Sample records for adjustable passive constraint

  1. Constraints Adjustment and Objectives Coordination of Satisfying Optimal Control Applied to Heavy Oil Fractionators

    邹涛; 李少远


    In this paper, the feasibility and objectives coordination of real-time optimization (RTO) are systemically investigated under soft constraints. The reason for requiring soft constraints adjustment and objective relaxation simultaneously is that the result is not satisfactory when the feasible region is apart from the desired working point or the optimization problem is infeasible. The mixed logic method is introduced to describe the priority of the constraints and objectives, thereby the soft constraints adjustment and objectives coordination are solved together in RTO. A case study on the Shell heavy oil fractionators benchmark problem illustrating the method is finally presented.

  2. Patient-related constraints on get- and be-passive uses in English: Evidence from paraphrasing

    Dominic eThompson


    Full Text Available In English, transitive events can be described in various ways. The main possibilities are active-voice and passive-voice, which are assumed to have distinct semantic and pragmatic functions. Within the passive, there are two further options, namely be-passive or get-passive. While these two forms are generally understood to differ, there is little agreement on precisely how and why. The passive Patient is frequently cited as playing a role, though again agreement on the specifics is rare. Here we present three paraphrasing experiments investigating Patient-related constraints on the selection of active versus passive voice, and be- versus get-passive, respectively. Participants either had to re-tell short stories in their own words (Experiments 1 and 2 or had to answer specific questions about the Patient in those short stories (Experiment 3. We found that a given Agent in a story promotes the use of active-voice, while a given Patient promotes be-passives specifically. Meanwhile, get-passive use increases when the Patient is marked as important. We argue that the three forms of transitive description are functionally and semantically distinct, and can be arranged along two dimensions: Patient Prominence and Patient Importance. We claim that active-voice has a near-complementary relationship with the be-passive, driven by which protagonist is given. Since both get and be are passive, they share the features of a Patient-subject and an optional Agent by-phrase; however, get specifically responds to a Patient being marked as important. Each of these descriptions has its own set of features that differentiate it from the others.

  3. Fuzzy Stabilization for Nonlinear Discrete Ship Steering Stochastic Systems Subject to State Variance and Passivity Constraints

    Wen-Jer Chang


    Full Text Available For nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems, a fuzzy controller design methodology is developed in this paper subject to state variance constraint and passivity constraint. According to fuzzy model based control technique, the nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems considered in this paper are represented by the discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models with multiplicative noise. Employing Lyapunov stability theory, upper bound covariance control theory, and passivity theory, some sufficient conditions are derived to find parallel distributed compensation based fuzzy controllers. In order to solve these sufficient conditions, an iterative linear matrix inequality algorithm is applied based on the linear matrix inequality technique. Finally, the fuzzy stabilization problem for nonlinear discrete ship steering stochastic systems is investigated in the numerical example to illustrate the feasibility and validity of proposed fuzzy controller design method.

  4. On the ``massless gap`` adjustment of detected energy for passive material in front of a calorimeter

    Trost, H.J.


    I have designed a correction scheme for energy losses in passive material in front of a calorimeter based on the ``massless gap`` idea. I use a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC outside of a solenoidal coil made of aluminium cylinders of adjustable thickness. The signal from the first radiation length of active calorimetry is scaled dependent on the incoming and observed energies of the shower. A reasonable recovery of the resolution of an unobstructed calorimeter is achieved using correction factors that depend only upon the total thickness of passive material. Thus a useful correction may be built into the hardware by increasing the amount of scintillator in the first radiation length of the active calorimeter. The distribution of correction factors determined event-by-event indicate that an additional dependence on the observed signal in the massless gap and total incident energy is clearly present.

  5. Adjustable high-repetition-rate pulse trains in a passively-mode-locked fiber laser

    Si Fodil, Rachid; Amrani, Foued; Yang, Changxi; Kellou, Abdelhamid; Grelu, Ph.


    We experimentally investigate multipulse regimes obtained within a passively-mode-locked fiber laser that includes a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer. By adjusting the time delay imbalance of the MZ, ultrashort pulse trains at multi-GHz repetition rates are generated. We compare the observed dynamics with high-harmonic mode locking, and show that the multi-GHz pulse trains display an inherent instability, which has been overlooked. By using a recirculation loop containing the MZ, we demonstrate a significant improvement of the pulse train stability.

  6. Effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable-speed drives

    Soltani, Hamid; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zare, Firuz;


    speed drives with and/or without motor current imbalance. The investigation is done at different motor operating frequencies and load torque values. It shows that selecting the small filter components (ac choke, dc choke and dc-link capacitor) results in different performances in respect to those......Current and voltage source Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) exert distortion current into the grid, which may produce some interharmonic components other than the characteristic harmonic components. This paper studies the effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable...... interharmincs issued by motor current imbalance and other non-characteristic interharmonics. The results are helpful for engineers investigating the effects of drive filters on the input current interharmonic components....

  7. Passive micro-assembly of modular, hot embossed, polymer microfluidic devices using exact constraint design

    You, Byoung Hee; Chen, Pin-Chuan; Park, Daniel S.; Park, Sunggook; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Soper, Steven A.; Murphy, Michael C.


    Low-cost microfluidic platforms have the potential to change accepted practices in many fields, including biology and medicine, in the near future. Micro-assembly of molded polymer microfluidic devices is one approach to cost-effective mass production of modular, microfluidic instruments. Polymer, passive alignment structures were used to precisely assemble molded polymer components to prevent infinitesimal motions and minimize the misalignment between assembled components and devices. The motion and constraint of the assemblies were analyzed using screw theory to identify combinations of passive alignment structures that would provide exact constraint of all degrees of freedom of the two mating parts without over-constraint. One option identified by kinematic analysis was a set of three v-groove and hemisphere-tipped pin joints, which are well known from precision engineering and suitable for microfabrication. To validate the passive alignment scheme, brass mold inserts containing alignment structures were micro-milled and used to hot emboss components in polycarbonate (PC). Dimensional and location variations of prototype alignment structures were measured to quantify the difference between the as-designed and actual dimensions and the locations of the alignment structures. The dimensional variation was 0.2-3% less than the designed dimensions and the location variation was 0.7% less. The alignment accuracy of an assembly was characterized by measuring the mismatch and vertical variation between molded alignment standards embossed on each pair of mating plates. With molded, polymer alignment structures the mean mismatch and mean vertical variation were as low as 13 ± 3 µm in the lateral plane along the x- and y-axes and -6 ± 15 µm with respect to the nominal value of 107 µm. This micro-assembly technology is applicable to the integration of all microsystems including the interconnection of microfluidic devices, the assembly of hybrid microsystems and the

  8. Game Design Document Format For Video Games With Passive Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment

    Pratama Wirya Atmaja


    satisfaction of its players is the primary mean to measure its quality. One important element of player’s satisfaction is a proper difficulty level, which is neither too easy nor too hard. The current state-of-the-art way to implement it is with Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (DDA, which allows the difficulty level of a video game to be adjusted at run-time. Currently, the most popular type of DDA is the passive one. Meanwhile, Game Design Document (GDD is an important artefact in the development process of a video game software, and there is still no GDD format that supports the design of passive DDA mechanism. The aim of this research was to find a new GDD format that supports the mechanism. We modified a general purpose GDD format by adding new parts for designing passive DDA mechanism. We tested the usefulness of the modified format in a testing process involving developers and players. The developers developed video games using the modified GDD format and the general purpose one. Their development processes were observed and evaluated to know if there were any difficulties. The resulting video games were played by the players to find which are better in terms of passive DDA mechanism. The result of developer testing showed that the modified format is better than the general purpose one. The result of player testing showed that the video games made with the modified format are better than their counterparts, albeit by an insignificant margin. Based on the results, we declare that the modified GDD format is successful.Keywords: Video game, requirement engineering, game design document, dynamic difficulty adjustment, software development.

  9. Registration of Long-Strip Terrestrial Laser Scanning Point Clouds Using RANSAC and Closed Constraint Adjustment

    Li Zheng


    Full Text Available The registration of long-strip, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS point clouds is a prerequisite for various engineering tasks, including tunnels, bridges, and roads. An artificial target-based registration method is proposed in this paper to automatically calculate registration parameters (i.e., rotation, translation of scanned pairs without initial estimations. The approach is based on the well-known Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC method and effectively searches the point cloud for corresponding returns from a system of artificial targets. In addition, Closed Constraint Adjustment (CCA is integrated into the registration method to significantly reduce the accumulative error. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness and feasibility of the proposed approach. It is a promising approach to register automatically long strips with limited external control points with satisfactory precision.

  10. Robust fuzzy control subject to state variance and passivity constraints for perturbed nonlinear systems with multiplicative noises.

    Chang, Wen-Jer; Huang, Bo-Jyun


    The multi-constrained robust fuzzy control problem is investigated in this paper for perturbed continuous-time nonlinear stochastic systems. The nonlinear system considered in this paper is represented by a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model with perturbations and state multiplicative noises. The multiple performance constraints considered in this paper include stability, passivity and individual state variance constraints. The Lyapunov stability theory is employed to derive sufficient conditions to achieve the above performance constraints. By solving these sufficient conditions, the contribution of this paper is to develop a parallel distributed compensation based robust fuzzy control approach to satisfy multiple performance constraints for perturbed nonlinear systems with multiplicative noises. At last, a numerical example for the control of perturbed inverted pendulum system is provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed multi-constrained robust fuzzy control method.

  11. Social Adjustment and Verbal Expression of Activity-Passivity and Feeling Tone

    Sacks, Joseph M.


    Brief report of pilot study, indicating that relationships between forms of expression and social adjustment depend on criteria for adjustment. Results suggest continued explanation of relationship with more systematic criteria variation, and with larger subject samples. (Author)

  12. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  13. On the massless gap'' adjustment of detected energy for passive material in front of a calorimeter

    Trost, H.J.


    I have designed a correction scheme for energy losses in passive material in front of a calorimeter based on the massless gap'' idea. I use a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC outside of a solenoidal coil made of aluminium cylinders of adjustable thickness. The signal from the first radiation length of active calorimetry is scaled dependent on the incoming and observed energies of the shower. A reasonable recovery of the resolution of an unobstructed calorimeter is achieved using correction factors that depend only upon the total thickness of passive material. Thus a useful correction may be built into the hardware by increasing the amount of scintillator in the first radiation length of the active calorimeter. The distribution of correction factors determined event-by-event indicate that an additional dependence on the observed signal in the massless gap and total incident energy is clearly present.

  14. What prevents phenological adjustment to climate change in migrant bird species? Evidence against the ``arrival constraint'' hypothesis

    Goodenough, Anne E.; Hart, Adam G.; Elliot, Simon L.


    Phenological studies have demonstrated changes in the timing of seasonal events across multiple taxonomic groups as the climate warms. Some northern European migrant bird populations, however, show little or no significant change in breeding phenology, resulting in synchrony with key food sources becoming mismatched. This phenological inertia has often been ascribed to migration constraints (i.e. arrival date at breeding grounds preventing earlier laying). This has been based primarily on research in The Netherlands and Germany where time between arrival and breeding is short (often as few as 9 days). Here, we test the arrival constraint hypothesis over a 15-year period for a U.K. pied flycatcher ( Ficedula hypoleuca) population where laying date is not constrained by arrival as the period between arrival and breeding is substantial and consistent (average 27 ± 4.57 days SD). Despite increasing spring temperatures and quantifiably stronger selection for early laying on the basis of number of offspring to fledge, we found no significant change in breeding phenology, in contrast with co-occurring resident blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus). We discuss possible non-migratory constraints on phenological adjustment, including limitations on plasticity, genetic constraints and competition, as well as the possibility of counter-selection pressures relating to adult survival, longevity or future reproductive success. We propose that such factors need to be considered in conjunction with the arrival constraint hypothesis.

  15. When are Static and Adjustable Robust Optimization with Constraint-Wise Uncertainty Equivalent?

    Marandi, Ahmadreza; den Hertog, Dick


    Adjustable Robust Optimization (ARO) yields, in general, better worst-case solutions than static Robust Optimization (RO). However, ARO is computationally more difficult than RO. In this paper, we derive conditions under which the worst-case objective values of ARO and RO problems are equal. We prov

  16. A master curve analysis of F82H using statistical and constraint loss size adjustments of small specimen data

    Odette, G.R. E-mail:; Yamamoto, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Sokolov, M.; Spaetig, P.; Yang, W.J.; Rensman, J.-W.; Lucas, G.E


    We assembled a fracture toughness database for the IEA heat of F82H based on a variety of specimen sizes with a nominal ASTM E1921 master curve (MC) reference temperature T{sub 0}=-119{+-}3 deg. C. However, the data are not well represented by a MC. T{sub 0} decreases systematically with a decreasing deformation limit M{sub lim} starting at {approx}200, which is much higher than the E1921 censoring limit of 30, indicating large constraint loss in small specimens. The small scale yielding T{sub 0} at high M{sub lim} is {approx}98{+-}5 deg. C. While, the scatter was somewhat larger than predicted, after model-based adjustments for the effects of constraint loss, the data are in reasonably good agreement with a MC with T{sub 0}=-98 deg. C. This supports to use of MC methods to characterize irradiation embrittlement, as long as both constraint loss and statistical size effects are properly accounted for. Finally, we note various issues, including sources of the possible excess scatter, which remain to be fully assessed.

  17. A master curve analysis of F82H using statistical and constraint loss size adjustments of small specimen data

    Odette, G. R.; Yamamoto, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Sokolov, M.; Spätig, P.; Yang, W. J.; Rensman, J.-W.; Lucas, G. E.


    We assembled a fracture toughness database for the IEA heat of F82H based on a variety of specimen sizes with a nominal ASTM E1921 master curve (MC) reference temperature T0=-119±3 °C. However, the data are not well represented by a MC. T0 decreases systematically with a decreasing deformation limit Mlim starting at ≈200, which is much higher than the E1921 censoring limit of 30, indicating large constraint loss in small specimens. The small scale yielding T0 at high Mlim is ≈98±5 °C. While, the scatter was somewhat larger than predicted, after model-based adjustments for the effects of constraint loss, the data are in reasonably good agreement with a MC with T0=-98 °C. This supports to use of MC methods to characterize irradiation embrittlement, as long as both constraint loss and statistical size effects are properly accounted for. Finally, we note various issues, including sources of the possible excess scatter, which remain to be fully assessed.

  18. Fruit Production Distribution and Adjustment Strategies under the Constraint of Grain Security

    Bingbing MEI


    Grain security is the foundation of national security,and guaranteeing the grain security by every possible means is a development priority for the whole country.Rapid development of the fruit industry satisfies increasing demands of people for fruits,but also presents certain competition for grain production.From the perspective of limited resources and comparative income,this paper analyzed potential threats of fruit production distribution to grain production in farmland and labor resources,and came up with pertinent adjustment strategies.

  19. Adjustment to Subtle Time Constraints and Power Law Learning in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation.

    Shin, Jacqueline C; Chang, Seah; Cho, Yang Seok


    We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1) varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms) randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over 3 consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB), a decrement in target (T2) identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1). Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal "power law" learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  20. Adjustment to subtle time constraints and power law learning in rapid serial visual presentation

    Jacqueline Chakyung Shin


    Full Text Available We investigated whether attention could be modulated through the implicit learning of temporal information in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task. Participants identified two target letters among numeral distractors. The stimulus-onset asynchrony immediately following the first target (SOA1 varied at three levels (70, 98, and 126 ms randomly between trials or fixed within blocks of trials. Practice over three consecutive days resulted in a continuous improvement in the identification rate for both targets and attenuation of the attentional blink (AB, a decrement in target (T2 identification when presented 200-400 ms after another target (T1. Blocked SOA1s led to a faster rate of improvement in RSVP performance and more target order reversals relative to random SOA1s, suggesting that the implicit learning of SOA1 positively affected performance. The results also reveal power law learning curves for individual target identification as well as the reduction in the AB decrement. These learning curves reflect the spontaneous emergence of skill through subtle attentional modulations rather than general attentional distribution. Together, the results indicate that implicit temporal learning could improve high level and rapid cognitive processing and highlights the sensitivity and adaptability of the attentional system to subtle constraints in stimulus timing.

  1. Towards individualized dose constraints: Adjusting the QUANTEC radiation pneumonitis model for clinical risk factors

    Appelt, Ane L; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Farr, Katherina P.;


    Background. Understanding the dose-response of the lung in order to minimize the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) is critical for optimization of lung cancer radiotherapy. We propose a method to combine the dose-response relationship for RP in the landmark QUANTEC paper with known clinical risk...... factors, in order to enable individual risk prediction. The approach is validated in an independent dataset. Material and methods. The prevalence of risk factors in the patient populations underlying the QUANTEC analysis was estimated, and a previously published method to adjust dose......-response relationships for clinical risk factors was employed. Effect size estimates (odds ratios) for risk factors were drawn from a recently published meta-analysis. Baseline values for D50 and γ50 were found. The method was tested in an independent dataset (103 patients), comparing the predictive power of the dose......-only QUANTEC model and the model including risk factors. Subdistribution cumulative incidence functions were compared for patients with high/low-risk predictions from the two models, and concordance indices (c-indices) for the prediction of RP were calculated. Results. The reference dose- response relationship...

  2. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L


    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  3. Radicals and ions controlling by adjusting the antenna-substrate distance in a-Si:H deposition using a planar ICP for c-Si surface passivation

    Zhou, H. P.; Xu, S.; Xu, M.; Xu, L. X.; Wei, D. Y.; Xiang, Y.; Xiao, S. Q.


    Being a key issue in the research and fabrication of silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells, crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation is theoretically and technologically intricate due to its complicate dependence on plasma characteristics, material properties, and plasma-material interactions. Here amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) grown by a planar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor working under different antenna-substrate distances of d was used for the surface passivation of low-resistivity p-type c-Si. It is found that the microstructures (i.e., the crystallinity, Si-H bonding configuration etc.) and passivation function on c-Si of the deposited a-Si:H were profoundly influenced by the parameter of d, which primarily determines the types of growing precursors of SiHn/H contributing to the film growth and the interaction between the plasma and growing surface. c-Si surface passivation is analyzed in terms of the d-dependent a-Si:H properties and plasma characteristics. The controlling of radical types and ion bombardment on the growing surface through adjusting parameter d is emphasized.

  4. The Use of Active Elements to Reduce the Size and Weight of Passive Components in Adjustable Speed Drives

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan

    Adjustable speed drives are considered as workhorse of industry due to various applications in different kind of industries. According to a market survey, low voltage drives are most profitable in the drive industries. The drive consists of a machine and a converter, which processes grid power...... allows modeling the neutral-point voltage dynamics as a continuous function of the power drawn from the converter. This model shows that the neutral-point current is proportional to the power drawn from the converter, and it enables the use of well established classical control theory for the neutral...

  5. Periodic adjustment of the position of a laser beam spot on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror in a passively mode-locked solid-state laser

    Xia Pa-Keti; Yan Ping; Gong Ma-Li


    A laser diode end-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YV04 solid-state laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM),in which the intracavity laser beam spot on the SESAM can be adjusted periodically,is investigated. Inserting a rectangular prism (RP) into the laser cavity is a promising approach towards the goal of periodically moving the position of the focus spot of the intracavity pulse on the SESAM surface to avoid the long-time irradiation of the laser beam on the same position,thereby solving a series of problems caused by damage to the SESAM and greatly prolonging its usage life. The adjustment of the rectangular prism in the laser cavity does not break the stable continuous wave (CW) mode-locked condition. The laser generates a stable picosecond pulse sequence at 1064 nm with an output power of 3.6 W and a pulse width of 14 ps. The instabilities of the output power and the pulse width are 1.77% and 4.5%,respectively.

  6. Improved constraints on models of glacial isostatic adjustment: a review of the contribution of ground-based geodetic observations

    King, M.A.; Altamimi, Z.; Boehm, J.; Bos, M.; Dach, R.; Elosegui, P. Fund, F.; Hernández-Pajares, M.; Lavallee, D.; Riva, E.M.; et al.


    The provision of accurate models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is presently a priority need in climate studies, largely due to the potential of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to be used to determine accurate and continent-wide assessments of ice mass change and hydr

  7. African elephants adjust speed in response to surface-water constraint on foraging during the dry-season.

    Chamaillé-Jammes, Simon; Mtare, Godfrey; Makuwe, Edwin; Fritz, Hervé


    Most organisms need to acquire various resources to survive and reproduce. Individuals should adjust their behavior to make optimal use of the landscape and limit the costs of trade-offs emerging from the use of these resources. Here we study how African elephants Loxodonta africana travel to foraging places between regular visits to waterholes. Elephant herds were tracked using GPS collars during two consecutive dry seasons in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. We segmented each individual movement track at each visit to water to define foraging trips, and then used trip-level statistics to build an understanding of movement strategies. Travel speed within these individually-consistent movement bouts was also analyzed to understand if speed was better linked to distance to water or progression in the trip over time. We found that elephants went further from water when drinking less often, which could result from a trade-off between drinking and foraging in less depleted, far from water, places. Speed increased towards the beginning and the end of the trips, and was also greater than observed during the wet season, suggesting that elephants were trying to save time. Numerous short trips traveled at greater speed, particularly when commuting to a different waterhole, was tentatively explained by the inability to drink at specific waterholes due to intra-specific interference. Unexpectedly elephants did not always minimize travel time by drinking at the closest waterhole, but the extra distance traveled remained never more than a few kilometers. Our results show how individuals may adjust movement behavior to deal with resource trade-offs at the landscape scale. We also highlight how behavioral context, here progression in the trip, may be more important than spatial context, here distance to water, in explaining animal movement patterns.

  8. African elephants adjust speed in response to surface-water constraint on foraging during the dry-season.

    Simon Chamaillé-Jammes

    Full Text Available Most organisms need to acquire various resources to survive and reproduce. Individuals should adjust their behavior to make optimal use of the landscape and limit the costs of trade-offs emerging from the use of these resources. Here we study how African elephants Loxodonta africana travel to foraging places between regular visits to waterholes. Elephant herds were tracked using GPS collars during two consecutive dry seasons in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. We segmented each individual movement track at each visit to water to define foraging trips, and then used trip-level statistics to build an understanding of movement strategies. Travel speed within these individually-consistent movement bouts was also analyzed to understand if speed was better linked to distance to water or progression in the trip over time. We found that elephants went further from water when drinking less often, which could result from a trade-off between drinking and foraging in less depleted, far from water, places. Speed increased towards the beginning and the end of the trips, and was also greater than observed during the wet season, suggesting that elephants were trying to save time. Numerous short trips traveled at greater speed, particularly when commuting to a different waterhole, was tentatively explained by the inability to drink at specific waterholes due to intra-specific interference. Unexpectedly elephants did not always minimize travel time by drinking at the closest waterhole, but the extra distance traveled remained never more than a few kilometers. Our results show how individuals may adjust movement behavior to deal with resource trade-offs at the landscape scale. We also highlight how behavioral context, here progression in the trip, may be more important than spatial context, here distance to water, in explaining animal movement patterns.

  9. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G


    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  10. Constraints of GRACE on the Ice Model and Mantle Rheology in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Modeling in North-America

    van der Wal, W.; Wu, P.; Sideris, M.; Wang, H.


    GRACE satellite data offer homogeneous coverage of the area covered by the former Laurentide ice sheet. The secular gravity rate estimated from the GRACE data can therefore be used to constrain the ice loading history in Laurentide and, to a lesser extent, the mantle rheology in a GIA model. The objective of this presentation is to find a best fitting global ice model and use it to study how the ice model can be modified to fit a composite rheology, in which creep rates from a linear and non-linear rheology are added. This is useful because all the ice models constructed from GIA assume that mantle rheology is linear, but creep experiments on rocks show that nonlinear rheology may be the dominant mechanism in some parts of the mantle. We use CSR release 4 solutions from August 2002 to October 2008 with continental water storage effects removed by the GLDAS model and filtering with a destriping and Gaussian filter. The GIA model is a radially symmetric incompressible Maxwell Earth, with varying upper and lower mantle viscosity. Gravity rate misfit values are computed for with a range of viscosity values with the ICE-3G, ICE-4G and ICE-5G models. The best fit is shown for models with ICE-3G and ICE-4G, and the ICE-4G model is selected for computations with a so-called composite rheology. For the composite rheology, the Coupled Laplace Finite-Element Method is used to compute the GIA response of a spherical self-gravitating incompressible Maxwell Earth. The pre-stress exponent (A) derived from a uni- axial stress experiment is varied between 3.3 x 10-34/10-35/10-36 Pa-3s-1, the Newtonian viscosity η is varied between 1 and 3 x 1021 Pa-s, and the stress exponent is taken to be 3. Composite rheology in general results in geoid rates that are too small compared to GRACE observations. Therefore, simple modifications of the ICE-4G history are investigated by scaling ice heights or delaying glaciation. It is found that a delay in glaciation is a better way to adjust ice

  11. Monetary Policy,Financing Constraints and the Dynamic Adjustment of Enterprise Capital Structure%货币政策、融资约束与企业资本结构动态调整



    By using fixed effect model and taking the listed companies during 1996 to 2012 as samples ,to Study the impact of financial constrain and monetary policy on the capital structure ad-justment spead. Research results show that the adjustment speed of capital structure is different in enterprises with different financing constraints,and the speed of the enterprises with financing con-straints is slower than those without financing constraints; under the easy monetary policy,the ad-justment speed of capital structure in non-financing constraints companies is faster than financing constraint companies. However,the adjustment speed of capital structure in financing constraint companies is more sensitive to the increase of money supply,while the adjustment speed of capital structure in non-financing constraint companies is more sensitive to the rise of interest rate.%以1996~2012年上市公司为样本,运用固定效应法,实证检验融资约束和货币政策对企业资本结构调整速度的影响。研究结果表明:不同融资约束企业的资本结构调整速度存在差异,融资约束企业的资本结构调整速度低于非融资约束企业;在宽松货币政策下,非融资约束企业资本结构的调整速度大于融资约束企业。融资约束企业资本结构的调整速度对货币供应的增加更为敏感;非融资约束企业资本结构的调整速度对利率的升高更为敏感。

  12. Passive solar construction handbook

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.


    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  13. Constraints Adjustment and Objectives Coordination of Satisfying Optimal Control Applied to Heavy Oil Fractionators%约束优化控制的约束调整与目标协调及在重油分离器过程中的作用

    邹涛; 李少远


    In this paper, the feasibility and objectives coordination of real-time optimization (RTO) are systemically investigated under soft constraints. The reason for requiring soft constraints adjustment and objective relaxation simultaneously is that the result is not satisfactory when the feasible region is apart from the desired working point or the optimization problem is infeasible. The mixed logic method is introduced to describe the priority of the constraints and objectives, thereby the soft constraints adjustment and objectives coordination are solved together in RTO. A case study on the Shell heavy oil fractionators benchmark problem illustrating the method is finally presented.




    社会心理、经济基础和政治理念共同而有差别地制约着体育利益调整,社会心理制约体育利益调整的相对性、潜在性、复杂性等特点,决定了其在经济必然性要求下的一种深层次制约因素。任何体育政策的实施必须得到社会心理的支持才能发挥制度的预期效能。体育利益调整只有主动应对社会心理的影响和制约,才能够实现人们对待体育利益调整的心理状态由冲突走向更新,保障体育制度质量。%Social psychology, economic basis and political ideas restrict sports interest adjustment commonly and differently. Social psychology restricts sports interest adjustment, embodying such characteristics as relativity, potentiality and complexity, which determine a further constraint in the demand of economic necessity. The implementation of any sports policy must be supported by social psychology to present the expected effectiveness of the system. Only when sports interest adjustment can adapt to social psychology influences and constraints, can it achieve the adjustment of psychological states from conflict to re-newal, ensuring the quality of sports system.

  15. Adjustment of web-building initiation to high humidity: a constraint by humidity-dependent thread stickiness in the spider Cyrtarachne

    Baba, Yuki G.; Kusahara, Miki; Maezono, Yasunori; Miyashita, Tadashi


    Cyrtarachne is an orb-weaving spider belonging to the subfamily Cyrtarachninae (Araneidae) which includes triangular-web-building Pasilobus and bolas spiders. The Cyrtarachninae is a group of spiders specialized in catching moths, which is thought to have evolved from ordinary orb-weaving araneids. Although the web-building time of nocturnal spiders is in general related to the time of sunset, anecdotal evidence has suggested variability of web-building time in Cyrtarachne and its closely related genera. This study has examined the effects of temperature, humidity, moonlight intensity, and prey (moths) availability on web-building time of Cyrtarachne bufo, Cyrtarachne akirai, and Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) have revealed that humidity, and not prey availability, was the essential variable that explained the daily variability of web-building time. Experiments measuring thread stickiness under different humidities showed that, although the thread of Cyrtarachne was found to have strong stickiness under high humidity, low humidity caused a marked decrease of thread stickiness. By contrast, no obvious change in stickiness was seen in an ordinary orb-weaving spider, Larinia argiopiformis. These findings suggest that Cyrtarachne adjusts its web-building time to favorable conditions of high humidity maintaining strong stickiness, which enables the threads to work efficiently for capturing prey.


    Tao Benzao


    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  17. [Passive gymnastics].

    D'Orazi, L


    There is at the moment a continuous proliferation of gymnasium centres, among which the so-called "Centres of passive or activated gymnastic" have recently assumed a particular importance. The Swedish Doctor Zander, in the XIX century, was a promoter of this kind of gymnastics, utilizing instruments invented by him. These instruments were able to perform fundamental movements without needing the active participation of the person involved. Today's machinery for passive gymnastics no longer have the therapy or rehabilitation as their main purpose, but their present first purpose is more aesthetic than scientific. The ancient and modern machinery for passive gymnastics, is sometimes an imitation of the action of a massager.

  18. Passive education

    Bojesen, Emile


    This paper does not present an advocacy of a passive education as opposed to an active education nor does it propose that passive education is in any way ‘better’ or more important than active education. Through readings of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and B.S. Johnson, and gentle critiques of Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, passive education is instead described and outlined as an education which occurs whether we attempt it or not. As such, the object of critique for this essay are fo...

  19. Convexity Adjustments

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha


    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  20. A Block Adjustment Method of High-resolution Satellite Imagery with Straight Line Constraints%直线特征约束的高分辨率卫星影像区域网平差方法

    曹金山; 龚健雅; 袁修孝


    Taking “observed straight lines and predicted straight lines in image space being bound to coincide” as a geometric constraint and the rational function model (RFM) as the imaging geometric model of high‐resolution satellite imagery (HRSI ) , a block adjustment method of HRSI with straight line constraintsis proposed .For the proposed method ,the control straight line (CSL) in image space should be correspondent with the one in object space while the image point and the ground point on the lines are not necessarily correspondent .Two IKONOS images covering San Diego area ,two QuickBird images covering Spokane area and two SPOT‐5 images covering Provence area ,respectively ,were used .The experimental results showed that the proposed method can take full advantage of the control information in the form of linear features .Systematic errors in the rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) can be compensated effectively .After block adjustment ,both the planimetric and height accuracies of the IKONOS ,QuickBird and SPOT‐5 images reach better than 1 pixel .%以“像方观测直线与像方预测直线必须重合”作为几何约束条件,以有理函数模型(RFM)作为高分辨率卫星影像的几何处理模型,提出了一种直线特征约束的高分辨率卫星影像区域网平差方法。本文方法仅需像方直线与物方直线相对应,无须像方直线上的像点与物方直线上的地面点一一对应。通过对圣迭戈试验区的两景IKONOS影像、斯波坎试验区的两景QuickBird影像和普罗旺斯试验区的两景SPOT‐5影像进行试验,结果表明:本文方法可以充分利用直线特征作为控制条件,有效补偿RPC参数中的系统误差,获得的IKONOS、QuickBird和SPOT‐5影像区域网平差的平面与高程精度均优于1个像素。

  1. Constraint Differentiation

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca


    , under the assumption that the original constraint-based approach has these properties. Practically, as a concrete case study, we have integrated this technique into OFMC, a state-of-the-art model-checker for security protocol analysis, and demonstrated its effectiveness by extensive experimentation. Our......We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  2. Chiropractic Adjustment

    ... syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation Don't seek chiropractic adjustment ... Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal ...

  3. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    ... Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can ...

  4. Salary adjustments

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  5. Salary adjustments

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  6. Passive solar technology

    Watson, D


    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  7. Velocity adjustable TMD and numerical simulation of seismic performance

    Qin Li; Zhou Xiyuan; Yan Weiming


    A new type of velocity adjustable tuned mass damper (TMD) consisting of impulse generators and clutches is presented. The force impulse is generated by a joining operation of electromagnets and springs and MR dampers are used as clutches. Rules for velocity adjustment are established according to the working mechanism of TMD. The analysis program is developed on a VB platform. Seismic response of SDOF structures with both passive TMD and velocity adjustable TMD are analyzed. The results show that (1) the control effectiveness of passive TMDs is usually unstable; (2) the control effectiveness of the proposed semi-active TMDs is much better than passive TMDs under typical seismic ground motions; and (3) unlike the passive TMD system, the proposed velocity adjustable TMDs exhibit good control effectiveness even when the primary structure performance becomes inelastic during severe earthquakes.

