently. Many of these elongated profiles are due to large subhalos and/or recent mergers. Comparing to gamma-ray emission from the Milky Way and X-ray maps of clusters, we find that the gamma-ray background appears less spherical/more elongated than the expected DM signal from the large majority of halos, and the Galactic gamma ray excess appears very spherical, while the X-ray data would be difficult to distinguish from a DM signal by elongation/sphericity measurements alone.

  18. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  19. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  20. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  1. Establishment of indirect immunofluorescence assay for rotavirus.

    Tao, J; Zhang, J; Liu, X; Jin, H; Jiang, C; Yin, Y

    2016-03-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most frequent cause of infantile gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of death in infants and young children, following severe diarrhea and dehydration. Rotavirus vaccines are considered the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infections. In the process of developing rotavirus vaccines, it is crucial to establish a reliable and standardized method to determine vaccine titer. In this study, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine the infectious titer of Lanzhou lamb rotavirus (LLR) vaccine grown in MA104 cells. The activating concentration of trypsin was 1 µg/ml for healthy monolayers of MA104 cells at 100% confluence. After incubation for 18 hr, a rabbit anti-SA11 polyclonal antibody, diluted at 1:800 in PBS, was added to all wells, followed by an Alexa-488-conjugated secondary antibody diluted at 1:500 in PBS. Cells were examined with a fluorescence microscope. Our results show that IFA was more reproducible, more sensitive, simpler, and more rapid than the log 50% cell culture infectious dose-ELISA (lgCCID50-ELISA) in measuring the rotavirus vaccines. IFA provided a reliable basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of rotavirus, and the certification of rotavirus vaccine production.

  2. Indirect Coupling between Two Cavity Photon Systems via Ferromagnetic Resonance

    Hyde, Paul; Harder, Michael; Match, Christophe; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally realize indirect coupling between two cavity modes via strong coupling with the ferromagnetic resonance in Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). We find that some indirectly coupled modes of our system can have a higher microwave transmission than the individual uncoupled modes. Using a coupled harmonic oscillator model, the influence of the oscillation phase difference between the two cavity modes on the nature of the indirect coupling is revealed. These indirectly coupled microwave modes can be controlled using an external magnetic field or by tuning the cavity height. This work has potential for use in controllable optical devices and information processing technologies.

  3. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of herit......This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...

  4. Comparison of indirect ELISA based on recombinant protein NcSRS2 and IFAT for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep Comparação entre ELISA baseado no antígeno recombinante NcSRS2 e RIFI para detecção de anticorpos de Neospora caninum em ovinos

    Renato Andreotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum, an Apicomplexan parasite that can causes abortion, is responsible for considerable economic and reproductive losses in livestock. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether recombinant NcSRS2 is a suitable indirect ELISA antigen for determining specific immune response to N. caninum in sheep. A total of 441 serum samples were subjected to IFAT and rNcSRS2 based-ELISA, with both tests performing similarly. The sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA were 98.6 and 98.3%, respectively. The kappa index shows 0.98 concordance between the two tests, which is considered excellent. Seroprevalences of 30.8 and 32.0% were detected by IFAT and indirect ELISA, respectively, showing these tests did not differ significantly on this measure (p > 0.05. Serological analysis showed that HisG tag was detected by Western Blotting recognizing rNcSRS2 protein. The potential value of rNcSRS2-based ELISA as a highly specific and sensitive tool for serological diagnosis is also supported by the strong agreement found between IFAT and ELISA. The results support the potential use of recombinant protein NcSRS2 as an antigen in indirect ELISA in sheep.Neospora caninum é um parasito Apicomplexa que pode causar abortos e é reconhecido como agente importante responsável por perdas econômicas e reprodutivas. Este estudo avaliou a proteína recombinante NcSRS2 como antígeno para ELISA indireto na determinação de resposta imune para N. caninum em ovinos. 441 amostras de soro foram analisadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto com rNcSRS2 e ambos os testes revelaram comportamento similar. A sensibilidade e especificidade de ELISA indireto foram 98,6 e 98,3%, respectivamente. O índice kappa mostrou uma concordância entre os dois testes com valor de 0,98, que é considerado excelente. Prevalências de 30,8 e 32,0% detectadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto, respectivamente, mostraram que os testes não diferiram significativamente nesse aspecto (P

  5. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    Flor-Serra Ferran

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit, dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs, co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others, referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants. The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50. The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights and synthetic (by centre and physician indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000 will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression

  6. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    Oosterhuis, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  7. Indirect ELISA with Recombinant GP5 for Detecting Antibodies to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Yan Chen; Hong Tian; Jian-Hui He; Jin-Yin Wu; You-jun Shang; Xiang-tao Liu

    2011-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is caused by the PRRS virus(PRRSV), which has six structural proteins(GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5, M and N). GP5 and N protein are important targets for serological detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)and other methods. Toward this goal, we developed an indirect ELISA with recombinant GP5 antigens and this method was validated by comparison to the LSI PRRSV-Ab ELISA kit. The results indicated that the optimal concentration of coated recombinant antigen was 0.2 μg/well for a serum dilution of 1:40. The rate of agreement with the LSI PRRSV-Ab kit was 88.7%(266/300). These results support the potential use of recombinant GP5 as an antigen for indirect ELISA to detect PRRSV antibodies in pigs.

  8. Indirect searches for gravitino dark matter

    Grefe, Michael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica and Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC

    2011-11-15

    The gravitino in models with a small violation of R-parity is a well-motivated decaying dark matter candidate that leads to a cosmological scenario that is consistent with big bang nucleosynthesis and thermal leptogenesis. The gravitino lifetime is cosmologically long-lived since its decays are suppressed by the Planck-scale as well as the small R-parity violating parameter. We discuss the signals in different cosmic-ray species coming from the decay of gravitino dark matter, namely gamma rays, positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons and neutrinos. Comparison to cosmic-ray data can be used to constrain the parameters of the model. (orig.)

  9. A Comparison of Methods of Least Squares Adjustment of Traverses.

    1984-12-01

    TATP p BTp) (AX - B) = XT AT PA X -XT ATPB - BT P&X + BT PB = XT AT PAX -XTATPB - XTA TPB + BTPB = XT ATPA 2XTATPB + BTPB (3. 16) T =_[fLrom matrix...obtained: X = ( ATPA )1IATPB (3.18) For uncorrelated observations with equal precision, the weight matrix is an identity matrix, and eguation (3.18...by solving Equation (3.22), the result is 6 = + 2.69685 The values of ( ATpA ) - are 1.25178 0.22019 1.25575 0.10788 10-s 0.22019 0.13819 0.21810

  10. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the non-liter

  11. Preliminary Study of Indirect Neutron Radiography Method at CARR

    WEI; Guo-hai; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; HE; Lin-feng; WANG; Yu; WU; Mei-mei; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2013-01-01

    The Indirect Neutron Radiography is a powerful technique for non-destructively measuring specimens with radioactivity in the nuclear industrial field.China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR)is an excellent platform for Indirect Neutron Radiography and the experimental conditions based on CARR,mainly the first and the second exposure time,have been calculated and analyzed by the Monte Carlo

  12. Using HEC-FIA to identify Indirect Economic Losses

    Lehman William

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe how HEC-FIA can be utilized to help evaluate the indirect economic consequences for various alternatives within a floodplain. The computational methods for indirect economic losses utilize a Computable General Equilibrium model to describe the secondary and tertiary impacts of loss of service, loss of laborers, and reductions in demand for intermediary goods.

  13. Comprehension of Indirect Meaning in Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Taguchi, Naoko; Gomez-Laich, Maria Pia; Arrufat-Marques, Maria-Jose

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated comprehension of indirect meaning among learners of L2 Spanish via an original computer-delivered multimedia listening test. The comprehension of implied speaker intention is a type of indirect communication that involves the ability to understand implied intention by using linguistic knowledge, contextual cues, and the…

  14. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  15. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  16. Correlations between direct and indirect strength test methods

    Kallu Raj; Roghanchi Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties associated with performing direct compression strength tests on rocks lead to the devel-opment of indirect test methods for the rock strength assessment. Indirect test methods are simple, more economical, less time-consuming, and easily adaptable to the field. The main aim of this study was to derive correlations between direct and indirect test methods for basalt and rhyolite rock types from Carlin trend deposits in Nevada. In the destructive methods, point load index, block punch index, and splitting tensile strength tests are performed. In the non-destructive methods, Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests are performed. Correlations between the direct and indirect compression strength tests are developed using linear and nonlinear regression analysis methods. The results show that the splitting tensile strength has the best correlation with the uniaxial compression strength. Furthermore, the Poisson’s ratio has no correlation with any of the direct and indirect test results.

  17. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  18. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality as a Moderator for the Influences of Parents' Religiousness on Adolescents' Religiousness and Adjustment

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior investigations have demonstrated that parents' religiousness is related inversely to adolescent maladjustment. However, research remains unclear about whether the link between parents' religiousness and adolescent adjustment outcomes--either directly or indirectly via adolescents' own religiousness--varies depending on relationship context…

  19. Marginal Adaptation of Indirect Composite, Glass-Ceramic Inlays and Direct Composite: An In Vitro Evaluation

    F. Mahboub

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This experimental in vitro study compared marginal adaptation of indirect composite, glass-ceramic inlays and direct composite.Materials and Methods: Seventy-five recently extracted human molars were randomly divided into three groups (n=25 and mesio-occluso-distal cavities with the same dimensions were prepared in the teeth. Indirect composite and glass-ceramic inlays were fabricatedfollowing manufacturer's instructions and the marginal gap was measured by a stereomicroscope at magnification 40× before cementation. After cementation of inlays and restoring the third group by direct composite, all the specimens were thermocycled and the marginal gaps were measured exactly as previously described. Repeated measure ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test were used for pairwise comparison of occlusal, proximal, and gingival marginal gaps in each group. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test wereused for comparison of mean marginal gap in the three groups and for comparison of marginal gap before and after cementation in inlays, paired T-test was used.Results: The marginal gap of direct composite (19.96 μm was significantly lower than that of indirect composite inlay (48.47 μm, which in itself was significantly lower than that of glass-ceramic inlay (60.96 μm. In all the restorations, marginal gap in the gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal and proximal margins. The marginal gap of inlays did not change after cementation and thermocycling.Conclusion: This study indicated that the marginal gaps of the evaluated restorations are less than 100 μm, which is clinically acceptable.

  20. A Simple Illustration for the Need of Multiple Comparison Procedures

    Carter, Rickey E.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical adjustments to accommodate multiple comparisons are routinely covered in introductory statistical courses. The fundamental rationale for such adjustments, however, may not be readily understood. This article presents a simple illustration to help remedy this.

  1. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-01

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  2. Reconstructing direct and indirect interactions in networked public goods game.

    Han, Xiao; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-07-22

    Network reconstruction is a fundamental problem for understanding many complex systems with unknown interaction structures. In many complex systems, there are indirect interactions between two individuals without immediate connection but with common neighbors. Despite recent advances in network reconstruction, we continue to lack an approach for reconstructing complex networks with indirect interactions. Here we introduce a two-step strategy to resolve the reconstruction problem, where in the first step, we recover both direct and indirect interactions by employing the Lasso to solve a sparse signal reconstruction problem, and in the second step, we use matrix transformation and optimization to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions. The network structure corresponding to direct interactions can be fully uncovered. We exploit the public goods game occurring on complex networks as a paradigm for characterizing indirect interactions and test our reconstruction approach. We find that high reconstruction accuracy can be achieved for both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks, and a number of empirical networks in spite of insufficient data measurement contaminated by noise. Although a general framework for reconstructing complex networks with arbitrary types of indirect interactions is yet lacking, our approach opens new routes to separate direct and indirect interactions in a representative complex system.

  3. Predictors of negotiated NIH indirect rates at US institutions.

    S Claiborne Johnston

    Full Text Available The United States (US Department of Health and Human Services and the Office of Naval Research negotiate institutional rates for payments of overhead costs associated with administration and space usage, commonly known as indirect rates. Such payments account for a large proportion of spending by the National Institutes of Health (NIH. Little has been published about differences in rates and their predictors.Negotiated indirect rates for on-campus research grants were requested from the Council on Governmental Relations for the 100 institutions with greatest NIH funding in 2010. NIH funding, cost of living (ACCRA Index for 2008, public vs. private status, negotiating governmental organization (Department of Health and Human Services or Office of Naval Research, US Census Region, and year were assessed as predictors of institutional indirect rates using generalized estimating equations with all variables included in the model.Overall, 72 institutions participated, with 207 reported indirect rates for the years 2006, 2008, and 2010. Indirect rates ranged from 36.3% to 78%, with an average of 54.5%. Mean rates increased from 53.6% in 2006 to 55.4% in 2010 (p<0.001. In multivariable models, private institutions had 6.2% (95% CI 3.7%-8.7%; p<0.001 higher indirect rates than public institutions. Rates in the Northeast were highest (Midwest 4.0% lower; West 4.9% lower; South 5.2% lower. Greater NIH funding (p = 0.025 and cost of living (p = 0.034 also predicted indirect rates while negotiating governmental organization did not (p = 0.414.Negotiated indirect rates for governmental research grants to academic centers vary widely. Although the association between indirect rates and cost of living may be justified, the cause of variation in rates by region, public-private status, and NIH funding levels is unclear.

  4. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework......The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...

