Sample records for adjustable effective properties

  1. Using high-frequency vibrations and non-linear inclusions to create metamaterials with adjustable effective properties

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel


    We investigate how high-frequency (HF) excitation combined with strongly non-linear elasticity may influence the effective properties for low-frequency wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated for linear spring-mass chains with embedded non-linear parts. The investigated mechanical systems...

  2. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.


    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  3. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana


    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles.

  4. Psychometric properties of the index of relocation adjustment.

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A


    More and more American older adults are relocating to retirement communities, and they experience challenges in adjusting to new surroundings that may increase their depression and mortality. An instrument not previously tested in the United States, the Index of Relocation Adjustment (IRA), may help in early identification of poor relocation adjustment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the IRA using secondary data from a convenience sample of 104 older adults who relocated to 6 retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. Cronbach's alpha was .86. The IRA was correlated with measures of positive cognitions (r = .48, p controllability (r = -.62, p IRA is potentially useful as a screening measure for early detection of poor adjustment among relocated older adults.

  5. Effective Border Tax Adjustments for Export Promotion

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo


    In this paper, we address the administration issues associated with the most important border tax adjustments for export expansion. These relate to the refund of input tax credits under the VAT and the relief from customs duties on imported inputs used to produce exports. Such refunds in many developing countries are either not paid in a timely fashion or have been fraudulently overstated in the claims made by exporters. These become impediments that have frequently discouraged foreign invest...

  6. Tuning the Properties of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Adjusting Fullerene Size to Control Intercalation

    Cates, Nichole C.


    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. On the Validity of Covariate Adjustment for Estimating Causal Effects

    Shpitser, Ilya; Robins, James M


    Identifying effects of actions (treatments) on outcome variables from observational data and causal assumptions is a fundamental problem in causal inference. This identification is made difficult by the presence of confounders which can be related to both treatment and outcome variables. Confounders are often handled, both in theory and in practice, by adjusting for covariates, in other words considering outcomes conditioned on treatment and covariate values, weighed by probability of observing those covariate values. In this paper, we give a complete graphical criterion for covariate adjustment, which we term the adjustment criterion, and derive some interesting corollaries of the completeness of this criterion.

  8. Properties of an adjustable quarter-wave system under conditions of multiple beam interference.

    Bibikova, Evelina A; Kundikova, Nataliya D


    We investigate the polarimetric properties of an adjustable two plate quarter-wave system. We take into account multiple beam interference within single wave plates. Different adjustments of an adjustable two plate quarter-wave system are required for the production of the left-handed and the right-handed circular polarized coherent light. We investigate experimentally laser light polarization conversion by the systems consisting of two birefringent mica plates. An adjustable two plate quarter-wave system produces high-quality circularly polarized coherent light with the intensity-related ellipticity better than 0.99 at any wavelength.

  9. Topographic Effect on the Energetics of Geostrophic Adjustment

    FANG Juan; WU Rongsheng; YI Aimin


    In this work, the impact of topography on the geostrophic adjustment process is discussed with a simple two-layer shallow water model, in which the lower-layer fluid is initially stationary while the upper-layer is perturbed by the impulsive injection of momentum. During the geostrophic adjustment process of this ideal model, the initial kinetic energy is released and a fraction of it is converted into potential energy of the final geostrophically adjusted state. Thus, after the geostrophic adjustment, the kinetic energy of the system is reduced while the potential energy is enhanced. As the topographic effect is considered, it is found that the decrease of the kinetic energy (△KE) and the increase of the potential energy (△PE) of the system are weakened as compared to the case that the lower boundary is flat. Furthermore, the topographic effect on △PE is less pronounced than that on △KE, which implicates that the topography tends to inhibit the energy dispersion of the inertio-gravity wave. The numerical simulation of the geostrophic adjustment process shows that, due to the impact of topography, the convergence and divergence in the low layer are reduced and the undulation of the interface between the lower-layer and upper-layer is weakened. This means that the amplitude of the inertio-gravity wave is decreased, and thus, the energy radiated by the inertio-gravity wave is lessened.