  8. Reasoning about passive declarations in CHR

    Christiansen, Henning


    The programming language of Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is gaining more and more popularity and this has motivated the development of new optimization techniques to be applied in implementations of CHR. As for other logic programming languages, a program written CHR can be understood declarat...... give different classifications of the effect of some passive declarations that do not affect the logical semantics. This may be used for reasoning about manual optimizations as well as proposals for automatic strategies to be applied by a compiler for adding passive declarations....

  9. A Portable Passive Physiotherapeutic Exoskeleton

    Dasheek Naidu


    A physiotherapeutic mechanism was designed to be portable and adjustable, without limiting the spherical motion and workspace of the human arm. The exoskeleton was designed to be portable in the sense that it could be transported geographically. It is a complete device allowing for motion in the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand joints. The inverse kinematics was solved iteratively via the Damped Least Squares (DLS method. The electronic and computer system allowed for professional personnel to either change an individual joint or a combination of joints angles via the kinematic models. A ramp PI controller was established to provide a smooth response to simulate the passive therapy motion.

  10. The Dynamic Adjustment Mechanism between the Liquidity Risk Constraint and the Capital Structure of China Commercial Banks:Based on the Panel Simultaneous System Estimation%流动性风险约束与商业银行资本结构的动态调整机制——基于面板联立系统的经验与证据

    杨有振; 王书华


    基于11家商业银行2004~2013年的面板数据,构建了流动性风险约束下商业银行资本结构变化的动态面板联立系统,证实了流动性风险约束对商业银行资本结构调整的时间效应,在流动性风险约束与商业银行资本结构间存在着相互动态作用机制. 应对流动性风险冲击,要求商业银行的资本调整在短期内应当侧重于对当期流动性风险约束的调整,而长期内应加强对流动性风险约束时滞效应的调整.%Based on 11 commercial banks 2004~2013 panel data, this article constructed the panel simultane-ous system on the liquidity risk constraint and the capital structure of China commercial banks.The article has con-firmed that the liquidity risk constraint has time effect on the commercial banks capital structure adjustment mecha-nism, there is a dynamic interaction mechanism in the capital structure and the liquidity risk constraint of the com-mercial banks.On dealing with the liquidity risk shock,commercial banks should adjust its capital structure mainly focus on the current liquidity risk constraints within the short time period, while strengthen the time lag adjustment during the long counterpart.

  11. Passive solar homes

    Brown, T.


    After a brief description of the basic principles of passive solar heating, the use of thermal mass in a passive house is discussed, including the Trombe wall, water wall, roof ponds, and the attached greenhouse. Direct gain through skylights and clerestories is also discussed. The selection of a lot and the orientation of the house on the lot are covered. The example of a passive house outside Santa Fe, New Mexico is cited for its performance. (LEW)

  12. Passive evaporative cooling

    Tzoulis, A.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Passive techniques for cooling are a great way to cope with the energy problem of the present day. This manual introduces passive cooling by evaporation. These methods have been used for many years in traditi

  13. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    Walsh, Toby


    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  14. Techniques for active passivation

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.


    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  15. Control of Adjustable Compliant Actuators

    Berno J.E. Misgeld


    Full Text Available Adjustable compliance or variable stiffness actuators comprise an additional element to elastically decouple the actuator from the load and are increasingly applied to human-centered robotic systems. The advantages of such actuators are of paramount importance in rehabilitation robotics, where requirements demand safe interaction between the therapy system and the patient. Compliant actuator systems enable the minimization of large contact forces arising, for example, from muscular spasticity and have the ability to periodically store and release energy in cyclic movements. In order to overcome the loss of bandwidth introduced by the elastic element and to guarantee a higher range in force/torque generation, new actuator designs consider variable or nonlinear stiffness elements, respectively. These components cannot only be adapted to the walking speed or the patient condition, but also entail additional challenges for feedback control. This paper introduces a novel design method for an impedance-based controller that fulfills the control objectives and compares the performance and robustness to a classical cascaded control approach. The new procedure is developed using a non-standard positive-real Η2 controller design and is applied to a loop-shaping approach. Robust norm optimal controllers are designed with regard to the passivity of the actuator load-impedance transfer function and the servo control problem. Classical cascaded and positive-real Η2 controller designs are validated and compared in simulations and in a test bench using a passive elastic element of varying stiffness.

  16. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  17. A Quasi-physical Algorithm Based on Coarse and Fine Adjustment for Solving Circles Packing Problem with Constraints of Equilibrium%基于粗精调技术的求解带平衡约束圆形Packing问题的拟物算法

    何琨; 莫旦增; 许如初; 黄文奇


    The circles packing problem with constraints of equilibrium,as a two-dimensional packing problem with the background of satellite module layout design,is an NP hard layout optimization problem.A mathematical model and two new physical models are established for this problem.And inspired by the process of coarse and fine adjustment in the industry,a QuasiPhysical algorithm based on Coarse and Fine Adjustment (QPCFA) is proposed.Not only can QPCFA keep the diversity of the searching space to facilitate the global search,but also it can do fine search in promising local areas to find the corresponding local optimal solutions.Moreover,the taboo method and the jump pit strategy are combined to improve the performance of this algorithm.Experiments on 11 representative instances show that QPCFA achieve new and better results on seven ones and matched the current best records on the other four.In addition,the calculation accuracy is improved considerably.%带平衡约束的圆形Packing问题是以卫星舱布局为背景的具有NP难度的布局优化问题.文中建立了此问题相应的数学模型,同时提出了两个新的物理模型,并受工艺加工过程中“粗精加工”现象的启发,提出了基于粗精调技术的拟物算法QPCFA.该算法既兼顾了搜索空间的多样性以利于全局搜索,又能对有前途的局部区域进行精细搜索以找到相应的局部最优解.同时,在计算过程中引入禁忌技术和跳坑策略,以提高算法的求解质量.对国际上11个代表性的算例进行了计算,QPCFA更新了其中7个算例的最好记录,其余4个与目前的最好记录基本持平,且与目前的最好结果相比在计算精度上均有较大的提高.

  18. Passive House Solutions

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)


    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  19. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    Petit, Thierry


    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  20. Measure Guideline: Passive Vents

    Berger, David [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Neri, Robin [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)


    This document addresses the use of passive vents as a source of outdoor air in multifamily buildings. The challenges associated with implementing passive vents and the factors affecting performance are outlined. A comprehensive design methodology and quantified performance metrics are provided. Two hypothetical design examples are provided to illustrate the process. This document is intended to be useful to designers, decision-makers, and contractors implementing passive ventilation strategies. It is also intended to be a resource for those responsible for setting high-performance building program requirements, especially pertaining to ventilation and outdoor air. To ensure good indoor air quality, a dedicated source of outdoor air is an integral part of high-performance buildings. Presently, there is a lack of guidance pertaining to the design and installation of passive vents, resulting in poor system performance. This report details the criteria necessary for designing, constructing, and testing passive vent systems to enable them to provide consistent and reliable levels of ventilation air from outdoors.

  1. Composing constraint solvers

    Zoeteweij, P.


    Composing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant solver configu

  2. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    Wanlass, Mark W.


    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  3. On Testing Constraint Programs

    Lazaar, Nadjib; Yahia, Lebbah


    The success of several constraint-based modeling languages such as OPL, ZINC, or COMET, appeals for better software engineering practices, particularly in the testing phase. This paper introduces a testing framework enabling automated test case generation for constraint programming. We propose a general framework of constraint program development which supposes that a first declarative and simple constraint model is available from the problem specifications analysis. Then, this model is refined using classical techniques such as constraint reformulation, surrogate and global constraint addition, or symmetry-breaking to form an improved constraint model that must be thoroughly tested before being used to address real-sized problems. We think that most of the faults are introduced in this refinement step and propose a process which takes the first declarative model as an oracle for detecting non-conformities. We derive practical test purposes from this process to generate automatically test data that exhibit no...

  4. Evolutionary constraints or opportunities?

    Sharov, Alexei A.


    Natural selection is traditionally viewed as a leading factor of evolution, whereas variation is assumed to be random and non-directional. Any order in variation is attributed to epigenetic or developmental constraints that can hinder the action of natural selection. In contrast I consider the positive role of epigenetic mechanisms in evolution because they provide organisms with opportunities for rapid adaptive change. Because the term “constraint” has negative connotations, I use the term “regulated variation” to emphasize the adaptive nature of phenotypic variation, which helps populations and species to survive and evolve in changing environments. The capacity to produce regulated variation is a phenotypic property, which is not described in the genome. Instead, the genome acts as a switchboard, where mostly random mutations switch “on” or “off” preexisting functional capacities of organism components. Thus, there are two channels of heredity: informational (genomic) and structure-functional (phenotypic). Functional capacities of organisms most likely emerged in a chain of modifications and combinations of more simple ancestral functions. The role of DNA has been to keep records of these changes (without describing the result) so that they can be reproduced in the following generations. Evolutionary opportunities include adjustments of individual functions, multitasking, connection between various components of an organism, and interaction between organisms. The adaptive nature of regulated variation can be explained by the differential success of lineages in macro-evolution. Lineages with more advantageous patterns of regulated variation are likely to produce more species and secure more resources (i.e., long-term lineage selection). PMID:24769155

  5. Passive hand prostheses.

    Soltanian, Hooman; de Bese, Genevieve; Beasley, Robert W


    For many mangled hands, appropriately designed passive prostheses now available, alone or in conjunction with surgical reconstruction, can offer the best available improvement, provided they are of high quality and backed by prompt and reliable after-delivery services. Invariably, there is improvement in physical capability along with restoration of good social presentation.

  6. Hood River Passive House

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)


    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  7. Passivity and complementarity

    Camlibel, M. K.; Iannelli, L.; Vasca, F.


    This paper studies the interaction between the notions of passivity of systems theory and complementarity of mathematical programming in the context of complementarity systems. These systems consist of a dynamical system (given in the form of state space representation) and complementarity relations

  8. Passive houses in Norway

    Halse, Andreas


    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  9. Passive swimming in viscous oscillatory flows

    Jo, Ikhee; Huang, Yangyang; Zimmermann, Walter; Kanso, Eva


    Fluid-based locomotion at low Reynolds number is subject to the constraints of Purcell's scallop theorem: reciprocal shape kinematics identical under a time-reversal symmetry cannot cause locomotion. In particular, a single degree-of-freedom scallop undergoing opening and closing motions cannot swim. Most strategies for symmetry breaking and locomotion rely on direct control of the swimmer's shape kinematics. Less is known about indirect control via actuation of the fluid medium. To address how such indirect actuation strategies can lead to locomotion, we analyze a Λ -shaped model system analogous to Purcell's scallop but able to deform passively in oscillatory flows. Neutrally buoyant scallops undergo no net locomotion. We show that dense, elastic scallops can exhibit passive locomotion in zero-mean oscillatory flows. We examine the efficiency of swimming parallel to the background flow and analyze the stability of these motions. We observe transitions from stable to unstable swimming, including ordered transitions from fluttering to chaoticlike motions and tumbling. Our results demonstrate that flow oscillations can be used to passively actuate and control the motion of microswimmers, which may be relevant to applications such as surgical robots and cell sorting and manipulation in microfluidic devices.

  10. A New Passive in Kaqchikel

    George Aaron Broadwell


    Full Text Available This paper contrasts two passives in Kaqchikel, a Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. The first passive, which we label the ‘standard passive’ is already well-attested in the literature. However, the second passive, which we label the ‘ki-passive’, has not been previously described. A verb in the ki-passive shows active morphology, with ergative agreement for a third person plural subject, as would be appropriate for a verb with an impersonal ‘they’ subject. In Kaqchikel, however, we argue that this verb form has evolved into a new passive. The paper compares the properties of the standard passive and the ki-passive, and argues that while they involve the same change of grammatical relations, the two passives differ in the discourse functions they assign to the agent and patient.

  11. Constraints meet concurrency

    Mauro, Jacopo


    This book describes the benefits that emerge when the fields of constraint programming and concurrency meet. On the one hand, constraints can be used in concurrency theory to increase the conciseness and the expressive power of concurrent languages from a pragmatic point of view. On the other hand, problems modeled by using constraints can be solved faster and more efficiently using a concurrent system. Both directions are explored providing two separate lines of development. Firstly the expressive power of a concurrent language is studied, namely Constraint Handling Rules, that supports constraints as a primitive construct. The features of this language which make it Turing powerful are shown. Then a framework is proposed to solve constraint problems that is intended to be deployed on a concurrent system. For the development of this framework the concurrent language Jolie following the Service Oriented paradigm is used. Based on this experience, an extension to Service Oriented Languages is also proposed in ...

  12. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)


    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give



    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  14. On Minimal Constraint Networks

    Gottlob, Georg


    In a minimal binary constraint network, every tuple of a constraint relation can be extended to a solution. It was conjectured that computing a solution to such a network is NP complete. We prove this conjecture true and show that the problem remains NP hard even in case the total domain of all values that may appear in the constraint relations is bounded by a constant.

  15. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan


    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  16. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.


    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  17. Passive MIMO Radar Detection


    from history to future”. Proc. 11th Int. Radar Symp. (IRS), 1–4. 2010. [58] Levanon, N. “ Interferometry against differential Doppler: performance...2141, 2013. [71] Richards, M. A., J. A. Scheer, and W. A. Holm. Principles of Modern Radar , volume 1. SciTech Publishing, Inc., 2010. [72] Scharf, L...PASSIVE MIMO RADAR DETECTION DISSERTATION Daniel E. Hack, Civilian AFIT-ENG-DS-13-S-07 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE

  18. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    Michelsen, Aage U.


    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  19. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan


    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  20. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.


    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  1. Decentralized Constraint Satisfaction

    Duffy, K R; Leith, D J


    Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) lie at the heart of many modern industrial and commercial tasks. An important new collection of CSPs has recently been emerging that differ from classical problems in that they impose constraints on the class of algorithms that can be used to solve them. In computer network applications, these constraints arise as the variables within the CSP are located at physically distinct devices that cannot communicate. At each instant, every variable only knows if all its constraints are met or at least one is not. Consequently, the CSP's solution must be found using a decentralized approach. Existing algorithms for solving CSPs are either centralized or distributed, both of which violate these algorithmic constraints. In this article we present the first algorithm for solving CSPs that fulfills these new requirements. It is fully decentralized, making no use of a centralized controller or message-passing between variables. We prove that this algorithm converges with probability ...

  2. Constraints in Quantum Geometrodynamics

    Gentle, A P; Kheyfets, A I; Miller, W A; Gentle, Adrian P.; George, Nathan D.; Kheyfets, Arkady; Miller, Warner A.


    We compare different treatments of the constraints in canonical quantum gravity. The standard approach on the superspace of 3-geometries treats the constraints as the sole carriers of the dynamic content of the theory, thus rendering the traditional dynamic equations obsolete. Quantization of the constraints in both the Dirac and ADM square root Hamiltonian approach lead to the well known problems of the description of time evolution. These problems of time are both of interpretational and technical nature. In contrast, the so-called geometrodynamic quantization procedure on the superspace of the true dynamic variables separates the issue of quantization from enforcing the constraints. The resulting theory takes into account the states that are off shell with respect to the constraints, and thus avoids the problems of time. Here, we develop, for the first time, the geometrodynamic quantization formalism in a general setting and show that it retains all essential features previously illustrated in the context ...

  3. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  4. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.


    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  5. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Anderson, Walter L.


    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  6. Passive Power Filters

    Künzi, R


    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  7. Optimizing passive quantum clocks

    Mullan, Michael; Knill, Emanuel


    We describe protocols for passive atomic clocks based on quantum interrogation of the atoms. Unlike previous techniques, our protocols are adaptive and take advantage of prior information about the clock's state. To reduce deviations from an ideal clock, each interrogation is optimized by means of a semidefinite program for atomic state preparation and measurement whose objective function depends on the prior information. Our knowledge of the clock's state is maintained according to a Bayesian model that accounts for noise and measurement results. We implement a full simulation of a running clock with power-law noise models and find significant improvements by applying our techniques.

  8. Passive THz metamaterials

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim;


    In this work we present our activities in the fabrication and characterization of passive THz metamaterials. We use two fabrication processes to develop metamaterials either as free-standing metallic membranes or patterned metallic multi-layers on the substrates to achieve different functionalities....... Our interest lies in metamaterials for a broad spectrum of linear properties in operations with THz waves, such as linear and circular polarizers, absorbers and devices with enhanced transmittivity, single layer dichroic and chiral systems. All the three steps (modelling, fabrication...

  9. Constraint-based reachability

    Arnaud Gotlieb


    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  10. Communication with Disturbance Constraints

    Bandemer, Bernd


    The problem of communication with disturbance constraints is introduced. The rate-disturbance region is established for the single constraint case. The optimal encoding scheme turns out to be the same as the Han-Kobayashi scheme for the two user-pair interference channel. For communication with two disturbance constraints, a coding scheme and a corresponding inner bound for the deterministic case are presented. The results suggest a natural way to obtain a new inner bound on the capacity region of the interference channel with more than two user pairs.

  11. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.


    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  12. Passive damping technology demonstration

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.


    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  13. Fly ash carbon passivation

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G


    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  14. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.


    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  15. Optimization under Nonlinear Constraints


    In this paper a timesaving method is proposed for maximizing likelihood functions when the parameter space is subject to nonlinear constraints, expressible as second order polynomials. The suggested approach is especially attractive when dealing with systems with many parameters.

  16. Dynamic Analysis of the Biped Ice-skater Robot of Passive Wheel Type

    XU Zi-li; L(U) Tian-sheng; TIAN Hua; XU Zhen-hua; SONG Li-bo


    A new passive wheel type of biped ice-skater robot (BISR) subjected to nonholonomic constraints was presented on the basis of ice-skating principle. Its motion principle and construction were discussed. After the model was simplified and the coordinate systems were established, the motion differential equations of the robot were obtained with the generalized Lagrange-Maggi equation when the nonholonomic constraints existed. Actual examples were given and the result was simulated on computer.

  17. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi


    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  18. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  19. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;


    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  20. European vehicle passive safety network

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.


    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  1. Molybdate based passivation of zinc

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per


    developed to replace chromates in several passivation applica-tions. Depending on the environment in which the passivated parts are to be exposed, the protection that this alternative treatment provides range from less efficient to more efficient as compared to chromate. These aspects as well as issues...

  2. Glacial isostatic adjustment model with composite 3-D Earth rheology for Fennoscandia

    Van der Wal, W.; Barnhoorn, A.; Stocchi, P.; Gradmann, S.; Wu, P.; Drury, M.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.


    Models for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) can provide constraints on rheology of the mantle if past ice thickness variations are assumed to be known. The Pleistocene ice loading histories that are used to obtain such constraints are based on an a priori 1-D mantle viscosity profile that assumes

  3. The photogrammetric inner constraints

    Dermanis, Athanasios

    A derivation of the complete inner constraints, which are required for obtaining "free network" solutions in close-range photogrammetry, is presented. The inner constraints are derived analytically for the bundle method, by exploiting the fact that the rows of their coefficient matrix from a basis for the null subspace of the design matrix used in the linearized observation equations. The derivation is independent of any particular choice of rotational parameters and examples are given for three types of rotation angles used in photogrammetry, as well as for the Rodriguez elements. A convenient algorithm based on the use of the S-transformation is presented, for the computation of free solutions with either inner or partial inner constraints. This approach is finally compared with alternative approaches to free network solutions.

  4. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua


    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  5. Constraint algebra in bigravity

    Soloviev, V. O., E-mail: [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)


    The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.

  6. Metric adjusted skew information

    Hansen, Frank


    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  7. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Fabiana Rocha


    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  8. Constraints as evolutionary systems

    Rácz, István


    The constraint equations for smooth $[n+1]$-dimensional (with $n\\geq 3$) Riemannian or Lorentzian spaces satisfying the Einstein field equations are considered. It is shown, regardless of the signature of the primary space, that the constraints can be put into the form of an evolutionary system comprised either by a first order symmetric hyperbolic system and a parabolic equation or, alternatively, by a strongly hyperbolic system and a subsidiary algebraic relation. In both cases the (local) existence and uniqueness of solutions are also discussed.

  9. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim


    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...


    Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.


    The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% ({Sigma}M{sub 2}O < 19.3 wt%), or (2) adjust the lower limit on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} constraint to 4 wt% (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sum of

  11. Wireless passive radio sensors

    Reindl, L. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Informationstechnik; Steindl, R.; Hausleitner, C. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria); Pohl, A. [Siemens AG, PSE PRO RCD, Vienna (Austria); School, G. [EPCOS AG, SAW RD SD, Muenchen (Germany)


    Surface acoustic wave devices can be turned into identification and sensor elements (SAW transponders) for measuring physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, torque, acceleration, humidity, etc. that do not need any power supply and may be accessed wirelessly. The complete wireless sensor system consists of such a SAW transponder and a local radar transceiver. An RF burst in the VHF/UHF region transmitted by the radar transceiver is received by the antenna of the SAW transponder. The passive transponder responses with an RF signal - like an radar echo - which can be received by the front-end of the local transceiver. Amplitude, frequency, phase and time of arrival of this RF response signal carry information about the SAW reflection and propagation mechanisms which in many cases can be directly attributed to the sensor effect for a certain measurand. Due to the high delay time of the SAW transponder in the order of some {mu}s, usually no intersymbol interferences due to environmental echoes occur. The present work reviews the operating principle of such sensor systems and their state-of-the-art performance by way of some examples which include the wireless measurement of temperature, pressure, torque, acceleration, magnetic field, and water content of soil. (orig.)

  12. Passive immitance limiters

    Filinyuk N. A.


    Full Text Available The paper presents quadripole R, L, C immittance limiters, in which output immittance to the certain value depends on the input immittance. A classification of immittance limiters is given. Basic parameters are considered: low and high levels of output immittance limiters; low and high values of input immittance, corresponding to low and high levels of limitation, accordingly; range of possible values of output immittance; steepness of immittance limiters; time of wearing-out (or delay; high and low cutoff frequencies; central working frequency; frequency band; relative range of working frequencies; non-linearity coefficient. The authors have designed passive R-, L-, C-limiters with possibility of limitation from above and from below. The influence of the input parasitic immittances on the immittance transfer characteristic is evaluated. In most cases parasite immittance does not influence the considered devices, including R-limiters «from above» with the input quality factor of QR(Linp=0,1…0,2 and L-limiters «from above» with high-quality input circuits with QL(Rinp>2. The analysis also shows that high-qualitiy circuits with QN(RinpN>3 should be used in C-limiters with input parasitic immittances, while at parasitic immittance of the limiting element low-quality circuits with QN(RiN>0,2 should be selected.

  13. Passive Acoustic Vessel Localization

    Suwal, Pasang Sherpa

    This thesis investigates the development of a low-cost passive acoustic system for localizing moving vessels to monitor areas where human activities such as fishing, snorkeling and poaching are restricted. The system uses several off-the-shelf sensors with unsynchronized clocks where the Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) or time delay is extracted by cross-correlation of the signal between paired sensors. The cross-correlation function uses phase correlation or Phase Transform (PHAT) which whitens the cross-spectrum in order to de-emphasize dominant frequency components. Using the locations of pairs of sensors as foci, hyperbolic equations can be defined using the time delay between them. With three or more sensors, multiple hyperbolic functions can be calculated which intersect at a unique point: the boat's location. It is also found that increasing separation distances between sensors decreased the correlation between the signals. However larger separation distances have better localization capability than with small distances. Experimental results from the Columbia and Willamette Rivers are presented to demonstrate performance.

  14. Can structural adjustment work for women farmers.

    Mehra, R


    This article discusses the impact of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) on women farmers in developing countries. SAPs aim to improve economic efficiency and promote more rapid economic growth. SAPs are introduced in two phases. The first phase involves short-term loans with the condition that the country adopt monetary restraints and currency devaluation measures. In the second phase, long-term loans are given with the provision that the country deregulate their economy and open up markets. The agricultural sector is affected by SAPs because of their importance in employment, income generation, and export earnings. SAPs result in lower farm commodity prices due to currency devaluations and in removal of subsidies, which results in market-sensitive pricing or higher food prices. The impact of SAPs on agriculture vary between countries. In Morocco and Algeria, agriculture expanded under SAPs. In Indonesia, Bolivia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, the agriculture stagnated or declined. Agricultural growth was slowest in Africa. SAPs were somewhat successful in increasing agricultural exports. Food production grew slowly in many adjusting countries. Blame for failures of SAPs has been placed on government failure to implement reforms properly and overly optimistic assumptions about the timing of productive gains. Little attention has focused on the constraints facing women farmers, who are a large proportion of farmers, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This article focuses on the issues of limited access to resources, credit, agricultural extension and information, land ownership, education, and time as constraints to women farmers. Women also must ensure household food security. For SAPs to work effectively, complementary policies must be implemented that reallocate available productive resources and new technologies to women and that deal with women's constraints.

  15. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    SONG Yingchun


    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  16. Research on constraint-based virtual assembly technologies

    YANG Rundang; WU Dianliang; FAN Xiumin; YAN Juanqi


    To realize a constraint-based virtual assembly operation,the unified representations of the assembly constraint,the equivalent relation between the constraint and the degree of freedom(DOF),and the movement DOF reduction in a virtual environment are proposed.Several algorithms about the constraint treatment are submitted.First,the automatic recognition algorithm based on the assembly relation is used to determine the position and orientation relation between two geometry elements of constraint whether they meet the given errors.Second,to satisfy the new constraint,according to the positing solving algorithm,the position and orientation of an active part are modified with minimal adjustment after the part has satisfied the affirmed constraints.Finally,the algorithm of movement navigation based on the generalized coordinate system is put forward,and the part movement is guided.These algorithms have been applied to the integrated virtual assembly environment(IVAE)system.Experiments have indicated that these algorithms have well supported constraint treatments in the IVAE and realized the closer combination of the virtual and the real assembly processes.

  17. Constraint Optimization Literature Review


    COPs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high-performance computing, mobile ad hoc network, optimization, constraint, satisfaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...France): INRA Editions; 1996. p. 111–150. Black PE. Branch-and-bound. US national institute of standards and technology dictionary of algorithms

  18. Early passive acquisition in Inuktitut.

    Allen, S E; Crago, M B


    Passive structures are typically assumed to be one of the later acquired constructions in child language. English-speaking children have been shown to produce and comprehend their first simple passive structures productively by about age four and to master more complex structures by about age nine. Recent crosslinguistic data have shown that this pattern may not hold across languages of varying structures. This paper presents data from four Inuit children aged 2;0 to 3;6 that shows relatively early acquisition of both simple and complex forms of the passive. Within this age range children are productively producing truncated, full, action and experiential passives. Some possible reasons for this precociousness are explored including adult input and language structure.

  19. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    Ababsa, Myriam


    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  20. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    Farley, Gary L.


    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  1. A constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangians subjected to nonholonomic constraints

    de Leon, M. [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); de Diego, D.M. [Departamento de Economia Aplicada Cuantitativa, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    We construct a constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangian systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints which generalizes that of Dirac for constrained Hamiltonian systems. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Passive acoustic detection of deep-diving beaked whales

    Zimmer, W.M.X.; Harwood, J.; Tyack, P.L.


    Beaked whales can remain submerged for an hour or more and are difficult to sight when they come to the surface to breathe. Passive acoustic detection (PAD) not only complements traditional visual-based methods for detecting these species but also can be more effective because beaked whales produce...... clicks regularly to echolocate on prey during deep foraging dives. The effectiveness of PAD for beaked whales depends not only on the acoustic behavior and output of the animals but also on environmental conditions and the quality of the passive sonar implemented. A primary constraint on the range...... at which beaked whale clicks can be detected involves their high frequencies, which attenuate rapidly, resulting in limited ranges of detection, especially in adverse environmental conditions. Given current knowledge of source parameters and in good conditions, for example, with a wind speed of 2  m...

  3. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron


    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  4. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey


    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  5. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    Ortega, J M


    .'' This active concept works by placing shape memory alloy (SMA) control surfaces on the submarine's diving planes and periodically oscillating them. The modulated control vortices generated by these surfaces interact with the tip vortices on the diving planes, causing an instability to rapidly occur. Though several numerical simulations have been presented, experimental verification does not appear to be available in the open literature. The authors address this problem through a concept called passive wake vortex control (PWVC), which has been demonstrated to rapidly break apart a trailing vortex wake and render it incoherent. PWVC functions by introducing unequal strength, counter-rotating control vortices next to the tip vortices. The presence of these control vortices destabilizes the vortex wake and produces a rapidly growing wake instability.

  6. Dynamical Constraints on Exoplanets

    Horner, Jonti; Tinney, Chris; Hinse, Tobias C; Marshall, Jonathan P


    Dynamical studies of new exoplanet systems are a critical component of the discovery and characterisation process. Such studies can provide firmer constraints on the parameters of the newly discovered planets, and may even reveal that the proposed planets do not stand up to dynamical scrutiny. Here, we demonstrate how dynamical studies can assist the characterisation of such systems through two examples: QS Virginis and HD 73526.

  7. (non) Emergent Constraints

    Jackson, C. S.; Hattab, M. W.; Huerta, G.


    Emergent constraints are observable quantities that provide some physical basis for testing or predicting how a climate model will respond to greenhouse gas forcing. Very few such constraints have been identified for the multi-model CMIP archive. Here we explore the question of whether constraints that apply to a single model, a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE) of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1), can be applied to predicting the climate sensitivities of models within the CMIP archive. In particular we construct our predictive patterns from multivariate EOFs of the CAM3.1 ensemble control climate. Multiple regressive statistical models were created that do an excellent job of predicting CAM3.1 sensitivity to greenhouse gas forcing. However, these same patterns fail spectacularly to predict sensitivities of models within the CMIP archive. We attribute this failure to several factors. First, and perhaps the most important, is that the structures affecting climate sensitivity in CAM3.1 have a unique signature in the space of our multivariate EOF patterns that are unlike any other climate model. That is to say, we should not expect CAM3.1 to represent the way another models within CMIP archive respond to greenhouse gas forcing. The second, perhaps related, reason is that the CAM3.1 PPE does a poor job of spanning the range of climates and responses found within the CMIP archive. We shall discuss the implications of these results for the prospect of finding emergent constraints within the CMIP archive. We will also discuss what this may mean for establishing uncertainties in climate projections.

  8. The NCL natural constraint language

    Zhou, Jianyang


    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  9. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others


    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  10. Constraints on Relaxion Windows

    Choi, Kiwoon


    We examine low energy phenomenology of the relaxion solution to the weak scale hierarchy problem. Assuming that the Hubble friction is responsible for the dissipation of relaxion energy, we identify the cosmological relaxion window which corresponds to the parameter region compatible with a given value of the acceptable number of inflationary $e$-foldings. We then discuss a variety of observational constraints on the relaxion window, while focusing on the case that the barrier potential to stabilize the relaxion is induced by new physics, rather than by low energy QCD dynamics. We find that majority of the parameter space with a relaxion mass $m_\\phi\\gtrsim 100$ eV or a relaxion decay constant $f\\lesssim 10^7$ GeV is excluded by existing constraints. There is an interesting small parameter region with $m_\\phi\\sim \\,0.2-1$ GeV and $f\\sim\\, {\\rm few}-10$ TeV, which is allowed by existing constraints, but can be probed soon by future beam dump experiment such as the SHiP experiment, or by improved EDM experiment...

  11. Lagrangian chaos and small scale structure of passive scalars

    Vulpiani, Angelo


    We revise the classical theory of Batchelor, which gives a k-1 law for the power spectrum of a passive scalar at wavenumbers k, for which the molecular diffusion is unimportant and much smaller than the fluid viscosity. Using some ideas borrowed from the theory of dynamical systems, we show that this power law is related to the chaotic motion of marker particles (Lagrangian chaos) and to the incompressibility constraint. Moreover our approach permits showing that the k-1 regime is present in fluids which are not turbulent and it is valid for all dimensionalities d⩾2.

  12. Adjusting to the Emergent

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  13. Active Versus Passive Academic Networking

    Goel, Rajeev K.; Grimpe, Christoph


    This paper examines determinants of networking by academics. Using information from a unique large survey of German researchers, the key contribution focuses on the active versus passive networking distinction. Is active networking by researchers a substitute or a complement to passive networking......? Other contributions include examining the role of geographic factors in networking and whether research bottlenecks affect a researcher's propensity to network. Are the determinants of European conference participation by German researchers different from conferences in rest of the world? Results show...... that some types of passive academic networking are complementary to active networking, while others are substitute. Further, we find differences in factors promoting participation in European conferences versus conferences in rest of the world. Finally, publishing bottlenecks as a group generally do...

  14. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.