  5. Indirect Taxes in Romania – an Econometric Analysis

    Daniela Penu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect taxes have a significant weight in the GDP. Statistical data reveals that the new states that joined the EU in its funding sources to the greatest extent through indirect taxes. They reveal, on the one hand, reducing the tax burden on the producer, and on the other hand, the difficulty faced by the country in direct tax collection, but also some problems of social nature. This article proposes an econometric analysis of the relationship between indirect taxes and household final consumption expenditure.

  6. Body Segment Inertial Parameters of elite swimmers Using DXA and indirect Methods.

    Rossi, Marcel; Lyttle, Andrew; El-Sallam, Amar; Benjanuvatra, Nat; Blanksby, Brian

    2013-01-01

    As accurate body segment inertial parameters (BSIPs) are difficult to obtain in motion analysis, this study computed individual BSIPs from DXA scan images. Therefore, by co-registering areal density data with DXA grayscale image, the relationship between pixel color gradient and the mass within the pixel area could be established. Thus, one can calculate BSIPs, including segment mass, center of mass (COM) and moment of inertia about the sagittal axis (Ixx). This technique calculated whole body mass very accurately (%RMSE of variables required for the 5 indirect estimation methods. Mass, COM and Ixx were calculated for seven body segments (head, trunk, head + trunk, upper arm, forearm, thigh and shank). Between-group comparisons of BSIPs revealed that elite female swimmers had the lowest segment masses of the three groups (p segment inertial parameters than young adult Caucasian males.The errors computed from indirect BSIP estimation methods are large regardless whether applied to elite swimmers or young adult Caucasian males.No indirect estimation method consistently performed best.

  7. Steps in the construction and verification of an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research

  8. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  9. Theory of Work Adjustment Personality Constructs.

    Lawson, Loralie

    1993-01-01

    To measure Theory of Work Adjustment personality and adjustment style dimensions, content-based scales were analyzed for homogeneity and successively reanalyzed for reliability improvement. Three sound scales were developed: inflexibility, activeness, and reactiveness. (SK)

  10. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  11. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  12. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  13. Indirect Cost Recovery as an Issue of Science Policy.

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The history of the debate over federal efforts to reduce indirect cost recovery in federal research grants to universities is outlined and discussed by a former university administrator involved in the policy's formation. (MSE)

  14. 3D Shape and Indirect Appearance by Structured Light Transport.

    OToole, Matthew; Mather, John; Kutulakos, Kiriakos N

    2016-07-01

    We consider the problem of deliberately manipulating the direct and indirect light flowing through a time-varying, general scene in order to simplify its visual analysis. Our approach rests on a crucial link between stereo geometry and light transport: while direct light always obeys the epipolar geometry of a projector-camera pair, indirect light overwhelmingly does not. We show that it is possible to turn this observation into an imaging method that analyzes light transport in real time in the optical domain, prior to acquisition. This yields three key abilities that we demonstrate in an experimental camera prototype: (1) producing a live indirect-only video stream for any scene, regardless of geometric or photometric complexity; (2) capturing images that make existing structured-light shape recovery algorithms robust to indirect transport; and (3) turning them into one-shot methods for dynamic 3D shape capture.

  15. Direct and Indirect Phototransformation of Graphene Oxide in Sunlight

    Direct and indirect (with added H202 that serves as OH precursor) photoreactions of grapheme oxide (GO) were examined under sunlight exposure. The results indicate that GO photoreacts under both conditions, leading to significant alterations in GO's physicochemical properties. In...

  16. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2013-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (1) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds, and (2) more accurate characterization of backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the Isotropic Gamma-Ray Background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds is a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets.

  17. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  18. ABSOLUTE STABILITY OF GENERAL LURIE TYPE INDIRECT CONTROL SYSTEMS

    甘作新; 葛渭高; 赵素霞; 仵永先

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by introducing a new concept of absolute stability for a certain argument, necessary and sufficient conditions for absolute stability of general Lurie indirect control systems are obtained, and some practical sufficient conditions are also given.

  19. A study on consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding

    Wang Jun; Wang Yuxin; Feng Jicai

    2009-01-01

    A consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding method has been studied. This method is different from the traditional TIG welding because it introduces an MIG welding torch into the traditional TIG welding system. An indirect arc is generated between the consumable electrode of the MIG welding torch and the tungsten electrode of the TIG welding torch, but not generated between the tungsten electrode of the welding torch and the base metal. Welding current flows from the consumable electrode to the tungsten electrode in the free-burning indirect arc. The consumable aided tungsten indirect arc welding not only rapidly melts the welding wire but also effectively restrains the excessive fusion of the base metal. The welding experiment and the theoretical analysis confirm that this method can obtain a high deposition rate and a low dilution ratio during the welding process.

  20. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun [Department of Building Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller

  1. Capital adjustment patterns on Dutch pig farms

    Gardebroek, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a generalised adjustment cost framework that explicitly accounts for zero investments on Dutch pig farms. A farm-specific flexible adjustment cost function is used to account for differences in adjustment costs between farms. Using the Generalised Method of Moments the Euler equa

  2. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study

    Amit Sharma; Manish Dev Shrimali

    2011-11-01

    The dynamics of indirectly coupled Lorenz circuits is investigated experimentally. The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev. E 81, 046216 (2010) is verified by physical experiments with electronic circuits. Two chaotic systems coupled through a common dynamic environment shows the verity of synchronization behaviours such as anti-phase synchronization, in-phase synchronization, identical synchronization, anti-synchronization, etc.

  3. ETHIC ASPECT OF INDIRECT-SPEECH ACTS IN OFFICIAL SPHERE

    K. S. NEUSTROEV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the ethic characteristics of indirect speech acts in official discourses. The social-ethic conception of A. Giddens is attracted for analysis. The concepts “act“, “reflexive consciousness“, “motivation“, “implication“ are connected. The intention for rational act is showed as support of whole representation about the motives of person acts. This conception is connected with traditional opinions about man as social phenomenon oriented for categories of kindness and evil, justice and injustice, biological and social. The man as a participant of speech act has all such characteristics. Ethic of social life, ethical relations and obligations, social context of deontology, of possibilities are relevant in this aspect. Specific relevance is a condition for interrelation between direct and indirect substance of speech act. In particular, strict direct presentation unites with imperative, this usage is systematic and effective, because it determined with speech variety, which naturally includes soft pragmatics, “indirect directness”. The attributes of imperative and indirect expressive strengthens organic essence of interrelation. The imperative is indirect, but it is fixed in these pragmatic subsystems. The ethical motivated unite of different devices serves to indirectness. The ethical base of official document get emotional sense and rejects the indirect character of expressive. The postulate of many-sided connections between speech act and ethic characteristics is founded by tendencies of official sphere. It is adequate modern field for interactions of direct and indirect pragmatic intentions. The socialethic specific explains these peculiarities. Such communicative sphere is possible to create corresponding image for social institutes and processes on base of relevant discourses.

  4. Indirect dark matter searches in gamma and cosmic rays

    Conrad, Jan; Reimer, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter candidates such as weakly interacting massive particles are predicted to annihilate or decay into Standard Model particles, leaving behind distinctive signatures in gamma rays, neutrinos, positrons, antiprotons, or even antinuclei. Indirect dark matter searches, and in particular those based on gamma-ray observations and cosmic-ray measurements, could detect such signatures. Here we review the strengths and limitations of this approach and look into the future of indirect dark matter searches.

  5. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  6. Aerodynamics of indirect thrust measurement by the impulse method

    Cheng-Kang Wu; Hai-Xing Wang; Xian Meng; Xi Chen; Wen-Xia Pan

    2011-01-01

    The aerodynamic aspects of indirect thrust measurement by the impulse method have been studied both experimentally and numerically.The underlying basic aerodynamic principle is outlined, the phenomena in subsonic,supersonic and arc-heated jets are explored, and factors affecting the accuracy of the method are studied and discussed.Results show that the impulse method is reliable for indirect thrust measurement if certain basic requirements are met,and a simple guideline for its proper application is given.

  7. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management.

  8. Predictors of sociocultural adjustment among sojourning Malaysian students in Britain.

    Swami, Viren

    2009-08-01

    The process of cross-cultural migration may be particularly difficult for students travelling overseas for further or higher education, especially where qualitative differences exist between the home and host nations. The present study examined the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning Malaysian students in Britain. Eighty-one Malay and 110 Chinese students enrolled in various courses answered a self-report questionnaire that examined various aspects of sociocultural adjustment. A series of one-way analyses of variance showed that Malay participants experienced poorer sociocultural adjustment in comparison with their Chinese counterparts. They were also less likely than Chinese students to have contact with co-nationals and host nationals, more likely to perceive their actual experience in Britain as worse than they had expected, and more likely to perceive greater cultural distance and greater discrimination. The results of regression analyses showed that, for Malay participants, perceived discrimination accounted for the greatest proportion of variance in sociocultural adjustment (73%), followed by English language proficiency (10%) and contact with host nationals (4%). For Chinese participants, English language proficiency was the strongest predictor of sociocultural adjustment (54%), followed by expectations of life in Britain (18%) and contact with host nationals (3%). By contrast, participants' sex, age, and length of residence failed to emerge as significant predictors for either ethnic group. Possible explanations for this pattern of findings are discussed, including the effects of Islamophobia on Malay-Muslims in Britain, possible socioeconomic differences between Malay and Chinese students, and personality differences between the two ethnic groups. The results are further discussed in relation to practical steps that can be taken to improve the sociocultural adjustment of sojourning students in Britain.

  9. Rotor speed estimation for indirect stator flux oriented induction motor drive based on MRAS scheme

    Youssef Agrebi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a conventional indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC induction motor drive is presented. In order to eliminate the speed sensor, an adaptation algorithm for tuning the rotor speed is proposed. Based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS scheme, the rotor speed is tuned to obtain an exact ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme to estimate induction rotor peed from measured terminal voltages and currents. The IP gains speed controller and PI gains current controller are calculated and tuned at each sampling time according to the new estimated rotor speed. The proposed algorithm has been tested by numerical simulation, showing the capability of driving active load; and stability is preserved. Experimental results obtained with a general-purpose 1-kW induction machine are presented showing the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of dynamic performance.

  10. The Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect-Detection EXperiment. MINIDEX

    Palermo, Matteo

    2016-06-06

    A new experiment to measure muon-induced neutrons is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, is presented and its installation and commissioning in the Tuebingen Shallow Underground Laboratory are described. Results from its first data taking period, run I, are presented. Muon-induced neutrons are not only an interesting physics topic by itself, but they are also an important source of background in searches for possible new rare phenomena like neutrinoless double beta decay or directly observable interactions of dark matter. These subjects are of great importance to understand the development of the early universe. Therefore, a new generation of ton-scale experiments which require extremely low background levels is under consideration. Reliable Monte Carlo simulations are needed to design such future experiments and estimate their background levels and sensitivities. The background due to muon-induced neutrons is hard to estimate, because of inconsistencies between different experimental results and discrepancies between measurements and Monte Carlo predictions. Especially for neutron production in high-Z materials, more experimental data and related simulation studies are clearly needed. MINIDEX addresses exactly this subject. Already the first five months of data taking provided valuable data on neutron production, propagation and interaction in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions are presented. In particular, the predictions of two Monte Carlo packages, based on GEANT4, are compared to the data. The data show an overall 70-100% higher rate of muon-induced events than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. These packages also predict a faster time evolution of the muon-induced signal than observed in the data. Nevertheless, the time until the signal from the muon-induced events is completely collected was correctly predicted by the Monte Carlos. MINIDEX is foreseen

  11. Indirect and Mixed Direct-Indirect Heat Integration of Batch Processes Based on Pinch Analysis

    Daniel Favrat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper introduces a methodology for the heat integration of industrial batch processes. Based on Pinch Analysis principles, this methodology resorts to intermediate heat storage to prevent adverse effects on the operating flexibility, which are often associated with direct heat exchange only. A systematic procedure, backed with a graphical representation, allows the determination of the minimum number of heat storage units assuming vertical heat transfer and their range of feasible operation as a function of the amount of heat recovery. Understanding the cause and the bottleneck effect of the socalled storage pinch, heuristic rules are proposed to screen major options corresponding to minimum cost solutions. For a given number of heat storage units, these rules could be automated to a large extent, making the procedure suitable for targeting purposes. The operating temperature of the heat storage units can be optimized with ease, while other continuous degrees of freedom are more difficult to address using the proposed methodology. Preliminary guidelines are proposed to extend the methodology to mixed direct-indirect heat integration.