  10. Breakdown of the Robustness Property of Lotka's Law: The Case of Adjusted Counts for Multiauthorship Attribution.

    Rousseau, Ronald


    Examines the robustness property of Lotka's law for scholarly papers with more than one author. Adjusted counts for assigning credit to authors proportionally are explained, and two bibliographies are analyzed using frequency distributions that show where the robustness property breaks down. (nine references) (LRW)

  11. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D


    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  12. Multiobjective Shape Optimization for Deployment and Adjustment Properties of Cable-Net of Deployable Antenna

    Guoqiang You


    Full Text Available Based on structural features of cable-net of deployable antenna, a multiobjective shape optimization method is proposed to help to engineer antenna’s cable-net structure that has better deployment and adjustment properties. In this method, the multiobjective optimum mathematical model is built with lower nodes’ locations of cable-net as variables, the average stress ratio of cable elements and strain energy as objectives, and surface precision and natural frequency of cable-net as constraints. Sequential quadratic programming method is used to solve this nonlinear mathematical model in conditions with different weighting coefficients, and the results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  13. Effects of PCB thickness on adjustable fountain wave soldering

    M S Abdul Aziz; M Z Abdullah; C Y Khor; A Jalar; M A Bakar; W Y W Yusoff; F Che Ani; Nobe Yan; M Zhou; C Cheok


    This study investigates the effects of printed circuit board (PCB) thickness on adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering. The pin-through-hole (PTH) vertical fill is examined with three PCBs of different thicknesses (i.e., 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm) soldered through adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering at conveyor angles of 0° and 6°. The vertical fill of each PCB is the focus. The PTH solder profile is inspected with a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography scanning machine. The percentages of the PTH vertical fill of both soldering processes are also estimated and compared. The aspect ratio of the PCB is also investigated. Experimental results reveal that adjustable fountain wave soldering yields better vertical fill than conventional wave soldering. The vertical fill level of adjustable fountain wave soldering is 100%, 90%, and 50% for the 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm PCB thickness, respectively. FLUENT simulation is conducted for the vertical fill of the solder profile. Simulation and experimental results show that the PTH solder profiles of the two soldering processes are almost identical. The effect of PCB thickness on PTH voiding is also discussed.

  14. The effect of asymmetry of posture on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Aruin, Alexander S


    The study investigates the effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Subjects performed a task involving a standard load release induced by a shoulder abduction movement while standing symmetrically or in an asymmetrical stance with either their right or left leg in 45 degrees of external rotation. EMG activities of trunk and leg muscles were recorded during the postural perturbation and were quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Anticipatory postural adjustments were observed in all experimental conditions. It was found that asymmetrical body positioning was associated with significant asymmetrical patterns of APAs seen in the right and left distal muscles. These APA asymmetries were dependant upon the side in which the body asymmetry was induced: reduced APAs were observed in the leg muscles on the side of leg rotation, while increased APAs were seen in the muscles on the contralateral side. These findings stress the important role that body asymmetries play in the control of upright posture.

  15. Combined expectancies: electrophysiological evidence for the adjustment of expectancy effects

    Münte Thomas F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When subjects use cues to prepare for a likely stimulus or a likely response, reaction times are facilitated by valid cues but prolonged by invalid cues. In studies on combined expectancy effects, two cues can independently give information regarding two dimensions of the forthcoming task. In certain situations, cueing effects on one dimension are reduced when the cue on the other dimension is invalid. According to the Adjusted Expectancy Model, cues affect different processing levels and a mechanism is presumed which is sensitive to the validity of early level cues and leads to online adjustment of expectancy effects at later levels. To examine the predictions of this model cueing of stimulus modality was combined with response cueing. Results Behavioral measures showed the interaction of cueing effects. Electrophysiological measures of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP and the N200 amplitude confirmed the predictions of the model. The LRP showed larger effects of response cues on response activation when modality cues were valid rather than invalid. N200 amplitude was largest with valid modality cues and invalid response cues, medium with invalid modality cues, and smallest with two valid cues. Conclusion Findings support the view that the validity of early level expectancies modulates the effects of late level expectancies, which included response activation and response conflict in the present study.

  16. A new family of covariate-adjusted response adaptive designs and their properties

    ZHANG Li-Xin; HU Fei-fang


    It is often important to incorporate covariate information in the design of clinical trials. In literature there are many designs of using stratification and covariate-adaptive randomization to balance certain known covaxiate. Recently, some covariate-adjusted response-adaptive (CARA) designs have been proposed and their asymptotic properties have been studied (Ann.Statist. 2007). However, these CARA designs usually have high variabilities. In this paper, a new family of covariate-adjusted response-adaptive (CARA) designs is presented. It is shown that the new designs have less variables and therefore are more efficient.

  17. Adjusting for covariate effects on classification accuracy using the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve.