    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  15. Passivation of high temperature superconductors

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)


    The surface of high temperature superconductors such as YBa2Cu3O(7-x) are passivated by reacting the native Y, Ba and Cu metal ions with an anion such as sulfate or oxalate to form a surface film that is impervious to water and has a solubility in water of no more than 10(exp -3) M. The passivating treatment is preferably conducted by immersing the surface in dilute aqueous acid solution since more soluble species dissolve into the solution. The treatment does not degrade the superconducting properties of the bulk material.

  16. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    Brunsgaard, Camilla


    In recent years in Denmark there has been an increasing focus on implementing passive and active strategies in buildings to fulfil low energy demands like for example the Passive House Standard. From a technical rational perspective, plenty of pilot projects and commercial projects have shown...... that it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings forth...

  17. The Danish Reportive Passive as a Non-Canonical Passive

    Ørsnes, Bjarne


    Danish passive utterance and cognitive verbs allow a construction where the subject of an infinitival complement is raised: Peter siges at være bortrejst (‘Peter is said to be out of town’). Contrary to English, these verbs are not ECM-verbs or subject-to-object raising verbs in the active...

  18. Asteroseismic constraints for Gaia

    Creevey, O L


    Distances from the Gaia mission will no doubt improve our understanding of stellar physics by providing an excellent constraint on the luminosity of the star. However, it is also clear that high precision stellar properties from, for example, asteroseismology, will also provide a needed input constraint in order to calibrate the methods that Gaia will use, e.g. stellar models or GSP_phot. For solar-like stars (F, G, K IV/V), asteroseismic data delivers at the least two very important quantities: (1) the average large frequency separation and (2) the frequency corresponding to the maximum of the modulated-amplitude spectrum nu_max. Both of these quantities are related directly to stellar parameters (radius and mass) and in particular their combination (gravity and density). We show how the precision in , nu_max, and atmospheric parameters T_eff and [Fe/H] affect the determination of gravity (log g) for a sample of well-known stars. We find that log g can be determined within less than 0.02 dex accuracy for ou...

  19. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    Tang, Chengcheng


    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  20. The problem of passive observation

    Boumans, M.


    Trygve Haavelmo's methodological manifesto "The Probability Approach in Econometrics" not only laid down the paradigm for the research pursued at the Cowles Commission, but also sets out a strategy for measurement outside the laboratory. His conceptualization of "passive observation" is still very u

  1. Metric-adjusted skew information

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank


    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  2. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes. As a re......Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes....... As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  3. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    Ghilani, Charles D


    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  4. Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors

    Yue, Dewu; Lee, Daeyeong; Jang, Young Dae; Choi, Min Sup; Nam, Hye Jin; Jung, Duk-Young; Yoo, Won Jong


    We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used.We report the first air-passivated ambipolar BP transistor formed by applying benzyl viologen, which serves as a surface charge transfer donor for BP flakes. The passivated BP devices exhibit excellent stability under both an ambient atmosphere and vacuum; their transistor performance is maintained semi-permanently. Unlike their intrinsic p-type properties, passivated BP devices present advantageous ambipolar properties with much higher electron mobility up to ~83 cm2 V-1 s-1 from 2-terminal measurement at 300 K, compared to other reported studies on n-type BP transistors. On the basis of the n-type doping effect that originated from benzyl viologen, we also systematically investigated the BP thickness dependence of our devices on electrical properties, in which we found the best electron transport performance to be attained when an ~10 nm thick BP flake was used. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Transfer characteristics of BP field effect transistors (BV1-BV4) (Fig. S1 and S2 and Table S1); output characteristics of BP field effect transistors in different directions (Fig. S3

  5. Numerical simulation study on active and passive hydroforming process optimization of box shaped part

    Zeng, Y. P.; Dong, J. L.; He, T. D.; Wang, B.


    Low qualified rate and inferior quality frequently occurring in the general deep drawing process of a certain box-shaped part, now use hydroforming to optimize forming process, in order to study the effect of hydroforming for improving the quality and formability, purposed five process schemes: general deep drawing, active hydroforming, passive hydroforming, general deep drawing combined with active hydroforming, passive combined with active hydroforming. Each process was simulated by finite element simulation and results were analysed. The results indicate the passive combined with active hydroforming is the best scheme which can obtain smallest thickness thinning and satisfactory formability, then optimized hydroforming pressure, blank holder force subsequently by adjust the simulation parameters. Research result proves that active/passive hydroforming is a new method for complex parts forming.

  6. Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk among Non-Smoking Women: A Case-Control Study in China.

    Bin Li

    Full Text Available The role of passive smoking on breast cancer risk was unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk among Chinese women.A hospital-based case-control study, including 877 breast cancer cases and 890 controls, frequency-matched by age and residence, was conducted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on passive smoking history through face-to-face interview by trained interviewers. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between passive smoking and breast cancer risk. A positive association between any passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk was observed. Compared with women who were never exposed to passive smoking, women who were ever exposed had a higher breast cancer risk, with the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of 1.35 (1.11-1.65. Similar result was found on home passive smoking exposure and breast cancer risk, but not on workplace passive smoking exposure. Women who were ever exposed to tobacco smoke at home had a higher risk of breast cancer compared with never exposed women, with the adjusted OR (95% CI of 1.30 (1.05-1.61. Home passive smoking exposure showed significant dose-response relationships with breast cancer risk in smoker-years, cigarettes/day and total pack-years (Ptrend=0.003, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively. An increased total smoker-years of any passive exposure significantly elevated the risk of breast cancer (Ptrend<0.001. Positive associations and dose-response relationships were found among postmenopausal women and all subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR status of breast cancer.Passive smoking was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. A stronger positive association with breast cancer risk was seen mainly among postmenopausal women.

  7. Design Improvement Study for Passive Shutdown System of the PGSFR

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    There have been no experiences of implementing a passive shutdown system in operating or operated SFRs around the world. However, new SFRs are considered to adopt a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) in the future to provide an alternate means of passively shutting down the reactor. The Prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) also adopts this system for the same reason. This passive shutdown design concept is combined with a group of secondary control rod drive mechanisms (SCRDM). The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power in an emergency of the reactor. This paper describes the design upgrade parametric study of a passive shutdown system, which consists of a thermal expansion device, an electromagnet, a secondary control rod assembly head, etc. The conceptual design values of each component are also suggested. Parametric calculations are performed to meet the performance requirements of the thermal expansion device and electromagnets. The maximum thermal expansion difference length of 3.6 mm is less than the target value of 5 mm, and the calculated electromagnet forces on the CRA are smaller than the target value of 800 N. An additional design improvement to increase the thermal expansion difference length of a thermal expansion device are necessary to meet the target value, and the electromagnetic force should be increased by an adjustment of the electromagnet design values such as supplied current, material permeability, etc. The design feasibility of the thermal expansion device as a passive concept will be verified based on these results.

  8. Passivity-Based Control of a Rigid Electrodynamic Tether

    Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens


    how these periodic solutions can be stabilized by controlling only the current through the tether. A port-controlled Hamiltonian formulation is employed to describe the tethered satellite system and a passive input-output connection is utilized in the control design. The control law consists of two...... parts, a feedback connection, which stabilizes the open-loop equilibrium, and a bias term, which is able to drive the system trajectory away from this equilibrium, a feature necessary to obtain orbit adjustment capabilities of the electrodynamic tether. It is then shown how the periodic solutions...

  9. Rewriting Constraint Models with Metamodels

    Chenouard, Raphael; Soto, Ricardo


    An important challenge in constraint programming is to rewrite constraint models into executable programs calculat- ing the solutions. This phase of constraint processing may require translations between constraint programming lan- guages, transformations of constraint representations, model optimizations, and tuning of solving strategies. In this paper, we introduce a pivot metamodel describing the common fea- tures of constraint models including different kinds of con- straints, statements like conditionals and loops, and other first-class elements like object classes and predicates. This metamodel is general enough to cope with the constructions of many languages, from object-oriented modeling languages to logic languages, but it is independent from them. The rewriting operations manipulate metamodel instances apart from languages. As a consequence, the rewriting operations apply whatever languages are selected and they are able to manage model semantic information. A bridge is created between the metamode...

  10. Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization

    Abdallah, A Nait


    Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.

  11. Constraints On Cosmic Dynamics

    Mbonye, M R


    Observationally, the universe appears virtually critical. Yet, there is no simple explanation for this state. In this article we advance and explore the premise that the dynamics of the universe always seeks equilibrium conditions. Vacuum-induced cosmic accelerations lead to creation of matter-energy modes at the expense of vacuum energy. Because they gravitate, such modes constitute inertia against cosmic acceleration. On the other extreme, the would-be ultimate phase of local gravitational collapse is checked by a phase transition in the collapsing matter fields leading to a de Sitter-like fluid deep inside the black hole horizon, and at the expense of the collapsing matter fields. As a result, the universe succumbs to neither vacuum-induced run-away accelerations nor to gravitationally induced spacetime curvature singularities. Cosmic dynamics is self-regulating. We discuss the physical basis for these constraints and the implications, pointing out how the framework relates and helps resolve standing puzzl...

  12. Constraints on Spontaneous Entrainment

    Richardson Michael J.


    Full Text Available Past research has revealed that a person's rhythmic limb movements become spontaneously entrained to an environmental rhythm if a. visual information about the environmental rhythm is available and b. its frequency of the environmental rhythm is near that of the person's movements. Further, this research has demonstrated that if the eyes track the environmental stimulus, the spontaneous entrainment to the environmental rhythm is strengthened. Experiments were performed to investigate two hypotheses that could explain this eye-tracking enhancement of spontaneous entrainment. One hypothesis is that eye tracking allows for the pick up of important coordinative information at the turn-around points of a movement trajectory. Another hypothesis is that the limb movements entrain to the moving eyes through a neuromotor synergy linking the eyes and limb. Results of these experiments will help delineate the informational and dynamical constraints that can impact the acquisition of skilled actions.

  13. Passive solar design handbook. Volume 3: Passive solar design analysis

    Jones, R. W.; Bascomb, J. D.; Kosiewicz, C. E.; Lazarus, G. S.; McFarland, R. D.; Wray, W. O.


    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems.

  14. Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.


    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

  15. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  16. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Knobloch, Silvia


    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  17. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.


    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  18. User evaluation study of passive solar residences

    Towle, S.


    Speculation exists regarding the readiness of various passive techniques for commercialization and the market potential for residential applications. This paper discusses the preliminary findings of a market assessment study designed to document user experiences with passive solar energy. Owners and builders of passive solar homes were interviewed and asked to comment on personal experiences with their homes.

  19. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    Wilkinson, Darren J


    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  20. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Lansford, Jennifer E


    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  1. The Passive Voice and Teaching the Passive Voice to Chinese-speaking Learners



    The most significant functions of the passive voice for writing are identified with particular referenceto Chinese students.The use of the passive as a carefully controlled stylistic tool,and the appropriate use of theagentless passive are considered foundational to the teaching of the passive voice for writing purposes.Some potentialproblems will be also identified.

  2. Sustainable learning of heating? Domestication of energy technology in passive houses; Uthaalligt laerande om vaermen? Domesticering av energiteknik i passivhus

    Isaksson, Charlotta (Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden). Dept. of Technology and Social Change)


    investigates the reasons why energy technology is not domesticated: Which constraints exist in the household members' interplay and engagement with the energy technology? The division of labour in the home was a considerable reason to why engagement with the technology may decrease for one partner, while the other partner's engagement increases. The division of labour is based on interests and knowledge, functional partitions between work tasks to be done at home, and on traditions. The air handling unit is an aesthetically unattractive, uninteresting, strange mechanism in the home that is difficult to understand and 'works by itself' somewhere backstage. The operating instructions give limited support since the householders lack knowledge and interest, and the language used is difficult to interpret. The fourth and last research question concerns how the household members gradually increase their familiarity with - and knowledge about - to the handling of the indoor temperature in the passive house. The thesis shows various dimensions of this learning process. One of the dimensions emanates from familiarity with the technology, and hereby the situated and dynamic character of learning is emphasized. It includes the interplay between the experiences of the household members and the resources at hand. Another dimension of the learning process concerns how to relate to, and handle, variations when it comes to shifts in weather and daily activities, the need to adjust the heat to practices in the home and to the different household members' perceptions of what a comfortable indoor climate is. A third dimension shows that the household must learn how to handle, on the one hand, an air heating system that is 'miscalculated', and on the other hand 'wrong adjustments' made by themselves and others. An important explanation to why it took time to correct the 'wrong adjustments' and 'miscalculations' is the uncertainty

  3. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Lomnitz, C.


    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  4. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Kessel, Kurt R.


    Corrosion is an extensive problem that affects the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA). The deleterious effects of corrosion result in steep costs, asset downtime affecting mission readiness, and safety risks to personnel. It is vital to reduce corrosion costs and risks in a sustainable manner. The primary objective of this effort is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys.

  5. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.


    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  6. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose


    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...

  7. Nonholonomic constraints with fractional derivatives

    Tarasov, Vasily E [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Zaslavsky, George M [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St, New York, NY 10012 (United States)


    We consider the fractional generalization of nonholonomic constraints defined by equations with fractional derivatives and provide some examples. The corresponding equations of motion are derived using variational principle. We prove that fractional constraints can be used to describe the evolution of dynamical systems in which some coordinates and velocities are related to velocities through a power-law memory function.

  8. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    Christiansen, Henning


    of knowledge. The language of Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, is suggested for defining constraint solvers that reflect “world knowledge” for the given domain, and driver algorithms may be ex- pressed in Prolog or additional rules of CHR. It is argued that this way of doing context comprehension is an instance...

  9. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco


    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas...

  10. Passive-solar simulation analysis


    A passive solar heating component (TANKWALL) was developed. TANKWALL is a fiberglass water wall, selective surfaced, solar absorption, thermal storage tank. Testing of the thermal performance of TANKWALL was performed which included a series of room and instrumentation calibration tests and several comparison experiments where TANKWALL was operated side-by-side with other passive solar configurations. Relevant effective heat transfer values (solar absorptance, capacitance, conductance) were derived using a thermal network computer model and data from the above experiments. Then using these heat transfer values, three hour-by-hour computer simulations were run for a proto-typical passive solar house using various solar systems and standard hourly weather data. The subject house had a Building Load Coefficient of 8899.2 Btu/H, a vertical south facing 200 sq. ft. collector, and a Load/Collector Ratio of 44.5. It was found that the TANKWALL with selective surface performs significantly better in the Dayton, Ohio area than either the painted 12 inch Trombe wall or the painted TANKWALL with R-4.5 night insulation.

  11. The passive of reflexive verbs in Icelandic

    Hlíf Árnadóttir


    Full Text Available The Reflexive Passive in Icelandic is reminiscent of the so-called New Passive (or New Impersonal in that the oblique case of a passivized object NP is preserved. As is shown by recent surveys, however, speakers who accept the Reflexive Passive do not necessarily accept the New Passive, whereas conversely, speakers who accept the New Passive do also accept the Reflexive Passive. Based on these results we suggest that there is a hierarchy in the acceptance of passive sentences in Icelandic, termed the Passive Acceptability Hierarchy. The validity of this hierarchy is confirmed by our diachronic corpus study of open access digital library texts from Icelandic journals and newspapers dating from the 19th and 20th centuries (tí Finally, we sketch an analysis of the Reflexive Passive, proposing that the different acceptability rates of the Reflexive and New Passives lie in the argument status of the object. Simplex reflexive pronouns are semantically dependent on the verbs which select them, and should therefore be analyzed as syntactic arguments only, and not as semantic arguments of these verbs.

  12. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Müller, D


    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  13. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'


      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  14. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul


    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  15. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus


    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....


    G.W. Groves


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  17. Asymmetric sound transmission in a passive non-blocking structure with multiple ports

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Gu, Zhong-Ming; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Yin, Lei-lei; Cheng, Jian-Chun


    We present the mechanism for breaking the symmetry in sound transmission between any two neighboring ports in a passive multi-port system. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements verify that by using judiciously designed metastructures to provide an extra wavevector without blocking the sound path, the propagating wave will travel along a preset direction at each port instead of splitting to both directions. We have also demonstrated the flexibility of this scheme to adjust the location of each port. Our design advances further the concept of one-way manipulation in passive two-port systems and may enable novel sound-steering devices for more versatile applications.

  18. Gibbs free energy assisted passivation layers

    Salihoglu, Omer; Tansel, T.; Hostut, M.; Ergun, Y.; Aydinli, A.


    Reduction of surface leakage is a major challenge in most photodetectors that requires the elimination of surface oxides on etched mesas during passivation. Engineering the passivation requires close attention to chemical reactions that take place at the interface during the process. In particular, removal of surface oxides may be controlled via Gibbs reactivity. We have compared electrical performance of type-II superlattice photodetectors, designed for MWIR operation, passivated by different passivation techniques. We have used ALD deposited Al2O3, HfO2, TiO2, ZnO, PECVD deposited SiO2, Si3N4 and sulphur containing octadecanethiol (ODT) selfassembled monolayers (SAM) passivation layers on InAs/GaSb p-i-n superlattice photodetectors with cutoff wavelength at 5.1 μm. In this work, we have compared the result of different passivation techniques which are done under same conditions, same epitaxial structure and same fabrication processes. We have found that ALD deposited passivation is directly related to the Gibbs free energy of the passivation material. Gibbs free energies of the passivation layer can directly be compared with native surface oxides to check the effectiveness of the passivation layer before the experimental study.

  19. Effective Constraints for Quantum Systems

    Bojowald, Martin; Skirzewski, Aureliano; Tsobanjan, Artur


    An effective formalism for quantum constrained systems is presented which allows manageable derivations of solutions and observables, including a treatment of physical reality conditions without requiring full knowledge of the physical inner product. Instead of a state equation from a constraint operator, an infinite system of constraint functions on the quantum phase space of expectation values and moments of states is used. The examples of linear constraints as well as the free non-relativistic particle in parameterized form illustrate how standard problems of constrained systems can be dealt with in this framework.

  20. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    Verbart, A.


    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topolo

  1. Model-Driven Constraint Programming

    Chenouard, Raphael; Soto, Ricardo; 10.1145/1389449.1389479


    Constraint programming can definitely be seen as a model-driven paradigm. The users write programs for modeling problems. These programs are mapped to executable models to calculate the solutions. This paper focuses on efficient model management (definition and transformation). From this point of view, we propose to revisit the design of constraint-programming systems. A model-driven architecture is introduced to map solving-independent constraint models to solving-dependent decision models. Several important questions are examined, such as the need for a visual highlevel modeling language, and the quality of metamodeling techniques to implement the transformations. A main result is the s-COMMA platform that efficiently implements the chain from modeling to solving constraint problems

  2. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due...... to no overall conceptual framing or shared terminology. This lack of unity hinders overt opportunities for cross-disciplinary interchange. We argue that an improved understanding of constraints in creativity holds a promising potential for advancements in creativity research across domains and disciplines. Here......, we give an overview of the growing, but incohesive body of research into creativity and constraints, which leads us to introduce ‘creativity constraints’ as a unifying concept to help bridge these disjoint contributions to facilitate cross- disciplinary interchange. Finally, we suggest key topics...

  3. Weighted constraints in generative linguistics.

    Pater, Joe


    Harmonic Grammar (HG) and Optimality Theory (OT) are closely related formal frameworks for the study of language. In both, the structure of a given language is determined by the relative strengths of a set of constraints. They differ in how these strengths are represented: as numerical weights (HG) or as ranks (OT). Weighted constraints have advantages for the construction of accounts of language learning and other cognitive processes, partly because they allow for the adaptation of connectionist and statistical models. HG has been little studied in generative linguistics, however, largely due to influential claims that weighted constraints make incorrect predictions about the typology of natural languages, predictions that are not shared by the more popular OT. This paper makes the case that HG is in fact a promising framework for typological research, and reviews and extends the existing arguments for weighted over ranked constraints.

  4. Forekomsten af passiv rygning i Danmark

    Kristensen, T S; Møller, L; Holstein, B E


    The occurrence of passive smoking in the adult population in Denmark has not been described previously. This article publishes data from three investigations all of which were carried out in 1987. One was an interview investigation of a random section of the Danish population carried out...... showed consistent results as regards the occurrence of passive smoking among adult Danes. About 12% of non-smokers were exposed to passive smoking for at least eight hours and 40% for at least one hour daily. Altogether 73% were exposed to passive smoking daily. About one third of the non-smokers were...... inconvenienced by passive smoking at work and a corresponding fraction had taken steps to reduce the extent of passive smoking in their daily life. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-Aug-27...

  5. Formal Verification under Unknown Constraints

    LI Guang-hui; LI Xiao-wei


    We present a formal method of verifying designs with unknown constraints (e. g. , black boxes) using Boolean satisfiability (SAT). This method is based on a new encoding scheme of unknown constraints, and solves the corresponding conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Furthermore, this method can avoid the potential memory explosion, which the binary decision diagram (BDD) based techniques maybe suffer from, thus it has the capacity of verifying large designs. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa


    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  7. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    None, None


    Columbia County Habitat for Humanity (CCHH) (New York, Climate Zone 5A) built a pair of townhomes to Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS+ 2015) criteria to explore approaches for achieving Passive House performance (specifically with respect to exterior wall, space-conditioning, and ventilation strategies) within the labor and budget context inherent in a Habitat for Humanity project. CCHH’s goal is to eventually develop a cost-justified Passive House prototype design for future projects.

  8. Adaptive passive equivalence of uncertain Lü system

    Qi Dong-Lian


    An adaptive passive strategy for controlling uncertain Lü system is proposed. Since the uncertain Lü system is minimum phase and the uncertain parameters are from a bounded compact set, the essential conditions are studied by which uncertain Lü system could be equivalent to a passive system, and the adaptive control law is given. Using passive theory, the uncertain Lü system could be globally asymptotically stabilized at different equilibria by the smooth state feedback.

  9. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    Balcomb, J.D.


    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  10. Applications of passivated silicon detectors

    Kyung, Richard; Park, Chan Ho


    We can postulate that dark matter are WIMPS, more specifically, Majorana particles called neutralinos floating through space. Upon neutralino-neutralino annihilation, they create a greater burst of other particles into space: these being all kinds of particles including anti-deuterons which are the indications of the existence of dark matter. For the study of the applications of passivated silicon detectors, this paper shows following procedures in two categories. Painting on little pieces of silicon (Polyimid and Boxcar Red) :Took clean paint brush and painted on Polyimid and Boxcar red samples onto little pieces of sample silicon and dried for a certain number of hours in different conditions. Cooling test : usually done in 7 cycles, cool until usually -35 degrees or -40 degrees Celsius with thermoelectric cooler, dry out, evapate the moisture in the fume hood, take pictures with the microscope and check for irregularities every 1, 4 and 7 times. The results show us how the passivated silicon will act in the real experiment--the vacuum chamber and x-rays (from the radioactive source), and different atmospheric pressures simulate what it will be like in space.

  11. Rocket launchers as passive controllers

    Cochran, J. E., Jr.; Gunnels, R. T.; McCutchen, R. K., Jr.


    A concept is advanced for using the motion of launchers of a free-flight launcher/rocket system which is caused by random imperfections of the rockets launched from it to reduce the total error caused by the imperfections. This concept is called 'passive launcher control' because no feedback is generated by an active energy source after an error is sensed; only the feedback inherent in the launcher/rocket interaction is used. Relatively simple launcher models with two degrees of freedom, pitch and yaw, were used in conjunction with a more detailed, variable-mass model in a digital simulation code to obtain rocket trajectories with and without thrust misalignment and dynamic imbalance. Angular deviations of rocket velocities and linear deviations of the positions of rocket centers of mass at burnout were computed for cases in which the launcher was allowed to move ('flexible' launcher) and was constrained so that it did not rotate ('rigid' launcher) and ratios of flexible to rigid deviations were determined. Curves of these error ratios versus launcher frequency are presented. These show that a launcher which has a transverse moment of inertia about its pivot point of the same magnitude as that of the centroidal transverse moments of inertia of the rockets launched from it can be tuned to passively reduce the errors caused by rocket imperfections.

  12. Passive Wireless SAW Humidity Sensors Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the preliminary development of passive wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) based humidity sensors for NASA application to distributed...

  13. Passive cavitation imaging with ultrasound arrays.

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A; Datta, Saurabh; Holland, Christy K; Mast, T Douglas


    A method is presented for passive imaging of cavitational acoustic emissions using an ultrasound array, with potential application in real-time monitoring of ultrasound ablation. To create such images, microbubble emissions were passively sensed by an imaging array and dynamically focused at multiple depths. In this paper, an analytic expression for a passive image is obtained by solving the Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral, under the Fresnel approximation, and passive images were simulated. A 192-element array was used to create passive images, in real time, from 520-kHz ultrasound scattered by a 1-mm steel wire. Azimuthal positions of this target were accurately estimated from the passive images. Next, stable and inertial cavitation was passively imaged in saline solution sonicated at 520 kHz. Bubble clusters formed in the saline samples were consistently located on both passive images and B-scans. Passive images were also created using broadband emissions from bovine liver sonicated at 2.2 MHz. Agreement was found between the images and source beam shape, indicating an ability to map therapeutic ultrasound beams in situ. The relation between these broadband emissions, sonication amplitude, and exposure conditions are discussed.

  14. Passive Control Architecture for Virtual Humans

    Rennuit, Antoine; Merlhiot, Xavier; Andriot, Claude; Guillaume, François; Chevassus, Nicolas; Chablat, Damien; Chedmail, Patrick


    In the present paper, we introduce a new control architecture aimed at driving virtual humans in interaction with virtual environments, by motion capture. It brings decoupling of functionalities, and also of stability thanks to passivity. We show projections can break passivity, and thus must be used carefully. Our control scheme enables task space and internal control, contact, and joint limits management. Thanks to passivity, it can be easily extended. Besides, we introduce a new tool as for manikin's control, which makes it able to build passive projections, so as to guide the virtual manikin when sharp movements are needed.

  15. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.


    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  16. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment


    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  17. Simultaneous dimension reduction and adjustment for confounding variation.

    Lin, Zhixiang; Yang, Can; Zhu, Ying; Duchi, John; Fu, Yao; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Bai; Zamanighomi, Mahdi; Xu, Xuming; Li, Mingfeng; Sestan, Nenad; Zhao, Hongyu; Wong, Wing Hung


    Dimension reduction methods are commonly applied to high-throughput biological datasets. However, the results can be hindered by confounding factors, either biological or technical in origin. In this study, we extend principal component analysis (PCA) to propose AC-PCA for simultaneous dimension reduction and adjustment for confounding (AC) variation. We show that AC-PCA can adjust for (i) variations across individual donors present in a human brain exon array dataset and (ii) variations of different species in a model organism ENCODE RNA sequencing dataset. Our approach is able to recover the anatomical structure of neocortical regions and to capture the shared variation among species during embryonic development. For gene selection purposes, we extend AC-PCA with sparsity constraints and propose and implement an efficient algorithm. The methods developed in this paper can also be applied to more general settings. The R package and MATLAB source code are available at

  18. Modelling and monitoring of passive control structures in human movement

    Hemami, Hooshang; Hemami, Mahmoud


    Passive tissues, ligaments and cartilage are vital to human movement. Their contribution to stability, joint function and joint integrity is essential. The articulation of their functions and quantitative assessment of what they do in a healthy or injured state are important in athletics, orthopaedics, medicine and health. In this paper, the role of cartilage and ligaments in stability of natural contacts, connections and joints is articulated by including them in two very simple skeletal systems: one- and three-link rigid body systems. Based on the Newton-Euler equations, a state space presentation of the dynamics is discussed that allows inclusion of ligament and cartilage structures in the model, and allows for Lyapunov stability studies for the original and reduced systems. The connection constraints may be holonomic and non-holonomic depending on the structure of the passive elements. The development is pertinent to the eventual design of a computational framework for the study of human movement that involves computer models of all the relevant skeletal, neural and physiological elements of the central nervous system (CNS). Such a structure also permits testing of different hypotheses about the functional neuroanatomy of the CNS, and the study of the effects and dynamics of disease, deterioration, aging and injuries. The formulation here is applied to one- and three-link systems. Digital computer simulations of a two rigid body system are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the approach and the methods.

  19. The L2 Acquisition of English Passive%The L2Acquisition of English Passive



    Passive voice is an important grammatical category in language learning while it varies in different languages.In order to diminish the negative impact on L1 transfer and maintain the originality of passive voice in L2 learning,this essay centers on the grammatical differences of passive voice both in English and Chinese and propose practical teaching strategies.

  20. An adjustable contracted CI method

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼


    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  1. Adjustment or updating of models

    D J Ewins


    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  2. Integrated Passive And Wireless Sensor

    Li, Bodong


    A passive and wireless sensor is provided for sensing at least one of magnetic field, temperature or humidity. The sensor can provide only one of the sensing functions, individually or any combination of them simultaneously. It can be used for various applications where magnetic field changes, temperature and/or humidity need to be measured. In one or more embodiments, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is provided that can measure one or more of a magnetic field (or current that generates the magnetic field), temperature and humidity. In one or more embodiments, a magnetoimpedence (MI) sensor (for example a thin film giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) sensor), a thermally sensitive (for example a Lithium Niobite (LiNbO.sub.3)) substrate, and a humidity sensitive film (for example a hydrogel film) can be used as sensing elements.

  3. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan


    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  4. Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters

    Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A; Meinild, A K;


    1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from the c...

  5. Om retsinstituttet passiv identifikation i formueretten

    Holle, Marie-Louise


    ikke undergivet en behandling i sin helhed i dansk retslitteratur. Studiet af passiv identifikation lider navnlig under, at forholdet til andre retsfigurer er uafklaret. Det antages i både dansk og udenlandsk retsteori, at passiv identifikations anvendelsesområde er sammenfaldende med aktiv...

  6. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Michael J. Fox


    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  7. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  8. Passive Control of Attachment in Legged Space Robots

    Alessandro Gasparetto


    Full Text Available In the space environment the absence of gravity calls for constant safe attachment of any loose object, but the low-pressure conditions prohibit the use of glue-type adhesives. The attachment system of freely hunting spiders, e.g. Evarcha arcuata, employs van der Waals forces and mechanical interlocking. Furthermore, detachment is achieved passively and requires little force. Hence, the spider serves as a model for a versatile legged robot for space applications, e.g. on the outer surface of a space station. In this paper, we analyse the dry attachment systems of E. arcuata and geckos as well as the kinematics of freely hunting spiders. We generalise the results of biological studies on spider locomotion and mobility, including the major movement and the position constraints set by the dry adhesion system. From these results, we define a simplified spider model and study the overall kinematics of the legs both in flight and in contact with the surface. The kinematic model, the data on spider gait characteristics and the adhesion constraints are implemented in a kinematic simulator. The simulator results confirm the principal functionality of our concept.

  9. Constraint programming and decision making

    Kreinovich, Vladik


    In many application areas, it is necessary to make effective decisions under constraints. Several area-specific techniques are known for such decision problems; however, because these techniques are area-specific, it is not easy to apply each technique to other applications areas. Cross-fertilization between different application areas is one of the main objectives of the annual International Workshops on Constraint Programming and Decision Making. Those workshops, held in the US (El Paso, Texas), in Europe (Lyon, France), and in Asia (Novosibirsk, Russia), from 2008 to 2012, have attracted researchers and practitioners from all over the world. This volume presents extended versions of selected papers from those workshops. These papers deal with all stages of decision making under constraints: (1) formulating the problem of multi-criteria decision making in precise terms, (2) determining when the corresponding decision problem is algorithmically solvable; (3) finding the corresponding algorithms, and making...

  10. Adjustable wheelchair and method for adjusting said adjustable wheelchair, and wheelchair assembly

    Oosterhuis, D.S.


    The invention relates to an adjustable wheelchair comprising: -a carriage; -two rear wheels; -at least one front wheel; -at least one footrest; -a sub-frame; -a seat; and -a backrest; wherein the two rear wheels, the at least one front wheel and the at least one footrest are mounted to the carriage,

  11. Passivity-based design of robust passive damping for LCL-filtered voltage source converters

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang


    Passive damping is proven as a robust stabilizing technique for LCL-filtered voltage source converters. However, conventional design methods of passive dampers are based on the passive components only, while the inherent damping effect of time delay in the digital control system is overlooked....... In this paper, a frequency-domain passivity-based design approach is proposed, where the passive dampers are designed to eliminate the negative real part of the converter output admittance with closed-loop current control, rather than shaping the LCL-filter itself. Thus, the influence of time delay...... in the current control is included, which allows a relaxed design of the passive damper with the reduced power loss and improved stability robustness against grid parameters variations. Design procedures of two commonly used passive dampers with LCL-filtered VSCs are illustrated. Experimental results validate...