    •  This paper was presented at the ECOS’00 Conference in Enschede, July 5-7, 2000 and revised

  12. Prokaryotic Expression and Applicability Comparison of FiveBrucella Proteins as Antigens in Indirect ELISAs%布鲁氏菌5种蛋白的原核表达及其作为间接ELISA检测用抗原的适用性比较

    王勇; 南文龙; 巩明霞; 张悦勇; 彭大新; 陈义平

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare the applicability of different coating antigens in indirect-ELISA(iELISA)for detecting Brucella antibodies,BP26,OMP16,CP39,SP41and eryC ofBrucella were expressed with prokaryotic system,purified and used as coating antigens respectively in iELISA assays and their effects were compared. The results showed the expressed recombinant BP26,OMP16,CP39,SP41and eryC were about 38 ku,21ku,30ku,51ku and 38ku respectively, and all of them were recognized byBrucella positive serum. All the five iELISA assays had no cross-reactivity with bovine tuberculosis or bovine viral diarrhea sera. Detection of 28 reference serum samples showed that the iELISA with BP26 as coating antigen had the highest P/N value. A parallel detection of 48 clinical serum samples was carried out, and compared to the results of commercial kits(IDEXX),the agreements were 87.5 % for BP26-iELISA,87.5 % for OMP16-iELISA,89.6 % for CP39-iELISA,85.4 % for SP41-iELISA and 79.2 % for eryC-iELISA. In conclusion,the effect of BP26 used as antigen in iELISA was relatively ideal.%为比较布鲁氏菌蛋白BP26、OMP16、CP39、SP41、eryC作为间接ELISA检测用抗原的适用性,本研究原核表达并纯化了这5种蛋白,分别以其作为包被抗原,对反应条件进行优化,建立了布鲁氏菌病5种血清抗体间接ELISA检测方法。结果显示,重组蛋白BP26、OMP16、CP39、SP41、eryC大小分别约为32 ku、21 ku、30 ku、51 ku和38 ku,均可被布鲁氏菌阳性血清所识别,具有良好的免疫反应性。利用5种重组蛋白作为包被抗原建立的间接ELISA方法,与牛结核、牛病毒性腹泻等常见牛病阳性血清之间无交叉反应;对28份阴、阳性参考血清进行检测,以BP26作为包被抗原建立的间接ELISA P/N值最高。利用建立的方法和IDEXX试剂盒对48份临床血清样品进行平行检测,重组蛋白BP26、OMP16、CP39、SP41、eryC相应ELISA方法的符合率分别为87.5%、87.5%、89.6%

  13. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  14. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  15. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Berno J.E. Misgeld

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  16. Automatic Adjustment of Wide-Base Google Street View Panoramas

    Boussias-Alexakis, E.; Tsironisa, V.; Petsa, E.; Karras, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection) is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  17. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).

  18. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  19. Variance Analysis and Adaptive Sampling for Indirect Light Path Reuse

    Hao Qin; Xin Sun; Jun Yan; Qi-Ming Hou; Zhong Ren; Kun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the estimation variance of a set of global illumination algorithms based on indirect light path reuse. These algorithms usually contain two passes — in the first pass, a small number of indirect light samples are generated and evaluated, and they are then reused by a large number of reconstruction samples in the second pass. Our analysis shows that the covariance of the reconstruction samples dominates the estimation variance under high reconstruction rates and increasing the reconstruction rate cannot effectively reduce the covariance. We also find that the covariance represents to what degree the indirect light samples are reused during reconstruction. This analysis motivates us to design a heuristic approximating the covariance as well as an adaptive sampling scheme based on this heuristic to reduce the rendering variance. We validate our analysis and adaptive sampling scheme in the indirect light field reconstruction algorithm and the axis-aligned filtering algorithm for indirect lighting. Experiments are in accordance with our analysis and show that rendering artifacts can be greatly reduced at a similar computational cost.

  20. 通心络胶囊与丹参滴丸治疗冠心病心绞痛间接比较的系统评价%Indirect Comparison of Tongxinluo Capsule and Danshen Dripping Pill for Angina Pectoris: A Systematic Review

    贾永亮; 张时开; 鲍菲飞; 黄芳艺; 梁少伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective Danshen dripping pill (DSP) and tongxinluo capsule (TXL) are popular Chinese medicinal products and often compared with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in treating angina pectoris. Hundreds of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about DSP and TXL have been published; however, there has been no systematic review on comparing DSP with TXL. This study aims to provide a comprehensive PRISMA-compliant systematic review with sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis to valuate indirectly the efficacies of DSP and TXL in treating angina pectoris. Methods RCTs published between 1994 and 2009 on DSP and TXL in treating angina pectoris for four or more weeks were retrieved from databases. The qualities of RCTs included were evaluated with Jadad scale. Meta-analysis was performed on overall effects of symptomatic and electrocardiographic (ECG) improvements. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used to measure the effect size. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis and meta-regression were conducted on basic characteristics of RCTs. Results 65 RCTs with 6 969 participants were included. Average Jadad score was 2.11. Overall ORs were 3.66 (95%CI 2.67 to 5.02) for TXL versus ISDN and 2.38 (95%CI 1.90 to 2.99) for DSP versus ISDN. There was a significant difference (W=521.5, P=0.049 45) in ORs between DSP and TXL. Statistical analyses found no significant factors affecting overall efficacies of TXL and DSP. The rates of adverse events under DSP and TXL treatments were 2.37% and 2.11%, respectively. Conclusion DSP and TXL are more effective than ISDN in treating angina pectoris. TXL might be more effective than DSP. However, further RCTs of larger scale, multi-centre/country, longer follow-up periods and higher quality are still required to verify.%目的 已有数百篇关于复方丹参滴丸和通心络胶囊治疗冠心病心绞痛的随机对照试验报告发表,但尚未见相关系统评价.本研究旨在遵循PRISMA声明,系统

  1. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    F. Mesinger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  2. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  3. Statistical implications of adjustments of raw ILI (In-Line Inspection) data

    Timashev, Svyatoslav A.; Bushinskaya, Anna V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Ural Branch. Sciences and Engineering Center ' Reliability and Safety of Large Systems and Machines'

    2009-07-01

    The paper describes the implications and inferences that inevitably arise when deliberate 'adjustments' of raw MFL ILI data are made when delivering the final report on conducted ILI and/or performing defect sizing and reliability assessments needed for pipeline integrity management plans (IMPs). The root causes of data adjustments are discussed, main types of adjustments are classified and the consequences as related to pipeline residual life, reliability and safety are described. A comparison is performed between adjustment and the full statistical analysis (FSA), as applied to raw ILI and verification data. The consequences of defect data adjustment as related to pipeline reliability and POF and possible litigation issues are discussed. Case studies are presented which demonstrate the application of the FSA method to the results of ILI and verification measurements on pipelines that are located on three continents. Some assessments of the actual reliability of pipelines with defects are given. (author)

  4. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nakai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unfamiliar individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse help to the bad should be assessed. Here we propose a new simple norm called 'Staying' that prescribes to abstain from assessment, with the focal individual's image remaining unchanged, if its opponent has a bad image. We fully analyse the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and unveil that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation, compared to the prevailing social norms which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The excellence of Staying suggests the limi...

  5. Generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise in nozzles and turbine stages is commonly attributed to temperature inhomogeneities and vorticity fluctuations. Here, compositional inhomogeneities in a multi-component gas mixture are shown to produce indirect noise both theoretically and numerically. The chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. The contribution of the compositional noise is compared to the entropy noise and direct noise by considering subsonic, supersonic and shocked nozzles downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that the compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supersonic/shocked nozzle flows. This suggests that compositional indirect combustion noise may require consideration with the implementation of advanced combustion concepts in gas turbines, including low-emissions combustors, high-power-density engine cores, or compact burners.

  6. Retroperitoneal hematoma after manual reduction of indirect inguinal hernia.

    Xu, Xiequn; Hong, Tao; Li, Binglu; Liu, Wei; Zheng, Chaoji; He, Xiaodong

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the case of a 59-year-old man with sudden severe pain in the right lower abdomen after manually reducing the right indirect inguinal hernia who had bilateral indirect inguinal hernia for 5 years. A subsequent contrast computed tomography scan with contrast of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a significant extensive retroperitoneal hematoma at the abdomen and pelvis of the right side. There was contrast leaked out, which was suspected from inferior epigastric artery. He underwent successful laparotomy. The bleeding ruptured inferior epigastric artery at the interior side of the deep inguinal ring was found, the deep inguinal ring was avulsed, ligature of the inferior epigastric artery and removal of the retroperitoneal hematoma were done, and the patient was discharged from hospital on the seventh postoperative day. This is the first report in the literature on retroperitoneal hematoma caused by manual reduction of indirect inguinal hernia.

  7. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  8. Stability Concerns for Indirect Consumer Control in Smart Grids

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    by an external third party, and indirect consumer control through incentives and price signals. In this work we present a simple formulation of indirect control, where the behavior of each consumer, is governed by local optimization of energy consumption. The local optimization accounts for both cost of energy...... and distribution losses, as well as any discomfort incurred by consumers from any shift in energy consumption. Our work will illustrate that in the simplest formulation of indirect control, the stability is greatly affected of both the behavior of consumers, and the number of consumers to include. We will show how......Demand side management will be an important tool for maintaining a balanced electrical grid in the future, when the penetration of volatile resources, such as wind and solar energy increases. Recent research focuses on two different management approaches, namely direct consumer control...

  9. [Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis in Freesia refracta].

    Wang, L; Duan, X G; Hao, S

    1999-06-01

    Somatic embryogenesis can be induced in tissue cultures of Freesia refracta either directly from the epidermal cells of explant, or indirectly via intervening callus. In direct pathway, somatic embryos were in contact with maternal tissue in a suspensor-like structure. In indirect pathway, the explants first proliferacted to give rise to calluses before embryoids were induced. The two sorts of calluses were defined to embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus according to producing of somatic embryos. An indirect somatic embryo is developed from a pre-embryogenically determined cell. This kind of somatic embryo has no suspensor structure instead of a complex with maternal tissue. Somatic embryos have their own vascular tissues, and can develop new plantlets independently.

  10. The organization of anticipatory postural adjustments

    Aruin Alexander S.

    2002-01-01

    Central control of posture is expressed through anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) precede planned postural perturbations and minimize them with anticipatory corrections, while compensatory postural adjustments deal with actual perturbations of balance that occur as a result of suboptimal efficiency of anticipatory corrections. The process of generation of APAs is affected by three major factors: expected magnitude and direction of the...

  11. A complete graphical criterion for the adjustment formula in mediation analysis.

    Shpitser, Ilya; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2011-03-04

    Various assumptions have been used in the literature to identify natural direct and indirect effects in mediation analysis. These effects are of interest because they allow for effect decomposition of a total effect into a direct and indirect effect even in the presence of interactions or non-linear models. In this paper, we consider the relation and interpretation of various identification assumptions in terms of causal diagrams interpreted as a set of non-parametric structural equations. We show that for such causal diagrams, two sets of assumptions for identification that have been described in the literature are in fact equivalent in the sense that if either set of assumptions holds for all models inducing a particular causal diagram, then the other set of assumptions will also hold for all models inducing that diagram. We moreover build on prior work concerning a complete graphical identification criterion for covariate adjustment for total effects to provide a complete graphical criterion for using covariate adjustment to identify natural direct and indirect effects. Finally, we show that this criterion is equivalent to the two sets of independence assumptions used previously for mediation analysis.

  12. Is Emotional Adjustment Status Predictor of the IUD Survival?

    Ziba Farajzadegan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of emotional adjustment on IUD continuation to understand why persons with similar clinical problems have different interpretation and select different strategies to cope with their complaints.Materials and Methods: This historical cohort study was carried out on 12 randomly chosen health centers of Isfahan province in 2007. Two hundred forty eight literate and married women aged 15-49 years who had chosen IUD as a contraceptive method since 2002 entered the study. After explaining the aim of study and taking informed consent, women completed the demographic, individual characteristics and 32 questions in emotional domain of Bell’s Adjustment Inventory (adult form. May 2007 was considered the end time of IUD consumption as a defined outcome. Data analysis was performed with the SPSS version 15. T–test, chi–square, Mann–Whitney, General Linear Model, Regression were used for data analysis.Results: During this period 60% (146 of women preserved their IUD and 40% (98 of them removed their IUD. The mean score of emotional adjustment was 16.16±6.28 in IUD preserved women in comparison to 18.23±5.63 in IUD removed women. Poor ,moderate and good  grades of emotional adjustment were 54%, 40% and 6% in IUD preserved woman vs 72.4% , 24.5% and 3.1% in IUD removed women.Conclusion: Psychological factors such as emotional adjustment can influence IUD survival; so improved counseling and good candidate selection before IUD insertion is recommended.

  13. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  14. Indirect linear locally distributed damping of coupled systems

    Annick BEYRATH

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove indirect internal stabilization results for different coupled systems with linear locally distributed damping (coupled wave equations, wave equations with different speeds of propagation. In our case, a linear local damping term appears only in the first equation whereas no damping term is applied to the second one (this is indirect stabilization, see [11]. Using thepiecewise multiplier method we prove that the full system is stabilized and that the total energy of the solution of this system decays polynomially.

  15. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  16. Neutron-capture cross sections from indirect measurements

    Scielzo N.D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  17. A review of indirect searches for particle dark matter

    Gaskins, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    The indirect detection of dark matter annihilation and decay using observations of photons, charged cosmic rays, and neutrinos offers a promising means of identifying the particle nature of this elusive component of the universe. The last decade has seen substantial advances in observational data sets, complemented by new insights from numerical simulations, which together have enabled for the first time strong constraints on dark matter particle models, and have revealed several intriguing hints of possible signals. This review provides an introduction to indirect detection methods and an overview of recent results in the field.

  18. Oxygen Consumption Rate and Energy Expenditure in Mice: Indirect Calorimetry.

    Kim, Eun Ran; Tong, Qingchun

    2017-01-01

    Global obesity epidemic demands more effective therapeutic treatments and better understanding of obesity pathophysiology. Since obesity results from energy imbalance, accurate quantification of energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) becomes an essential prerequisite to phenotype the cause for obesity development. Indirect calorimetry has long been used as one of the most established methods in EE quantification by detecting changes in levels of O2 consumption and CO2 production. In this article, we describe procedures and important considerations for an effective measurement using indirect calorimetry.