    Janes, Holly; Pepe, Margaret S


    Recent scientific and technological innovations have produced an abundance of potential markers that are being investigated for their use in disease screening and diagnosis. In evaluating these markers, it is often necessary to account for covariates associated with the marker of interest. Covariates may include subject characteristics, expertise of the test operator, test procedures or aspects of specimen handling. In this paper, we propose the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve, a measure of covariate-adjusted classification accuracy. Nonparametric and semiparametric estimators are proposed, asymptotic distribution theory is provided and finite sample performance is investigated. For illustration we characterize the age-adjusted discriminatory accuracy of prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker for prostate cancer.

  18. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments.

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S; Yu, Bin


    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman-Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS.

  19. Phosphorous Enrichment in Molten Adjusted Converter Slag: Part I Effect of Adjusting Technological Conditions%Phosphorous Enrichment in Molten Adjusted Converter Slag: Part I Effect of Adjusting Technological Conditions

    WANG Nan; LIANG Zhi-gang; CHEN Min; ZOU Zong-shu


    The effects of adjusting technological conditions on the phosphorous enrichment of adjusted converter slag were investigated. The results showed that the phosphorus could he effectively enriched to 2CaO · SiO2 and 2CaO · SiO2-3CaO· P2O5 solid solution (SS, namely phosphorus-rich phase) to be formed with the decreasing of basicity and cooling rate. Moreover, the morphology of the phosphorus-rich phase changed from granular for the original converter slag with higher basicity to the coexistence of granular shape and rod-like for the adjusted slag with lower basicity. P2 05 content in phosphorus-rich phase exceeded 30° while the hasicity was 1.3 at the cooling rate of 1.0 ℃/min.

  20. Surface properties of monolithic zirconia after dental adjustment treats and in vitro wear simulation

    Preis, Verena; Schmalzbauer, Michael; Bougeard, Dominique; Schneider-Feyrer, Sibylle; Rosentritt, Martin


    Objectives To investigate the surface properties (roughness, composition, phase transformation) of monolithic zirconia specimens after dental adjustment procedures (grinding, polishing) and wear simulation. Methods Zirconia specimens (Cercon base, Cercon ht, DeguDent, G; n = 10/material) were successively sintered, ground, and polished with an intraoral polishing kit in a three-step procedure. Sintered zirconia specimens with high surface roughness served as a reference. For each tre...

  1. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    Duffy, P.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.


    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.

  2. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia


    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  3. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.


    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  4. The Moderating Effect of Sense of Coherence on Work Adjustment.

    Strauser, David R.; Lustig, Daniel C.


    Examines the relationship between sense of coherence and a model of work adjustment, specifically, the individual domains of work personality and work competencies. Results indicated a medium relationship between sense of coherence and the Work Personality Profile Self-Report, with sense of coherence accounting for 18% of the variance. (Contains…

  5. A Method to Adjust Dielectric Property of SiC Powder in the GHz Range

    Xiaolei Su; Jie Xu; Zhimin Li; Junbo Wang; Xinhai He; Chong Fu; Wancheng Zhou


    The SiC powders by Al or N doping have been synthesized by combustion synthesis, using Al powder and NH4Cl powder as the dopants and polytetrafluoroethylene as the chemical activator. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer demonstrates the formation of Al doped SiC, N doped SiC and the Al and N co-doped SiC solid solution powders, respectively. The electric permittivities of prepared powders have been determined in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. It indicates that the electric permittivities of the prepared SiC powders have been improved by the pure Al or N doping and decrease by the Al and N co-doping. The paper presents a method to adjust dielectric property of SiC powders in the GHz range.

  6. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael


    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly.

  7. Effects of adjustable gastric banding on gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal motility : a systematic review

    de Jong, J. R.; Besselink, M. G. H.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.


    P>Controversial opinions exist concerning the effect of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding on gastroesophageal reflux. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant studies on patients undergoing adjustable gastric banding. Data are expressed in mean (range). Twenty studies were ident

  8. Consequences of self-handicapping: effects on coping, academic performance, and adjustment.

    Zuckerman, M; Kieffer, S C; Knee, C R


    Self-handicappers erect impediments to performance to protect their self-esteem. The impediments may interfere with the ability to do well and, as such, may result in poor adjustment. Using a longitudinal design, the present studies examined prospective effects of self-handicapping on coping, academic performance, and several adjustment-related variables (e.g., self-esteem). It was found that, compared to low self-handicappers, high self-handicappers reported higher usage of coping strategies implying withdrawal and negative focus. High self-handicappers performed less well academically, an effect that was mediated in part by poor study habits. Finally, high self-handicapping resulted in poorer adjustment over time, and poorer adjustment resulted in higher self-handicapping over time. These relations are consistent with the idea of a vicious cycle in which self-handicapping and poor adjustment reinforce one another.