  12. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L


    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  13. Constraint on Absolute Accuracy of Metacomprehension Assessments: The Anchoring and Adjustment Model vs. the Standards Model

    Kwon, Heekyung


    The objective of this study is to provide a systematic account of three typical phenomena surrounding absolute accuracy of metacomprehension assessments: (1) the absolute accuracy of predictions is typically quite low; (2) there exist individual differences in absolute accuracy of predictions as a function of reading skill; and (3) postdictions…

  14. High-Energy Passive Mode-Locking of Fiber Lasers

    Edwin Ding


    Full Text Available Mode-locking refers to the generation of ultrashort optical pulses in laser systems. A comprehensive study of achieving high-energy pulses in a ring cavity fiber laser that is passively mode-locked by a series of waveplates and a polarizer is presented in this paper. Specifically, it is shown that the multipulsing instability can be circumvented in favor of bifurcating to higher-energy single pulses by appropriately adjusting the group velocity dispersion in the fiber and the waveplate/polarizer settings in the saturable absorber. The findings may be used as practical guidelines for designing high-power lasers since the theoretical model relates directly to the experimental settings.

  15. Design and passive analysis of a novel softness display device


    Simulating the softness property of object is quite a challenge in virtual reality system. A novel softness display system was developed based on the principle of deformable length of elastic element control ( DLEEC). In the system, the equivalent stiffness of the device is adjustable, and is inversely proportional to the third power of the deformable length of elastic beam. PD position control is employed to guarantee the accurate softness display. The softness of the virtual objects in large scale can be felt with the softness display device. Compared with other haptic devices, the device is passive and exert the react force only when the operator "actively touch" the virtual objects. The stability of the softness display system was analyzed. It was theoretical proved that the system satisfied the criteria of wide impedance range"Z-width", and the performance was superior to an active system. The experimental results were presented.

  16. Performance of passive samplers for monitoring estuarine water column concentrations: 2. Emerging contaminants.

    Perron, Monique M; Burgess, Robert M; Suuberg, Eric M; Cantwell, Mark G; Pennell, Kelly G


    Measuring dissolved concentrations of emerging contaminants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and triclosan, can be challenging due to their physicochemical properties resulting in low aqueous solubilities and association with particles. Passive sampling methods have been applied to assess dissolved concentrations in water and sediments primarily for legacy contaminants. Although the technology is applicable to some emerging contaminants, the use of passive samplers with emerging contaminants is limited. In the present study, the performance of 3 common passive samplers was evaluated for sampling PBDEs and triclosan. Passive sampling polymers included low-density polyethylene (PE) and polyoxymethylene (POM) sheets, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Dissolved concentrations were calculated using measured sampler concentrations and laboratory-derived partition coefficients. Dissolved tri-, tetra-, and pentabrominated PBDE congeners were detected at several of the study sites at very low pg/L concentrations using PE and POM. Calculated dissolved water concentrations of triclosan ranged from 1.7 ng/L to 18 ng/L for POM and 8.8 ng/L to 13 ng/L for PE using performance reference compound equilibrium adjustments. Concentrations in SPME were not reported due to lack of detectable chemical in the PDMS polymer deployed. Although both PE and POM were found to effectively accumulate emerging contaminants from the water column, further research is needed to determine their utility as passive sampling devices for emerging contaminants.

  17. Passive flow regulators for drug delivery and hydrocephalus treatment

    Chappel, E.; Dumont-Fillon, D.; Mefti, S.


    Passive flow regulators are usually intended to deliver or drain a fluid at a constant rate independently from pressure variations. New designs of passive flow regulators made of a stack of a silicon membrane anodically bonded to a Pyrex substrate are proposed. A first design has been built for the derivation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) towards peritoneum for hydrocephalus treatment. The device allows draining CSF at the patient production rate independently from postural changes. The flow rate is regulated at 20 ml/h in the range 10 to 40 mbar. Specific features to adjust in vivo the nominal flow rate are shown. A second design including high pressure shut-off feature has been made. The intended use is drug delivery with pressurized reservoir of typically 100 to 300 mbar. In both cases, the membrane comprises several holes facing pillars in the Pyrex substrate. These pillars are machined in a cavity which ensures a gap between the membrane and the pillars at rest. The fluid in the pressurized reservoir is directly in contact with the top surface of the membrane, inducing its deflection towards Pyrex substrate and closing progressively the fluidic pathway through each hole of the membrane. Since the membrane deflection is highly non-linear, FEM simulations have been performed to determine both radial position and diameter of the membrane holes that ensure a constant flow rate for a given range of pressure.

  18. Effects of using passive filter for reduce electrical load harmonics

    Sucita, T.


    Due to the use of electrical current load that uses a lot of electronic components (passive non-linear electrical loads), so the impact will cause harmonics in the electrical network system. These harmonics can unwittingly cause a relatively large loss in electrical energy consumption and can lower the power factor of an electrical installation. Limits how much the harmonic distortion that is installed on the load adjusted to the IEEE 519-1992 standard. The study was conducted by taking data on a network of electrical installation of a building using measuring devices Fluke 43B Power Quality Analyser. The data is then processed and consulted with the standard IEEE 519-1992. Once the data has a discrepancy with the standard, further made the filter design using linear passive components. The design is then installed on the network installation by means of simulated order harmonic losses can be overcome so that the circuit meets the IEEE standard installation by changing the parameters of the linear load L and C. The results of this study indicate that THDi value decreased after the installation of filters for phase R fell by 9.39%, the S phase decreased by 7.54% and for the T phase decreased by 16.88%. So that meets the IEEE standard by 15%.

  19. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.;


    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...

  20. Constraint-induced movement therapy

    Castellini, Greta; Gianola, Silvia; Banzi, Rita;


    on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data on the functional independence measure (FIM) and the action research arm test (ARAT) from RCTs that compared CIMT...

  1. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    Leth-Petersen, Søren


    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity as col...

  2. Constraint Programming versus Mathematical Programming

    Hansen, Jesper


    Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a relatively new technique from the 80's with origins in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. Lately, much research have been focused on ways of using CLP within the paradigm of Operations Research (OR) and vice versa. The purpose of this paper...

  3. Constraint-based facial animation

    Ruttkay, Z.M.


    Constraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equations for f

  4. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff;


    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint....... This problem is called halfspace range searching in the computational geometry literature. Our goal is to minimize the number of disk blocks required to store the data structure and the number of disk accesses (I/Os) required to answer a query. For d=2, we present the first data structure that uses linear...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear...

  5. Perceptual Constraints in Phonotactic Learning

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Mehler, Jacques


    Structural regularities in language have often been attributed to symbolic or statistical general purpose computations, whereas perceptual factors influencing such generalizations have received less interest. Here, we use phonotactic-like constraints as a case study to ask whether the structural properties of specific perceptual and memory…

  6. Citric Acid Passivation of Stainless Steel

    Yasensky, David; Reali, John; Larson, Chris; Carl, Chad


    Passivation is a process for cleaning and providing corrosion protection for stainless steel. Currently, on Kennedy Space Center (KSC), only parts passivated with nitric acid are acceptable for use. KSC disposes of approximately 125gal of concentrated nitric acid per year, and receives many parts from vendors who must also dispose of used nitric acid. Unfortunately, nitric acid presents health and environmental hazards. As a result, several recent industry studies have examined citric acid as an alternative. Implementing a citric acid-based passivation procedure would improve the health and environmental safety aspects of passivation process. However although there is a lack of published studies that conclusively prove citric acid is a technically sound passivation agent. In 2007, NASA's KSC Materials Advisory Working Group requested the evaluation of citric acid in place of nitric acid for passivation of parts at KSC. United Space Alliance Materials & Processes engineers have developed a three-phase test plan to evaluate citric acid as an alternative to nitric acid on three stainless steels commonly used at KSC: UNS S30400, S41000, and S17400. Phases 1 and 2 will produce an optimized citric acid treatment based on results from atmospheric exposure at NASA's Beach Corrosion Facility. Phase 3 will compare the optimized solution(s) with nitric acid treatments. If the results indicate that citric acid passivates as well or better than nitric acid, NASA intends to approve this method for parts used at the Kennedy Space Center.

  7. Can EU conditionality remedy soft budget constraints in transition countries?

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Brücker, Herbert; Weise, Christian


    Soft budget constraints (SBCs) are a persistent feature of transition economies and have been blamed for a lack of fiscal consolidation and sluggish growth. EU eastward enlargement has been conditioned on tackling SBCs. This paper analyzes such outside conditionality theoretically and empirically....... First, by modeling the SBC problem as a war of attrition between the applicant countries' governments and firms, we find that outside conditionality can foster SBC hardening. Second, estimating SBC hardening in a partial adjustment model by measuring the development of labor productivity, we find...

  8. Small Scale Yielding Correction of Constraint Loss in Small Sized Fracture Toughness Test Specimens

    Kim, Maan Won; Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, Jun Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Fracture toughness data in the ductile-brittle transition region of ferritic steels show scatter produced by local sampling effects and specimen geometry dependence which results from relaxation in crack tip constraint. The ASTM E1921 provides a standard test method to define the median toughness temperature curve, so called Master Curve, for the material corresponding to a 1T crack front length and also defines a reference temperature, T{sub 0}, at which median toughness value is 100 MPam for a 1T size specimen. The ASTM E1921 procedures assume that high constraint, small scaling yielding (SSY) conditions prevail at fracture along the crack front. Violation of the SSY assumption occurs most often during tests of smaller specimens. Constraint loss in such cases leads to higher toughness values and thus lower T{sub 0} values. When applied to a structure with low constraint geometry, the standard fracture toughness estimates may lead to strongly over-conservative estimates. A lot of efforts have been made to adjust the constraint effect. In this work, we applied a small-scale yielding correction (SSYC) to adjust the constraint loss of 1/3PCVN and PCVN specimens which are relatively smaller than 1T size specimen at the fracture toughness Master Curve test.

  9. Analysis of passive heating concepts

    Nayak, J.K.; Bansal, N.K.; Sodha, M.S.


    Based on Fourier series solution of the heat conduction equation, a mathematical model has been developed to analyse the thermal performance of some typical passive heating concepts, namely the Trombe wall. Water wall and Solarium in two cases: when the glazing is left uncovered thoughout and when the glazing is covered with an insulation during off sunshine hours. The model yields analytical expressions for the time dependent heat flux entering into the living space, which is assumed to be at a constant temperature corresponding to an air conditioned room. Numerical calculations corresponding to the meteorological data of a typical cold winter day in North America (Boulder, 13 January) show that from the point of view of thermal load levelling and average heat flux into the room, the solarium is best when the south glazing is not covered with a night insulation. In the case when night insulation is used a water wall is, however, found to be the best; a 0.10 m wide water wall followed by a 0.22 m thick concrete wall gives almost a constant heat flux into the living space.

  10. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Kessel, Kurt R.


    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to qualify citric acid as an environmentally-preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys. This project is a direct follow-on to United Space Alliance (USA) work at KSC to optimize the parameters for the use of citric acid and verify effectiveness. This project will build off of the USA study to further evaluate citric acids effectiveness and suitability for corrosion protection of a number of stainless steels alloys used by NASA, the Department of Defense (DoD), and the European Space Agency (ESA).


    Garrett, A.


    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  12. Illegal Passive Smoking at Work

    François-Xavier Lesage


    Results. Ninety-five percent of a total group of 172 OP of Champagne county filled the postal questionnaire. More than 80% of OP's replies identified illegal PSW. The average prevalence of PSW exposure was 0.7% of the total working population. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS levels were considered between low and medium for most passive smokers (71%. Main features exposure to ETS at work for non-smokers was associated with female gender (69.5%, age between 40 and 49 years (41.2% and belonging to tertiary sector (75.6%. Environmental tobacco smoke exposures at work was firstly in the office for 49.7% of the subjects and secondly in the restroom for 18% of them. Main medical symptoms encountered by non-smokers were respiratory tractus irritation (81.7%. Eighty-three percent of OPs indicated solution to eradicate PSW. Illegal PSW is really weaker than fifteen years ago. However, the findings support a real ban on smoking in the workplace in order to protect all workers.

  13. Passive Cooling of Body Armor

    Holtz, Ronald; Matic, Peter; Mott, David


    Warfighter performance can be adversely affected by heat load and weight of equipment. Current tactical vest designs are good insulators and lack ventilation, thus do not provide effective management of metabolic heat generated. NRL has undertaken a systematic study of tactical vest thermal management, leading to physics-based strategies that provide improved cooling without undesirable consequences such as added weight, added electrical power requirements, or compromised protection. The approach is based on evaporative cooling of sweat produced by the wearer of the vest, in an air flow provided by ambient wind or ambulatory motion of the wearer. Using an approach including thermodynamic analysis, computational fluid dynamics modeling, air flow measurements of model ventilated vest architectures, and studies of the influence of fabric aerodynamic drag characteristics, materials and geometry were identified that optimize passive cooling of tactical vests. Specific architectural features of the vest design allow for optimal ventilation patterns, and selection of fabrics for vest construction optimize evaporation rates while reducing air flow resistance. Cooling rates consistent with the theoretical and modeling predictions were verified experimentally for 3D mockups.

  14. Python passive network mapping P2NMAP

    Hosmer, Chet


    Python Passive Network Mapping: P2NMAP is the first book to reveal a revolutionary and open source method for exposing nefarious network activity. The ""Heartbleed"" vulnerability has revealed significant weaknesses within enterprise environments related to the lack of a definitive mapping of network assets. In Python Passive Network Mapping, Chet Hosmer shows you how to effectively and definitively passively map networks. Active or probing methods to network mapping have traditionally been used, but they have many drawbacks - they can disrupt operations, crash systems, and - most important

  15. Chirality in Bare and Passivated Gold Nanoclusters

    Garzon, I L; Rodrigues-Hernandez, J I; Sigal, I; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K


    Chiral structures have been found as the lowest-energy isomers of bare (Au$_{28}$ and Au$_{55}) and thiol-passivated (Au$_{28}(SCH$_{3})$_{16}$ and Au$_{38}$(SCH$_{3}$)$_{24}) gold nanoclusters. The degree of chirality existing in the chiral clusters was calculated using the Hausdorff chirality measure. We found that the index of chirality is higher in the passivated clusters and decreases with the cluster size. These results are consistent with the observed chiroptical activity recently reported for glutahione-passivated gold nanoclusters, and provide theoretical support for the existence of chirality in these novel compounds.

  16. Creativity from Constraints in Engineering Design

    Onarheim, Balder


    This paper investigates the role of constraints in limiting and enhancing creativity in engineering design. Based on a review of literature relating constraints to creativity, the paper presents a longitudinal participatory study from Coloplast A/S, a major international producer of disposable......, removal, introducing and revising. Constraints introduced late in a project contributed to the generation of new solutions to old problems, and existing solutions were creatively adopted to satisfy new constraints. This paper recommends creative constraint-handling strategies, as well as identifying...... potential directions for future research on the relationship between creativity and constraints...

  17. Age of old objects constraints on cosmic opacity

    Holanda, R F L; Dantas, M A


    In this paper, it is proposed a cosmological model independent method to constrain the cosmic opacity. As an approach never seen before in literature, we use the ages of 32 old passive galaxies distributed over the redshift interval $0.11 < z < 1.84$ and of 9 extremely old globular clusters in M31 galaxy to obtain opacity free luminosity distance. By comparing them to the 580 distance moduli of supernovae from the so-called Union 2.1 compilation we put limits on the cosmic opacity parametrized by $\\tau(z) = \\epsilon z/(1+z)$ (for $\\epsilon =0$ the transparent universe is recovered). Considering the cosmic background radiation constraints on the spatial curvature of the Universe no significant deviation from transparency is verified.

  18. Passive film growth on carbon steel and its nanoscale features at various passivating potentials

    Li, Yuan; Cheng, Y. Frank


    In this work, the passivation and topographic sub-structure of passive films on a carbon steel in a carbonate/bicarbonate solution was characterized by electrochemical measurements, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When passivating at a potential near the active-passive transition, the film contains the mixture of Fe3O4, Fe2O3 and FeOOH, with numerous nanoscale features. As the film-forming potential shifts positively, the passive film becomes more compact and the nanoscale features disappear. When the film is formed at a passive potential where the oxygen evolution is enabled, the content of FeOOH in the film increases, resulting in an amorphous topography and reduced corrosion resistance.

  19. Novel All-Passive Lightpipe Illumination Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal aims to develop all-passive fiberoptic lighting systems that can be used on long space missions or here on earth. By addressing the traditional...

  20. Influence and Passivity in Social Media

    Romero, Daniel M; Asur, Sitaram; Huberman, Bernardo A


    The ever-increasing amount of information flowing through Social Media forces the members of these networks to compete for attention and influence by relying on other people to spread their message. A large study of information propagation within Twitter reveals that the majority of users act as passive information consumers and do not forward the content to the network. Therefore, in order for individuals to become influential they must not only obtain attention and thus be popular, but also overcome user passivity. We propose an algorithm that determines the influence and passivity of users based on their information forwarding activity. An evaluation performed with a 2.5 million user dataset shows that our influence measure is a good predictor of URL clicks, outperforming several other measures that do not explicitly take user passivity into account. We also explicitly demonstrate that high popularity does not necessarily imply high influence and vice-versa.

  1. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Wright, Graham S. [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Building Science Corp., Westford, MA (United States)


    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  2. Introducing passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring: Motor bike piston-bore fault identification

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.


    Requirement of designing a sophisticated digital band-pass filter in acoustic based condition monitoring has been eliminated by introducing a passive acoustic filter in the present work. So far, no one has attempted to explore the possibility of implementing passive acoustic filters in acoustic based condition monitoring as a pre-conditioner. In order to enhance the acoustic based condition monitoring, a passive acoustic band-pass filter has been designed and deployed. Towards achieving an efficient band-pass acoustic filter, a generalized design methodology has been proposed to design and optimize the desired acoustic filter using multiple filter components in series. An appropriate objective function has been identified for genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique with multiple design constraints. In addition, the sturdiness of the proposed method has been demonstrated in designing a band-pass filter by using an n-branch Quincke tube, a high pass filter and multiple Helmholtz resonators. The performance of the designed acoustic band-pass filter has been shown by investigating the piston-bore defect of a motor-bike using engine noise signature. On the introducing a passive acoustic filter in acoustic based condition monitoring reveals the enhancement in machine learning based fault identification practice significantly. This is also a first attempt of its own kind.

  3. Paroc passive house. Cold climate energy solution; Paroc-passiivitalo. Kylmaen ilmaston energiaratkaisu

    Kouhia, I.; Nieminen, J.; Holopainen, R.


    The energy requirements for a passive house are quite strict. These requirements need to be adopted already in early phase of project planning. Collaboration between different design domains is a necessity. System design requires accurate information on the performance parameters of equipment. This information has to be available for the designers. Paroc passive house shows that HVAC system settings and trimming are a condition of the required performance. System adjustments and trimming were carried out almost for one year after the building was finished. The need for adjustments comes from poor documentation of the performance parameters of the equipment. Accurate monitoring results are available for less than one year; however, the results show that the building meets the requirements set on the delivered energy and primary energy. The primary energy use in the two apartments is 96 and 130 kWh/m{sup 2}. The airtightness of the building envelope were n{sub 50} = 0.37 1/h and n{sub 50} = 0.25 1/h correspondingly. The primary energy use in the passive house Paroc Lupaus is 130 kWh/m{sup 2} and the airtightness of the building envelope n{sub 50} = 0.5 1/h. The energy used for space heating 30 kWh/m{sup 2} exceeds the set requirement of 25 kWh/m{sup 2}. The indoor temperature has been higher than assumed in the design. The monitoring shows that the technical systems do not perform as expected. There is still need for adjustments and trimming both for the ventilation system and heat pump. In general, the performance parameters of the HVAC systems are not accurate enough for passive house design. (orig.)

  4. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction.

  5. An All-Silicon Passive Optical Diode

    Fan, Li; Wang, Jian; Varghese, Leo T.; Shen, Hao; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M.; Qi, Minghao


    A passive optical diode effect would be useful for on-chip optical information processing but has been difficult to achieve. Using a method based on optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate a forward-backward transmission ratio of up to 28 decibels within telecommunication wavelengths. Our device, which uses two silicon rings 5 micrometers in radius, is passive yet maintains optical nonreciprocity for a broad range of input power levels, and it performs equally well even if the backward input pow...

  6. Active and passive immunization for cancer

    Baxter, David


    Vaccination started around the 10th century AD as a means of preventing smallpox. By the end of the 19th century such therapeutic vaccines were well established with both active and passive preparations being used in clinical practice. Active immunization involved administering an immunogen that might be live/ attenuated, killed/ inactivated, toxoid or subunit in origin. Passive immunization involved giving pre-formed antibodies, usually to very recently exposed individuals. At about the same...

  7. Simulation study of passive target motion analysis

    HU Youfeng; JIAO Binli


    In this paper, the problem of underwater passive target motion analysis (TMA) in three dimensions is discussed using the measurements of passive bearings and elevation and frequency on the condition that acoustic source and observer are in different horizontal planes. Simulation results with both of the PLE (pseudo-linear estimation) and MLE (Maximum likelihood estimation) show that the TMA method is effective in oceanic environment. Its error covariance curves tend to its Cramer-Rao lower bounds.

  8. Balance of payments adjustment mechanisms in the Euro area

    Pavel HNÁT


    Full Text Available The article aims at analysing the current situation in the Euro area with respect to the balance of payments adjustment mechanism that should normally be at place. Internally, the Euro area membership represents a combination of the fixed exchange rate, capital mobility and no monetary policy autonomy; externally, the Euro area countries apply floating exchange rates with high capital mobility, and autonomous monetary policy. Member states thus cannot use the monetary instruments to prevent external influences; they can only use fiscal policies, which are limited by the Stability and Growth Pact and debt constraint. When external imbalance occurs (such as today, the economies of member states are exposed to the price and income adjustment processes as well as to their own fiscal and ECB policy impacts. This article shows that all these factors interfere and influence real effects of automatic adjustment mechanisms which in some cases cannot come forth at all. Factors within domestic economic policies that limit the restoration of external balance within the Euro area thus create an important outcome of this paper.

  9. The Application of Constraint Satisfaction Technique in Conflict Detection and Resolution


    The conflict detection and resolution in collaborative design is a key issue to maintain multi-disciplinary design consistency. This paper proposes a new method for conflict detection and resolution based on constraint sat isfaction technique.The representation of design constraint, the interval arith metic of the constraint satisfaction problem CSP and the conflict resolution str ategy based on constraint relaxation and adjustment are introduced.A constr aint-satisfaction based conflict detection and resolution tool CSCDR is then de veloped. It can help collaborative designers to detect and resolve the confli cts in time in the early stage of the design process so that the unnecessary des ign iteration and repeated negotiation are avoided and the design efficiency is then much improved. A design case illustrates the effectiveness of CSCDR.

  10. Observational Constraints on Exponential Gravity

    Yang, Louis; Luo, Ling-Wei; Geng, Chao-Qiang


    We study the observational constraints on the exponential gravity model of f(R)=-beta*Rs(1-e^(-R/Rs)). We use the latest observational data including Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) Union2 compilation, Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) and Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) in our analysis. From these observations, we obtain a lower bound on the model parameter beta at 1.27 (95% CL) but no appreciable upper bound. The constraint on the present matter density parameter is 0.245< Omega_m^0<0.311 (95% CL). We also find out the best-fit value of model parameters on several cases.

  11. A Compendium of Chameleon Constraints

    Burrage, Clare


    The chameleon model is a scalar field theory with a screening mechanism that explains how a cosmologically relevant light scalar can avoid the constraints of intra-solar-system searches for fifth-forces. The chameleon is a popular dark energy candidate and also arises in $f(R)$ theories of gravity. Whilst the chameleon is designed to avoid historical searches for fifth-forces it is not unobservable and much effort has gone into identifying the best observables and experiments to detect it. These results are not always presented for the same models or in the same language, a particular problem when comparing astrophysical and laboratory searches making it difficult to understand what regions of parameter space remain. Here we present combined constraints on the chameleon model from astrophysical and laboratory searches for the first time and identify the remaining windows of parameter space. We discuss the implications for cosmological chameleon searches and future small-scale probes.

  12. Methods of Translating the English passive voice



    @@ 一、Comparisons between Voices in English and Chinese In English as in many other languages,the passive voice is the form of a transitive verb whose grammatical sabjOct serves as the patient,receiving the action of the verb.The passive voice is typically contrasted with the active voice,which is the form of a transitive verb whose subject serves as the agent,performing the action of the verb.The subject of a verb in the passive voice corresponds to the object of the same verb in the active voice.English's passive voice is periphrastic;that is,it does not have a one-word form.Rather,it is formed using a form of the auxiliary verb be together with a verb's past participle.The passive voice is widely used in English when it is unnecessary,undesirable,or impossible to ilame the agent of an action,or when the passive voice is needed to link the text better.

  13. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    Goswami, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Human Modeling and Simulation; Peshkin, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  14. Managing Restaurant Tables using Constraints

    Vidotto, Alfio; Brown, Kenneth N.; Beck, J. Christopher

    Restaurant table management can have significant impact on both profitability and the customer experience. The core of the issue is a complex dynamic combinatorial problem. We show how to model the problem as constraint satisfaction, with extensions which generate flexible seating plans and which maintain stability when changes occur. We describe an implemented system which provides advice to users in real time. The system is currently being evaluated in a restaurant environment.

  15. Deepening Contractions and Collateral Constraints

    Jensen, Henrik; Ravn, Søren Hove; Santoro, Emiliano

    on the differential impact that occasionally non-binding constraints exert on the shape of expansions and contractions, we are also able to reconcile a more negatively skewed business cycle with a moderation in its volatility. Finally, our model can account for an intrinsic feature of economic downturns preceded...... by private credit build-ups: Financially driven expansions lead to deeper contractions, as compared to equally-sized non-financial expansions....

  16. Causality constraints on TMD PDF

    Efremov, A V


    In this short note, we discuss constraints on the transverse momentum dependent factorization formulae coming from the causality properties for the hadronic tensor. We show that the range of definition of the TMD PDFs in the transverse coordinate plane is wider that it is allowed by the causality. It indicates the presents of the large compensating corrections for the TMD PDF factorization theorem and/or overestimation of the transverse component dependence of TMD PDF.

  17. State estimation for delayed genetic regulatory networks based on passivity theory.

    Vembarasan, V; Nagamani, G; Balasubramaniam, P; Park, Ju H


    This paper is concerned with the state estimation problem for delayed genetic regulatory networks (GRNs) based on passivity analysis approach. The main purpose of the problem is to design the estimator to approximate the true concentrations of the mRNA and protein through available measurement outputs. Time-varying delays are explicitly assumed to be non-differentiable and constraint on the derivative of the time-varying delay is less than one can be removed. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals involving triple integral terms, using some integral inequalities and convex combination technique, a delay-dependent passivity criterion is established for GRNs in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that can efficiently be solved by any available LMI solvers. Finally, numerical examples and simulation are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed estimation schemes.

  18. Novel passive localization algorithm based on double side matrix-restricted total least squares

    Xu Zheng; Qu Changwen; Wang Changhai


    In order to solve the bearings-only passive localization problem in the presence of erroneous observer position,a novel algorithm based on double side matrix-restricted total least squares (DSMRTLS) is proposed.First,the aforementioned passive localization problem is transferred to the DSMRTLS problem by deriving a multiplicative structure for both the observation matrix and the observation vector.Second,the corresponding optimization problem of the DSMRTLS problem without constraint is derived,which can be approximated as the generalized Rayleigh quotient minimization problem.Then,the localization solution which is globally optimal and asymptotically unbiased can be got by generalized eigenvalue decomposition.Simulation results verify the rationality of the approximation and the good performance of the proposed algorithm compared with several typical algorithms.

  19. Expressing Preferences using Preference Set Constraint Atoms

    Brik, Alex


    This paper introduces an extension of Answer Set Programming called Preference Set Constraint Programming which is a convenient and general formalism to reason with preferences. PSC programming extends Set Constraint Programming introduced by Marek and Remmel (Marek and Remmel 2004) by introducing two types of preference set constraint atoms, measure preference set constraint atoms and pre-ordered preference set constraint atoms, which are extensions of set constraint atoms. We show that the question of whether a PSC program has a preferred stable model is CoNP-complete. We give examples of the uses of the preference set constraint atoms and show that Answer Set Optimization (Brewka, Niemel\\"a, and Truszczynski 2003) and General Preference (Son and Pontelli 2006) can be expressed using preference set constraint atoms.

  20. Hybrid tractability of soft constraint problems

    Cooper, Martin C


    The constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) is a central generic problem in computer science and artificial intelligence: it provides a common framework for many theoretical problems as well as for many real-life applications. Soft constraint problems are a generalisation of the CSP which allow the user to model optimisation problems. Considerable effort has been made in identifying properties which ensure tractability in such problems. In this work, we initiate the study of hybrid tractability of soft constraint problems; that is, properties which guarantee tractability of the given soft constraint problem, but which do not depend only on the underlying structure of the instance (such as being tree-structured) or only on the types of soft constraints in the instance (such as submodularity). We present several novel hybrid classes of soft constraint problems, which include a machine scheduling problem, constraint problems of arbitrary arities with no overlapping nogoods, and the SoftAllDiff constraint with arbi...

  1. Infrared Constraint on Ultraviolet Theories

    Tsai, Yuhsin [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    While our current paradigm of particle physics, the Standard Model (SM), has been extremely successful at explaining experiments, it is theoretically incomplete and must be embedded into a larger framework. In this thesis, we review the main motivations for theories beyond the SM (BSM) and the ways such theories can be constrained using low energy physics. The hierarchy problem, neutrino mass and the existence of dark matter (DM) are the main reasons why the SM is incomplete . Two of the most plausible theories that may solve the hierarchy problem are the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models and supersymmetry (SUSY). RS models usually suffer from strong flavor constraints, while SUSY models produce extra degrees of freedom that need to be hidden from current experiments. To show the importance of infrared (IR) physics constraints, we discuss the flavor bounds on the anarchic RS model in both the lepton and quark sectors. For SUSY models, we discuss the difficulties in obtaining a phenomenologically allowed gaugino mass, its relation to R-symmetry breaking, and how to build a model that avoids this problem. For the neutrino mass problem, we discuss the idea of generating small neutrino masses using compositeness. By requiring successful leptogenesis and the existence of warm dark matter (WDM), we can set various constraints on the hidden composite sector. Finally, to give an example of model independent bounds from collider experiments, we show how to constrain the DM–SM particle interactions using collider results with an effective coupling description.

  2. Constraint Based Modeling Going Multicellular.

    Martins Conde, Patricia do Rosario; Sauter, Thomas; Pfau, Thomas


    Constraint based modeling has seen applications in many microorganisms. For example, there are now established methods to determine potential genetic modifications and external interventions to increase the efficiency of microbial strains in chemical production pipelines. In addition, multiple models of multicellular organisms have been created including plants and humans. While initially the focus here was on modeling individual cell types of the multicellular organism, this focus recently started to switch. Models of microbial communities, as well as multi-tissue models of higher organisms have been constructed. These models thereby can include different parts of a plant, like root, stem, or different tissue types in the same organ. Such models can elucidate details of the interplay between symbiotic organisms, as well as the concerted efforts of multiple tissues and can be applied to analyse the effects of drugs or mutations on a more systemic level. In this review we give an overview of the recent development of multi-tissue models using constraint based techniques and the methods employed when investigating these models. We further highlight advances in combining constraint based models with dynamic and regulatory information and give an overview of these types of hybrid or multi-level approaches.

  3. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    B.C. Cañas


    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  4. Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra

    Charles, Christoph


    We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space R^3. One then glues them allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Lambda, and in particular that deforming the loop gravity phase space with real parameter q>0 would lead to a generalization of twisted geometries to a hyperbolic curvature. Following this insight, we look for generalization of the closure constraints to the hyperbolic case. In particular, we introduce two new closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahe...

  5. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    Loosemore, Jean Ann


    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  6. Theory of Work Adjustment Personality Constructs.

    Lawson, Loralie


    To measure Theory of Work Adjustment personality and adjustment style dimensions, content-based scales were analyzed for homogeneity and successively reanalyzed for reliability improvement. Three sound scales were developed: inflexibility, activeness, and reactiveness. (SK)

  7. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.


    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  8. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    Solnon, Christine


    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  9. Geometric constraint solving with geometric transformation


    This paper proposes two algorithms for solving geometric constraint systems. The first algorithm is for constrained systems without loops and has linear complexity. The second algorithm can solve constraint systems with loops. The latter algorithm is of quadratic complexity and is complete for constraint problems about simple polygons. The key to it is to combine the idea of graph based methods for geometric constraint solving and geometric transformations coming from rule-based methods.

  10. Transition state to mode locking in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fibre ring laser

    Liu Jia-Rui; Xu Wen-Cheng; Luo Zhi-Chao; Luo Ai-Ping; Yin Hai-Sen


    The transition state between the continuous wave region and the mode-locked region in a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fibre ring laser has been experimentally observed by utilizing the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. When the pump power reaches the mode-locked threshold, the metastable pulse train with a tunable repetition rate is obtained in the transition from the continuous wave state to the passive mode-locked state via proper adjustment of the polarization controller. A simple model has been established to explain the experimental observation.