  19. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different......This article develops a theoretical distinction between direct and indirect welfare chauvinism in order to analyze how electorally successful populist right-wing parties transmit social policy preferences with significant redistributive implications for the shape of the welfare state. Direct...... directions....

  20. Reflux Laryngitis: Correlation between the Symptoms Findings and Indirect Laryngoscopy.

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo Dilen da; Niedermeier, Bruno Taccola; Portinho, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Introduction The indirect laryngoscopy has an important role in the characterization of reflux laryngitis. Although many findings are nonspecific, some strongly suggest that the inflammation is the cause of reflux. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between reflux symptoms and the findings of indirect laryngoscopy. Methods We evaluated 27 patients with symptoms of pharyngolaryngeal reflux disease. Results Laryngoscopy demonstrated in all patients the presence of hypertrophy of the posterior commissure and laryngeal edema. The most frequent symptoms were the presence of dry cough and foreign body sensation. Conclusion There was a correlation between the findings at laryngoscopy and symptoms of reflux.

  1. Resonant indirect exchange via spatially separated two-dimensional channel

    Rozhansky, I. V., E-mail: rozhansky@gmail.com [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S. [Ioffe Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Aronzon, B. A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute,” 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Davydov, A. B. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kugel, K. I. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tripathi, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2015-06-22

    We apply the resonant indirect exchange interaction theory to explain the ferromagnetic properties of the hybrid heterostructure consisting of a InGaAs-based quantum well (QW) sandwiched between GaAs barriers with spatially separated Mn δ-layer. The experimentally obtained dependence of the Curie temperature on the QW depth exhibits a peak related to the region of resonant indirect exchange. We suggest the theoretical explanation and a fit to this dependence as a result of the two contributions to ferromagnetism—the intralayer contribution and the resonant exchange contribution provided by the QW.

  2. Direct and indirect costs of Multiple Sclerosis in Baix Llobregat (Catalonia, Spain, according to disability

    Gubieras Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is an incurable chronic disease that predominantly affects young adults. It has a high socio-economic impact which increases as disability progresses. An assessment of the real costs of MS may contribute to our knowledge of the disease and to treat it more efficiently. Our objective is to assess the direct and indirect costs of MS from a societal perspective, in patients monitored in our MS Unit (Baix Llobregat, Catalonia and grouped according to their disability (EDSS. Methods We analysed data from 200 MS patients, who answered a questionnaire on resource consumption, employment and economical status. Mean age was 41.6 years, mean EDSS 2.7, 65.5% of patients were female, 79.5% had a relapsing-remitting course, and 67.5% of them were receiving immunomodulatory treatment (IT. Patients were grouped into five EDSS stages. Data from the questionnaires, hospital charts, Catalan Health Service tariffs, and figures from Catalan Institute of Statistics were used to calculate the direct and indirect costs. The cost-of-illness method, and the human capital approach for indirect costs, were applied. Sensitivity analyses were performed to strengthen results. Results The mean total annual cost of MS per patient results 24272 euros. This cost varied according to EDSS: 14327 euros (EDSS = 0, 18837 euros (EDSS = 1–3, 27870 euros (EDSS = 3.5–5.5, 41198 euros (EDSS = 6–7 and 52841 euros (EDSS>7.5. When the mean total annual costs was adjusted by the mean % of patients on IT in our Unit (31% the result was 19589 euros. The key-drivers for direct costs were IT in low EDSS stages, and caregiver costs in high stages. Indirect costs were assessed in terms of the loss of productivity when patients stop working. Direct costs accounted for around 60% of total costs in all EDSS groups. IT accounts from 78% to 11% of direct costs, and decreased as disability progressed. Conclusion The total mean social costs of MS in a

  3. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  4. Direct and indirect effects of temperature on the population dynamics and ecosystem functioning of aquatic microbial ecosystems.

    Beveridge, Oliver S; Petchey, Owen L; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-11-01

    1. While much is known about the direct effect that temperature can have on aquatic communities, less is known about its indirect effect via the temperature dependence of viscosity and temperature-dependent trophic interactions. 2. We manipulated the temperature (5-20 °C) and the viscosity (equivalent to 5-20 °C) of water in laboratory-based bacteria-protist communities. Communities contained food chains with one, two or three trophic levels. Responses measured were population dynamics (consumer carrying capacity and growth rate, average species population density, and the coefficient of variation of population density through time) and ecosystem function (decomposition). 3. Temperature, viscosity and food chain length produced significant responses in population dynamics. Temperature-dependent viscosity had a significant effect on the carrying capacity and growth rates of consumers, as well as the average density of the top predator. Overall, indirect effects of temperature via changes in viscosity were subtle in comparison to the indirect effect of temperature via trophic interactions. 4. Our results highlight the importance of direct and indirect effects of temperature, mediated through trophic interactions and physical changes in the environment, both for population dynamics and ecosystem processes. Future mechanistic modelling of effects of environmental change on species will benefit from distinguishing the different mechanisms of the overall effect of temperature.

  5. The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome in Georgia: direct and indirect costs

    Brimmer Dana J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating chronic illness affecting at least 4 million people in the United States. Understanding its cost improves decisions regarding resource allocation that may be directed towards treatment and cure, and guides the evaluation of clinical and community interventions designed to reduce the burden of disease. Methods This research estimated direct and indirect costs of CFS and the impact on educational attainment using a population-based, case-control study between September 2004 and July 2005, Georgia, USA. Participants completed a clinical evaluation to confirm CFS, identify other illnesses, and report on socioeconomic factors. We estimated the effect of CFS on direct medical costs (inpatient hospitalizations, provider visits, prescription medication spending, other medical supplies and services and loss in productivity (employment and earnings with a stratified sample (n = 500 from metropolitan, urban, and rural Georgia. We adjusted medical costs and earnings for confounders (age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and geographic strata using econometric models and weighted estimates to reflect response-rate adjusted sampling rates. Results Individuals with CFS had mean annual direct medical costs of $5,683. After adjusting for confounding factors, CFS accounted for $3,286 of these costs (p Conclusions Study results indicate that chronic fatigue syndrome may lead to substantial increases in healthcare costs and decreases in individual earnings. Studies have estimated up to 2.5% of non-elderly adults may suffer from CFS. In Georgia, a state with roughly 5.5 million people age 18-59, illness could account for $452 million in total healthcare expenditures and $1.2 billion of lost productivity.

  6. FREQUENCY OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN CATS IN METOPOLITAN LIMA AND CONCORDANCE BETWEEN INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE AND INDIRECT HAEMAGLUTINATION TECHNIQUES

    Cerro T., Luis; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Casas A., Eva; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Suárez A., Francisco; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Rubio V., Alicia; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to estimate the frequency of antibodies anti- Toxoplasma gondii in cats of Lima city, and to determine the rate of concordance between the Indirect Immunofluorescence (IFI) and Indirect Haemaglutination (HAI) assays. A total of 178 cat serum samples were collected in veterinary clinics of varios districts of Lima. The results showed 11.2 ± 4.6% (HAI) and 17.9 ± 5.6% (IFI) positive serums to T. gondii, and without statiscal differences due to sex and age group. ...

  7. 76 FR 42140 - Rate Adjustment Remand

    2011-07-18

    ... the plain meaning of the words ``due to'' in section 3622(d)(1)(E) requires a causal relationship... causal relationship between the amount of a requested adjustment and the exigent circumstances' impact on...'' phrase does not adequately express how close the relationship between the proposed adjustment and...

  8. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18.444 Section 18.444 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications...

  9. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurd...

  10. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  11. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  12. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  13. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  14. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale

    2013-01-01

    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  15. Research on Adjust Time of Premium

    2000-01-01

    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  16. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  17. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  18. Social Dilemmas and Indirect Reciprocity: A systematic review

    Cristian Acosta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is an evolutionary theory of altruism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Its explanation of cooperation incorporates information on the reputation people hold of other people regarding whether they are cooperative or not. This study systematically reviewed the current empirical literature on indirect reciprocity in social dilemma situations. The following databases were consulted: ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and OVID, using has key words "indirect reciprocity" AND "dilemma" OR "cooperation" OR "charity". Twenty-three articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria (papers written in English and studies whose methodology was based on experimental games and the theories, objectives, the main types of samples used, and main results were analyzed. The results show that the games used were the indirect reciprocity and public goods games, which may vary according to the objectives. It was found that reputation is a key variable that helps to promote cooperation. In turn, information on previous cooperation helps to build reputation, which is subsequently involved in the decision to cooperate with others. Finally, we highlight the need for more experimental studies that incorporate other explanatory variables and evaluate them in new contexts.

  19. Estimating Indirect Genetic Effects: Precision of Estimates and Optimum Designs

    Bijma, P.

    2010-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant both in natural and domestic populations. Such social interactions cause phenotypes of individuals to depend on genes carried by other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGE). Because IGEs have drastic effects on the rate a

  20. Indirect Teaching and Assessment: Are They Mutually Exclusive?

    Pope, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Principals may wonder how to evaluate teachers using student-centered, indirect teaching strategies with an assessment instrument geared to reward a more teacher-centered approach. This article offers some suggestions concerning the instructional cycle, classroom observation techniques, postobservation conferences, and the formal writeup. (MLH)

  1. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  2. 49 CFR 30.9 - Citizenship: Direct or indirect control.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship: Direct or indirect control. 30.9 Section 30.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO SUPPLIERS OF GOODS AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT DENY PROCUREMENT MARKET ACCESS TO U.S. CONTRACTORS §...

  3. Theory for Indirect Conduction in Dense, Gas-Solid Systems

    Lattanzi, Aaron; Hrenya, Christine

    2016-11-01

    Heat transfer in dense gas-solid systems is dominated by conduction, and critical to the operation of rotary-kilns, catalytic cracking, and heat exchangers with solid particles as the heat transfer fluid. In particular, the indirect conduction occurring between two bodies separated by a thin layer of fluid can significantly impact the heat transfer within gas-solid systems. Current state-of-the-art models for indirect conduction assume that particles are surrounded by a static "fluid lens" and that one-dimensional conduction occurs through the fluid lens when the lens overlaps another body. However, attempts to evaluate the effect of surface roughness and fluid lens thickness (theoretical inputs) on indirect conduction have been restricted to static, single-particle cases. By contrast, here we quantify these effects for dynamic, multi-particle systems. This analysis is compared to outputs from computational fluid dynamics and discrete element method (CFD-DEM) simulations of heat transfer in a packed bed and flow down a heated ramp. Analytical predictions for model sensitivity are found to be in agreement with simulation results and differ greatly from the static, single-particle analysis. Namely, indirect conduction in static systems is found to be most sensitive to surface roughness, while dynamic systems are sensitive to the fluid lens thickness.

  4. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  5. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  6. Lack of Noradrenergic Modulation of Indirect Semantic Priming

    Jacquelyne S. Cios

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine and dopamine are both believed to affect signal-to-noise in the cerebral cortex. Dopaminergic agents appear to modulate semantic networks during indirect semantic priming, but do not appear to affect problem solving dependent on access to semantic networks. Noradrenergic agents, though, do affect semantic network dependent problem solving. We wished to examine whether noradrenergic agents affect indirect semantic priming. Subjects attended three sessions: one each after propranolol (40 mg (noradrenergic antagonist, ephedrine (25 mg (noradrenergic agonist, and placebo. During each session, closely related, distantly related, and unrelated pairs were presented. Reaction times for a lexical decision task on the target words (second word in the pair were recorded. No decrease in indirect semantic priming occurred with ephedrine. Furthermore, across all three drugs, a main effect of semantic relatedness was found, but no main effect of drug, and no drug/semantic relatedness interaction effect. These findings suggest that noradrenergic agents, with these drugs and at these doses, do not affect indirect semantic priming with the potency of dopaminergic drugs at the doses previously studied. In the context of this previous work, this suggests that more automatic processes such as priming and more controlled searches of the lexical and semantic networks such as problem solving may be mediated, at least in part, by distinct mechanisms with differing effects of pharmacological modulation.

  7. Choosing Not Choosing: The Indirections of Ethnography and Educational Research

    Frankham, Jo; Smears, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of ethnography in the conduct of educational research and the ways in which it can threaten, in a good sense, the certainties and dominance of performativity. The paper uses the poetry of Emily Dickinson to signal the importance of indirection in the conduct of ethnographic work and, more specifically, the ways…

  8. Interlanguage Pragmatics Study of Indirect Complaint among Japanese ESL Learners

    Baba, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This interlanguage pragmatics study of linguistic expressions of affect focuses on how Japanese learners of English may express themselves in an affect-laden speech act of indirect complaint. The English as a Second Language (ESL) learners' data are compared with the baseline data of native speakers of Japanese (JJ) and American English (AA). The…

  9. Effect of indirect information on system trust and control allocation

    Vries, de P.; Midden, C.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with most other experimental system trust research, this paper examines indirect information as a basis for trust. In experiment 1, the overall valence of an evaluation concerning a route planner was pitted against a consensus cue, i.e. a favourable opinion about the system endorsed by a

  10. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  11. Indirect detonation initiation using acoustic timescale thermal power deposition

    Regele, Jonathan D; Vezolainen, Alexei; Vasilyev, Oleg V

    2012-01-01

    A fluid dynamics video is presented that demonstrates an indirect detonation initiation process. In this process, a transient power deposition adds heat to a spatially resolved volume of fluid in an amount of time that is similar to the acoustic timescale of the fluid volume. A highly resolved two-dimensional simulation shows the events that unfold after the heat is added.