  9. Effects of multiple context and cumulative stress on urban children's adjustment in elementary school.

    Morales, Julie R; Guerra, Nancy G


    Using longitudinal data collected over 2 years on a sample of 2,745 urban elementary school children (1st-6th graders, ages 6-11 years) from economically disadvantaged communities, effects of stressful experiences within 3 contexts (school, family, neighborhood), cumulative stress, and multiple context stress on 3 indices of children's adjustment (achievement, depression, and aggression) were examined. All 3 stressor contexts were related contemporaneously and longitudinally to negative outcomes across adjustment measures, with differential paths in each predictive model. Cumulative stress was linearly related to increases in adjustment problems but multiple context stress was not related to problematic adjustment beyond effects of cumulative stress alone. The important influence of life events stress on children's adjustment in disadvantaged communities is discussed.

  10. Melt-processable hydrophobic acrylonitrile-based copolymer systems with adjustable elastic properties designed for biomedical applications.

    Cui, J; Trescher, K; Kratz, K; Jung, F; Hiebl, B; Lendlein, A


    (AN-co-nBA) biomaterials were sterilized with ethylene oxide and tested for cytotoxicity in direct contact tests with L929 cells according to the EN DIN ISO standard 10993-5. All tested samples exhibited non-toxic effects on the functional integrity of the cell membrane and the mitochondrial activity. However, the morphology of the cells on the samples was different from that observed on polystyrene as control, indicating slightly cytotoxic effects according to the evaluation guide of the US Pharmacopeial Convention. Thus, the melt-processable, hydrophobic P(AN-co-nBA) copolymers with adjustable mechanical properties are promising candidates for in vitro investigations of tissue growth kinetics.

  11. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    Verneau; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P


    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes.

  12. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2011

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2011. 1) Annual adjustments An increase of 0.35% to the scale of basic salaries paid to Staff Members and the scale of stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Regulations). No adjustments to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Regulations). No modifications to the following social benefits: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Regulations) Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Regulations). 2) Five-yearly review 2010, financial elements: Adjustment of basic salaries: An increase of 1% for Career Path D. An increase of 2% for Career Paths E to G. Technical adjustment of th...

  13. Fabrication of drug-loaded anti-infective guided tissue regeneration membrane with adjustable biodegradation property.

    Xue, Jiajia; Shi, Rui; Niu, Yuzhao; Gong, Min; Coates, Phil; Crawford, Aileen; Chen, Dafu; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Liqun


    For guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane, synchronization of the membrane biodegradation rate and tissue regeneration rate is important. Besides, the major reason for GTR membrane failure in clinical application is infection which can be prevented by loading anti-bacterial drug. To realize the consistency in membrane degradation rate and tissue regeneration rate of the anti-infective membrane, we developed metronidazole-loaded electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-gelatin nanofiber membranes with different poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios (95:5, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50). Homogeneous nanofibers were successfully fabricated. The mechanical strength of the membranes increased with the poly(ɛ-caprolactone) content, while the hydrophilicity decreased. The controlled and sustained release of metronidazole from all the membranes prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. At all poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios, all the membranes presented good biocompatibility while the increase of gelatin content resulted in enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that all the membranes showed good biocompatibility without infection. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that the biodegradation rate of the membranes was accelerated with the increase of gelatin content. The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of the membranes can be adjusted by changing the PCL/gelatin ratio. The optimal membrane can be chosen based on the patient and tissue type to realize the synchronization of membrane degradation with tissue regeneration for the best treatment effect.

  14. Fiscal Adjustments and Their Effects During the Transition to EMU

    Aarle, B. van; Gobbin, N.


    The transition phase to EMU has been accompanied by considerable monetary and fiscal consolidation efforts in the EU. This paper analyses this consolidation process and its effects on economic activity in the EU. It is tested to which extent the fiscal retrenchment efforts have depressed or stimulat

  15. Risk-based surveillance: Estimating the effect of unwarranted confounder adjustment

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo


    We estimated the effects of confounder adjustment as a part of the underlying quantitative risk assessments on the performance of a hypothetical example of a risk-based surveillance system, in which a single risk factor would be used to identify high risk sampling units for testing. The differences...... between estimates of surveillance system performance with and without unwarranted confounder adjustment were shown to be of both numerical and economical significance. Analytical procedures applied to multiple risk factor datasets which yield confounder-adjusted risk estimates should be carefully...


    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason


    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface sock...