  11. Hydrogen Passivation in Mc-Si for Solar Cells


    The effect of hydrogen passivation on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) used for solar cells is described, and the mechanism of hydrogen diffusion and passivation is also investigated. Then, the hydrogen passivation processes applied in industries and research laboratories are introduced. Finally the existing problems and the prospects of hydrogen passivation are reviewed.

  12. The Ambiguous Role of Constraints in Creativity

    Biskjær, Michael Mose; Onarheim, Balder; Wiltschnig, Stefan


    The relationship between creativity and constraints is often described in the literature either in rather imprecise, general concepts or in relation to very specific domains. Cross-domain and cross-disciplinary takes on how the handling of constraints influences creative activities are rare. In t......-disciplinary research into the ambiguous role of constraints in creativity....

  13. A general treatment of dynamic integrity constraints

    de Brock, EO


    This paper introduces a general, set-theoretic model for expressing dynamic integrity constraints, i.e., integrity constraints on the state changes that are allowed in a given state space. In a managerial context, such dynamic integrity constraints can be seen as representations of "real world" cons

  14. Capital adjustment patterns on Dutch pig farms

    Gardebroek, C.


    This paper develops a generalised adjustment cost framework that explicitly accounts for zero investments on Dutch pig farms. A farm-specific flexible adjustment cost function is used to account for differences in adjustment costs between farms. Using the Generalised Method of Moments the Euler equa

  15. Experimental study of a semi-passive ventilation grille with a feedback control system

    D'Orazio, A.; Fontana, L.; Salata, F.


    The diffusion of window frames with low air permeability, due to the energy saving regulations, has implied in several cases the worsening of the indoor microclimate and air quality. On the other hand, air-tight window frames imply uncontrolled and too high air change rates. The mechanical ventilation not always is a practicable solution because of economic reasons and because it implies energy waste. Various Italian and European environmental and energetic laws take into consideration and promote the use of controlled natural ventilation, though this definition is not associated to well defined and tested technical solutions. An adequate solution can be achieved by using semi-passive self adjustable ventilation devices, able to ensure controlled changes of indoor air. In this paper, a semi-passive damper with a feedback control system is proposed and its behavior is investigated by means of experimental study. The presented semi-passive grille allows to control the air flow rate, injected into the room by natural or artificial pressure gradient, more effectively than the usual passive ventilation grilles made available by the present industrial production. However, since the semi-passive grille has a one-way flow, in the natural ventilation of a flat the proper functioning of the system could be ensured with a more complex configuration, with respect to the passive self-regulating grilles, able to limit the flow of fresh air in the presence of high levels of Δp; conversely, it could have widespread use in applications requiring a more accurate control of airflow in case of mechanical ventilation plants.

  16. Experimental study of a semi-passive ventilation grille with a feedback control system.

    D'Orazio, A; Fontana, L; Salata, F


    The diffusion of window frames with low air permeability, due to the energy saving regulations, has implied in several cases the worsening of the indoor microclimate and air quality. On the other hand, air-tight window frames imply uncontrolled and too high air change rates. The mechanical ventilation not always is a practicable solution because of economic reasons and because it implies energy waste. Various Italian and European environmental and energetic laws take into consideration and promote the use of controlled natural ventilation, though this definition is not associated to well defined and tested technical solutions. An adequate solution can be achieved by using semi-passive self adjustable ventilation devices, able to ensure controlled changes of indoor air. In this paper, a semi-passive damper with a feedback control system is proposed and its behavior is investigated by means of experimental study. The presented semi-passive grille allows to control the air flow rate, injected into the room by natural or artificial pressure gradient, more effectively than the usual passive ventilation grilles made available by the present industrial production. However, since the semi-passive grille has a one-way flow, in the natural ventilation of a flat the proper functioning of the system could be ensured with a more complex configuration, with respect to the passive self-regulating grilles, able to limit the flow of fresh air in the presence of high levels of Δp; conversely, it could have widespread use in applications requiring a more accurate control of airflow in case of mechanical ventilation plants.

  17. Optimal initial condition of passive tracers for their maximal mixing in finite time

    Farazmand, Mohammad


    The efficiency of a fluid mixing device is often limited by fundamental laws and/or design constraints, such that a perfectly homogeneous mixture cannot be obtained in finite time. Here, we address the natural corollary question: Given the best available mixer, what is the optimal initial tracer pattern that leads to the most homogeneous mixture after a prescribed finite time? For ideal passive tracers, we show that this optimal initial condition coincides with the right singular vector (corresponding to the smallest singular value) of a suitably truncated Koopman operator. The truncation of the Koopman operator is made under the assumption that there is a small length-scale threshold $\\ell_\

  18. Passive Smoke Exposure as a Risk Factor for Oral Clefts-A Large International Population-Based Study.

    Kummet, Colleen M; Moreno, Lina M; Wilcox, Allen J; Romitti, Paul A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Munger, Ronald G; Lie, Rolv T; Wehby, George L


    Maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for oral clefts. Evidence is less clear for passive (secondhand) smoke exposure. We combined individual-level data from 4 population-based studies (the Norway Facial Clefts Study, 1996-2001; the Utah Child and Family Health Study, 1995-2004; the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 1999-2009; and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States), 1999-2007) to obtain 4,508 cleft cases and 9,626 controls. We categorized first-trimester passive and active smoke exposure. Multivariable logistic models adjusted for possible confounders (maternal alcohol consumption, use of folic acid supplements, age, body size, education, and employment, plus study fixed effects). Children whose mothers actively smoked had an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.46). Children of passively exposed nonsmoking mothers also had an increased risk (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27). Cleft risk was further elevated among babies of smoking mothers who were exposed to passive smoke (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.70). Using a large pooled data set, we found a modest association between first-trimester passive smoking and oral clefts that was consistent across populations, diverse study designs, and cleft subtypes. While this association may reflect subtle confounding or bias, we cannot rule out the possibility that passive smoke exposure during pregnancy is teratogenic.

  19. Passive cigarette smoke exposure during various periods of life, genetic variants, and breast cancer risk among never smokers.

    Anderson, Laura N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Mirea, Lucia; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Kreiger, Nancy


    The association between passive cigarette smoke exposure and breast cancer risk is inconclusive and may be modified by genotype. The authors investigated lifetime passive cigarette smoke exposures, 36 variants in 12 carcinogen-metabolizing genes, and breast cancer risk among Ontario, Canada, women who had never smoked (2003-2004). DNA (saliva) was available for 920 breast cancer cases and 960 controls. Detailed information about passive smoke exposure was collected for multiple age periods (childhood, teenage years, and adulthood) and environments (home, work, and social). Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by multivariable logistic regression, and statistical interactions were assessed using the likelihood ratio test. Among postmenopausal women, most associations between passive smoke and breast cancer risk were null, whereas among premenopausal women, nonsignificant positive associations were observed. Significant interactions were observed between certain types of passive smoke exposure and genetic variants in CYP2E1, NAT2, and UGT1A7. While these interactions were statistically significant, the magnitudes of the effect estimates were not consistent or easily interpretable, suggesting that they were perhaps due to chance. Although the results of this study were largely null, it is possible that premenopausal women exposed to passive smoke or carrying certain genetic variants may be at higher risk of breast cancer.

  20. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    Kahn, Yonatan; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Tait, Tim M P


    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevan...

  1. Light Weakly Coupled Axial Forces: Models, Constraints, and Projections

    Kahn, Yonatan [Princeton U.; Krnjaic, Gordan [Fermilab; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth [Princeton U.; Tait, Tim P. [UC, Irvine


    We investigate the landscape of constraints on MeV-GeV scale, hidden U(1) forces with nonzero axial-vector couplings to Standard Model fermions. While the purely vector-coupled dark photon, which may arise from kinetic mixing, is a well-motivated scenario, several MeV-scale anomalies motivate a theory with axial couplings which can be UV-completed consistent with Standard Model gauge invariance. Moreover, existing constraints on dark photons depend on products of various combinations of axial and vector couplings, making it difficult to isolate the effects of axial couplings for particular flavors of SM fermions. We present a representative renormalizable, UV-complete model of a dark photon with adjustable axial and vector couplings, discuss its general features, and show how some UV constraints may be relaxed in a model with nonrenormalizable Yukawa couplings at the expense of fine-tuning. We survey the existing parameter space and the projected reach of planned experiments, briefly commenting on the relevance of the allowed parameter space to low-energy anomalies in pi^0 and 8-Be* decay.

  2. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided wave guided fluorescence

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark


    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  3. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided waveguided fluorescence

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark


    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  4. An automatic mode-locked system for passively mode-locked fiber laser

    Li, Sha; Xu, Jun; Chen, Guoliang; Mei, Li; Yi, Bo


    This paper designs and implements one kind of automatic mode-locked system. It can adjust a passively mode-locked fiber laser to keep steady mode-locked states automatically. So the unsteadiness of traditional passively mode-locked fiber laser can be avoided. The system transforms optical signals into electrical pulse signals and sends them into MCU after processing. MCU calculates the frequency of the signals and judges the state of the output based on a quick judgment algorithm. A high-speed comparator is used to check the signals and the comparison voltage can be adjusted to improve the measuring accuracy. Then by controlling two polarization controllers at an angle of 45degrees to each other, MCU extrudes the optical fibers to change the polarization until it gets proper mode-locked output. So the system can continuously monitor the output signal and get it back to mode-locked states quickly and automatically. States of the system can be displayed on the LCD and PC. The parameters of the steady mode-locked states can be stored into an EEPROM so that the system will get into mode-locked states immediately next time. Actual experiments showed that, for a 6.238MHz passively mode-locked fiber lasers, the system can get into steady mode-locked states automatically in less than 90s after starting the system. The expected lock time can be reduced to less than 20s after follow up improvements.

  5. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick


    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top......-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  6. Minimal Model Semantics for Sorted Constraint Representation

    廖乐健; 史忠植


    Sorted constraint representation is a very useful representation in AI which combines class hierarchies and constraint networks.For such sorted constraint representation,a problem is how to generalize the idea of default inheritance to constraint network,where the attributes in a class or between different classes interact with each other via the network.To give a formal account for the defeasible reasoning in such representation,a general sorted constraint logic is proposed,and a minimal-model semantics for the logic is presented.

  7. Semi-Global Matching with Self-Adjusting Penalties

    Karkalou, E.; Stentoumis, C.; Karras, G.


    The demand for 3D models of various scales and precisions is strong for a wide range of applications, among which cultural heritage recording is particularly important and challenging. In this context, dense image matching is a fundamental task for processes which involve image-based reconstruction of 3D models. Despite the existence of commercial software, the need for complete and accurate results under different conditions, as well as for computational efficiency under a variety of hardware, has kept image-matching algorithms as one of the most active research topics. Semi-global matching (SGM) is among the most popular optimization algorithms due to its accuracy, computational efficiency, and simplicity. A challenging aspect in SGM implementation is the determination of smoothness constraints, i.e. penalties P1, P2 for disparity changes and discontinuities. In fact, penalty adjustment is needed for every particular stereo-pair and cost computation. In this work, a novel formulation of self-adjusting penalties is proposed: SGM penalties can be estimated solely from the statistical properties of the initial disparity space image. The proposed method of self-adjusting penalties (SGM-SAP) is evaluated using typical cost functions on stereo-pairs from the recent Middlebury dataset of interior scenes, as well as from the EPFL Herz-Jesu architectural scenes. Results are competitive against the original SGM estimates. The significant aspects of self-adjusting penalties are: (i) the time-consuming tuning process is avoided; (ii) SGM can be used in image collections with limited number of stereo-pairs; and (iii) no heuristic user intervention is needed.

  8. Evaluation of Urban Air Quality By Passive Sampling Technique

    Nunes, T. V.; Miranda, A. I.; Duarte, S.; Lima, M. J.

    Aveiro is a flat small city in the centre of Portugal, close to the Atlantic coast. In the last two decades an intensive development of demographic, traffic and industry growth in the region was observed which was reflected on the air quality degrada- tion. In order to evaluate the urban air quality in Aveiro, a field-monitoring network by passive sampling with high space resolution was implemented. Twenty-four field places were distributed in a area of 3x3 Km2 and ozone and NO2 concentrations were measured. The site distribution density was higher in the centre, 250x250 m2 than in periphery where a 500x500 m2 grid was used. The selection of field places took into consideration the choice criteria recommendation by United Kingdom environmental authorities, and three tubes and a blank tube for each pollutant were used at each site. The sampling system was mounted at 3m from the ground usually profiting the street lampposts. Concerning NO2 acrylic tubes were used with 85 mm of length and an in- ternal diameter of 12mm, where in one of the extremities three steel grids impregnated with a solution of TEA were placed and fixed with a polyethylene end cup (Heal et al., 1999); PFA Teflon tube with 53 mm of length and 9 mm of internal diameter and three impregnated glass filters impregnated with DPE solution fixed by a teflon end cup was used for ozone sampling (Monn and Hargartner, 1990). The passive sampling method for ozone and nitrogen dioxide was compared with continuous measurements, but the amount of measurements wasnSt enough for an accurate calibration and validation of the method. Although this constraint the field observations (June to August 2001) for these two pollutants assign interesting information about the air quality in the urban area. A krigger method of interpolation (Surfer- Golden Software-2000) was applied to field data to obtain isolines distribution of NO2 and ozone concentration for the studied area. Even the used passive sampling method has many

  9. A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints

    Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400


    Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...

  10. Passive Motion Paradigm: an alternative to Optimal Control

    Vishwanathan eMohan


    Full Text Available In the last years, optimal control theory (OCT has emerged as the leading approach for investigating neural control of movement and motor cognition for two complementary research lines: behavioural neuroscience and humanoid robotics. In both cases, there are general problems that need to be addressed, such as the ‘degrees of freedom problem’, the common core of production, observation, reasoning, and learning of ‘actions’. OCT, directly derived from engineering design techniques of control systems quantifies task goals as ‘cost functions’ and uses the sophisticated formal tools of optimal control to obtain desired behaviour (and predictions. We propose an alternative ‘softer’ approach (PMP: Passive Motion Paradigm that we believe is closer to the biomechanics and cybernetics of action. The basic idea is that actions (overt and overt are the consequences of an internal simulation process that ‘animates’ the body schema with the attractor dynamics of force fields induced by the goal and task specific constraints. This internal simulation offers the brain a way to dynamically link motor redundancy with task oriented constraints ‘at runtime’, hence solving the ‘degrees of freedom problem’ without explicit kinematic inversion and cost function computation. We argue that the function of such computational machinery is not only to shape motor output during action execution but also to provide the self with information on the feasibility, consequence, understanding and meaning of ‘potential actions’. In this sense, taking into account recent developments in neuroscience (motor imagery, simulation theory, mirror neurons and in embodied robotics, PMP offers a novel framework for understanding motor cognition that goes beyond the engineering control paradigm provided by OCT. Therefore, the paper is at the same time a review of the PMP rationale, as a computational theory, and a perspective presentation of how to develop it

  11. Very high energy emission from passive supermassive black holes

    Pedaletti, Giovanna


    The H.E.S.S. experiment, an array of four Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, widened the horizon of Very High Energy (VHE) astronomy. Its unprecedented sensitivity is well suited for the study of new classes of expected VHE emitters, such as passive galactic nuclei that are the main focus of the work presented in this thesis. Acceleration of particles up to Ultra High Energies is expected in the magnetosphere of supermassive black holes (SMBH). The radiation losses of these accelerated particles are expected to reach the VHE regime in which H.E.S.S. operates. Predicted fluxes exceed the sensitivity of the array. However, strong photon fields in the surrounding of the acceleration region might absorb the produced radiation. Therefore observations focus on those galactic nuclei that are underluminous at lower photon energies. This work presents data collected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes on the test candidate NGC 1399 and their interpretation. While no detection has been achieved, important constraints can be derived from the obtained upper limits on the maximum energy attainable by the accelerated particles and on the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region. A limit on the magnetic field of B < 74 Gauss is given. The limit is model dependent and a scaling of the result with the assumptions is given. This is the tightest empirical constraint to date. Because of the lack of signal from the test candidate, a stacking analysis has been performed on similar sources in three cluster fields. A search for signal from classes of active galactic nuclei has also been made in the same three fields. None of the analyzed samples revealed a significant signal. Also presented are the expectations for the next generation of Cherenkov Telescopes and an outlook on the relativistic effects expected on the VHE emission close to SMBH. (orig.)

  12. Limitations of Passively Mapping Logical Network Topologies

    Ayodeji J. Akande


    Full Text Available Understanding logical network connectivity is essential in network topology mapping especially in a fast growing network where knowing what is happening on the network is critical for security purposes and where knowing how network resources are being used is highly important. Mapping logical communication topology is important for network auditing, network maintenance and governance, network optimization, and network security. However, the process of capturing network traffic to generate the logical network topology may have a great influence on the operation of the network. In hierarchically structured networks such as control systems, typical active network mapping techniques are not employable as they can affect time-sensitive cyber-physical processes, hence, passive network mapping is required. Though passive network mapping does not modify or disrupt existing traffic, current passive mapping techniques ignore many practical issues when used to generate logical communication topologies. In this paper, we present a methodology which compares topologies from an idealized mapping process with what is actually achievable using passive network mapping and identify some of the factors that can cause inaccuracies in logical maps derived from passively monitored network traffic. We illustrate these factors using a case study involving a hierarchical control network.

  13. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.


    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  14. Active-passive vibration absorber of beam-cart-seesaw system with piezoelectric transducers

    Lin, J.; Huang, C. J.; Chang, Julian; Wang, S.-W.


    In contrast with fully controllable systems, a super articulated mechanical system (SAMS) is a controlled underactuated mechanical system in which the dimensions of the configuration space exceed the dimensions of the control input space. The objectives of the research are to develop a novel SAMS model which is called beam-cart-seesaw system, and renovate a novel approach for achieving a high performance active-passive piezoelectric vibration absorber for such system. The system consists of two mobile carts, which are coupled via rack and pinion mechanics to two parallel tracks mounted on pneumatic rodless cylinders. One cart carries an elastic beam, and the other cart acts as a counterbalance. One adjustable counterweight mass is also installed underneath the seesaw to serve as a passive damping mechanism to absorb impact and shock energy. The motion and control of a Bernoulli-Euler beam subjected to the modified cart/seesaw system are analyzed first. Moreover, gray relational grade is utilized to investigate the sensitivity of tuning the active proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller to achieve desired vibration suppression performance. Consequently, it is shown that the active-passive vibration absorber can not only provide passive damping, but can also enhance the active action authority. The proposed software/hardware platform can also be profitable for the standardization of laboratory equipment, as well as for the development of entertainment tools.

  15. "Demand Constraints and Economic Growth"

    Marc-Andre Pigeon; L. Randall Wray


    In recent years, the U.S. has seemed to achieve the best of all possible worlds: robust economic growth, very low unemployment, and low inflation. Many would attribute this performance to fewer supply side constraints, as the U.S. has moved away from stifling regulations and other impediments to trade. Indeed, our lower unemployment rates—especially when compared with the very high unemployment rates suffered in European countries—would appear to be due to freer labor markets and to a less ge...

  16. Quantum Gravity Constraints on Inflation

    Conlon, Joseph P


    We study quantum gravity constraints on inflationary model building. Our approach is based on requiring the entropy associated to a given inflationary model to be less than that of the de Sitter entropy. We give two prescriptions for determining the inflationary entropy, based on either `bits per unit area' or entanglement entropy. The existence of transPlanckian flat directions, necessary for large tensor modes in the CMB, correlates with an inflationary entropy greater than that allowed by de Sitter space. Independently these techniques also constrain or exclude de Sitter models with large-rank gauge groups and high UV cutoffs, such as racetrack inflation or the KKLT construction.

  17. Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation Project Overview

    Lewis, Pattie L.


    The standard practice for protection of stainless steel is a process called passivation. This procedure results in the formation of a metal oxide layer to prevent corrosion. Typical passivation procedures call for the use of nitric acid which exhibits excellent corrosion performance; however, there are a number of environmental, worker safety, and operational issues associated with its use. The longtime military specification for the passivation of stainless steel was cancelled in favor of newer specifications which allow for the use of citric acid in place of nitric acid. Citric acid offers a variety of benefits that include increased safety for personnel, reduced environmental impact, and reduced operational costs. There have been few studies, however, to determine whether citric acid is an acceptable alternative for NASA and DoD. This paper details activities to date including development of the joint test plan, on-going and planned testing, and preliminary results.

  18. Passive heat removal characteristics of SMART

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Kang, Hyung Seok; Yoon, Joo Hyun; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Cho, Bong Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    A new advanced integral reactor of 330 MWt thermal capacity named SMART (System-Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is currently under development in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for multi-purpose applications. Modular once-through steam generator (SG) and self-pressurizing pressurizer equipped with wet thermal insulator and cooler are essential components of the SMART. The SMART provides safety systems such as Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS). In this study, a computer code for performance analysis of the PRHRS is developed by modeling relevant components and systems of the SMART. Using this computer code, a performance analysis of the PRHRS is performed in order to check whether the passive cooling concept using the PRHRS is feasible. The results of the analysis show that PRHRS of the SMART has excellent passive heat removal characteristics. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. A Passive Optical Location with Limited Range

    Pavel Fiala


    Full Text Available We know active and passive methods of a location. This article deals only with a passive location of dynamic targets. The passive optics location is suitable just for tracking of targets with mean velocity which is limited by the hardware basis. The aim of this work is to recognize plasma, particles etc. It is possible to propose such kind of evaluation methods which improve the capture probability markedly. Suggested method is dealing with the short-distance evaluation of targets. We suppose the application of three independent principles how to recognize an object in a scanned picture. These principles use similar stochastic functions in order to evaluate an object location by means of simple mathematical operations. Methods are based on direct evaluation of picture sequence by the help of the histogram and frequency spectrum. We find out the probability of unidentified moving object in pictures. If the probability reaches a setting value we will get a signal.

  20. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22

    Rebak, R B; Payer, J H


    Alloy 22 (N06022) was designed to stand the most aggressive industrial applications, including both reducing and oxidizing acids. Even in the most aggressive environments, if the temperature is lower than 150 F (66 C) Alloy 22 would remain in the passive state having particularly low corrosion rates. In multi-ionic solutions that may simulate the behavior of concentrated ground water, even at near boiling temperatures, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 is only a few nanometers per year because the alloy is in the complete passive state. The corrosion rate of passive Alloy 22 decreases as the time increases. Immersion corrosion testing also show that the newer generation of Ni-Cr-Mo alloys may offer a better corrosion resistance than Alloy 22 only in some highly aggressive conditions such as in hot acids.

  1. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.


    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  2. Measurement and Treatment of Passive Muscle Stiffness

    Kirk, Henrik

    This PhD thesis is based on research conducted at the University of Copenhagen and Helene Elsass Center from 2012 to 2015. Measurements and treatment of passive muscle stiffness in people with cerebral palsy (CP) comprise the focus of the thesis. The thesis summarizes the results from four studies...... stiffness. I introduce how to evaluate and distinguish between passive muscle stiffness and reflex-mediated stiffness in research and in clinical practice. Furthermore, I present ”the Portable Spasticity Assessment Device”, which was developed as a part of the PhD study. I discuss the validity......-mediated stiffness was considered a major problem. However, this study shows that significantly reduced RFD and increased passive muscle stiffness, rather than reflex-mediated stiffness, are the major contributors to impaired gait function in adults with CP, compared with neurologically healthy subjects. The third...

  3. Complete corrosion inhibition through graphene defect passivation.

    Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Hofmann, Mario; Chang, Kai-Wen; Jhu, Jian Gang; Li, Yuan-Yao; Chen, Kuang Yao; Yang, Chang Chung; Chang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Li-Chyong


    Graphene is expected to enable superior corrosion protection due to its impermeability and chemical inertness. Previous reports, however, demonstrate limited corrosion inhibition and even corrosion enhancement of graphene on metal surfaces. To enable the reliable and complete passivation, the origin of the low inhibition efficiency of graphene was investigated. Combining electrochemical and morphological characterization techniques, nanometer-sized structural defects in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene were found to be the cause for the limited passivation effect. Extremely fast mass transport on the order of meters per second both across and parallel to graphene layers results in an inhibition efficiency of only ∼50% for Cu covered with up to three graphene layers. Through selective passivation of the defects by atomic layer deposition (ALD) an enhanced corrosion protection of more than 99% was achieved, which compares favorably with commercial corrosion protection methods.

  4. Measurement and Treatment of Passive Muscle Stiffness

    Kirk, Henrik


    This PhD thesis is based on research conducted at the University of Copenhagen and Helene Elsass Center from 2012 to 2015. Measurements and treatment of passive muscle stiffness in people with cerebral palsy (CP) comprise the focus of the thesis. The thesis summarizes the results from four studies......, which aimed to investigate: 1) The development of a clinical method to evaluate and distinguish neural (reflex mediated stiffness) and non-neural (passive muscle stiffness) components of muscle stiffness in adults with CP by objective and reliable measurements 2) The association between increased......, and good correlation to measurements from a stationary dynamometer. The second part of the thesis discusses the finding of a significant correlation between gait function, reduced rate of force development (RFD), and increased passive muscle stiffness in adults with CP. Previously, the reflex...

  5. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)


    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  6. Revisiting perfect fluid dark matter: Observational constraints from our galaxy

    Alexander A. Potapov


    Full Text Available We revisit certain features of an assumed spherically symmetric perfect fluid dark matter halo in the light of the observed data of our galaxy, the Milky Way (MW. The idea is to apply the Faber–Visser approach of combined observations of rotation curves and lensing to a first post-Newtonian approximation to “measure” the equation of state ω(r of the perfect fluid galactic halo. However, for the model considered here, no constraints from lensing are used as it will be sufficient to consider only the rotation curve observations. The lensing mass together with other masses will be just computed using recent data. Since the halo has attractive gravity, we shall impose the constraint that ω(r≥0 for r≤RMW, where RMW∼200 kpc is the adopted halo radius of our galaxy. The observed circular velocity ℓ (=2vc2/c02 from the flat rotation curve and a crucial adjustable parameter D appearing in the perfect fluid solution then yield different numerical ranges of ω(r. It is demonstrated that the computed observables such as the rotation curve mass, the lens mass, the post-Newtonian mass of our galaxy compare well with the recent mass data. We also calculate the Faber–Visser χ-factor, which is a measure of pressure content in the dark matter. Our analysis indicates that a range 0≤ω(r≤2.8×10−7 for the perfect fluid dark matter can reasonably describe the attractive galactic halo. This is a strong constraint indicating a dust-like CDM halo (ω∼0 supported also by CMB constraints.

  7. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I


    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  8. Developmental constraint of insect audition

    Strauß Johannes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the generation of auditory organs. These sensory cells might have different functions depending on the developmental stages. Here we propose that constraints arising during development are also important for the design of insect ears and might influence cell numbers of the adults. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that the functional requirements of the subadult stages determine the adult complement of sensory units in the auditory system of cicadas. The hypothetical larval sensory organ should function as a vibration receiver, representing a functional caenogenesis. Testing the hypothesis Experiments at different levels have to be designed to test the hypothesis. Firstly, the neuroanatomy of the larval sense organ should be analyzed to detail. Secondly, the function should be unraveled neurophysiologically and behaviorally. Thirdly, the persistence of the sensory cells and the rebuilding of the sensory organ to the adult should be investigated. Implications of the hypothesis Usually, the evolution of insect ears is viewed with respect to physiological and neuronal mechanisms of sound perception. This view should be extended to the development of sense organs. Functional requirements during postembryonic development may act as constraints for the evolution of adult organs, as exemplified with the auditory system of cicadas.

  9. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Canas, B C; Parada, A; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F


    In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Lambda_i as well as the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 x 10^-11 mu_B at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Lambda_1| < 5.6 x10^-11 mu_B, |Lambda_2| < 4.0 x 10^-11 mu_B, and |Lambda_3| < 3.1 x 10^-11 mu_B (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a gl...

  10. Dilaton constraints and LHC prospects

    Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E


    The Standard Model Higgs searches using the first 1-2 fb-1 of LHC data can be used to put interesting constraints on new scalar particles other than the Higgs. We investigate one such scenario in which electroweak symmetry is broken via strongly coupled conformal dynamics. This scenario contains a neutral scalar dilaton---the Goldstone boson associated with spontaneously broken scale invariance---with a mass below the conformal symmetry breaking scale and couplings to Standard Model particles similar (but not identical) to those of the Standard Model Higgs boson. We translate the LEP and LHC Higgs limits to constrain the dilaton mass and conformal breaking scale. The conformal breaking scale f is constrained to be above 1 TeV for dilaton masses between 145 and 600 GeV, though it can be as low as 400 GeV for dilaton masses below 110 GeV. We also show that (i) a dilaton chi with mass below 110 GeV and consistent with the LEP constraints can appear in gg --> chi --> gamma gamma with a rate up to ~10 times the co...

  11. History, Progress and New Results in Synthetic Passive Element Design Employing CFTAs

    Jaroslav Koton


    Full Text Available After the presentation of the Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (CFTA active element, it has found a numerous application possibilities while designing linear and non-linear analog function blocks. This paper gives a short review of the CFTA and mainly focuses on the synthetic floating and grounded passive element design, which can also be electronically controllable. Except the design of synthetic inductors, also possible realizations of floating and grounded capacitors and resistors are described, where the value of these passive elements can be adjusted by means of active elements’ parameters. For the design of the corresponding circuit realizations, the Mason-Coates signal flow graph approach is used. The performance of some discussed synthetic elements is verified and  evaluated by Spice simulations on simple analog frequency filters.

  12. Superacid Passivation of Crystalline Silicon Surfaces.

    Bullock, James; Kiriya, Daisuke; Grant, Nicholas; Azcatl, Angelica; Hettick, Mark; Kho, Teng; Phang, Pheng; Sio, Hang C; Yan, Di; Macdonald, Daniel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A; Wallace, Robert M; Cuevas, Andres; Javey, Ali


    The reduction of parasitic recombination processes commonly occurring within the silicon crystal and at its surfaces is of primary importance in crystalline silicon devices, particularly in photovoltaics. Here we explore a simple, room temperature treatment, involving a nonaqueous solution of the superacid bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, to temporarily deactivate recombination centers at the surface. We show that this treatment leads to a significant enhancement in optoelectronic properties of the silicon wafer, attaining a level of surface passivation in line with state-of-the-art dielectric passivation films. Finally, we demonstrate its advantage as a bulk lifetime and process cleanliness monitor, establishing its compatibility with large area photoluminescence imaging in the process.

  13. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.


    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  14. An all-silicon passive optical diode.

    Fan, Li; Wang, Jian; Varghese, Leo T; Shen, Hao; Niu, Ben; Xuan, Yi; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao


    A passive optical diode effect would be useful for on-chip optical information processing but has been difficult to achieve. Using a method based on optical nonlinearity, we demonstrate a forward-backward transmission ratio of up to 28 decibels within telecommunication wavelengths. Our device, which uses two silicon rings 5 micrometers in radius, is passive yet maintains optical nonreciprocity for a broad range of input power levels, and it performs equally well even if the backward input power is higher than the forward input. The silicon optical diode is ultracompact and is compatible with current complementary metal-oxide semiconductor processing.

  15. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  16. Dialectic Form Finding of Passive and Adaptive Shading Enclosures

    Sigrid Adriaenssens


    Full Text Available Form finding describes the process of finding a stable equilibrium shape for a system under a specific set of loads, for a set of boundary conditions and starting from an arbitrary initial geometry. However, form finding does not traditionally involve performance constraints such as energy-related criteria. Dialectic form finding is an extension of the process integrating energy-related design aspects. In this paper, dialectic form finding is employed as an approach for designing high performance architectural systems, driven by solar radiation control and structural efficiency. Two applications of dialectic form found shading enclosure structures, a passive and an active one, are presented. The first application example is a site-specific outdoor shading structure. The structure is based on a louver system designed to provide protection from ultraviolet radiation over a pre-defined target only when required, promoting natural lighting and ventilation. The second application example is a shape-shifting modular façade system that adapts its opacity in response to environmental fluctuations. The system can thus improve the environmental performance of a building. Moreover, the system explores elastic deformations for shape changes, reducing actuation requirements. These examples highlight the potential of the dialectic form-finding strategy for the design of high performance architectural integrated structures.

  17. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rempel, D. [University of California Berkeley/San Francisco (United States). Ergonomics Laboratory


    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  18. Bias Adjusted Precipitation Threat Scores

    F. Mesinger


    Full Text Available Among the wide variety of performance measures available for the assessment of skill of deterministic precipitation forecasts, the equitable threat score (ETS might well be the one used most frequently. It is typically used in conjunction with the bias score. However, apart from its mathematical definition the meaning of the ETS is not clear. It has been pointed out (Mason, 1989; Hamill, 1999 that forecasts with a larger bias tend to have a higher ETS. Even so, the present author has not seen this having been accounted for in any of numerous papers that in recent years have used the ETS along with bias "as a measure of forecast accuracy".