  12. Children Mix Direct and Indirect Speech: Evidence from Pronoun Comprehension

    Köder, Franziska; Maier, Emar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates children's acquisition of the distinction between direct speech (Elephant said, "I get the football") and indirect speech ("Elephant said that he gets the football"), by measuring children's interpretation of first, second, and third person pronouns. Based on evidence from various linguistic sources, we…

  13. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Sulfate in Water by Indirect EDTA Titration

    Belle-Oudry, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    The determination of sulfate concentration in water by indirect EDTA titration is an instructive experiment that is easily implemented in an analytical chemistry laboratory course. A water sample is treated with excess barium chloride to precipitate sulfate ions as BaSO[subscript 4](s). The unprecipitated barium ions are then titrated with EDTA.…

  15. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Barik, S.; Prieto, S.; Harrison, S.B.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Indirect heat integration across plants using hot water circles☆

    Chenglin Chang; Yufei Wang; Xiao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Total site heat integration (TSHI) provides more opportunities for energy saving in industry clusters. Some design methods including direct integration using process streams and indirect integration using intermediate-fluid cir-cuits, i.e., steam, dowtherms and hot water, have been proposed during last few decades. Indirect heat integration is preferred when the heat sources and sinks are separated in independent plants with rather long distance. This improves energy efficiency by adaption of intermediate fluid circle which acts as a utility provider for plants in a symbiotic network. However, there are some significant factors ignored in conventional TSHI, i.e. the investment of pipeline, cost of pumping and heat loss. These factors simultaneously determine the possibility and perfor-mance of heat integration. This work presents a new methodology for indirect heat integration in low tempera-ture range using hot water circuit as intermediate-fluid medium. The new methodology enables the targeting of indirect heat integration across plants considering the factors mentioned earlier. An MINLP model with economic objective is established and solved. The optimization results give the mass flow rate of intermediate-fluid, diam-eter of pipeline, the temperature of the circuits and the matches of heat exchanger networks (HENS) automati-cally. Finally, the application of this proposed methodology is il ustrated with a case study.

  17. Rationales for Indirect Speech: The Theory of the Strategic Speaker

    Lee, James J.; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as "Would you like to see my etchings?" Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the "strategic speaker", who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or…

  18. Path To Ignition: US Indirect Target Physics (LIRPP Vol. 12)

    Cray, M.; Campbell, E. M.

    2016-10-01

    The United States ICF Program has been pursuing an aggressive research program in preparation for an ignition demonstration on the National Ignition Facility. Los Alamos and Livermore laboratories have collaborated on resolving indirect drive target physics issues on the Nova laser at Livermore National Laboratory. This combined with detailed modeling of laser heated indirectly driven targets likely to achieve ignition, has provided the basis for planning for the NIF. A detailed understanding of target physics, laser performance, and target fabrication is required for developing robust ignition targets. We have developed large-scale computational models to simulate complex physics which occurs in an indirectly driven target. For ignition, detailed understanding of hohlraum and implosion physics is required in order to control competing processes at the few percent level. From crucial experiments performed by Los Alamos and Livermore on the Nova laser, a comprehensive indirect drive database has been assembled. Time integrated and time dependent measurements of radiation drive and symmetry coupled with a detailed set of plasma instability measurements have confirmed our ability to predict hohlraum energetics. Implosion physics campaigns are focused on underdstanding detailed capsule hydrodynamics and instability growth. Target fabrication technology is also an active area of research at Los Alamos, Livermore, and General Atomics for NIF. NIF targets require developing technology in cryogenics and manufacturing in such areas as beryllium shell manufacture. Descriptions of our NIF target designs, experimental results, and fabrication technology supporting NIF target performance predictions will be given.

  19. The prediction of difficult intubation in obese patients using mirror indirect laryngoscopy: A prospective pilot study

    Arne O Budde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation in obese patients is higher than in the general population. Classical predictors of difficult laryngoscopy and intubation have been shown to be unreliable. We prospectively evaluated indirect mirror laryngoscopy as a predictor of difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients. Materials and Methods: 60 patients with a body mass index (BMI greater than 30, scheduled to undergo general anesthesia, were enrolled. Indirect mirror laryngoscopy was performed and was graded 1-4 according to Cormack and Lehane. A view of grade 3-4 was classified as predicting difficult laryngoscopy. Additional assessments for comparison were the Samsoon and Young modification of the Mallampati airway classification, Wilson Risk Sum Score, neck circumference, and BMI. The view obtained upon direct laryngoscopy after induction of general anesthesia was classified according to Cormack and Lehane as grade 1-4. Results: Sixty patients met the inclusion criteria; however, 8 (13.3% patients had an excessive gag reflex, and examination of the larynx was not possible. 15.4% of patients who underwent direct laryngoscopy had a Cormack and Lehane grade 3 or 4 view and were classified as difficult. Mirror laryngoscopy had a tendency toward statistical significance in predicting difficult laryngoscopy in these patients. Conclusions: This study is consistent with previous studies, which have demonstrated that no one individual traditional test has proven to be adequate in predicting difficult airways in the obese population. However, the new application of an old test - indirect mirror laryngoscopy - could be a useful additional test to predict difficult laryngoscopy in obese patients.

  20. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra; Mediciones indirectas de espectros de rayos X

    Mainardi, R.T. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, X5000HUA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  1. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  2. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children.

    Jackson, Aurora P; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African-American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single black mothers and their 3- and 4-year-old focal children. Results indicate that education, working status, and earnings display statistically significant, negative, indirect relations with behavior problems and, with the exception of earnings, statistically significant, positive, indirect relationships with teacher-rated adaptive language skills over time. Findings suggest further that parenting efficacy may mediate the link between poor and near-poor single black mothers' depressive symptoms and their preschoolers' subsequent school adjustment. Implications of these findings for policy and program interventions are discussed.

  3. Electroluminescence from indirect band gap semiconductor ReS2

    Gutiérrez-Lezama, Ignacio; Aditya Reddy, Bojja; Ubrig, Nicolas; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2016-12-01

    It has been recently claimed that bulk crystals of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) ReS2 are direct band gap semiconductors, which would make this material an ideal candidate, among all TMDs, for the realization of efficient opto-electronic devices. The situation is however unclear, because even more recently an indirect transition in the PL spectra of this material has been detected, whose energy is smaller than the supposed direct gap. To address this issue we exploit the properties of ionic liquid gated field-effect transistors (FETs) to investigate the gap structure of bulk ReS2. Using these devices, whose high quality is demonstrated by a record high electron FET mobility of 1100 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 4 K, we can induce hole transport at the surface of the material and determine quantitatively the smallest band gap present in the material, irrespective of its direct or indirect nature. The value of the band gap is found to be 1.41 eV, smaller than the 1.5 eV direct optical transition but in good agreement with the energy of the indirect optical transition, providing an independent confirmation that bulk ReS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor. Nevertheless, contrary to the case of more commonly studied semiconducting TMDs (e.g., MoS2, WS2, etc) in their bulk form, we also find that ReS2 FETs fabricated on bulk crystals do exhibit electroluminescence when driven in the ambipolar injection regime, likely because the difference between direct and indirect gap is only 100 meV. We conclude that ReS2 does deserve more in-depth investigations in relation to possible opto-electronic applications.

  4. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads.

  5. Structural adjustment and health: A conceptual framework and evidence on pathways.

    Kentikelenis, Alexander E

    2017-02-23

    Economic reform programs designed by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank-so-called 'structural adjustment programs'-have formed one of the most influential policy agendas of the past four decades. To gain access to financial support from these organizations, countries-often in economic crisis-have reduced public spending, limited the role of the state, and deregulated economic activity. This article identifies the multiple components of structural adjustment, and presents a conceptual framework linking them to health systems and outcomes. Based on a comprehensive review of the academic literature, the article identifies three main pathways through which structural adjustment affects health: policies directly targeting health systems; policies indirectly impacting health systems; and policies affecting the social determinants of health. The cogency of the framework is illustrated by revisiting Greece's recent experience with structural adjustment, drawing on original IMF reports and secondary literature. Overall, the framework offers a lens through which to analyze the health consequences of structural adjustment across time, space and levels of socioeconomic development, and can be utilized in ex ante health impact assessments of these policies.

  6. Indirect Manipulation of a Sphere on a Flat Disk Using Force Information

    Masayuki Hara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to verify if only the use of robotic force feedback enables indirect and dynamic manipulations which are difficult for human beings to perform. Human beings usually control the trajectory of an object using visual feedback; force/tactile information are secondarily employed because they are further qualitative in comparison with visual information. However, it is supposed that robots have the potential to perform such the tasks without visual information because force/tactile information can be also used quantitatively in the control system. This paper especially focuses on an indirect manipulation of a sphere on a flat plate realized by employing only force information. In this paper, we propose a very simple method to estimate the position of the sphere on the plate which is put on a multi-fingered robot and try to control the trajectory by changing the fingertip heights based on the error between the desired and estimated positions. We also analyze the stability of the proposed control system with an approximate Lyapunov\\'s stability criterion. Finally, this paper shows very attractive robotic demonstrations based on the proposed method.

  7. Universal size dependence of auger constants in direct- and indirect-gap semiconductor nanocrystals

    Robel, Istvan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gresback, Ryan [U OF MINNESOTA; Kortshagen, Uwe [U OF MINNESOTA

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) spatial confinement of electronic wave functions in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) results in a significant enhancement of multi-electron phenomena including non radiative Auger recombination. In this process, a conduction-band electron recombines with a valence-band hole by transferring the recombination energy to a third carrier. Significant interest in Auger recombination in NCs has been stimulated by recent studies ofNC lasing, and generation-III photovoltaics enabled by carrier multiplication because in both of these prospective applications Auger recombination represents a dominant carrier-loss mechanism. Here, we perform a side-by-side comparison of Auger recombination rates in NCs of several different compositions including Ge, PbSe, InAs, and CdSe. We observe that the only factor, which has a significant effect on the measured recombination rates, is the size of the NCs but not the details of the material's electronic structure. Most surprisingly, comparable rates are measured for nanocrystals of directand indirect-gap semiconductor NCs despite a dramatic four-to-five orders of magnitude difference in respective bulk-semiconductor Auger constants. This unusual observation can be explained by confinement-induced relaxation of momentum conservation, which smears out the difference between direct- and indirect-gap materials.

  8. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  9. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  10. Percent relative cumulative frequency analysis in indirect calorimetry: application to studies of transgenic mice.

    Riachi, Marc; Himms-Hagen, Jean; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2004-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess characteristics of energy expenditure. Respiration chambers in indirect calorimetry allow measurements over long periods of time (e.g., hours to days) and thus the collection of large sets of data. Current methods of data analysis usually involve the extraction of only a selected small proportion of data, most commonly the data that reflects resting metabolic rate. Here, we describe a simple quantitative approach for the analysis of large data sets that is capable of detecting small differences in energy metabolism. We refer to it as the percent relative cumulative frequency (PRCF) approach and have applied it to the study of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) deficient and control mice. The approach involves sorting data in ascending order, calculating their cumulative frequency, and expressing the frequencies in the form of percentile curves. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the PRCF approach for analyses of oxygen consumption (.VO2) as well as respiratory exchange ratio data. Statistical comparisons of PRCF curves are based on the 50th percentile values and curve slopes (H values). The application of the PRCF approach revealed that energy expenditure in UCP1-deficient mice housed and studied at room temperature (24 degrees C) is on average 10% lower (p calorimetry is increasingly used, and the PRCF approach provides a novel and powerful means for data analysis.

  11. Optimal Control for Bufferbloat Queue Management Using Indirect Method with Parametric Optimization

    Amr Radwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because memory buffers become larger and cheaper, they have been put into network devices to reduce the number of loss packets and improve network performance. However, the consequences of large buffers are long queues at network bottlenecks and throughput saturation, which has been recently noticed in research community as bufferbloat phenomenon. To address such issues, in this article, we design a forward-backward optimal control queue algorithm based on an indirect approach with parametric optimization. The cost function which we want to minimize represents a trade-off between queue length and packet loss rate performance. Through the integration of an indirect approach with parametric optimization, our proposal has advantages of scalability and accuracy compared to direct approaches, while still maintaining good throughput and shorter queue length than several existing queue management algorithms. All numerical analysis, simulation in ns-2, and experiment results are provided to solidify the efficiency of our proposal. In detailed comparisons to other conventional algorithms, the proposed procedure can run much faster than direct collocation methods while maintaining a desired short queue (≈40 packets in simulation and 80 (ms in experiment test.