    A method to adjust the threat score (TS or the ETS so as to arrive at their values that correspond to unit bias in order to show the model's or forecaster's accuracy in extit{placing} precipitation has been proposed earlier by the present author (Mesinger and Brill, the so-called dH/dF method. A serious deficiency however has since been noted with the dH/dF method in that the hypothetical function that it arrives at to interpolate or extrapolate the observed value of hits to unit bias can have values of hits greater than forecast when the forecast area tends to zero. Another method is proposed here based on the assumption that the increase in hits per unit increase in false alarms is proportional to the yet unhit area. This new method removes the deficiency of the dH/dF method. Examples of its performance for 12 months of forecasts by three NCEP operational models are given.

  19. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    D. Morgan Tench


    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  20. The organization of anticipatory postural adjustments

    Aruin Alexander S.


    Central control of posture is expressed through anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments. Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) precede planned postural perturbations and minimize them with anticipatory corrections, while compensatory postural adjustments deal with actual perturbations of balance that occur as a result of suboptimal efficiency of anticipatory corrections. The process of generation of APAs is affected by three major factors: expected magnitude and direction of the...

  1. Data Driven Constraints for the SVM

    Darkner, Sune; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder


    We propose a generalized data driven constraint for support vector machines exemplified by classification of paired observations in general and specifically on the human ear canal. This is particularly interesting in dynamic cases such as tissue movement or pathologies developing over time....... Assuming that two observations of the same subject in different states span a vector, we hypothesise that such structure of the data contains implicit information which can aid the classification, thus the name data driven constraints. We derive a constraint based on the data which allow for the use...... of the ℓ1-norm on the constraint while still allowing for the application of kernels. We specialize the proposed constraint to orthogonality of the vectors between paired observations and the estimated hyperplane. We show that imposing the constraint of orthogonality on the paired data yields a more robust...

  2. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN. Geneva


    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  3. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan


    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the $(\\partial\\phi)^4$ coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning o...

  4. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.


    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  5. Thermodynamic constraints on fluctuation phenomena

    Maroney, O. J. E.


    The relationships among reversible Carnot cycles, the absence of perpetual motion machines, and the existence of a nondecreasing globally unique entropy function form the starting point of many textbook presentations of the foundations of thermodynamics. However, the thermal fluctuation phenomena associated with statistical mechanics has been argued to restrict the domain of validity of this basis of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we demonstrate that fluctuation phenomena can be incorporated into the traditional presentation, extending rather than restricting the domain of validity of the phenomenologically motivated second law. Consistency conditions lead to constraints upon the possible spectrum of thermal fluctuations. In a special case this uniquely selects the Gibbs canonical distribution and more generally incorporates the Tsallis distributions. No particular model of microscopic dynamics need be assumed.

  6. Integrating Gricean and Attentional Constraints

    Passonneau, R J


    This paper concerns how to generate and understand discourse anaphoric noun phrases. I present the results of an analysis of all discourse anaphoric noun phrases (N=1,233) in a corpus of ten narrative monologues, where the choice between a definite pronoun or phrasal NP conforms largely to Gricean constraints on informativeness. I discuss Dale and Reiter's [To appear] recent model and show how it can be augmented for understanding as well as generating the range of data presented here. I argue that integrating centering [Grosz et al., 1983] [Kameyama, 1985] with this model can be applied uniformly to discourse anaphoric pronouns and phrasal NPs. I conclude with a hypothesis for addressing the interaction between local and global discourse processing.

  7. Meditations on Quantified Constraint Satisfaction

    Chen, Hubie


    The quantified constraint satisfaction problem (QCSP) is the problem of deciding, given a structure and a first-order prenex sentence whose quantifier-free part is the conjunction of atoms, whether or not the sentence holds on the structure. One obtains a family of problems by defining, for each structure B, the problem QCSP(B) to be the QCSP where the structure is fixed to be B. In this article, we offer a viewpoint on the research program of understanding the complexity of the problems QCSP(B) on finite structures. In particular, we propose and discuss a group of conjectures; throughout, we attempt to place the conjectures in relation to existing results and to emphasize open issues and potential research directions.

  8. Atom mapping with constraint programming.

    Mann, Martin; Nahar, Feras; Schnorr, Norah; Backofen, Rolf; Stadler, Peter F; Flamm, Christoph


    Chemical reactions are rearrangements of chemical bonds. Each atom in an educt molecule thus appears again in a specific position of one of the reaction products. This bijection between educt and product atoms is not reported by chemical reaction databases, however, so that the "Atom Mapping Problem" of finding this bijection is left as an important computational task for many practical applications in computational chemistry and systems biology. Elementary chemical reactions feature a cyclic imaginary transition state (ITS) that imposes additional restrictions on the bijection between educt and product atoms that are not taken into account by previous approaches. We demonstrate that Constraint Programming is well-suited to solving the Atom Mapping Problem in this setting. The performance of our approach is evaluated for a manually curated subset of chemical reactions from the KEGG database featuring various ITS cycle layouts and reaction mechanisms.

  9. Robust Vehicle Suspension System by Converting Active & Passive Control of a Vehicle to Semi-Active Control System Analytically

    Hassan Elahi


    Full Text Available In this research work a simplified translational model of an automotive suspension system is constructed by only considering the translation motion of one wheel of a car. Passive Vehicle Suspension System is converted into Semi Active Vehicle System. Major advantage achieved by this system is that it adjusts the damping of the suspension system without the application of any actuator by using MATLAB® simulations. The semi-active control is found to control the vibration of suspension system very well.

  10. Passive shimming of a superconducting magnet using the L1-norm regularized least square algorithm.

    Kong, Xia; Zhu, Minhua; Xia, Ling; Wang, Qiuliang; Li, Yi; Zhu, Xuchen; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart


    The uniformity of the static magnetic field B0 is of prime importance for an MRI system. The passive shimming technique is usually applied to improve the uniformity of the static field by optimizing the layout of a series of steel shims. The steel pieces are fixed in the drawers in the inner bore of the superconducting magnet, and produce a magnetizing field in the imaging region to compensate for the inhomogeneity of the B0 field. In practice, the total mass of steel used for shimming should be minimized, in addition to the field uniformity requirement. This is because the presence of steel shims may introduce a thermal stability problem. The passive shimming procedure is typically realized using the linear programming (LP) method. The LP approach however, is generally slow and also has difficulty balancing the field quality and the total amount of steel for shimming. In this paper, we have developed a new algorithm that is better able to balance the dual constraints of field uniformity and the total mass of the shims. The least square method is used to minimize the magnetic field inhomogeneity over the imaging surface with the total mass of steel being controlled by an L1-norm based constraint. The proposed algorithm has been tested with practical field data, and the results show that, with similar computational cost and mass of shim material, the new algorithm achieves superior field uniformity (43% better for the test case) compared with the conventional linear programming approach.

  11. A simpler way of imposing simplicity constraints

    Banburski, Andrzej


    We investigate a way of imposing simplicity constraints in a holomorphic Spin Foam model that we recently introduced. Rather than imposing the constraints on the boundary spin network, as is usually done, one can impose the constraints directly on the Spin Foam propagator. We find that the two approaches have the same leading asymptotic behaviour, with differences appearing at higher order. This allows us to obtain a model that greatly simplifies calculations, but still has Regge Calculus as its semi-classical limit.

  12. Stability Constraints for Robust Model Predictive Control

    Amanda G. S. Ottoni


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for the robust stabilization of systems controlled by MPC strategies. Uncertain SISO linear systems with box-bounded parametric uncertainties are considered. The proposed approach delivers some constraints on the control inputs which impose sufficient conditions for the convergence of the system output. These stability constraints can be included in the set of constraints dealt with by existing MPC design strategies, in this way leading to the “robustification” of the MPC.

  13. Cosmographic Constraints and Cosmic Fluids

    Salvatore Capozziello


    Full Text Available The problem of reproducing dark energy effects is reviewed here with particular interest devoted to cosmography. We summarize some of the most relevant cosmological models, based on the assumption that the corresponding barotropic equations of state evolve as the universe expands, giving rise to the accelerated expansion. We describe in detail the ΛCDM (Λ-Cold Dark Matter and ωCDM models, considering also some specific examples, e.g., Chevallier–Polarsky–Linder, the Chaplygin gas and the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati cosmological model. Finally, we consider the cosmological consequences of f(R and f(T gravities and their impact on the framework of cosmography. Keeping these considerations in mind, we point out the model-independent procedure related to cosmography, showing how to match the series of cosmological observables to the free parameters of each model. We critically discuss the role played by cosmography, as a selection criterion to check whether a particular model passes or does not present cosmological constraints. In so doing, we find out cosmological bounds by fitting the luminosity distance expansion of the redshift, z, adopting the recent Union 2.1 dataset of supernovae, combined with the baryonic acoustic oscillation and the cosmic microwave background measurements. We perform cosmographic analyses, imposing different priors on the Hubble rate present value. In addition, we compare our results with recent PLANCK limits, showing that the ΛCDM and ωCDM models seem to be the favorite with respect to other dark energy models. However, we show that cosmographic constraints on f(R and f(T cannot discriminate between extensions of General Relativity and dark energy models, leading to a disadvantageous degeneracy problem.

  14. Passive compensation of nonlinear robot dynamics

    Duindam, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.


    In this paper, we derive a coordinate-free formulation of a passive controller that makes a mechanical system track reference curves in a potential field. Contrary to conventional reference tracking, we do not specify a single time-varying trajectory that the system has to track. Instead, we specify

  15. Passive Compensation of Nonlinear Robot Dynamics

    Duindam, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.


    In this paper, we derive a coordinate-free formulation of a passive controller that makes a mechanical system track reference curves in a potential field. Contrary to conventional reference tracking, we do not specify a single time-varying trajectory that the system has to track. Instead, we specify

  16. Polymer optics for the passive infrared

    Claytor, Richard N.


    An important, but largely invisible, area of polymer optics involves sensing the motion of warm objects. It can be further subdivided into optics for security, for energy conservation, and for convenience; the area has become known as optics for the passive infrared. The passive infrared is generally known as the 8 to 14 μm region of the optical spectrum. The region's roots are in the traditional infrared technology of many decades ago; there is a coincident atmospheric window, although that has little relevance to many short-range applications relevant to polymer optics. Regrettably, there is no polymer material ideally suited to the passive infrared, but one material is generally superior to other candidates. The inadequacy of this material makes the Fresnel lens important. Polymer optics for the passive infrared were first introduced in the 1970s. Patents from that period will be shown, as well as early examples. The unfamiliar names of the pioneering companies and their technical leaders will be mentioned. The 1980s and 90s brought a new and improved lens type, and rapid growth. Pigments for visible-light appearance and other reasons were introduced; one was a spectacular failure. Recent advances include faster lenses, a new groove structure, additional pigments, and lens-mirror combinations. New sensor types are also being introduced. Finally, some unique and inventive applications will be discussed.

  17. Indoor environment in Swedish passive houses

    Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka; Bloom, Erica Bloom


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the indoor air quality (IAQ) in newly built low energy houses. Measurements were performed in 22 passive houses and 21 conventional buildings during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 heating seasons. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity......, concentration of CO2, NO2, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and live microbiological flora. Air exchange rates (AER) were determined from the concentration-time profiles of CO2. The median AER was slightly higher in the passive houses than in conventional buildings (0.66 h-1 vs. 0.60 h-1). The median...... concentrations in passive houses and conventional buildings were 9.7 and 11 μg/m3, respectively, for NO2, 12 and 16 μg/m3 for formaldehyde, and 230 and 145 μg/m3 for TVOC. The indoor microbiological flora did not differ, with a few exceptions, from outdoors. The IAQ in the passive buildings was judged...

  18. Tuning Rules for Passivity-Preserving Controllers

    Jeltsema, Dimitri; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.


    Nonlinear Passivity-based control (PBC) algorithms for power converters have proven to be an interesting alternative for other, mostly linear, control techniques. The control objective is usually achieved through an energy reshaping process and by injecting damping to modify the dissipation structur

  19. Development of passive radar systems at TNO

    Gelsema, S.J.


    Since 2002, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research – TNO, has been involved in the development of passive radar systems for research purposes. The development has been sponsored partly by the Royal Netherlands Air Force – whose main interest is threat evaluation – and partly by

  20. Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Passive Sonar Arrays

    Beerens, S.P.; IJsselmuide, S.P. van


    Passive long-range sonars on board submarines are often limited in performance due to low frequency selfnoise, which originates from the machinery of the own ship. Obviously, this self-noise has the same characteristics as the noise of possible submarine targets and manifests itself as loud “directi

  1. Passive Polarimetric Microwave Signatures Observed Over Antarctica

    WindSat satellite-based fully polarimetric passive microwave observations, expressed in the form of the Stokes vector, were analyzed over the Antarctic ice sheet. The vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures (first two Stokes components) from WindSat are shown to be consistent w...

  2. Passive seismic interferometry by multidimensional deconvolution

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Ruigrok, E.N.


    We introduce seismic interferometry of passive data by multidimensional deconvolution (MDD) as an alternative to the crosscorrelation method. Interferometry by MDD has the potential to correct for the effects of source irregularity, assuming the first arrival can be separated from the full response.

  3. Indoor environment in Swedish passive houses

    Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka; Bloom, Erica Bloom


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the indoor air quality (IAQ) in newly built low energy houses. Measurements were performed in 22 passive houses and 21 conventional buildings during 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 heating seasons. The measured parameters were temperature, relative humidity...... to be relatively good with regard to the parameters measured in this study....

  4. Measurement and Treatment of Passive Muscle Stiffness

    Kirk, Henrik

    This PhD thesis is based on research conducted at the University of Copenhagen and Helene Elsass Center from 2012 to 2015. Measurements and treatment of passive muscle stiffness in people with cerebral palsy (CP) comprise the focus of the thesis. The thesis summarizes the results from four studies...

  5. Recent Developments in SOBEK Passive Sonar Technology

    Hunter, A.J.; Fillinger, L.; Zampolli, M.; Clarijs, M.C.


    Surveillance of waterside locations for protection against threats from small fast surface vessels and underwater intruders is a very relevant but challenging problem. For this reason, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is developing SOBEK – a family of passive sonar

  6. Thermal noise in linear passive multiports

    Agouridis, D.C.


    The noise temperature of a linear passive multiport is related to the temperatures of the terminations of its input ports and the temperature of the multiport itself. In reciprocal multiports the noise contributions of these sources are not correlated, but may be correlated in non-reciprocal multiports.

  7. Indoor climate systems in passive houses

    Mlecnik, E.; Hasselaar, E.; Loon, S.


    According to the definition, passive houses in Europe meet a target energy demand for heating of less than 15 kWh per square meter and per year. This low level for the heating demand is based on heating by a small post-heater in the hygienic ventilation system at 52 0C maximum, while the ventilation

  8. The Cardiopulmonary effect of passive movement

    L. Loram


    Full Text Available Eleven articles were reviewed on the cardiopulmonary effects of passive movements. These included two articles on theneurological effects of passive movements. Of the eleven articles, four were considered to have level II evidence in accordance with Sackett’s rules of evidence. There was little consensus regarding the rate or duration of passive movements. There were some suggestions that upper limb movement produces a greater ventilatory response than lower limb movement. There was a statistically significant increase (p< 0.05 in minute ventilation when the movement was done at a rate of 40 repetitions per minute or more, but this change may not be clinically significant. Passive movements were not detrimental to neurosurgical patients with a normal or slightly elevated intracranial pressure, although the values of the intracranial pressure were not stated.  The studies were limited in that eight of the eleven had small sample sizes and most studies were conducted using normal subjects. Further studies with higher levels of evidence need to be  conducted to verify any results reported to date in the literature. Studies that are relevant to clinical practice also need to be conducted in populations such as sedated intensive care patients.

  9. The MEMOLED: Active addressing with passive driving

    Asadi, K.; Blom, P.W.M.; Leeuw, D.M. de


    Passive or active matrix driving schemes in large displays are prone to high power consumption and cost, respectively. For signage applications such as large out-door displays with low refresh rates there is as yet no technological solution. Here the MEMOLED solution, an organic light-emitting diode

  10. The MEMOLED : Active Addressing with Passive Driving

    Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.


    Passive or active matrix driving schemes in large displays are prone to high power consumption and cost, respectively. For signage applications such as large outdoor displays with low refresh rates there is as yet no technological solution. Here the MEMOLED solution, an organic light-emitting diode

  11. Passivation of Underactuated Systems with Physical Damping

    Gómez-­Estern, F.; Schaft, A.J. van der; Acosta, J.A.


    In recent works, Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity­-Based Control (IDA-­PBC) has been succesfully applied to mechanical control problems with no physical damping present. In some cases, the friction terms can be obviated without compromising stability in closed loop. However in method

  12. Passive Supporters of Terrorism and Phase Transitions

    August, Friedrich; Delitzscher, Sascha; Hiller, Gerald; Krueger, Tyll


    We discuss some social contagion processes to describe the formation and spread of radical opinions. The dynamics of opinion spread involves local threshold processes as well as mean field effects. We calculate and observe phase transitions in the dynamical variables resulting in a rapidly increasing number of passive supporters. This strongly indicates that military solutions are inappropriate.

  13. Active and passive silica waveguide integration

    Hübner, Jörg; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas


    in existing and future networks without affecting the power budget of the system. Silica on silicon technology offers a unique possibility to selectively dope sections of the integrated circuit with erbium where amplification is desired. Some techniques for active/passive integration are reviewed and a silica...

  14. Radio requestable passive SAW water content sensor

    Reindl, L.; Ruppel, C.C.W.; Kirmayr, A.; Stockhausen, N.; Hilhorst, M.A.; Balendonk, J.


    A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical

  15. Mennonite Nursing Home passive solar demonstration


    A long-term nursing care facility and retirement center was designed for passive solar heating. The system comprises thermal mass, thermal insulation, Trombe walls, and direct gain clerestories. Included here is a topical report, analysis of building performance, owner's perspective, designer's perspective, and summary of information dissemination activities. (MHR)

  16. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional


    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  17. Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing

    Levy, R.


    Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.

  18. Constraint Processing in Lifted Probabilistic Inference

    Kisynski, Jacek


    First-order probabilistic models combine representational power of first-order logic with graphical models. There is an ongoing effort to design lifted inference algorithms for first-order probabilistic models. We analyze lifted inference from the perspective of constraint processing and, through this viewpoint, we analyze and compare existing approaches and expose their advantages and limitations. Our theoretical results show that the wrong choice of constraint processing method can lead to exponential increase in computational complexity. Our empirical tests confirm the importance of constraint processing in lifted inference. This is the first theoretical and empirical study of constraint processing in lifted inference.

  19. Toward an automaton Constraint for Local Search

    Jun He


    Full Text Available We explore the idea of using finite automata to implement new constraints for local search (this is already a successful technique in constraint-based global search. We show how it is possible to maintain incrementally the violations of a constraint and its decision variables from an automaton that describes a ground checker for that constraint. We establish the practicality of our approach idea on real-life personnel rostering problems, and show that it is competitive with the approach of [Pralong, 2007].

  20. Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Macacu, Alina; Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Boyle, Peter


    Studies on active and passive tobacco smoking and breast cancer have found inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of observational studies on tobacco smoking and breast cancer occurrence was conducted based on systematic searches for studies with retrospective (case-control) and prospective (cohort) designs. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risk measurements were extracted for active and passive tobacco exposures. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute summary relative risks (SRR). Heterogeneity of results between studies was evaluated using the (I (2)) statistics. For ever active smoking, in 27 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.10 (95 % CI [1.09-1.12]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 0 %). In 44 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.08 (95 % CI [1.02-1.14]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 59 %). SRRs for current active smoking were 1.13 (95 % CI [1.09-1.17]) in 27 prospective studies and 1.08 (95 % CI [0.97-1.20]) in 22 retrospective studies. The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, notably pre/post-menopause, alcohol consumption adjustments, including/excluding passive smokers from the referent group. For ever passive smoking, in 11 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.07 (95 % CI [1.02-1.13]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 1 %). In 20 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.30 (95 % CI [1.10-1.54]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 74 %). Too few prospective studies were available for meaningful subgroup analyses. There is consistent evidence for a moderate increase in the risk of breast cancer in women who smoke tobacco. The evidence for a moderate increase in risk with passive smoking is more substantial than a few years ago.

  1. Hybrid passivated colloidal quantum dot solids

    Ip, Alex


    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) films allow large-area solution processing and bandgap tuning through the quantum size effect. However, the high ratio of surface area to volume makes CQD films prone to high trap state densities if surfaces are imperfectly passivated, promoting recombination of charge carriers that is detrimental to device performance. Recent advances have replaced the long insulating ligands that enable colloidal stability following synthesis with shorter organic linkers or halide anions, leading to improved passivation and higher packing densities. Although this substitution has been performed using solid-state ligand exchange, a solution-based approach is preferable because it enables increased control over the balance of charges on the surface of the quantum dot, which is essential for eliminating midgap trap states. Furthermore, the solution-based approach leverages recent progress in metal:chalcogen chemistry in the liquid phase. Here, we quantify the density of midgap trap states in CQD solids and show that the performance of CQD-based photovoltaics is now limited by electrong-"hole recombination due to these states. Next, using density functional theory and optoelectronic device modelling, we show that to improve this performance it is essential to bind a suitable ligand to each potential trap site on the surface of the quantum dot. We then develop a robust hybrid passivation scheme that involves introducing halide anions during the end stages of the synthesis process, which can passivate trap sites that are inaccessible to much larger organic ligands. An organic crosslinking strategy is then used to form the film. Finally, we use our hybrid passivated CQD solid to fabricate a solar cell with a certified efficiency of 7.0%, which is a record for a CQD photovoltaic device. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Displacement ventilation and passive cooling strategies

    Carew, P.; Bekker, B. [PJCarew Consulting, Cape Town (South Africa)


    Displacement ventilation (DV) is widely used a passive cooling strategy because it requires less air supply for cooling compared to conventional mixing ventilation (MV). DV introduces air at low level and low velocity, and at high supply air temperature, usually around 18 degrees C. The slightly cooler air runs along the floor of a room until it reaches a heat load. The heat load induces a plume of warmer air that rises due to lower density. This induces stratification in room temperature with the occupied area of the room. The air near the ceiling is continually exhausted to prevent a build up of warm air into the occupied zone. This paper demonstrated the impacts of using DV in comparison to MV on the peak capacity, size and humidity levels associated with various passive cooling strategies, informed by the ASHRAE DV guidelines. A generic office building in Johannesburg, South Africa, was used as a model. The paper illustrated the extent to which DV can be used as a passive cooling strategy in spaces that were previously considered as having too high a heat load when calculated using MV system guidelines. A comparison of DV and MV also highlighted the risk of over-design when conventional MV guidelines are used to design cooling sources for DV applications. The DV was shown to significantly lower the amount of supply air needed to serve a room's heat load when compared to MV at the same temperatures. This reduction in air supply impacts the feasibility of using passive cooling strategies in evaporative cooling, 2-stage evaporative cooling, thermal storage and air to ground heat exchangers. However, passive cooling strategies are unlikely to be widely implemented until design guidelines are created by organizations such as ASHRAE. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  3. Planck 2015 results: XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.


    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators – separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal – we obtain consistent...... of trispectrum shapes beyond the local case. The global picture that emerges is one of consistency with the premises of the ΛCDM cosmology, namely that the structure we observe today was sourced by adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations....

  4. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)


    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  5. L2-gain and passivity techniques in nonlinear control

    van der Schaft, Arjan


    This standard text gives a unified treatment of passivity and L2-gain theory for nonlinear state space systems, preceded by a compact treatment of classical passivity and small-gain theorems for nonlinear input-output maps. The synthesis between passivity and L2-gain theory is provided by the theory of dissipative systems. Specifically, the small-gain and passivity theorems and their implications for nonlinear stability and stabilization are discussed from this standpoint. The connection between L2-gain and passivity via scattering is detailed. Feedback equivalence to a passive system and resulting stabilization strategies are discussed. The passivity concepts are enriched by a generalised Hamiltonian formalism, emphasising the close relations with physical modeling and control by interconnection, and leading to novel control methodologies going beyond passivity. The potential of L2-gain techniques in nonlinear control, including a theory of all-pass factorizations of nonlinear systems, and of parametrization...

  6. Prototype designs for passive-solar apartments and townhouses

    Kraft, D.


    Seven designs of passive solar apartments and townhouses are briefly described. Descriptions of the layouts, thermal insulation, thermal mass, source of passive solar gain, and thermal integrity factor for auxiliary heating are presented.

  7. Markerless human motion capture by Markov random field and dynamic graph cuts with color constraints

    LI Jia; WAN ChengKai; ZHANG DianYong; MIAO ZhenJiang; YUAN BaoZong


    Currently, many vision-based motion capture systems require passive markers attached to key lca-tions on the human body. However, such systems are intrusive with limited application. The algorithm that we use for human motion capture in this paper is based on Markov random field (MRF) and dynamic graph cuts. It takes full account of the impact of 3D reconstruction error and integrates human motion capture and 3D reconstruction into MRF-MAP framework. For more accurate and robust performance, we extend our algorithm by incorporating color constraints Into the pose estimation process. The ad-vantages of incorporating color constraints are demonstrated by experimental results on several video sequences.

  8. 76 FR 42140 - Rate Adjustment Remand


    ... the plain meaning of the words ``due to'' in section 3622(d)(1)(E) requires a causal relationship... causal relationship between the amount of a requested adjustment and the exigent circumstances' impact on...'' phrase does not adequately express how close the relationship between the proposed adjustment and...

  9. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18.444 Section 18.444 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications...

  10. Cultural Distance Asymmetry in Expatriate Adjustment

    Selmer, Jan; Chiu, Randy K.; Shenkar, Oded


    Purpose - The current literature implicitly assumes a symmetric impact of cultural distance (CD) on expatriate adjustment. By using distance as a predictor of adjustment, the literature has rendered the direction of the flow irrelevant: a US expatriate in Germany is presumed to face the same hurd...

  11. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.


    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  12. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.


    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  13. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.


    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  14. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.


    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  15. Macroeconomic shocks and firms' labor adjustment

    Eriksson, Tor


    , but a brief discussion of cross-country differences and similarities in firmlevel labor adjustment is also provided. For Denmark, remarkable long-term stability in firms’ labor adjustment technologies is observed and the cross-country comparisons reveal striking similarities between countries with very...... diverse labor market institutions....

  16. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale


    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  17. Research on Adjust Time of Premium


    By considering economic strength and economic profit of insurance company, this paper presents a concept-contact point, and gives premium expectation adjust time model which provides more practical significance for insurance company to make rational adjustment of premium. Finally, an illustration is given to show their application.

  18. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.


    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  19. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati


    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  20. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints

    Kaifei He


    Full Text Available When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component.

  1. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints.

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank


    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component.

  2. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Zhao Yao


    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  3. Neutron star equations of state with optical potential constraint

    Antić, S., E-mail: [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Typel, S., E-mail: [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)


    Nuclear matter and neutron stars are studied in the framework of an extended relativistic mean-field (RMF) model with higher-order derivative and density dependent couplings of nucleons to the meson fields. The derivative couplings lead to an energy dependence of the scalar and vector self-energies of the nucleons. It can be adjusted to be consistent with experimental results for the optical potential in nuclear matter. Several parametrization, which give identical predictions for the saturation properties of nuclear matter, are presented for different forms of the derivative coupling functions. The stellar structure of spherical, non-rotating stars is calculated for these new equations of state (EoS). A substantial softening of the EoS and a reduction of the maximum mass of neutron stars is found if the optical potential constraint is satisfied.

  4. 21 CFR 888.3025 - Passive tendon prosthesis.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passive tendon prosthesis. 888.3025 Section 888...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3025 Passive tendon prosthesis. (a) Identification. A passive tendon prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of silicon elastomer or...

  5. Intersection crossing considered as intercepting a moving traffic gap: effects of task and environmental constraints.

    Louveton, Nicolas; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Guerin, Perrine; Berthelon, Catherine; Montagne, Gilles


    Safely crossing an intersection requires that drivers actively control their approach to the intersection with respect to characteristics of the flow of incoming traffic. To further our understanding of the perceptual-motor processes involved in this demanding manoeuvre, we designed a driving simulator experiment in which 13 participants actively negotiated intersections by passing through a gap in the train of incoming traffic. Task constraints were manipulated by varying the size of the traffic gap and the initial conditions with respect to the time of arrival of the traffic gap at the intersection. Environment constraints were manipulated by varying the intersection geometry through changes in the angle formed by the crossroads. The results revealed that the task constraints systematically gave rise to continuous and gradual adjustments in approach velocity, initiated well before arriving at the intersection. These functionally appropriate adjustments allowed the drivers to safely cross the intersection, generally just slightly ahead of the center of the traffic gap. Notwithstanding the fact that the geometry of the intersection did not affect the spatiotemporal constraints of the crossing task, approach behavior varied systematically over geometries, suggesting that drivers rely on the traffic gap's bearing angle. Overall, the pattern of results is indicative of a continuous coupling between perception and action, analogous to that observed in locomotor interception tasks.

  6. Recentering Shape Memory Alloy Passive Damper for Structural Vibration Control

    Hui Qian


    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary study on the evaluation of an innovative energy dissipation system with shape memory alloys (SMAs for structural seismic protection. A recentering shape memory alloy damper (RSMAD, in which superelastic nitinol wires are utilized as energy dissipation components, is proposed. Improved constitutive equations based on Graesser and Cozzarelli model are proposed for superelastic nitinol wires used in the damper. Cyclic tensile-compressive tests on the damper with various prestrain under different loading frequencies and displacement amplitudes were conducted. The results show that the hysteretic behaviors of the damper can be modified to best fit the needs for passive structural control applications by adjusting the pretension of the nitinol wires, and the damper performance is not sensitive to frequencies greater than 0.5 Hz. To assess the effectiveness of the dampers for structural seismic protection, nonlinear time history analysis on a ten-story steel frame with and without the dampers subjected to representative earthquake ground motions was performed. The simulation results indicate that superelastic SMA dampers are effective in mitigating the structural response of building structures subjected to strong earthquakes.

  7. A Mechanistic Model of a Passive Autocatalytic Hydrogen Recombiner

    Rożeń Antoni


    Full Text Available : A passive autocatalytic hydrogen recombiner (PAR is a self-starting device, without operator action or external power input, installed in nuclear power plants to remove hydrogen from the containment building of a nuclear reactor. A new mechanistic model of PAR has been presented and validated by experimental data and results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulations. The model allows to quickly and accurately predict gas temperature and composition, catalyst temperature and hydrogen recombination rate. It is assumed in the model that an exothermic recombination reaction of hydrogen and oxygen proceeds at the catalyst surface only, while processes of heat and mass transport occur by assisted natural and forced convection in non-isothermal and laminar gas flow conditions in vertical channels between catalyst plates. The model accounts for heat radiation from a hot catalyst surface and has no adjustable parameters. It can be combined with an equation of chimney draft and become a useful engineering tool for selection and optimisation of catalytic recombiner geometry.

  8. Water-in-Water Droplets by Passive Microfluidic Flow Focusing.

    Moon, Byeong-Ui; Abbasi, Niki; Jones, Steven G; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S H


    We present a simple microfluidic system that generates water-in-water, aqueous two phase system (ATPS) droplets, by passive flow focusing. ATPS droplet formation is achieved by applying weak hydrostatic pressures, with liquid-filled pipette tips as fluid columns at the inlets, to introduce low speed flows to the flow focusing junction. To control the size of the droplets, we systematically vary the interfacial tension and viscosity of the ATPS fluids and adjust the fluid column height at the fluid inlets. The size of the droplets scales with a power law of the ratio of viscous stresses in the two ATPS phases. Overall, we find a drop size coefficient of variation (CV; i.e., polydispersity) of about 10%. We also find that when drops form very close to the flow focusing junction, the drops have a CV of less than 1%. Our droplet generation method is easily scalable: we demonstrate a parallel system that generates droplets simultaneously and improves the droplet production rate by up to one order of magnitude. Finally, we show the potential application of our system for encapsulating cells in water-in-water emulsions by encapsulating microparticles and cells. To the best of our knowledge, our microfluidic technique is the first that forms low interfacial tension ATPS droplets without applying external perturbations. We anticipate that this simple approach will find utility in drug and cell delivery applications because of the all-biocompatible nature of the water-in-water ATPS environment.

  9. Filtering Algorithms for Global Chance Constraints

    Hnich, B.; Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Prestwich, S.


    Stochastic Constraint Satisfaction Problems (SCSPs) are a powerful modeling framework for problems under uncertainty. To solve them is a PSPACE task. The only complete solution approach to date — scenario-based stochastic constraint programming — compiles SCSPs down into classical CSPs. This allows

  10. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel


    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  11. Supernova constraints on neutrino mass and mixing

    Srubabati Goswami


    In this article I review the constraints on neutrino mass and mixing coming from type-II supernovae. The bounds obtained on these parameters from shock reheating, -process nucleosynthesis and from SN1987A are discussed. Given the current constraints on neutrino mass and mixing the effect of oscillations of neutrinos from a nearby supernova explosion in future detectors will also be discussed.