  12. Effectiveness of indirect evaporative cooling and thermal mass in a hot arid climate

    Krueger, Eduardo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia/Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Civil, Departamento de Construcao Civil, Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165. Curitiba PR, CEP. 80230-901 (Brazil); Gonzalez Cruz, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno (IFAD), Universidad del Zulia, Nucleo Tecnico de LUZ, Av. Goajira (16) con Calle 67, Maracaibo, CP 4011-A-526 (Venezuela); Givoni, Baruch [Department of Architecture, School of Arts and Architecture, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA, and Ben Gurion University (Israel)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we compare results of a long-term temperature monitoring in a building with high thermal mass to indoor temperature predictions of a second building that uses an indirect evaporative cooling system as a means of passive cooling (Vivienda Bioclimatica Prototipo -VBP-1), for the climatic conditions of Sde Boqer, Negev region of Israel (local latitude 30 52'N, longitude 34 46'E, approximately 480 m above sea level). The high-mass building was monitored from January through September 2006 and belongs to a student dormitory complex located at the Sde Boqer Campus of Ben-Gurion University. VBP-1 was designed and built in Maracaibo, Venezuela (latitude 10 34'N, longitude 71 44'W, elevation 66 m above sea level) and had its indoor air temperatures, below and above a shaded roof pond, as well as the pond temperature monitored from February to September 2006. Formulas were developed for the VBP-1, based on part of the whole monitoring period, which represent the measured daily indoor maximum, average and minimum temperatures. The formulas were then validated against measurements taken independently in different time periods. The developed formulas were here used for estimating the building's thermal and energy performance at the climate of Sde Boqer, allowing a comparison of two different strategies: indirect evaporative cooling and the use of thermal mass. (author)

  13. Evaluation of direct and indirect health education in students' knowlege and attitude about AIDS

    Shojaiyzadeh D

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available This inverstigation is a quasi-experimental study comparing the effects of two methods of health education on student's knowledge and attitudes about AIDS. The target population consisted of 218 male undergraduates studying in Payame Noor University in Saghez, Iran. A random sample of 106 students was selected using sample random sampling method. The students were randomly divided into two experimental groups. One group was educated about AIDS using a direct method of health education and indirect method was used for the other group. Using pretest/posttest method of data collection, analysis of the data showed a significant difference between each group's knowledge and attitudes before and after the educational programs. Comparison of the two educational methods showed no significant difference on student's knowledge about AIDS. However, method one (using a direct method of health education was significantly more effective in changing student's attitudes towards AIDS than method 2 (using an indirect method of health education.

  14. Merging Children's Oncology Group Data with an External Administrative Database Using Indirect Patient Identifiers: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Yimei Li

    Full Text Available Clinical trials data from National Cancer Institute (NCI-funded cooperative oncology group trials could be enhanced by merging with external data sources. Merging without direct patient identifiers would provide additional patient privacy protections. We sought to develop and validate a matching algorithm that uses only indirect patient identifiers.We merged the data from two Phase III Children's Oncology Group (COG trials for de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML with the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS. We developed a stepwise matching algorithm that used indirect identifiers including treatment site, gender, birth year, birth month, enrollment year and enrollment month. Results from the stepwise algorithm were compared against the direct merge method that used date of birth, treatment site, and gender. The indirect merge algorithm was developed on AAML0531 and validated on AAML1031.Of 415 patients enrolled on the AAML0531 trial at PHIS centers, we successfully matched 378 (91.1% patients using the indirect stepwise algorithm. Comparison to the direct merge result suggested that 362 (95.7% matches identified by the indirect merge algorithm were concordant with the direct merge result. When validating the indirect stepwise algorithm using the AAML1031 trial, we successfully matched 157 out of 165 patients (95.2% and 150 (95.5% of the indirectly merged matches were concordant with the directly merged matches.These data demonstrate that patients enrolled on COG clinical trials can be successfully merged with PHIS administrative data using a stepwise algorithm based on indirect patient identifiers. The merged data sets can be used as a platform for comparative effectiveness and cost effectiveness studies.

  15. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  16. Prediction of Welding Deformation and Residual Stresses in Fillet Welds Using Indirect Couple Field FE Method

    Asifa Khurram

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fillet welds are extensively used in shipbuilding, automobile and other industries. Heat concentrated at a small area during welding induces distortions and residual stresses, affecting the structural strength. In this study, indirect coupled-field method is used to predict welding residual stresses and deformation in a fillet joint due to welding on both sides. 3-D nonlinear thermal finite element analysis is performed in ANSYS software followed by a structural analysis. Symmetrical boundary conditions are applied on half of the model for simplification. Results of FE structure analysis predict residual stresses in the specimen. A comparison of simulation results with experimental values proves the authenticity of the technique. The present study can be extended for complex structures and welding techniques.

  17. The Influence of Non-Esterification Biodiesel in AN Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel as alternative energy source of the traditional petroleum fuels has increased interest, because environmental pollution based exhaust emissions from vehicle became serious. The advantage of biodiesel produced from esterification of vegetable and animal oils can be used without the modification of existing diesel engine, but glycerin is generated by production process. In this study, the usability of non-esterification biodiesel as an alternative fuel was investigated in an indirect injection diesel engine. The non-esterification biodiesel has not generated glycerin in esterification process and reduced the 20 percent of cost because it has not used methanol in the production process. Experiments were conducted by using the 5, 10 and 20 percentage of biodiesel and 4 and 8 percentage of biodiesel with 1 and 2 percentage of WDP in baseline diesel fuel. The smoke emission of biodiesel was reduced in comparison with diesel fuel, but power, torque and brake specific energy consumption was similar to diesel fuel.

  18. Radiation-initiated conversion of paraffins to engine fuel: Direct and indirect initiation

    Metreveli, A. K.; Ponomarev, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    Formation of gasoline and diesel fuel has been investigated using three various radiation-induced ways: (1) cracking of wax, (2) synthesis from methane, (3) high-temperature conversion of wax dilute solution in methane. The wax, synthesized by Fischer-Tropsch method, initially contained a mixture of C17-C120 linear paraffins. The yield of wax conversion to liquid mixture (C4-C27 alkenes and 61.5% alkanes) via mode (1) was 0.83±0.09 μmole/J, whereas yield of gas conversion to liquid mixture (C5-C13 alkanes) via mode (2) was 0.95±0.02 μmole/J. In the dilute solution wax underwent indirect action of radiation. In comparison with (1) the mode (3) produces similar amount of lighter fuel containing 80% of alkanes (C5-C15). At the same time degree of methane fixation is almost three times higher.

  19. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  20. Structure and evolution of CyI cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes in the indirect- and direct-developing sea urchins Heliocidaris tuberculata and Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Hahn, J H; Kissinger, J C; Raff, R A

    1995-02-14

    The CyI cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes of Heliocidaris erythrogramma (He), a direct-developing sea urchin, and H. tuberculata, an indirect developer, were isolated and compared to the homologous CyI gene of another indirect developer, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Comparisons show that despite the differences in development, the actin gene structures and sequences are highly similar. The coding and 3' untranslated regions are conserved. The 5' He regulatory region has an inserted repeat element, but is otherwise similar to its homologues in the arrangement of presumptive transcription control elements.

  1. Regard sur le complément indirect dans la grammaire française à partir du complément direct dans la grammaire espagnole

    Tomás Jiménez Juliá; Isabel González Rey

    2012-01-01

    The «complement indirect», in contrast to the «complement direct», has been described by French traditional and current grammars as the functional complement adjoined to the verb through a preposition. This characterization is far from accurate, for it comprises different syntactic behaviours under a single label. The present paper aims to point out the functional diversity that can be discovered within this ambiguous «complement indirect». A brief comparison with descriptions in current Span...

  2. Recommendations on multiple testing adjustment in multi-arm trials with a shared control group.

    Howard, Dena R; Brown, Julia M; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M

    2016-09-19

    Multi-arm clinical trials assessing multiple experimental treatments against a shared control group can offer efficiency advantages over independent trials through assessing an increased number of hypotheses. Published opinion is divided on the requirement for multiple testing adjustment to control the family-wise type-I error rate (FWER). The probability of a false positive error in multi-arm trials compared to equivalent independent trials is affected by the correlation between comparisons due to sharing control data. We demonstrate that this correlation in fact leads to a reduction in the FWER, therefore FWER adjustment is not recommended solely due to sharing control data. In contrast, the correlation increases the probability of multiple false positive outcomes across the hypotheses, although standard FWER adjustment methods do not control for this. A stringent critical value adjustment is proposed to maintain equivalent evidence of superiority in two correlated comparisons to that obtained within independent trials. FWER adjustment is only required if there is an increased chance of making a single claim of effectiveness by testing multiple hypotheses, not due to sharing control data. For competing experimental therapies, the correlation between comparisons can be advantageous as it eliminates bias due to the experimental therapies being compared to different control populations.

  3. Couples' patterns of adjustment to colon cancer.

    Northouse, L L; Mood, D; Templin, T; Mellon, S; George, T

    2000-01-01

    The objectives for this longitudinal study were to: (a) compare colon cancer patients' and their spouses' appraisal of illness, resources, concurrent stress, and adjustment during the first year following surgery; (b) examine the influence of gender (male vs female) and role (patient vs spouse caregiver) on study variables; (c) assess the degree of correlation between patients' and spouses' adjustments; and (d) identify factors that affect adjustment to the illness. Fifty-six couples were interviewed at one week post diagnosis, and at 60 days and one year post surgery. Based on a cognitive-appraisal model of stress, the Smilkstein Stress Scale was used to measure concurrent stress; the Family APGAR, Social Support Questionnaire, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale were used to measure social resources; the Beck Hopelessness Scale and Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scales were used to measure appraisal of illness; and the Brief Symptom Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale were used to measure psychosocial adjustment. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance indicated that spouses reported significantly more emotional distress and less social support than patients. Gender differences were found, with women reporting more distress, more role problems, and less marital satisfaction, regardless of whether they were patient or spouse. Both patients and spouses reported decreases in their family functioning and social support, but also decreases in emotional distress over time. Moderately high autocorrelations and modest intercorrelations were found among and between patients' and spouses' adjustment scores over time. The strongest predictors of patients' role adjustment problems were hopelessness and spouses' role problems. The strongest predictors of spouses' role problems were spouses' own baseline role problems and level of marital satisfaction. Interventions need to start early in the course of illness, be family-focused, and identify the couples at risk of

  4. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei

    2005-01-01

    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  5. A note on how to iterate adjustment

    Wagschal, Jehudah J.; Yeivin, Yehuda [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2002-08-01

    We study the elementary problem of adjusting a given parameter library by one measured response so that calculating the response with the adjusted library reproduces the measured value. We formulate the problem of the least-squares adjustment for non-linear responses, and offer a reasoned iteration scheme to solve it. A numerical example illustrates the success of the proposed procedure. Our scheme is identical to that suggested by Perey, and thus adds insight, offers justification, and also serves as a formal proof of the latter. (author)

  6. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship: Their Effects on Subsequent Marital Adjustment.

    Watson, Roy E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the effects of cohabitation on subsequent marital adjustment. A comparison of couples (N=54) who had lived together before marriage with couples (N=30) who had not, showed significant differences. Unexpectedly, noncohabiters obtained higher marital satisfaction scores. Possible explanations in terms of test items are suggested.…

  7. Somali Women's Reflections on the Adjustment of Their Children in the United States

    Nilsson, Johanna E.; Barazanji, Danah M.; Heintzelman, Ashley; Siddiqi, Mubeena; Shilla, Yasmine

    2012-01-01

    Somali women were interviewed regarding their children's adjustment. Qualitative analysis revealed 5 themes: cultural comparisons, concerns about children, parents' loss of disciplinary authority, available support, and the future. The women discussed changes in their children, such as loss of respect and threats to use law enforcement against…

  8. Prescriptions for Happy Marriage: Adjustments and Satisfactions of Couples Married for 50 or More Years.

    Sporakowski, Michael J.; Hughston, George A.

    1978-01-01

    Couples who were married 50 or more years were interviewed about what they felt were the most important factors in happy marriage. Their marital satisfactions were assessed over the stages of the family life cycle. Indices of their marital adjustment and personality were examined using a self-perceived, other comparison technique. (Author)

  9. Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate.

    Mahowald, Natalie

    2011-11-11

    The net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect effect of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect effect on climate through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical effect of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated.

  10. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e......The number of farmers´ markets has been increasing all around the world. This growth in the popularity of farmers´ markets has been attributed to factors of changing consumer interest in local traditional or innovative food products. This paper focuses on familiarity bias in the Czech dairy market...... and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through...

  11. Weighting and indirect effects identify keystone species in food webs.

    Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Huayong; O'Gorman, Eoin J; Tian, Wang; Ma, Athen; Moore, John C; Borrett, Stuart R; Woodward, Guy

    2016-09-01

    Species extinctions are accelerating globally, yet the mechanisms that maintain local biodiversity remain poorly understood. The extinction of species that feed on or are fed on by many others (i.e. 'hubs') has traditionally been thought to cause the greatest threat of further biodiversity loss. Very little attention has been paid to the strength of those feeding links (i.e. link weight) and the prevalence of indirect interactions. Here, we used a dynamical model based on empirical energy budget data to assess changes in ecosystem stability after simulating the loss of species according to various extinction scenarios. Link weight and/or indirect effects had stronger effects on food-web stability than the simple removal of 'hubs', demonstrating that both quantitative fluxes and species dissipating their effects across many links should be of great concern in biodiversity conservation, and the potential for 'hubs' to act as keystone species may have been exaggerated to date.

  12. A Review of Indirect Bridge Monitoring Using Passing Vehicles

    Abdollah Malekjafarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect bridge monitoring methods, using the responses measured from vehicles passing over bridges, are under development for about a decade. A major advantage of these methods is that they use sensors mounted on the vehicle, no sensors or data acquisition system needs to be installed on the bridge. Most of the proposed methods are based on the identification of dynamic characteristics of the bridge from responses measured on the vehicle, such as natural frequency, mode shapes, and damping. In addition, some of the methods seek to directly detect bridge damage based on the interaction between the vehicle and bridge. This paper presents a critical review of indirect methods for bridge monitoring and provides discussion and recommendations on the challenges to be overcome for successful implementation in practice.

  13. Numerically Predicted Indirect Signatures of Terrestrial Planet Formation

    Leinhardt, Zoë M; Carter, Philip J; Lines, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The intermediate phases of planet formation are not directly observable due to lack of emission from planetesimals. Planet formation is, however, a dynamically active process resulting in collisions between the evolving planetesimals and the production of dust. Thus, indirect observation of planet formation may indeed be possible in the near future. In this paper we present synthetic observations based on numerical N-body simulations of the intermediate phase of planet formation including a state-of-the-art collision model, EDACM, which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as, accretion, erosion, and bouncing events. We show that the formation of planetary embryos may be indirectly observable by a fully functioning ALMA telescope if the surface area involved in planetesimal evolution is sufficiently large and/or the amount of dust produced in the collisions is sufficiently high in mass.

  14. Indirect evidence for decreased hypothalamic somatostatinergic tone in anorexia nervosa

    Støving, R K; Andersen, M; Flyvbjerg, A

    2002-01-01

    in the central feeding mechanism in anorexia nervosa (AN). Peripheral administration of pyridostigmine (PD) minimizes the release of hypothalamic SRIH. DESIGN: To study the influence of hypothalamic somatostatinergic inhibition on the exaggerated somatotroph responsiveness to GHRH in patients with severe AN, two...... indirectly to greater SRIH withdrawal and greater GHRH release in anorexia nervosa. Moreover, hypothalamic SRIH activity seems to be inversely related to cortisol levels, indirectly supporting the hypothesis that SRIH and CRH neuronal activity are inversely related in anorexia nervosa. Leptin, which...... is believed to act on hypothalamic feeding mechanisms, seems to be positively related to SRIH activity. Finally, the present data demonstrate that the potentiating effect of pyridostigmine in anorexia nervosa is related to body mass index and increases upon weight gain, suggesting that the low...

  15. An indirect approach to the extensive calculation of relationship coefficients

    Colleau Jean-Jacques

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method was described for calculating population statistics on relationship coefficients without using corresponding individual data. It relied on the structure of the inverse of the numerator relationship matrix between individuals under investigation and ancestors. Computation times were observed on simulated populations and were compared to those incurred with a conventional direct approach. The indirect approach turned out to be very efficient for multiplying the relationship matrix corresponding to planned matings (full design by any vector. Efficiency was generally still good or very good for calculating statistics on these simulated populations. An extreme implementation of the method is the calculation of inbreeding coefficients themselves. Relative performances of the indirect method were good except when many full-sibs during many generations existed in the population.

  16. NUMERICALLY PREDICTED INDIRECT SIGNATURES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION

    Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Dobinson, Jack; Carter, Philip J.; Lines, Stefan [School of Physics, University of Bristol, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-10

    The intermediate phases of planet formation are not directly observable due to lack of emission from planetesimals. Planet formation is, however, a dynamically active process resulting in collisions between the evolving planetesimals and the production of dust. Thus, indirect observation of planet formation may indeed be possible in the near future. In this paper we present synthetic observations based on numerical N-body simulations of the intermediate phase of planet formation including a state-of-the-art collision model, EDACM, which allows multiple collision outcomes, such as accretion, erosion, and bouncing events. We show that the formation of planetary embryos may be indirectly observable by a fully functioning ALMA telescope if the surface area involved in planetesimal evolution is sufficiently large and/or the amount of dust produced in the collisions is sufficiently high in mass.

  17. Unwanted reflections during slit lamp assisted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is a routine ophthalmic examination procedure. Two different apparatus setups are commonly employed; the head/spectacle mounted designs of Schepens and slit lamp assisted ophthalmoscopy, both typically performed through a fundus lens of high positive power. It can be difficult for clinicians to avoid unwanted back reflections primarily emanating from the fundus lens and the pre-corneal tear film, particularly when initially learning the skills required to perform the examination. In this investigation the illumination system of a slit lamp was modified to include a variety of obscuration designs optically conjugate to surfaces responsible for creating unwanted reflections. The modified apparatus was then used to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye and on real eyes. Clinicians used questionnaires to score the appearance of reflections. The mean scores were similar across all trials, including the control unmodified trial, indicating general consensus that the modified illumination system provided no substantial effect on the perception of these unwanted reflections.

  18. Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information

    Jason Olejarz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider indirect reciprocity with optional interactions and private information. A game is offered between two players and accepted unless it is known that the other person is a defector. Whenever a defector manages to exploit a cooperator, his or her reputation is revealed to others in the population with some probability. Therefore, people have different private information about the reputation of others, which is a setting that is difficult to analyze in the theory of indirect reciprocity. Since a defector loses a fraction of his social ties each time he exploits a cooperator, he is less efficient at exploiting cooperators in subsequent rounds. We analytically calculate the critical benefit-to-cost ratio above which cooperation is successful in various settings. We demonstrate quantitative agreement with simulation results of a corresponding Wright–Fisher process with optional interactions and private information. We also deduce a simple necessary condition for the critical benefit-to-cost ratio.

  19. Indirect control of flexible demand for power system applications

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    Flexhouse, a facility of DTU Elektro for testing demand side management strategies, as experimental site. In the latter case, we develop four applications where flexible demand is required to support power system operations. The applications are: integration of the operation of flexible demand......This thesis addresses the topic of control of flexible demand to provide support to the operation of the electric power system. We focus on the indirect control approach, a framework that enables demand response by means of a consumption incentive signal. Initially, the concept of flexibility...... is defined and a classification of flexible electric loads is presented. In order to evaluate the potential of flexible demand, the storage capacity associated with the operation of a number domestic electric loads is quantified by means of simulations. Subsequently, the topic of indirect control of flexible...

  20. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  1. INDIRECT DETERMINATION METHOD OF DYNAMIC FORCEBY USING CEPSTRUM ANALYSIS

    吴淼; 魏任之

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic load spectrum is one of the most important basis of design and dynamic characteristics analysis of machines. But it is difficult to measure it on many occasions, especially for mining machines, due to their bad working circumstances and high cost of measurements. For such situation, the load spectrum has to be obtained by indirect determination methods. A new method to identify the load spectrum, cepstrum analysis method, was presented in this paper.This method can be used to eliminate the filtering influence of transfer function to the response signals so that the load spectrum can be determined indirectly. The experimental and engineering actual examples indicates that this method has the advantages that the calculation is simple and the measurement is easy.

  2. Annual adjustments to 2016 financial benefits

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by the Council in December 2015, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2016.  

  3. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  4. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.

  5. Speed of adjustment: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Emrah Arioglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the speed of adjustment for leverage ratios of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul, in order to investigate the prediction of the trade-off theory, regarding capital structure rebalancing. For this purpose, we estimate the speed of adjustment by using Generalized Method of Moments system estimation technique. The results of this estimation suggest the speed of adjustment as approximately 29%. This significant speed of adjustment is consistent with the prediction of trade-off theory, which suggests that firms follow target capital structures and when the firms' leverage ratios deviate from these targets; they make financial decisions with the goal of closing the gap between the previous year's leverage and target leverage of the current period.

  6. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses

    Ali, Anees; Van der Zee, K.I.; Sanders, G

    2003-01-01

    The adaptation of expatriate families to a host country seems crucial to successful fulfilment of international business assignments. The present study focused on personality, family characteristics and characteristics of expatriates' work life as determinants of the intercultural adjustment of expa

  7. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    2011-11-01

    ... Adjustment Notice states that the overall average for Special Services is a result of large price reductions...; Address Management Services; Caller Service; Change-of-Address Credit Card Authentication; Confirm... Periodicals, Nonprofit and Classroom Periodicals, Science of Agriculture Periodicals advertising...

  8. Continuity Adjustment for Control Charts for Attributes

    L.K. Chan; T.K. Mak; B. Tao

    2003-01-01

    A unified approach is proposed for making a continuity adjustment on some control charts for attributes, e.g., np-chart and c-chart, through adding a uniform (0, 1) random observation to the conventional sample statistic (e.g., npi and ci). The adjusted sample statistic then has a continuous distribution. Consequently, given any Type I risk α (the probability that the sample statistic is on or beyond the control limits),control charts achieving the exact value of α can be readily constructed. Guidelines are given for when to use the continuity adjustment control chart, the conventional Shewhart control chart (with ±3 standard deviations control limits), and the control chart based on the exact distribution of the sample statistic before adjustment.

  9. Annual adjustments to 2013 financial benefits

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2012, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2013. HR Department

  10. EYESi ophthalmoscope - a simulator for indirect ophthalmoscopic examinations.

    Schuppe, Oliver; Wagner, Clemens; Koch, Frank; Männer, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    We present a training simulator for indirect ophthalmoscopy. An optical tracking system is used to reconstruct the position of a lens mockup and a model of the patient's face. Refraction and illumination are computed in real-time and displayed on a head-mounted display using augmented reality. A case database completes the training system which allows to practise the examination and to study clinical patterns.

  11. Numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler

    Martin, R. Herrero [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents the experimental study and numerical simulation of a semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC), which acts as an energy recovery device in air conditioning systems. The numerical simulation was conducted by applying the CFD software FLUENT implementing a UDF to model evaporation/condensation. The numerical model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Experimental data and numerical results agree for the lower relative humidity series but not for higher relative humidity values. (author)

  12. Microtensile bond strength of repaired indirect resin composite

    Suputtamongkol, Kallaya; Angkoonsit, Duangjai; Kaewthong, Sunattha; Charoonanan, Piyanan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surface treatments on microtensile bond strengths (MTBSs) of two types of indirect resin composites bonded to a conventional direct resin composite. MATERIALS AND METHODS Indirect resin composite blocks of Ceramage and SR Nexco were prepared in a plastic mold having a dimension of 10 × 10 × 4 mm. These composite blocks were divided into three groups according to their surface treatments: Group1: Sandblast (SB); Group2: Sandblast and ultrasonically clean (SB+UL); Group3: Sandblast plus silane (SB+SI). After bonding with direct resin composite, indirect-direct resin composite blocks were kept in distilled water for 24 hours at 37℃ and cut into microbars with the dimension of 1 × 1 × 8 mm. Microbar specimens (n = 40 per group) were loaded using a universal testing machine. Failure modes and compositions were evaluated by SEM. The statistical analyses of MTBS were performed by two-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test at α = .05. RESULTS Surface treatments and brands had effects on the MTBS without an interaction between these two factors. For SR Nexco, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI group were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. For Ceramage, the MTBSs of SB and SB+SI were significantly higher than that of SB+UL. The mean MTBS of the Ceramage specimens was significantly higher than that of SR Nexco for all surface treatments. CONCLUSION Sandblasting with or without silane application could improve the bond strengths of repaired indirect resin composites to a conventional direct resin composite. PMID:28243390

  13. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  14. Bid-Ask Spreads with Indirect Competition among Specialists

    Gehrig, Thomas; Jackson, Matthew O.

    1997-01-01

    We examine the bid-ask quotes offered by specialists (or dealers) who face indirect competition from other specialists who trade in related assets. In the context of a simple model where investors have mean variance preferences, we characterize the equilibrium bids and asks quoted by K specialists in N assets, where some specialists may control more than one asset. We compare the equilibrium spreads as the number (and factor structure) of the assets each specialist controls is varied. It is s...

  15. PERFORMANCE OF ANN BASED INDIRECT VECTOR CONTROL INDUCTION MOTOR DRIVE

    A. K. Sharma,

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect field orientation (IFO induction machine drives are increasingly employed in industrial drive systems, but the drive performance is often degrades. Motor works on best performance at certain voltage and frequency for certain loads. In this paper artificial neural network is used to predict the operating voltage and frequency when the load torque and speed going changed so motor efficiency is increased. Simulation and experimental results are shown to validate the scheme.

  16. The Potential Neural Mechanisms of Acute Indirect Vibration

    Cochrane, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that acute indirect vibration acts on muscle to enhance force, power, flexibility, balance and proprioception suggesting neural enhancement. Nevertheless, the neural mechanism(s) of vibration and its potentiating effect have received little attention. One proposal suggests that spinal reflexes enhance muscle contraction through a reflex activity known as tonic vibration stretch reflex (TVR), which increases muscle activation. However, TVR is based on direct...

  17. Early and severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia as a manifestation of galactosemia.

    Woo, H C; Phornphutkul, C; Laptook, A R

    2010-04-01

    Classic galactosemia results from mutations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase gene and causes infants to present with jaundice after initiation of lactose containing formulas. Jaundice associated with galactosemia is often thought to have a prominent direct fraction. We report an infant with galactosemia who presented with severe jaundice from indirect hyperbilirubinemia and met criteria for an exchange transfusion within 48 h after milk ingestion.

  18. Wastewater Minimization in Indirect Electrochemical Synthesis of Phenylacetaldehyde

    Zhirong Sun

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimization in phenylacetaldehyde production by using indirect electrochemical oxidation of phenylethane instead of the seriously polluting traditional chemical process is described in this paper. Results show that high current efficiency of Mn(III and high yield of phenylacetaldehyde can be obtained at the same sulfuric acid concentration (60%. The electrolytic mediator can be recycled and there will be no waste discharged.