  12. A Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Calculus

    Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia Posso, Frank Darwin


    The tcc model is a formalism for reactive concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we propose a model of temporal concurrent constraint programming which adds to tcc the capability of modeling asynchronous and non-deterministic timed behavior. We call this tcc extension the ntcc calculus...

  13. Review of Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    S. Fukano, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco


    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas...

  14. A model for strategy in constraint solving

    Wijk, J.J. van


    The use of constraints for the definition of graphical user interfaces has been recognized as a great concept. However, often many valuations of the variables will satisfy the constraints, and which particular valuation matches best with the expectation of the user cannot be decided without further

  15. On Noisy Extensions of Nonholonomic Constraints

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang


    We propose several stochastic extensions of nonholonomic constraints for mechanical systems and study the effects on the dynamics and on the conservation laws. Our approach relies on a stochastic extension of the Lagrange-d'Alembert framework. The mechanical system we focus on is the example of a Routh sphere, i.e., a rolling unbalanced ball on the plane. We interpret the noise in the constraint as either a stochastic motion of the plane, random slip or roughness of the surface. Without the noise, this system possesses three integrals of motion: energy, Jellet and Routh. Depending on the nature of noise in the constraint, we show that either energy, or Jellet, or both integrals can be conserved, with probability 1. We also present some exact solutions for particular types of motion in terms of stochastic integrals. Next, for an arbitrary nonholonomic system, we consider two different ways of including stochasticity in the constraints. We show that when the noise preserves the linearity of the constraints, then energy is preserved. For other types of noise in the constraint, e.g., in the case of an affine noise, the energy is not conserved. We study in detail a class of Lagrangian mechanical systems on semidirect products of Lie groups, with "rolling ball type" constraints. We conclude with numerical simulations illustrating our theories, and some pedagogical examples of noise in constraints for other nonholonomic systems popular in the literature, such as the nonholonomic particle, the rolling disk and the Chaplygin sleigh.

  16. Constraint solving for direct manipulation of features

    Lourenco, D.; Oliveira, P.; Noort, A.; Bidarra, R.


    In current commercial feature modeling systems, support for direct manipulation of features is not commonly available. This is partly due to the strong reliance of such systems on constraints, but also to the lack of speed of current constraint solvers. In this paper, an approach to the optimization

  17. Polymer constraint effect for electrothermal bimorph microactuators

    Chu Duc, T.; Lau, G.K.; Sarro, P.M.


    The authors report on the analysis of the polymer constraint effect and its use for a micromachined electrothermal bimorph actuator. The actuated displacement is enhanced due to the polymer constraint effect. Both the thermal expansion and apparent Young’s modulus of the constrained polymer blocks a

  18. Understanding of Danish passive houses based on pilot project Comfort Houses

    Brunsgaard, C.


    live up to a comfortable indoor environment? And how do the occupants of the Comfort Houses experience the indoor environment and the adjustment of it? The investigations have resulted in a list of recommendations that are important when designing future passive houses in Denmark. The study indicates that the integrated design process is a beneficial approach for designing passive houses. Regarding the everyday life of the occupants, some have undergone changes after moving into the Comfort House e.g. curtain and/or blinds have become a part of the everyday practice of creating privacy in the house. And most occupants needed to get an awareness of the thermal environment and the use of curtains or blinds actively. Additionally, natural ventilation has become a permanent part of the everyday practices in the summer period to reduce excess temperatures. The indoor environment is fairly comfortable in the houses, but there is still room for improvement. Especially according to the thermal indoor environment in the summer period and the reverberation time where the occupants experience discomfort, which is both a result of ''poor'' design and ''wrong'' user behaviour. (LN)

  19. Singularity Analysis of Geometric Constraint Systems

    彭小波; 陈立平; 周凡利; 周济


    Singularity analysis is an important subject of the geometric constraint sat-isfaction problem. In this paper, three kinds of singularities are described and corresponding identification methods are presented for both under-constrained systems and over-constrained systems. Another special but common singularity for under-constrained geometric systems, pseudo-singularity, is analyzed. Pseudo-singularity is caused by a variety of constraint match ing of under-constrained systems and can be removed by improving constraint distribution. To avoid pseudo-singularity and decide redundant constraints adaptively, a differentiation algo rithm is proposed in the paper. Its correctness and efficiency have been validated through its practical applications in a 2D/3D geometric constraint solver CBA.

  20. Volcanological constraints of Archaean tectonics

    Thurston, P. C.; Ayres, L. D.


    Volcanological and trace element geochemical data can be integrated to place some constraints upon the size, character and evolutionary history of Archean volcanic plumbing, and hence indirectly, Archean tectonics. The earliest volcanism in any greenhouse belt is almost universally tholeitic basalt. Archean mafic magma chambers were usually the site of low pressure fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and later Cpx + or - an oxide phase during evolution of tholeitic liquids. Several models suggest basalt becoming more contaminated by sial with time. Data in the Uchi Subprovince shows early felsic volcanics to have fractionated REE patterns followed by flat REE pattern rhyolites. This is interpreted as initial felsic liquids produced by melting of a garnetiferous mafic source followed by large scale melting of LIL-rich sial. Rare andesites in the Uchi Subprovince are produced by basalt fractionation, direct mantle melts and mixing of basaltic and tonalitic liquids. Composite dikes in the Abitibi Subprovince have a basaltic edge with a chill margin, a rhyolitic interior with no basalt-rhyolite chill margin and partially melted sialic inclusions. Ignimbrites in the Uchi and Abitibi Subprovinces have mafic pumice toward the top. Integration of these data suggest initial mantle-derived basaltic liquids pond in a sialic crust, fractionate and melt sial. The inirial melts low in heavy REE are melts of mafic material, subsequently melting of adjacent sial produces a chamber with a felsic upper part underlain by mafic magma.

  1. Guidance law with impact time and impact angle constraints

    Zhang Youan; Ma Guoxin; Liu Aili


    A novel closed-form guidance law with impact time and impact angle constraints is proposed for salvo attack of anti-ship missiles,which employs missile's normal acceleration (not jerk) as the control command directly.Firstly,the impact time control problem is formulated as tracking the designated time-to-go (the difference between the designated impact time and the current flight time) for the actual time-to-go of missile,and the impact angle control problem is formulated as tracking the designated heading angle for the actual heading angle of missile.Secondly,a biased proportional navigation guidance (BPNG) law with designated heading angle constraint is constructed,and the actual time-to-go estimation for this BPNG is derived analytically by solving the system differential equations.Thirdly,by adding a feedback control to this constructed BPNG to eliminate the time-to-go error-the difference between the standard time-to-go and the actual time-to-go,a guidance law with adjustable coefficients to control the impact time and impact angle simultaneously is developed.Finally,simulation results demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  2. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)


    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  3. Passive Lorentz transformations with spacetime algebra

    Paiva, C R


    In special relativity spacetime algebra developed by David Hestenes, STA, provides a powerful and insightful approach to an invariant formulation of physics, the spacetime physics, through an elegant and concise manipulation of active Lorentz transformations. Therefore, it should come as an oddity, to say the least, to relate STA with passive Lorentz transformations. Nevertheless, length contraction, time dilation and all that are the bread and butter of most introductory courses on relativistic physics. To overcome the coordinate virus, it is necessary to be able to translate and dissolve passive Lorentz transformations in the fluidity and flexibility of STA, thereby bridging the gap between relativistic physics and proper spacetime physics. That is the aim of this paper.

  4. Passive ring resonator micro-optical gyroscopes

    Venediktov, V. Yu; Filatov, Yu V.; Shalymov, E. V.


    This paper reviews recent advances in passive micro-optical gyroscopes. In the last decade, most research effort in the area of micro-optical gyros has been concentrated on a configuration that takes advantage of a single-mode passive ring resonator, which is usually fabricated using integrated optical technologies. The dimensions of such micro-optical gyros are comparable to those of micromechanical gyroscopes (area of 10 to 100 mm2) and their sensitivity is considerably better than the sensitivity of the latter, approaching that of fibre-optic and laser gyros. Moreover, microoptical gyros can be made as a single integrated circuit, like the micromechanical gyros, but they have no movable parts, in contrast to their micromechanical counterparts. We also describe the development and investigation of micro-optical gyros produced in our studies.

  5. Nonspherical atomic effective pseudopotentials for surface passivation

    Karpulevich, Anastasia; Bui, Hanh; Antonov, Denis; Han, Peng; Bester, Gabriel


    We present a method to extract accurate pseudopotentials for surface passivants, within the framework of the atomic effective pseudopotential method. We retain the imaginary part of the pseudopotential in the construction procedure. This imaginary component in reciprocal space translates into a nonspherical component in real space. This asphericity allows to model surface dipoles and their ensuing band offsets. We show that these surface effects need to be taken into account to model electronic properties of quantum dots accurately—which requires to go beyond the spherical potential approximation for the passivant/surface atoms. The good level of transferability, without additional computational costs, is demonstrated for Si, CdSe, and InP nanostructures. The results are directly compared to large-scale density functional theory calculations.

  6. Passive neutron area monitor with TLD pairs

    Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    The response of a passive neutron area monitor with pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) has been calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The response was calculated for one TLD 600 located at the center of a polyethylene moderator. The response was calculated for 47 monoenergetic neutron sources ranging from 1E(-9) to 20 MeV. Response was calculated using two irradiation geometries, one with an upper source and another with a lateral source. For both irradiation schemes the response was calculated with the TLD in two positions, one parallel to the source and another perpendicular to the source. The advantage of this passive neutron monitor area is that can be used in locations with intense, pulsed and mixed radiation fields like those in radiotherapy vault rooms with linear accelerators. (Author)

  7. Managing passive incontinence and incomplete evacuation.

    Collins, Brigitte; Norton, Christine

    Both passive faecal incontinence and evacuation difficulty are distressing and demoralising conditions, resulting in physical and psychological problems including social restrictions, loss of self-esteem, altered body image and loss of skin integrity. Conservative management and biofeedback therapy has been shown to help most patients with faecal incontinence and evacuation difficulty by creating a manageable situation that can significantly improve quality of life. However, some patients may not improve their symptoms and require alternative measures. This article reports an audit of the use of the Qufora mini irrigation system in 50 patients (48 female, 2 male) with passive faecal incontinence and/or evacuation difficulty who had failed to respond to conventional biofeedback. Seventy percent found the irrigation comfortable and 74% rated the system as good or acceptable. Two-thirds believed symptoms were improved and would wish to continue using the system. Prospective studies are needed to confirm which patients are most suitable and respond well to the irrigation.

  8. Marostica passive solar dwelling, Marostica, Italy

    Scudo, G. [DPPPE, Milano (Italy)


    This project consists of four separate buildings; three terraces comprising 24 dwellings in all, and one four-storey housing block containing 16 flats. The principal objective was to build low-cost housing in which innovative passive solar components could be incorporated at costs acceptable for public housing schemes (maximum 10% of the overall cost). An 'open-loop passive system', developed in Italy about 20 years ago by Barra-Costantini, was chosen. Warm air produced in the solar air panel circulates freely in the storage ceiling, into the rooms and back to the bottom of the air panel by gravity. The system supplies 30% of the net space-heating load. (author)

  9. Passive Magnetic Shielding in Gradient Fields

    Bidinosti, C P


    The effect of passive magnetic shielding on dc magnetic field gradients imposed by both external and internal sources is studied. It is found that for concentric cylindrical or spherical shells of high permeability material, higher order multipoles in the magnetic field are shielded progressively better, by a factor related to the order of the multipole. In regard to the design of internal coil systems for the generation of uniform internal fields, we show how one can take advantage of the coupling of the coils to the innermost magnetic shield to further optimize the uniformity of the field. These results demonstrate quantitatively a phenomenon that was previously well-known qualitatively: that the resultant magnetic field within a passively magnetically shielded region can be much more uniform than the applied magnetic field itself. Furthermore we provide formulae relevant to active magnetic compensation systems which attempt to stabilize the interior fields by sensing and cancelling the exterior fields clos...

  10. Phase diagram to design passive nanostructures

    Lee, Jeng Yi


    A phase diagram, defined by the amplitude square and phase of scattering coefficients for absorption cross-section in each individual channel, is introduced as a universal map on the electromagnetic properties for passive scatterers. General physical bounds are naturally revealed based on the intrinsic power conservation in a passive scattering system, entailing power competitions among scattering, absorption, and extinction. Exotic scattering and absorption phenomena, from resonant scattering, invisible cloaking, coherent perfect absorber, and subwavelength superscattering can all be illustrated in this phase diagram. With electrically small core-shell scatterers as an example, we demonstrate a systematic method to design field-controllable structures based on the allowed trajectories in the phase diagram. The proposed phase diagram not only provides a simple tool to design optical devices but also promotes a deep understanding on Mie's scattering theory.

  11. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Gebre, G.M.


    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  12. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Sudhinta Sinha


    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  13. Efficient Bandwidth Management for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    Elrasad, Amr Elsayed M.


    The increasing bandwidth demands in access networks motivates network operators, networking devices manufacturers, and standardization institutions to search for new approaches for access networks. These approaches should support higher bandwidth, longer distance between end user and network operator, and less energy consumption. Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is a favorable choice for broadband access networks. EPONs support transmission rates up to 10 Gbps. EPONs also support distance between end users and central office up to 20 Km. Moreover, optical networks have the least energy consumption among all types of networks. In this dissertation, we focus on reducing delay and saving energy in EPONs. Reducing delay is essential for delay-sensitive traffic, while minimizing energy consumption is an environmental necessity and also reduces the network operating costs. We identify five challenges, namely excess bandwidth allocation, frame delineation, congestion resolution, large round trip time delay in long-reach EPONs (LR-EPONs), and energy saving. We provide a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) approach for each challenge. We also propose a novel scheme that combines the features of the proposed approaches in one highly performing scheme. Our approach is to design novel DBA protocols that can further reduce the delay and be simultaneously simple and fair. We also present a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for Green EPONs taking into consideration maximizing energy saving under target delay constraints. Regarding excess bandwidth allocation, we develop an effective DBA scheme called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES). DES achieves significant delay and jitter reduction and is more suitable for industrial deployment due to its simplicity. Utilizing DES in hybrid TDM/WDM EPONs (TWDM-EPONs) is also investigated. We also study eliminating the wasted bandwidth due to frame delineation. We develop an interactive DBA scheme, Efficient Grant Sizing Interleaved

  14. Interaction between maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and CYP1A1 and GSTs polymorphisms on spontaneous preterm delivery.

    Yi-Juan Luo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the association between maternal passive smoking during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous PTD and to explore the potential interaction of the single or joint gene polymorphism of CYP1A1 and GSTs with maternal passive smoking on the risk of spontaneous PTD. METHOD: We investigated whether the association between maternal passive smoking and PTD can be modified by 2 metabolic genes, i.e. cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs, in a case-control study with 198 spontaneous preterm and 524 term deliveries in Shenzhen and Foshan, China. We used logistic regression to test gene-passive smoking interaction, adjusting for maternal socio-demographics and prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Overall, maternal passive smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of PTD (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20 [95% confidence interval: 1.56-3.12]. This association was modified by CYP1A1 and GSTs together, but not by any single genotype. For cross-categories of CYP1A1 Msp I and GSTs, maternal passive smoking was associated with higher risk of PTD among those women with CYP1A1 "TC/CC"+ GSTs "null", but not among women with other genotypes; and this interaction was significant (OR = 2.66 [95% CI: 1.19-5.97]; P-value: 0.017. For cross-categories of CYP1A1 BsrD I and GSTs, maternal passive smoking was associated with higher risk of PTD only among those women with CYP1A1"AG/GG"+ GSTs "null", but not among women with other genotypes; and this interaction was significant (OR = 3.00 [95% CI: 1.17-7.74]; P-value: 0.023. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the combined genotypes of CYP1A1 and GSTs can help to identify vulnerable pregnant women who are subject to high risk of spontaneous PTD due to passive smoking.

  15. Human sperm rheotaxis: a passive physical process

    Zhuoran Zhang; Jun Liu; Jim Meriano; Changhai Ru; Shaorong Xie; Jun Luo; Yu Sun


    A long-standing question in natural reproduction is how mammalian sperm navigate inside female reproductive tract and finally reach the egg cell, or oocyte. Recently, fluid flow was proposed as a long–range guidance cue for sperm navigation. Coitus induces fluid flow from oviduct to uterus, and sperm align themselves against the flow direction and swim upstream, a phenomenon termed rheotaxis. Whether sperm rheotaxis is a passive process dominated by fluid mechanics, or sperm actively sense an...

  16. Passive magnetic bearings for vehicular electromechanical batteries

    Post, R


    This report describes the design of a passive magnetic bearing system to be used in electromechanical batteries (flywheel energy storage modules) suitable for vehicular use. One or two such EMB modules might, for example, be employed in a hybrid-electric automobile, providing efficient means for power peaking, i.e., for handling acceleration and regenerative braking power demands at high power levels. The bearing design described herein will be based on a ''dual-mode'' operating regime.

  17. Passive Compensation of Nonlinear Robot Dynamics

    Duindam, Vincent; Stramigioli, Stefano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.


    In this paper, we derive a coordinate-free formulation of a passive controller that makes a mechanical system track reference curves in a potential field. Contrary to conventional reference tracking, we do not specify a single time-varying trajectory that the system has to track. Instead, we specify a whole curve that the system has to stay on at all times. Using tools from differential geometry, we first derive a controller that makes the system move along arbitrary (smooth enough) reference...

  18. Active and passive vibration control of structures

    Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried


    Active and Passive Vibration Control of Structures form an issue of very actual interest in many different fields of engineering, for example in the automotive and aerospace industry, in precision engineering (e.g. in large telescopes), and also in civil engineering. The papers in this volume bring together engineers of different background, and it fill gaps between structural mechanics, vibrations and modern control theory.  Also links between the different applications in structural control are shown.

  19. Passive-solar-design handbook for Wisconsin

    Steege, D.; Keiffer, B.; Tipler, G.


    The principles, definitions, and detailed calculations needed to design and evaluate passive solar systems are presented. The types of systems, principles of heat loss and heat gain, definitions of relevant terms and concepts, and the initial calculations later used to determine the annual solar savings fraction are introduced. The detailed climatic data, modification curves, and monthly solar savings fractions for various Wisconsin locations are given that will be used in the calculations. (LEW)

  20. Characterization of tetraethylene glycol passivated iron nanoparticles

    Nunes, Eloiza da Silva; Viali, Wesley Renato [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Silva, Sebastião William da; Coaquira, José Antonio Huamaní; Garg, Vijayendra Kumar; Oliveira, Aderbal Carlos de [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo César [Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jafelicci Júnior, Miguel, E-mail: [Laboratório de Materiais Magnéticos e Coloides, Departamento de Físico-química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP 14801-970 (Brazil)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic iron nanoparticles were passivated in tetraethylene glycol media. • Passivated nanoparticles presented pomegranate-like core@shell structure. • Passivation of metallic iron correlates with the tetraethylene glycol degradation. • Boron enriched metallic iron phase was more susceptible to oxidation. • The iron oxide shell was identified as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with a mass fraction of 43:53 related to αFe. - Abstract: The present study describes the synthesis and characterization of iron@iron oxide nanoparticles produced by passivation of metallic iron in tetraethylene glycol media. Structural and chemical characterizations were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Pomegranate-like core@shell nanoparticulate material in the size range of 90–120 nm was obtained. According to quantitative phase analysis using Rietveld structure refinement the synthesized iron oxide was identified as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) whereas the iron to magnetite mass fractions was found to be 47:53. These findings are in good agreement with the data obtained from Mössbauer and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XPS data revealed the presence of a surface organic layer with higher hydrocarbon content, possibly due to the tetraethylene glycol thermal degradation correlated with iron oxidation. The room-temperature (300 K) saturation magnetization measured for the as-synthesized iron and for the iron–iron oxide were 145 emu g{sup −1} and 131 emu g{sup −1}, respectively. The measured saturation magnetizations are in good agreement with data obtained from TEM, XRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  1. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; ANDRESEN, Inger


    Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions. Monitoring of w...

  2. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    Givoni, Baruch


    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  3. Passive solar nursing home for Northern Kentucky

    Taylor, J.G.; Ward, J.D.


    This project is a 32-bed nursing home designed as an addition to an existing facility. Passive solar strategies included direct gain room windows and clerestories which admit light to phase change salt pouches in the ceilings of patient rooms. Corridors are skykighted; and the heating, ventilating, and conditioning system is comprised of water-source heat pumps and a 5000 gallon storage tank in conjunction with an air to air heat recovery wheel.

  4. Couples' patterns of adjustment to colon cancer.

    Northouse, L L; Mood, D; Templin, T; Mellon, S; George, T


    The objectives for this longitudinal study were to: (a) compare colon cancer patients' and their spouses' appraisal of illness, resources, concurrent stress, and adjustment during the first year following surgery; (b) examine the influence of gender (male vs female) and role (patient vs spouse caregiver) on study variables; (c) assess the degree of correlation between patients' and spouses' adjustments; and (d) identify factors that affect adjustment to the illness. Fifty-six couples were interviewed at one week post diagnosis, and at 60 days and one year post surgery. Based on a cognitive-appraisal model of stress, the Smilkstein Stress Scale was used to measure concurrent stress; the Family APGAR, Social Support Questionnaire, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale were used to measure social resources; the Beck Hopelessness Scale and Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scales were used to measure appraisal of illness; and the Brief Symptom Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale were used to measure psychosocial adjustment. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance indicated that spouses reported significantly more emotional distress and less social support than patients. Gender differences were found, with women reporting more distress, more role problems, and less marital satisfaction, regardless of whether they were patient or spouse. Both patients and spouses reported decreases in their family functioning and social support, but also decreases in emotional distress over time. Moderately high autocorrelations and modest intercorrelations were found among and between patients' and spouses' adjustment scores over time. The strongest predictors of patients' role adjustment problems were hopelessness and spouses' role problems. The strongest predictors of spouses' role problems were spouses' own baseline role problems and level of marital satisfaction. Interventions need to start early in the course of illness, be family-focused, and identify the couples at risk of

  5. Detailed Theoretical Model for Adjustable Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

    Lin Liu


    Full Text Available The adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA uses two SOAs in a ring-cavity topology: one to amplify the signal and the other to control the gain. The device was designed to maximize the output saturated power while adjusting gain to regulate power differences between packets without loss of linearity. This type of subsystem can be used for power equalisation and linear amplification in packet-based dynamic systems such as passive optical networks (PONs. A detailed theoretical model is presented in this paper to simulate the operation of the AGC-SOA, which gives a better understanding of the underlying gain clamping mechanics. Simulations and comparisons with steady-state and dynamic gain modulation experimental performance are given which validate the model.

  6. Columbia County Habitat for Humanity Passive Townhomes

    Dentz, Jordan [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, Kunal [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Dadia, Devanshi [The Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)


    Columbia County (New York) Habitat for Humanity built a pair of townhomes to Passive House criteria with the purpose of exploring approaches for achieving Passive House performance and to eventually develop a prototype design for future projects. The project utilized a 2x6 frame wall with a structural insulated panel curtain wall and a ventilated attic over a sealed OSB ceiling air barrier. Mechanical systems include a single head, wall mounted ductless mini-split heat pump in each unit and a heat recovery ventilator. Costs were $26,000 per unit higher for Passive House construction compared with the same home built to ENERGY STAR version 3 specifications, representing about 18% of total construction cost. This report discusses the cost components, energy modeling results and lessons from construction. Two alternative ventilation systems are analyzed: a central system; and, a point-source system with small through-wall units distributed throughout the house. The report includes a design and cost analysis of these two approaches.

  7. Brookfield Homes Passive House Performance Evaluation

    Herk, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    In 2012-2013, IBACOS worked with a builder, Brookfield Homes in Denver, Colorado, to design and construct a Passive House certified model home. IBACOS used several modeling programs and calculation methods to complete the final design package along with Brookfield's architect KGA Studio. This design package included upgrades to the thermal enclosure, basement insulation, windows, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Short-term performance testing in the Passive House was done during construction and after construction. Testing with a blower door indicated that whole-building air leakage to the outside was 324 CFM and 0.60 ACH50. The other two test homes had little short-term testing done post-construction by the local energy rater. IBACOS then monitored the energy consumption and whole-house comfort conditions of that occupied Passive House after one year of operation and compared the monitoring results to those for two other occupied test houses in the same area with similar square footage but slightly different floor plans. IBACOS also assisted the builder, Brookfield Homes, in researching design scenarios for Zero Energy Ready Home and ENERGY STAR acceptance levels. IBACOS also assisted Brookfield in conceptualizing product for Denver's Brighton Heights area. Brookfield was considering building to Zero Energy Ready Home standards in that location. IBACOS provided strategies that Brookfield may draw from in the event the builder chooses to pursue a Zero Energy Ready Home plan for that market.

  8. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    Nihei, K.T.


    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  9. Complementary resistive switches for passive nanocrossbar memories.

    Linn, Eike; Rosezin, Roland; Kügeler, Carsten; Waser, Rainer


    On the road towards higher memory density and computer performance, a significant improvement in energy efficiency constitutes the dominant goal in future information technology. Passive crossbar arrays of memristive elements were suggested a decade ago as non-volatile random access memories (RAM) and can also be used for reconfigurable logic circuits. As such they represent an interesting alternative to the conventional von Neumann based computer chip architectures. Crossbar architectures hold the promise of a significant reduction in energy consumption because of their ultimate scaling potential and because they allow for a local fusion of logic and memory, thus avoiding energy consumption by data transfer on the chip. However, the expected paradigm change has not yet taken place because the general problem of selecting a designated cell within a passive crossbar array without interference from sneak-path currents through neighbouring cells has not yet been solved satisfactorily. Here we introduce a complementary resistive switch. It consists of two antiserial memristive elements and allows for the construction of large passive crossbar arrays by solving the sneak path problem in combination with a drastic reduction of the power consumption.

  10. Passivity-Based Control of Electric Machines

    Nicklasson, P.J.


    This doctoral thesis presents new results on the design and analysis of controllers for a class of electric machines. Nonlinear controllers are derived from a Lagrangian model representation using passivity techniques, and previous results on induction motors are improved and extended to Blondel-Park transformable machines. The relation to conventional techniques is discussed, and it is shown that the formalism introduced in this work facilitates analysis of conventional methods, so that open questions concerning these methods may be resolved. In addition, the thesis contains the following improvements of previously published results on the control of induction motors: (1) Improvement of a passivity-based speed/position controller, (2) Extension of passivity-based (observer-less and observer-based) controllers from regulation to tracking of rotor flux norm, (3) An extension of the classical indirect FOC (Field-Oriented Control) scheme to also include global rotor flux norm tracking, instead of only torque tracking and rotor flux norm regulation. The design is illustrated experimentally by applying the proposed control schemes to a squirrel-cage induction motor. The results show that the proposed methods have advantages over previous designs with respect to controller tuning, performance and robustness. 145 refs., 21 figs.

  11. Structural Adjustment of Oasis Agriculture in Xinjiang

    Lei Jun; Zhang Xiaolei


    Xinjiang's oasis agriculture has made enormous strides over past decades. Structural adjustment of oasis agriculture sector has promoted production diversification. Xinjiang's oasis agriculture sector is entering a new era. The era means more adjustments in oasis agricultural and rural economic structure so as to realize the sustainable development of agriculture. By summing and analyzing the main problems in Xinjinag's oasis agricultural structure,such as raising farmer's income, industry structure within agriculture, rural urbanization, pressure coming from market, agricultural environment degradation,puts forward the thinking, director and countermeasures to adjust oasis agricultural structure.

  12. A note on how to iterate adjustment

    Wagschal, Jehudah J.; Yeivin, Yehuda [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Racah Institute of Physics, Jerusalem (Israel)


    We study the elementary problem of adjusting a given parameter library by one measured response so that calculating the response with the adjusted library reproduces the measured value. We formulate the problem of the least-squares adjustment for non-linear responses, and offer a reasoned iteration scheme to solve it. A numerical example illustrates the success of the proposed procedure. Our scheme is identical to that suggested by Perey, and thus adds insight, offers justification, and also serves as a formal proof of the latter. (author)

  13. Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development.

    Doehring, D O; Butler, J H


    The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucatáan Peninsula which are discussed here. LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatán Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic

  14. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène


    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  15. Robust passive dynamics of the musculoskeletal system compensate for unexpected surface changes during human hopping.

    van der Krogt, Marjolein M; de Graaf, Wendy W; Farley, Claire T; Moritz, Chet T; Richard Casius, L J; Bobbert, Maarten F


    When human hoppers are surprised by a change in surface stiffness, they adapt almost instantly by changing leg stiffness, implying that neural feedback is not necessary. The goal of this simulation study was first to investigate whether leg stiffness can change without neural control adjustment when landing on an unexpected hard or unexpected compliant (soft) surface, and second to determine what underlying mechanisms are responsible for this change in leg stiffness. The muscle stimulation pattern of a forward dynamic musculoskeletal model was optimized to make the model match experimental hopping kinematics on hard and soft surfaces. Next, only surface stiffness was changed to determine how the mechanical interaction of the musculoskeletal model with the unexpected surface affected leg stiffness. It was found that leg stiffness adapted passively to both unexpected surfaces. On the unexpected hard surface, leg stiffness was lower than on the soft surface, resulting in close-to-normal center of mass displacement. This reduction in leg stiffness was a result of reduced joint stiffness caused by lower effective muscle stiffness. Faster flexion of the joints due to the interaction with the hard surface led to larger changes in muscle length, while the prescribed increase in active state and resulting muscle force remained nearly constant in time. Opposite effects were found on the unexpected soft surface, demonstrating the bidirectional stabilizing properties of passive dynamics. These passive adaptations to unexpected surfaces may be critical when negotiating disturbances during locomotion across variable terrain.

  16. Research on lightweight passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror in the deployable space telescope

    Zhong, Peifeng; Li, Chuang; Jing, Nan; Chong, Yaqin; Ren, Guorui


    In this paper, a new type of lightweight passive deployment mechanism based on the tape spring and the shape memory alloy is presented for the secondary mirror of a deployable space telescope. In this passive deployment mechanism for the secondary mirror, the high elastic potential energy of the folded tape springs is used as driving force when the support structure is extended, and the high stiffness characteristics of the circular arc cross section of the tape spring can be used to achieve structure self-locking after deployment. Then a deployable space telescope combined with lightweight passive deployable mechanism for the secondary mirror is designed for applying to nanosatellite imaging. Furthermore, a lock-release device is designed to achieve the function of locking the folded structure and releasing on orbit by taking advantage of the phase transformation characteristics of shape memory alloy with temperature changing. Finally, the correction method for the deployment error of secondary mirror is discussed. The temperature of the tape springs is controlled respectively to make a required length change. This can achieve the purpose of adjusting the position of the secondary mirror and improve the deployment accuracy.

  17. Scottish Passive House: Insights into Environmental Conditions in Monitored Passive Houses

    Janice Foster


    Full Text Available Climate change and sustainability legislation in recent years has led to significant changes in construction approaches in the UK housing sector. This has resulted in the adoption of new building typologies, including the German Passivhaus (Passive House standard. This standard aims to improve occupant comfort and energy efficiency, potentially changing the ways in which homes operate and how occupants interact with them. With increasing construction of low energy dwellings, there is an emerging gap in knowledge in relation to occupant health and wellbeing, thermal comfort, and indoor air quality (IAQ. Using data collected from a two year Building Performance Evaluation (BPE study funded by Innovate UK, the environmental data (temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentrations from five Certified Passive House homes in Scotland was compared. The results demonstrate problems with overheating with peak temperatures exceeding 30 °C. Imbalanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR systems were identified in 80% of the dwellings and inadequate IAQ was found due to poor ventilation. Only one of the Passive Houses studied exhibited thermal conditions and IAQ which were, on the whole within Passive House parameters. This paper outlines the insights and the main issues of Scottish Passive House in the broader context of sustainability.