  19. SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Abhaya K. Datye

    1998-11-19

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

  20. A comparative investigation of seven indirect attitude measures.

    Bar-Anan, Yoav; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    We compared the psychometric qualities of seven indirect attitude measures across three attitude domains (race, politics, and self-esteem) with a large sample (N = 23,413). We compared the measures on internal consistency, sensitivity to known effects, relationships with indirect and direct measures of the same topic, the reliability and validity of single-category attitude measurement, their ability to detect meaningful variance among people with nonextreme attitudes, and their robustness to the exclusion of misbehaving or well-behaving participants. All seven indirect measures correlated with each other and with direct measures of the same topic. These relations were always weak for self-esteem, moderate for race, and strong for politics. This pattern suggests that some of the sources of variation in the reliability and predictive validity of the indirect measures is a function of the concepts rather than the methods. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and Brief IAT (BIAT) showed the best overall psychometric quality, followed by the Go–No-Go association task, Single-Target IAT (ST-IAT), Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP), Sorting Paired Features task, and Evaluative Priming. The AMP showed a steep decline in its psychometric qualities when people with extreme attitude scores were removed. Single-category attitude scores computed for the IAT and BIAT showed good relationships with other attitude measures but no evidence of discriminant validity between paired categories. The other measures, especially the AMP and ST-IAT, showed better evidence for discriminant validity. These results inform us on the validity of the measures as attitude assessments, but do not speak to the implicitness of the measured constructs.

  1. Robinson’s Indirect Ways to Support Critical Period Hypothesis

    ZHU Si-qin

    2014-01-01

    On the Critical Period Hypothesis, Robinson indirectly supported it in his paper Individual Differences, Cognitive Abili-ties, Aptitude Complexes and Learning Conditions in Second Language Acquisition. This paper digs out that time-boundedness and different lengths of time are important issues in his frame work, closely related with the critical period of time for language acquisi-tion. In conclusion, Robinson’s framework is convincing, with the premise of admitting the existence of the critical period hy-pothesis.

  2. Indirect multisignal monitoring and diagnosis of drill wear

    Jantunen, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    A machine tool utilisation rate can be improved by an advanced condition monitoring system using modern sensor and signal processing techniques. A drilling test and analysis program for indirect tool wear measurement forms the basis of this thesis. For monitoring the drill wear a number of monitoring methods such as vibration, acoustic emission, sound, spindle power and axial force were tested. The signals were analysed in the time domain using statistical methods such as root mean square (rm...

  3. Indirect Solar Drier for Drying of Hill Products

    R. K. Aggarwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An indirect solar drier of 25 kg capacity has been developed fitted with solar cell for running the fan. The bulbs are provided in the solar collector for air heating during clouds and evening & morning for faster drying reducing drying time. 15 such solar driers have been installed in the state. Various hill agricultural crops have been dried in solar drier by the farmers andcollected. The market value of dried products has also been compared.

  4. Partner Choice Drives the Evolution of Cooperation via Indirect Reciprocity.

    Gilbert Roberts

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity potentially provides an important means for generating cooperation based on helping those who help others. However, the use of 'image scores' to summarize individuals' past behaviour presents a dilemma: individuals withholding help from those of low image score harm their own reputation, yet giving to defectors erodes cooperation. Explaining how indirect reciprocity could evolve has therefore remained problematic. In all previous treatments of indirect reciprocity, individuals are assigned potential recipients and decide whether to cooperate or defect based on their reputation. A second way of achieving discrimination is through partner choice, which should enable individuals to avoid defectors. Here, I develop a model in which individuals choose to donate to anyone within their group, or to none. Whereas image scoring with random pairing produces cycles of cooperation and defection, with partner choice there is almost maximal cooperation. In contrast to image scoring with random pairing, partner choice results in almost perfect contingency, producing the correlation between giving and receiving required for cooperation. In this way, partner choice facilitates much higher and more stable levels of cooperation through image scoring than previously reported and provides a simple mechanism through which systems of helping those who help others can work.

  5. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals.

  6. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  7. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  8. Direct and indirect coupling mechanisms in a chiral plasmonic system

    Wang, Yongkai; Wen, Xiaojing; Qu, Yu; Fu, Tong; Zhang, Zhongyue

    2016-10-01

    Artificial chiral plasmonic nanostructures (ACPNs) are widely studied and used in biological monitoring, analytical chemistry, and negative-refractive-index media. The mechanism of direct coupling between two twist metal nanorods has been obtained in usual ACPNs. In this work, we proposed a nanosystem of twist nanorods separated by a metal film (TNMF). By analyzing the charge distributions, a new indirect coupling mechanism is found. According to the equivalent LC resonant circuits, gold nanorods on the two sides of the gold film can be regarded as a receiver and an emitter. These components enhanced transmittance and provided direct and indirect coupling mechanisms for the circular dichroism (CD). The direct coupling mode cannot be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned monotonously by monotonously varying geometric dimensions. However, the CD signal of indirect coupling can be explained by impedance matching and can be tuned to its maximum by varying geometric dimensions when the impedances of both sides of the gold film match. These results can help design novel chiral optical structures and promote combined applications between photons and electrons when a gold film is powered on.

  9. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  10. Mutualistic ants as an indirect defence against leaf pathogens.

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Mutualistic ants are commonly considered as an efficient indirect defence against herbivores. Nevertheless, their indirect protective role against plant pathogens has been scarcely investigated. We compared the protective role against pathogens of two different ant partners, a mutualistic and a parasitic ant, on the host plant Acacia hindsii (Fabaceae). The epiphytic bacterial community on leaves was evaluated in the presence and absence of both ant partners by cultivation and by 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pathogen-inflicted leaf damage, epiphytic bacterial abundance (colony-forming units) and number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly higher in plants inhabited by parasitic ants than in plants inhabited by mutualistic ants. Unifrac unweighted and weighted principal component analyses showed that the bacterial community composition on leaves changed significantly when mutualistic ants were removed from plants or when plants were inhabited by parasitic ants. Direct mechanisms provided by ant-associated bacteria would contribute to the protective role against pathogens. The results suggest that the indirect defence of mutualistic ants also covers the protection from bacterial plant pathogens. Our findings highlight the importance of considering bacterial partners in ant-plant defensive mutualisms, which can contribute significantly to ant-mediated protection from plant pathogens.

  11. Bond strength of direct and indirect bonded brackets after thermocycling.

    Daub, Jacob; Berzins, David W; Linn, Brandon James; Bradley, Thomas Gerard

    2006-03-01

    Thermocycling simulates the temperature dynamics in the oral environment. With direct bonding, thermocycling reduces the bond strength of orthodontic adhesives to tooth structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths (SBS) of one direct and two indirect bonding methods/adhesives after thermocycling. Sixty human premolars were divided into three groups. Teeth in group 1 were bonded directly with Transbond XT. Teeth in group 2 were indirect bonded with Transbond XT/Sondhi Rapid Set, which is chemically cured. Teeth in group 3 were indirect bonded with Enlight LV/Orthosolo and light cured. Each sample was thermocycled between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for 500 cycles. Mean SBS in groups 1, 2, and 3 were not statistically significantly different (13.6 +/- 2.9, 12.3 +/- 3.0, and 11.6 +/- 3.2 MPa, respectively; P > .05). However, when these values were compared with the results of a previous study using the same protocol, but without thermocycling, the SBS was reduced significantly (P = .001). Weibull analysis further showed that group 3 had the lowest bonding survival rate at the minimum clinically acceptable bond-strength range. The Adhesive Remnant Index was also determined, and group 2 had a significantly (P bond failures at the resin/enamel interface.

  12. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  13. Pro-drugs for indirect cannabinoids as therapeutic agents.

    Ashton, John

    2008-10-01

    Medicinal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and other cannabinoids are currently in use or under clinical trial investigation for the control of nausea, emesis and wasting in patients undergoing chemotherapy, the control of neuropathic pain and arthritic pain, and the control of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. The further development of medicinal cannabinoids has been challenged with problems. These include the psychoactivity of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists and the lack of availability of highly selective cannabinoid receptor full agonists (for the CB1 or CB2 receptor), as well as problems of pharmacokinetics. Global activation of cannabinoid receptors is usually undesirable, and so enhancement of local endocannabinoid receptor activity with indirect cannabimimetics is an attractive strategy for therapeutic modulation of the endocannabinoid system. However, existing drugs of this type tend to be metabolized by the same enzymes as their target endocannabinoids and are not yet available in a form that is clinically useful. A potential solution to these problems may now have been suggested by the discovery that paracetamol (acetaminophen) exerts its analgesic (and probably anti-pyretic) effects by its degradation into an anandamide (an endocannabinoid) reuptake inhibitor (AM404) within the body, thus classifying it as pro-drug for an indirect cannabimimetic. Given the proven efficacy and safety of paracetamol, the challenge now is to develop related drugs, or entirely different substrates, into pro-drug indirect cannabimimetics with a similar safety profile to paracetamol but at high effective dose titrations.

  14. Ditransitive sentences and indirect object in Bazilian Portuguese

    Maria Aparecida Torres Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the syntax of dative arguments (indirect objects in Brazilian Portuguese is examined in a crosslinguistic perspective with European Portuguese. It is shown that the grammatical expression of BP indirect object has undergone significant changes, which were essentially triggered by two related phenomena: a decrease in the use of the preposition a introducing the indirect object, which is replaced by the preposition para, and a decrease in the use of the dative pronoun, particularly the 3rd person clitic lhe(s,which is substituted for innovative strategies of pronominalization. In European Portuguese, differently from BP, dative arguments are consistently introduced by the preposition a, and pronominalization involves the 3rd person dative clitic lhe(s. Based on the theory of applicative heads proposed in Pylkkänen (2008 and a particular notion of ditransitivity, proposed in Cuervo (2003/2010, we take these changes as evidence for the loss of the low applicative construction in Brazilian Portuguese, coupled with the loss of the morphosyntactic ditransitivity. Thus the connection between the morphological case system and the expression of parameters supports a view of syntactic change according to which parametric variation is determined in the lexicon, in terms of the grammatical features of functional heads.

  15. Industrial Forecasts after Export Rebates Adjustment

    2007-01-01

    @@ On June 19, 2007, the Circular of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation concerning Lowering the Export Rebate Rates for Some Commodities was published, which finally proved the early rumor of tax rebate adjustment to be true.According to the Circular, the export rebate rates for some commodities have been adjusted upon approval of the State Council and the new rates have become in force since July 1, 2007.

  16. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  17. Relational aggression in middle childhood predicting adolescent social-psychological adjustment: the role of friendship quality.

    Kamper, Kimberly E; Ostrov, Jamie M

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the indirect effect of 6th-grade negative friendship quality on the associations between 5th-grade relational aggression and age 15 social-psychological adjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and risky behavior). The study consisted of a secondary analysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development using 776 children (M = 10.42 years in 5th grade; 50.4% boys) from the original sample. Using teacher and self-report ratings, relational and physical aggression, friendship quality, depressive symptoms, and risky behavior were measured. Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted. Negative friendship quality was found to mediate the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms as well as between relational aggression and risky behavior, when controlling for physical aggression, gender and age. This longitudinal study identifies possible developmental pathways by which relational aggression and future social psychological adjustment may be linked.

  18. How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level.

    Krauss, Ken W; McKee, Karen L; Lovelock, Catherine E; Cahoon, Donald R; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change.

  19. How mangrove forests adjust to rising sea level

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Saintilan, Neil; Reef, Ruth; Chen, Luzhen

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are among the most well described and widely studied wetland communities in the world. The greatest threats to mangrove persistence are deforestation and other anthropogenic disturbances that can compromise habitat stability and resilience to sea-level rise. To persist, mangrove ecosystems must adjust to rising sea level by building vertically or become submerged. Mangroves may directly or indirectly influence soil accretion processes through the production and accumulation of organic matter, as well as the trapping and retention of mineral sediment. In this review, we provide a general overview of research on mangrove elevation dynamics, emphasizing the role of the vegetation in maintaining soil surface elevations (i.e. position of the soil surface in the vertical plane). We summarize the primary ways in which mangroves may influence sediment accretion and vertical land development, for example, through root contributions to soil volume and upward expansion of the soil surface. We also examine how hydrological, geomorphological and climatic processes may interact with plant processes to influence mangrove capacity to keep pace with rising sea level. We draw on a variety of studies to describe the important, and often under-appreciated, role that plants play in shaping the trajectory of an ecosystem undergoing change.

  20. Comparison of indirect immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay for detecting antibody to varicella-zoster virus

    Campbell-Benzie, A.; Heath, R.B.; Ridehalgh, M.K.S.; Cradock-Watson, J.E. (Saint Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1983-03-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) were found to be more sensitive methods than complement fixation (CF) for detecting antibody to varicella-zoster (V-Z) virus. RIA yielded titres about 30 times greater than those obtained by IF, but for screening purposes RIA was only about six times more sensitive since the minimum serum dilutions that could be tested were 1/100 and 1/16 respectively. When 539 sera from subjects of different ages were screened for V-Z antibody, IF and RIA gave concordant results with 527 specimens (98%). When 19 patients were tested who had not previously had varicella but were experiencing primary infection with herpes simplex (HS) virus, crossreacting antibodies to V-Z antigens were detected in six patients by IF but in only two of these by RIA. IF and RIA are preferable to CF as tests for immune status because of their greater sensitivity, but weak positive reactions caused by presumptive low titres of homologous antibody or by higher titres of heterologous antibody can occur in one or both tests. Such reactions could cause difficulty in assessing the need for vaccine or for specific immune globulin, and in interpreting the response to vaccination.