  18. Tracking marine mammals using passive acoustics

    Nosal, Eva-Marie


    It is difficult to study the behavior and physiology of marine mammals or to understand and mitigate human impact on them because much of their lives are spent underwater. Since sound propagates for long distances in the ocean and since many cetaceans are vocal, passive acoustics is a valuable tool for studying and monitoring their behavior. After a brief introduction to and review of passive acoustic tracking methods, this dissertation develops and applies two new methods. Both methods use widely-spaced (tens of kilometers) bottom-mounted hydrophone arrays, as well as propagation models that account for depth-dependent sound speed profiles. The first passive acoustic tracking method relies on arrival times of direct and surface-reflected paths. It is used to track a sperm whale using 5 at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) and gives position estimates that are accurate to within 10 meters. With such accuracy, the whale's pitch and yaw are estimated by assuming that its main axis (which points from the tail to the rostrum) is parallel to its velocity. Roll is found by fitting the details of the pulses within each sperm whale click to the so-called bent horn model of sperm whale sound production. Finally, given the position and orientation of the whale, its beam pattern is reconstructed and found to be highly directional with an intense forward directed component. Pair-wise spectrogram (PWS) processing is the second passive acoustic tracking method developed in this dissertation. Although it is computationally more intensive, PWS has several advantages over arrival-time tracking methods, especially in shallow water environments, for long duration calls, and for multiple-animal datasets, as is the case for humpback whales on Hawaiian breeding grounds. Results of simulations with realistic noise conditions and environmental mismatch are given and compared to other passive localization techniques. When applied to the AUTEC sperm whale dataset, PWS

  19. Passive exposures of children to volatile trihalomethanes during domestic cleaning activities of their parents

    Andra, Syam S. [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Harvard-Cyprus Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Charisiadis, Pantelis [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Karakitsios, Spyros; Sarigiannis, Denis A. [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Bldg. D, Rm 318, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 57001 Thessaloniki-Thermi (Greece); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus)


    Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence children's passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n=382) in Cyprus [41 children (<18y) and 341 adults (≥18y)], we identified 29 children who met the study's inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to ΣTHMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inverse association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary ΣTHMs (r{sub S}=−0.59, p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary ΣTHMs (ng g{sup −1}) of children and matched-mothers (r{sub S}=0.52, p=0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (r{sub S}=0.39, p=0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their children's urinary THMs levels (r{sub S}=0.56, p=0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary ΣTHMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary ΣTHMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p<0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers' domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such

  20. Content-Aware Video Adaptation under Low-Bitrate Constraint

    Hsiao Ming-Ho


    Full Text Available With the development of wireless network and the improvement of mobile device capability, video streaming is more and more widespread in such an environment. Under the condition of limited resource and inherent constraints, appropriate video adaptations have become one of the most important and challenging issues in wireless multimedia applications. In this paper, we propose a novel content-aware video adaptation in order to effectively utilize resource and improve visual perceptual quality. First, the attention model is derived from analyzing the characteristics of brightness, location, motion vector, and energy features in compressed domain to reduce computation complexity. Then, through the integration of attention model, capability of client device and correlational statistic model, attractive regions of video scenes are derived. The information object- (IOB- weighted rate distortion model is used for adjusting the bit allocation. Finally, the video adaptation scheme dynamically adjusts video bitstream in frame level and object level. Experimental results validate that the proposed scheme achieves better visual quality effectively and efficiently.

  1. Annual adjustments to 2016 financial benefits

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by the Council in December 2015, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2016.  

  2. Annual adjustments to 2014 financial benefits


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2013, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2014. HR Department

  3. Annual adjustments to 2015 financial benefits

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2014, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2015.

  4. Speed of adjustment: Evidence from Borsa Istanbul

    Emrah Arioglu


    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the speed of adjustment for leverage ratios of firms listed on Borsa Istanbul, in order to investigate the prediction of the trade-off theory, regarding capital structure rebalancing. For this purpose, we estimate the speed of adjustment by using Generalized Method of Moments system estimation technique. The results of this estimation suggest the speed of adjustment as approximately 29%. This significant speed of adjustment is consistent with the prediction of trade-off theory, which suggests that firms follow target capital structures and when the firms' leverage ratios deviate from these targets; they make financial decisions with the goal of closing the gap between the previous year's leverage and target leverage of the current period.

  5. Determinants of intercultural adjustment among expatriate spouses

    Ali, Anees; Van der Zee, K.I.; Sanders, G


    The adaptation of expatriate families to a host country seems crucial to successful fulfilment of international business assignments. The present study focused on personality, family characteristics and characteristics of expatriates' work life as determinants of the intercultural adjustment of expa

  6. Risk-adjusted monitoring of survival times

    Sego, Landon H.; Reynolds, Marion R.; Woodall, William H.


    We consider the monitoring of clinical outcomes, where each patient has a di®erent risk of death prior to undergoing a health care procedure.We propose a risk-adjusted survival time CUSUM chart (RAST CUSUM) for monitoring clinical outcomes where the primary endpoint is a continuous, time-to-event variable that may be right censored. Risk adjustment is accomplished using accelerated failure time regression models. We compare the average run length performance of the RAST CUSUM chart to the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, using data from cardiac surgeries to motivate the details of the comparison. The comparisons show that the RAST CUSUM chart is more efficient at detecting a sudden decrease in the odds of death than the risk-adjusted Bernoulli CUSUM chart, especially when the fraction of censored observations is not too high. We also discuss the implementation of a prospective monitoring scheme using the RAST CUSUM chart.

  7. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment


    ... Adjustment Notice states that the overall average for Special Services is a result of large price reductions...; Address Management Services; Caller Service; Change-of-Address Credit Card Authentication; Confirm... Periodicals, Nonprofit and Classroom Periodicals, Science of Agriculture Periodicals advertising...

  8. Continuity Adjustment for Control Charts for Attributes

    L.K. Chan; T.K. Mak; B. Tao


    A unified approach is proposed for making a continuity adjustment on some control charts for attributes, e.g., np-chart and c-chart, through adding a uniform (0, 1) random observation to the conventional sample statistic (e.g., npi and ci). The adjusted sample statistic then has a continuous distribution. Consequently, given any Type I risk α (the probability that the sample statistic is on or beyond the control limits),control charts achieving the exact value of α can be readily constructed. Guidelines are given for when to use the continuity adjustment control chart, the conventional Shewhart control chart (with ±3 standard deviations control limits), and the control chart based on the exact distribution of the sample statistic before adjustment.

  9. Annual adjustments to 2013 financial benefits


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2012, no adjustments have been made to basic salaries and stipends, subsistence allowances or family benefits as at 1 January 2013. HR Department

  10. Inkjet Printed Radio Frequency Passive Components

    McKerricher, Garret


    Inkjet printing is a mature technique for colourful graphic arts. It excels at customized, large area, high resolution, and small volume production. With the developments in conductive, and dielectric inks, there is potential for large area inkjet electronics fabrication. Passive radio frequency devices can benefit greatly from a printing process, since the size of these devices is defined by the frequency of operation. The large size of radio frequency passives means that they either take up expensive space “on chip” or that they are fabricated on a separate lower cost substrate and somehow bonded to the chips. This has hindered cost-sensitive high volume applications such as radio frequency identification tags. Substantial work has been undertaken on inkjet-printed conductors for passive antennas on microwave substrates and even paper, yet there has been little work on the printing of the dielectric materials aimed at radio frequency passives. Both the conductor and dielectric need to be integrated to create a multilayer inkjet printing process that is capable of making quality passives such as capacitors and inductors. Three inkjet printed dielectrics are investigated in this thesis: a ceramic (alumina), a thermal-cured polymer (poly 4 vinyl phenol), and a UV-cured polymer (acrylic based). For the conductor, both a silver nanoparticle ink as well as a custom in-house formulated particle-free silver ink are explored. The focus is on passives, mainly capacitors and inductors. Compared to low frequency electronics, radio frequency components have additional sensitivity regarding skin depth of the conductor and surface roughness, as well as dielectric constant and loss tangent of the dielectric. These concerns are investigated with the aim of making the highest quality components possible and to understand the current limitations of inkjet-fabricated radio frequency devices. An inkjet-printed alumina dielectric that provides quality factors of 200 and high

  11. Constraint satisfaction problems CSP formalisms and techniques

    Ghedira, Khaled


    A Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) consists of a set of variables, a domain of values for each variable and a set of constraints. The objective is to assign a value for each variable such that all constraints are satisfied. CSPs continue to receive increased attention because of both their high complexity and their omnipresence in academic, industrial and even real-life problems. This is why they are the subject of intense research in both artificial intelligence and operations research. This book introduces the classic CSP and details several extensions/improvements of both formalisms a


    Lam, P; Prof. Yuh J. Chao, P


    The meaning of the phrase 'constraint effect in fracture' has changed in the past two decades from 'contained plasticity' to a broader description of 'dependence of fracture toughness value on geometry of test specimen or structure'. This paper will first elucidate the fundamental mechanics reasons for the apparent 'constraint effects in fracture', followed by outlining a straightforward approach to overcoming this problem in both brittle (elastic) and ductile (elastic-plastic) fracture. It is concluded by discussing the major difference in constraint effect on fracture event in elastic and elastic-plastic materials.

  13. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael


    We point out that the unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun's Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a "black disk limit" as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature

  14. Database queries and constraints via lifting problems

    Spivak, David I


    Previous work has shown a tight relationship between databases and categories. In the present paper we extend that connection to show that certain queries and constraints correspond to the algebro-topological notion of lifting problems. In our formulation, each so-called SPARQL graph pattern query corresponds to a lifting problem, and each solution to the query corresponds to a lift. We interpret constraints within the same formalism and then investigate some formal properties of queries and constraints, e.g. their behavior under data migration functors.

  15. Industrial Forecasts after Export Rebates Adjustment


    @@ On June 19, 2007, the Circular of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation concerning Lowering the Export Rebate Rates for Some Commodities was published, which finally proved the early rumor of tax rebate adjustment to be true.According to the Circular, the export rebate rates for some commodities have been adjusted upon approval of the State Council and the new rates have become in force since July 1, 2007.

  16. Price Changes, Resource Adjustments and Rational Expectations

    Hoffmann, Kira

    This study investigates the relationship between the accuracy of managerial demand expectations, resource adjustment decisions and selling price changes. In line with rational expectation theory, it is argued that managers adjust resources and selling prices differently in response to expected...... that cost elasticity is higher when a demand decrease is expected among companies with similar exposure to demand uncertainty. Overall, this implies that managerial competences in predicting future demand significantly determines firms’ profitability; especially when demand uncertainty is high...

  17. Planck 2015 results. XVII. Constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    The Planck full mission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and E-mode polarization maps are analysed to obtain constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity (NG). Using three classes of optimal bispectrum estimators - separable template-fitting (KSW), binned, and modal - we obtain consistent values for the primordial local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes, quoting as our final result from temperature alone ƒlocalNL = 2.5 ± 5.7, ƒequilNL= -16 ± 70, , and ƒorthoNL = -34 ± 32 (68% CL, statistical). Combining temperature and polarization data we obtain ƒlocalNL = 0.8 ± 5.0, ƒequilNL= -4 ± 43, and ƒorthoNL = -26 ± 21 (68% CL, statistical). The results are based on comprehensive cross-validation of these estimators on Gaussian and non-Gaussian simulations, are stable across component separation techniques, pass an extensive suite of tests, and are consistent with estimators based on measuring the Minkowski functionals of the CMB. The effect of time-domain de-glitching systematics on the bispectrum is negligible. In spite of these test outcomes we conservatively label the results including polarization data as preliminary, owing to a known mismatch of the noise model in simulations and the data. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we present model-independent, three-dimensional reconstructions of the Planck CMB bispectrum and derive constraints on early universe scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general single-field models of inflation, axion inflation, initial state modifications, models producing parity-violating tensor bispectra, and directionally dependent vector models. We present a wide survey of scale-dependent feature and resonance models, accounting for the "look elsewhere" effect in estimating the statistical significance of features. We also look for isocurvature NG, and find no signal, but we obtain constraints that improve significantly with the inclusion of polarization. The primordial

  18. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.


    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  19. Optimal accounting policies under financial constraints: aggressive versus conservative

    Masatomo Akita; Yusuke Osaki


    We examine how severity of financial constraints influences firms' choices of accounting policies. This paper shows that firms with mild financial constraints choose an aggressive accounting policy and those with severe financial constraints choose a conservative accounting policy.

  20. Choco: an Open Source Java Constraint Programming Library

    Jussien, Narendra; Rochart, Guillaume; Lorca, Xavier


    International audience; Choco is a java library for constraint satisfaction problems (CSP), constraint programming (CP) and explanation-based constraint solving (e-CP). It is built on a event-based propagation mechanism with backtrackable structures.

  1. Inductance, electrically adjusted by semiconductor structure

    Semenov А. А.


    Full Text Available A theoretical model of a passive flat inductor with electronic control is offered. Design charts of tank inductance and Q factor dependence on the forward bias voltage of n—i—p—i—n-structure, used as a specific core, the characteristics of which are regulated under the influence of an applied electric field, are presented. The comparison of design values with experimental features has shown their good correspondence with each other.

  2. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D


    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  3. Adjustable versus non-adjustable suture techniques for concomitant horizontal strabismus: a comparative study

    Galton C. Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the surgical results of adjustable and non-adjustable horizontal strabismus surgery for concomitant horizontal strabismus. Methods: The charts of 231 patients, who underwent horizontal strabismus surgery, selected using probabilistic sampling, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical technique used and strabismus type. The adjustable suture technique was used for 107 patients (Group 1, and non-adjustable or conventional surgery was performed in the remaining 124 patients (Group 2. Patients with esotropia (ET or exotropia (XT of 5 PD, syndromes, restrictive or paretic strabismus, reoperations, botulinum toxin injection, and patients postoperatively followed up for 50% was present in all subgroups. Significant differences between strabismus groups submitted to adjustable technique and non-adjustable on postoperative day 1 were observed (p=0.00 for ET and p=0.01 for XT and at the last visit for the XT group with a follow-up of at least 1 year (p=0.05. Conclusion: The adjustable suture technique produced a higher success rate than non-adjustable strabismus surgery for both ET and XT groups on postoperative day 1. For XT patients, the adjustable suture technique appears to produce better surgical results than non-adjustable surgery, when the surgical goal is long-lasting maintenance of a small hypercorrection.

  4. Democratic constraints on demographic policy.

    Grigsby, J S


    The discussion compares the population policies adopted in Sweden during the 1930s to raise fertiity and the policies considered in the US during the 1970s in response to the high fertility experienced in the 1950s. Both sets of policies recommended increased availability of birth control, more liberal abortion laws, and greater employment opportunities for women. It becomes evident that the constraints imposed by a democratic system of government translate into policy recommendations that place individual freedom of choice and equal opportunity for all citizens as higher goals than any specific demographic target. Consequently, the population commissions of Sweden and the US made similar suggestions on how to resolve their opposite demographic problems. The demographic situations in the 2 nations were antipodal, and the countries also had very different social climates. This additional disparity was insufficient to counterbalance the apparently overwhelming influence of the democratic political systems in making virtually identical policy recommendations. Yet, the contrasting social climates of Sweden in 1935 and the US in 1970-72 may explain the different reactions each commission received. In terms of the responses by both citizens and government officials to the commissions' reports, the Swedish commission was more successful. Practically all of their recommendations were enthusiastically received and quickly adopted by the Swedish Riksdag. Yet, when the criterion for success becomes whether or not a demographic target was met, it increased in the 1940s and then dropped again while the same social policies were in effect. Even before the US commission began its study, fertility in the US had fallen and continues to remain low. These findings suggest that commissions in democratic countries will most likely never recommend dramatic measures in population policy. Thus, it is questionable whether such commissions in democratic nations will totally fulfill the


    Li Hongjie; Xiao Renbin


    Product design is considered as the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), and a new design approach basedon constraint network is proposed and applied to make design automatic partially. By means of constraint extraction, constraint network construction and operation, constraint chains are acquired, and then the conceptual design scheme can be got by decoding the information stored in the design constraint chains, which provides a novelty method for mechanical product design automation. Shearing mechanism of shearing machine has been designed by this way.

  6. Diffusion processes satisfying a conservation law constraint

    Bakosi, J


    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have di...

  7. Einstein constraints on a characteristic cone

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Martín-García, José M


    We analyse the Cauchy problem on a characteristic cone, including its vertex, for the Einstein equations in arbitrary dimensions. We use a wave map gauge, solve the obtained constraints and show gauge conservation.

  8. Relationship between protein structure and geometrical constraints

    Lund, Ole; Hansen, Jan; Brunak, Søren;


    We evaluate to what extent the structure of proteins can be deduced from incomplete knowledge of disulfide bridges, surface assignments, secondary structure assignments, and additional distance constraints. A cost function taking such constraints into account was used to obtain protein structures...... using a simple minimization algorithm. For small proteins, the approximate structure could be obtained using one additional distance constraint for each amino acid in the protein. We also studied the effect of using predicted secondary structure and surface assignments. The constraints used...... in this approach typically may be obtained from low-resolution experimental data. When using a cost function based on distances, half of the resulting structures will be mirrored, because the resulting structure and its mirror image will have the same cost. The secondary structure assignments were therefore...

  9. Network Design with Node Degree Balance Constraints

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has ...... applications within the design of transportation networks. The model is solved using a Tabu Search heuristic using a hybrid of the add/drop procedure and cycle-based neighbourhoods.......This presentation discusses an extension to the network design model where there in addition to the flow conservation constraints also are constraints that require design conservation. This means that the number of arcs entering and leaving a node must be the same. As will be shown the model has...

  10. Dynamic shortfall constraints for optimal portfolios

    Bernd Luderer


    Full Text Available We consider a portfolio problem when a Tail Conditional Expectation constraint is imposed. The financial market is composed of n risky assets driven by geometric Brownian motion and one risk-free asset. The Tail Conditional Expectation is calculated for short intervals of time and imposed as risk constraint dynamically. The method of Lagrange multipliers is combined with the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation to insert the constraint into the resolution framework. A numerical method is applied to obtain an approximate solution to the problem. We find that the imposition of the Tail Conditional Expectation constraint when risky assets evolve following a log-normal distribution, curbs investment in the risky assets and diverts the wealth to consumption.

  11. Optimal portfolio strategies under a shortfall constraint

    D Akuma


    Full Text Available We impose dynamically, a shortfall constraint in terms of Tail Conditional Expectation on the portfolio selection problem in continuous time, in order to obtain optimal strategies. The financial market is assumed to comprise n risky assets driven by geometric Brownian motion and one risk-free asset. The method of Lagrange multipliers is combined with the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation to insert the constraint into the resolution framework. The constraint is re-calculated at short intervals of time throughout the investment horizon. A numerical method is applied to obtain an approximate solution to the problem. It is found that the imposition of the constraint curbs investment in the risky assets.

  12. Biological constraints do not entail cognitive closure.

    Vlerick, Michael


    From the premise that our biology imposes cognitive constraints on our epistemic activities, a series of prominent authors--most notably Fodor, Chomsky and McGinn--have argued that we are cognitively closed to certain aspects and properties of the world. Cognitive constraints, they argue, entail cognitive closure. I argue that this is not the case. More precisely, I detect two unwarranted conflations at the core of arguments deriving closure from constraints. The first is a conflation of what I will refer to as 'representation' and 'object of representation'. The second confuses the cognitive scope of the assisted mind for that of the unassisted mind. Cognitive closure, I conclude, cannot be established from pointing out the (uncontroversial) existence of cognitive constraints.

  13. Integrity Constraint Checking in Federated Databases

    Grefen, Paul; Widom, Jennifer


    A federated database is comprised of multiple interconnected databases that cooperate in an autonomous fashion. Global integrity constraints are very useful in federated databases, but the lack of global queries, global transaction mechanisms, and global concurrency control renders traditional const

  14. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...

  15. Influence of free air space on microbial kinetics in passively aerated compost.

    Yu, Shouhai; Clark, O Grant; Leonard, Jerry J


    The influence of free air space (FAS) on passively aerated composting has been reported, but the quantitative relationship between FAS and the microbial kinetics in passively aerated compost has not been investigated. This relationship was studied by composting dairy manure and straw in an enclosed, passively aerated, cylindrical vessel. Based on this experimental system, conceptual and numerical models were developed in which the compost bed was considered to consist of layered elements, each being physically and chemically homogeneous. The microbial activity in each layer was represented in order to predict oxygen and substrate consumption and the release of water and heat. Convective transport of air, moisture, and heat through the layers was represented. Microbial growth and substrate consumption rates were described using modified first-order kinetics for each of the mesophilic and thermophilic temperature regimes. The values of the microbial kinetic parameters were adjusted for each layer based on an innovative, non-linear, statistical analysis of temperature histories recorded at different layers in the compost bed during three treatments (i.e., FAS values of 0.45, 0.52, and 0.65). Microbial kinetic rate constants were found to follow a sigmoid relationship with FAS, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) of 0.97 for the mesophilic stage and 0.96 for the thermophilic stage. Temperature histories and airflow measurements from a fourth treatment (FAS value of 0.57) were used as an independent check of the model's performance. Simulation results indicate that the model could predict the general trend of temperature development. A plot of the residuals shows that the model is biased, however, possibly because many parameters in the model were not measured directly but instead were estimated from literature. The result from this study demonstrates a new method for describing the relationship between microbial kinetics (k(max)) and substrate FAS, which could be used

  16. Freedom, Time Constraints and Progressive Taxation

    Ernesto Screpanti


    In this paper I present a measure of freedom for opportunity sets which are bounded by both budget and time constraints. Then I show that, in a society in which income is distributed more unequally than leisure time, a government aiming at leaving freedom distribution unaltered should apply progressive taxation. Since incomes bind freedom only partially when time constraints bind, taxing the rich reduces his freedom proportionally less than taxing the poor reduces his. Moreover, when incomes ...

  17. Duality without constraint qualification in nonsmooth optimization

    S. Nobakhtian


    We are concerned with a nonsmooth multiobjective optimization problem with inequality constraints. In order to obtain our main results, we give the definitions of the generalized convex functions based on the generalized directional derivative. Under the above generalized convexity assumptions, sufficient and necessary conditions for optimality are given without the need of a constraint qualification. Then we formulate the dual problem corresponding to the primal problem, and some duality res...

  18. Team Decision Problems with Convex Quadratic Constraints

    Gattami, Ather


    In this paper, we consider linear quadratic team problems with an arbitrary number of quadratic constraints in both stochastic and deterministic settings. The team consists of players with different measurements about the state of nature. The objective of the team is to minimize a quadratic cost subject to additional finite number of quadratic constraints. We first consider the problem of countably infinite number of players in the team for a bounded state of nature with a Gaussian distributi...

  19. Constraint for the Existence of Ellipsoidal Vesicles

    XIE Yu-Zhang


    Under the spontaneous curvature model of lipid bilayers, the constraints for the existence of equilibrium axisym metric oblate and prolate ellipsoidal vesicles are obtained from the general shape equation. They degenerate either to the constraint for the existence of a spherical vesicle or to that of a circular cylindrical vesicle given by Ou-Yang and Helfrich [Phys. Rev. Lett. 59 (1987) 2486; 60(1988)120; Phys. Rev. A 39 (1989) 5280].


    GuoHongjie; NiChuanbin


    Communicative language teaching (CLT) is an in novationin English language teaching ( ELT ). That appeared in Britain in the late 1960s. As the country with the largest English learning population in the world, China also has become deeply involved in CLT. This essay attempts to sketch the trends of CLT in China, the constraints it met with, and outlines suggestions and measures taken to overcome the constraints.

  1. Discontinuous gradient constraints and the infinity Laplacian

    Juutinen, Petri; Rossi, Julio D


    Motivated by tug-of-war games and asymptotic analysis of certain variational problems, we consider a gradient constraint problem involving the infinity Laplace operator. We prove that this problem always has a solution that is unique if a certain regularity condition on the constraint is satisfied. If this regularity condition fails, then solutions obtained from game theory and $L^p$-approximation need not coincide.

  2. Constraint Cooling of Hot Rolled Coil

    WANG Li-juan; ZHANG Chun-li


    The layer thermal conductivity during constraint cooling of hot rolled coil was described by using equivalent thermal conductivity model and finite element method. Two radial stress concentration zones in constraint cooled coil were shown by numerical analysis, and the tension stress was assumed to be the main factor to induce stress corrosion. The experimental results show that the longer the water cooling time is, the smaller the grain size and the more uniform the grains are.

  3. Implementation of Complex Projects Using Constraint Programming

    Miodrag Strak


    Full Text Available During the implementation of the complex projects, all planned activities and resources must be taken into account. In general, it is necessary to assign the resources to the activities, but to also avoid simultaneous engagement of resources for multiple activities. In order to solve these problems, various techniques and methods are used. Mathematic and integer programming, genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, or taboo search are just some of the techniques used for solving this problem. Constraint programming comes from artificial intelligence i.e. papers from this area that occurred in 1960s and 1970s. Constraints exist in every segment of human environment. They represent a natural medium for expressing relations that exist in the physical world. Fulfilment of constraints is used in many different areas. Problems such as scheduling, allocations etc. are typical examples of constraints problems, where the basic concept of constraint programming can be applied. This paper considered implementation of the Bor Regional Development Project. Development of constraint programming was followed by the development of appropriate tools. B-Prolog was used in this paper. Many systems, including B-Prolog, enable interface with classic object-oriented languages, such as C++ or Java. One of the greatest advantages is the possibility of simple modelling, even for beginners in planning and implementation of the project.

  4. Improved Parameterized Algorithms for Constraint Satisfaction

    Kim, Eun Jung


    Results from inapproximability provide several sharp thresholds on the approximability of important optimization problems. We give several improved parameterized algorithms for solving constraint satisfaction problems above a tight threshold. Our results include the following: - Improved algorithms for any Constraint Satisfaction Problem: Take any boolean Max-CSP with at most $c$ variables per constraint such that a random assignment satisfies a constraint with probability $p$. There is an algorithm such that for every instance of the problem with $m$ constraints, the algorithm decides whether at least $pm+k$ constraints can be satisfied in $O(2^{(c(c+1)/2) k} m)$ time. This improves on results of [Alon et al., SODA 2010] and [Crowston et al., SWAT 2010]. We observe that an $O(2^{\\eps k + \\eps m})$ time algorithm for every $\\eps > 0$ would imply that 3SAT is in subexponential time, so it seems unlikely that our runtime dependence on $k$ can be significantly improved. Our proof also shows that every Max-$c$-CS...

  5. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing


    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  6. Passive neutron dosemeter with activation detector

    Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    A passive neutron dosemeter with {sup 197}Au activation detector has been developed. The area dosemeter was made as a 20.5 {phi} x 20.5 cm{sup 2} polyethylene moderator, with a polyethylene pug where a {sup 197}Au foil can be located either parallel or perpendicular to moderator axis. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code. With the fluence response and the fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients from ICRP-74, responses to H*(10) were also calculated, these were compared against responses of commercially available neutron area monitors and dosemeters. (Author)

  7. Words on walls: Passive eating disorder education.

    Duffy, Mary E; Henkel, Kristin E


    This study examined the effect of a short-term passive intervention on nursing students' beliefs about eating disorders (EDs). Before and after a weeklong ED education poster campaign, participants completed questionnaires assessing their attitudes about individuals with EDs. Results showed a reduction in the belief that people with EDs are almost always women, increased attribution to biological and genetic factors, and decreased attribution to society's thin ideal. Personal connection moderated response to the items: [people with EDs] "are putting their lives at risk" and "would not improve with treatment." This intervention shows promise for reducing ED-associated stereotype endorsement among medical professionals.

  8. Newnes passive and discrete circuits pocket book



    Newnes Passive and Discrete Circuits Pocket Book is aimed at all engineers, technicians, students and experimenters who can build a design directly from a circuit diagram. In a highly concise form Ray Marston presents a huge compendium of circuits that can be built as they appear, adapted or used as building blocks. The devices used have been carefully chosen for their ease of availability and reasonable price. The selection of devices has been thoroughly updated for the second edition, which has also been expanded to cover the latest ICs.The three sections of the book cover: Moder

  9. Shock Wave Smearing by Passive Control

    Piotr DOERFFER; Oskar SZULC; Rainer BOHNING


    Normal shock wave, terminating a local supersonic area on an airfoil, limits its performance and becomes a source of high speed impulsive noise. It is proposed to use passive control to disintegrate the shock wave. Details of the flow structure obtained by this method are studied numerically. A new boundary condition has been developed and the results of its application are verified against experiments in a nozzle flow. The method of shock wave disintegration has been confirmed and detailed analysis of the flow details is presented. The substitution of a shock wave by a gradual compression changes completely the source of the high speed impulsive noise and bears potential of its reduction.

  10. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.


    . There is no known environmental or health risk involved using the treatments mentioned above. All components used in the baths are non toxic compared to Cr(VI). Alloy coatings such as zinc/nickel, zinc/cobalt, zinc/tin and all types of pure zinc coating (from cyanide, acidic or alkaline baths) have been treated...... minutes, in any one of the baths, at 60¢XC. Some movement of the submerged samples, or stirring with air-bubbles, should be applied, just as a thorough rinse of the zinc surface immediately before the pas-sivation is extremely important....

  11. A passive available bandwidth estimation methodology

    Cabellos Aparicio, Alberto; Thompson, John; García, Francisco J.; Domingo Pascual, Jordi


    The Available Bandwidth (AB) of an end-to-end path is its remaining capacity and it is an important metric for several applications such as overlay routing and P2P networking. That is why many AB estimation tools have been published recently. Most of these tools use the Probe Rate Model, which requires sending packet trains at a rate matching the AB. Its main issue is that it congests the path under measurement. We present a different approach: a novel passive methodology to estimate the AB ...

  12. Magnetic Random Access Memory; Integrated Passive Components


    for an inductor designed to  operate at 10 MHz, a reasonable value for  switching  power converters. The  ferrite  cladding  works optimally when applied to...elements: a magnetic latch , and a magnetic shadow memory to serve as a backup to volatile electronic memory. Integrated Passive Electronic Components...greater inductance per unit area, and a 150% increase in Q, by using ferrite cladding contain and shape electromagnetic fields. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  13. Experiments on the Performance of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Passive Pitch Control by Disk Pulley

    Yu-Jen Chen


    Full Text Available The present work is to design a passive pitch-control mechanism for small horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT to generate stable power at high wind speeds. The mechanism uses a disk pulley as an actuator to passively adjust the pitch angle of blades by centrifugal force. For this design, aerodynamic braking is caused by the adjustment of pitch angles at high wind speeds. As a marked advantage, this does not require mechanical brakes that would incur electrical burn-out and structural failure under high speed rotation. This can ensure the survival of blades and generator in sever operation environments. In this paper, the analysis uses blade element momentum theory (BEMT to develop graphical user interface software to facilitate the performance assessment of the small-scale HAWT using passive pitch control (PPC. For verification, the HAWT system was tested in a full-scale wind tunnel for its aerodynamic performance. At low wind speeds, this system performed the same as usual, yet at high wind speeds, the equipped PPC system can effectively reduce the rotational speed to generate stable power.

  14. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu


    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  15. Imposing Constraints from the Source Tree on ITG Constraints for SMT

    Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Okuma, Hideo; Sumita, Eiichiro

    In the current statistical machine translation (SMT), erroneous word reordering is one of the most serious problems. To resolve this problem, many word-reordering constraint techniques have been proposed. Inversion transduction grammar (ITG) is one of these constraints. In ITG constraints, target-side word order is obtained by rotating nodes of the source-side binary tree. In these node rotations, the source binary tree instance is not considered. Therefore, stronger constraints for word reordering can be obtained by imposing further constraints derived from the source tree on the ITG constraints. For example, for the source word sequence { a b c d }, ITG constraints allow a total of twenty-two target word orderings. However, when the source binary tree instance ((a b) (c d)) is given, our proposed “imposing source tree on ITG” (IST-ITG) constraints allow only eight word orderings. The reduction in the number of word-order permutations by our proposed stronger constraints efficiently suppresses erroneous word orderings. In our experiments with IST-ITG using the NIST MT08 English-to-Chinese translation track's data, the proposed method resulted in a 1.8-points improvement in character BLEU-4 (35.2 to 37.0) and a 6.2% lower CER (74.1 to 67.9%) compared with our baseline condition.

  16. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  17. Passivity-based control and estimation in networked robotics

    Hatanaka, Takeshi; Fujita, Masayuki; Spong, Mark W


    Highlighting the control of networked robotic systems, this book synthesizes a unified passivity-based approach to an emerging cross-disciplinary subject. Thanks to this unified approach, readers can access various state-of-the-art research fields by studying only the background foundations associated with passivity. In addition to the theoretical results and techniques,  the authors provide experimental case studies on testbeds of robotic systems  including networked haptic devices, visual robotic systems,  robotic network systems and visual sensor network systems. The text begins with an introduction to passivity and passivity-based control together with the other foundations needed in this book. The main body of the book consists of three parts. The first examines how passivity can be utilized for bilateral teleoperation and demonstrates the inherent robustness of the passivity-based controller against communication delays. The second part emphasizes passivity’s usefulness for visual feedback control ...

  18. Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems

    Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.


    This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.

  19. A passive transmitter for quantum key distribution with coherent light

    Curty, Marcos; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W


    Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element is required. Typical passive transmitters involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized coherent pulses also allow passive generation of decoy states and Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) polarization signals, though the combination of both setups in a single passive source is cumbersome. In this paper, we present a complete passive transmitter that prepares decoy-state BB84 signals using coherent light. Our method employs sum-frequency generation together with linear optical components and classical photodetectors. In the asymptotic limit of an infinite long experiment, the resulting secret key rate (per pulse) is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state BB84 setup wit...

  20. Calibrating passive sampling and passive dosing techniques to lipid based concentrations

    Mayer, Philipp; Schmidt, Stine Nørgaard; Annika, A.


    coated vials and with Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) yielded lipid based concentrations that were in good agreement with each other, but about a factor of two higher than measured lipid-normalized concentrations in the organisms. Passive dosing was applied to bioconcentration...