  17. Movement sonification: Effects on motor learning beyond rhythmic adjustments

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg


    Full Text Available Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation there is nearly no evidence about enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports.Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error feedback in motor learning settings we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting participants were asked to

  18. Pediatric cardiac MRI: automated left-ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of manual adjustments

    Hammon, Matthias; Janka, Rolf; Dankerl, Peter; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Uder, Michael; Rompel, Oliver [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Gloeckler, Martin; Dittrich, Sven [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany)


    Cardiac MRI is an accurate and reproducible technique for the assessment of left ventricular volumes and function. The accuracy of automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments have not been determined in children. To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of manual adjustments for left ventricular parameter quantification in pediatric cardiac MR images. Left ventricular parameters were evaluated in 45 children with suspected myocarditis (age 13.4 ± 3.5 years, range 4-17 years) who underwent cardiac MRI. Dedicated software was used to automatically segment and adjust the parameters. Results of end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, myocardial mass, and ejection fraction were documented before and after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment. The software successfully detected the left ventricle in 42 of 45 (93.3%) children; failures occurred in the smallest and youngest children. Of those 42 children, automatically segmented end-diastolic volume (EDV) was 151 ± 47 ml, and after apex/base adjustment it was 146 ± 45 ml, after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment 146 ± 45 ml. The corresponding results for end-systolic volume (ESV) were 66 ± 32 ml, 63 ± 29 ml and 64 ± 28 ml; for stroke volume (SV) they were 85 ± 25 ml, 83 ± 23 ml and 83 ± 23 ml; for ejection fracture (EF) they were 57 ± 10%, 58 ± 9% and 58 ± 9%, and for myocardial mass (MM) they were 104 ± 31 g, 95 ± 31 g and 94 ± 30 g. Statistically significant differences were found when comparing the EDV/ESV/MM results, the EF results after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment and the SV results (except for comparing the SVs after apex/base adjustment and after apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment). Automated segmentation for the evaluation of left ventricular parameters in pediatric MR images proved to be feasible. Automated segmentation + apex/base adjustment provided clinically

  19. Effects of Forgiveness of Perpetrators on Marital Adjustment for Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

    Holeman, Virginia Todd; Myers, Rita W.


    The effects of forgiveness on survivors' marital adjustment and the effects of childhood sexual abuse on forgiveness were examined. Self-report scales regarding abuse and forgiveness and demographic information were collected from clients (N=63). ANOVA produced significant main effects; forgiveness was negatively correlated with perceived…

  20. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.


    ... illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. (i) A is a member of partnership PRS in which the partners... previously taxed capital is $15,000 ($22,000, the amount of cash T would receive if PRS liquidated... PRS, to which A contributes land (Asset 1) with a fair market value of $1,000 and an adjusted basis...

  1. Human capital demand in Brazil: The effects of adjustment cost, economic growth, exports and imports

    Joilson Dias


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to learn about the effects of the adjustment costs, economic growth, imports and exports on human capital labor demand. The dynamic model proposed by Sargent (1978 was adjusted to consider three types of human capital: (a one with fundamental education (1–8 years of schooling; (b one with secondary education level (9–11 years of education; (c and one with tertiary education level (12 years or more of schooling. Using state level panel data, the dynamic econometrics estimates showed the following results: (i the labor market adjustment costs are very higher; (ii the adjustment cost for the human capital with intermediary education level is the highest one compared to the others; (iii the states’ economic growth favor those with superior education; (iv the imports seems to favor the demand for those with intermediate education levels; (v the degree of openness does show some weak effect on the demand for human capitals with intermediate education. In sum, the growing demand for human capital with some superior education seems to be more associated to its lower adjustment cost and economic growth; the non-significance of real wage elasticity and high adjustment cost seems to indicate that the human capital with intermediate knowledge is in short supply; hence, economic education policy that increases supply of such human capital are in need.

  2. Adjusting for calendar effects of real retail trade turnover time series

    Josip Arnerić


    Full Text Available Fluctuations in economic activity are often influenced by calendar-based various factors. Such factors are non-working (non-trading days, leap years, public holidays and the like. Most economic series are observed on a monthly or quarterly basis, but months (aggregated into quarters are not comparable due to the different number of working and non-working days (different number of Mondays, Tuesdays, etc.. If the calendar effects are not properly adjusted, the identification of the ARIMA model for a given time series might not be correct, and the quality of seasonal adjustment is poor. An inappropriate calendar adjustment can generate false signals and negatively affect interpretation of adjusted data, which is particularly important for time series of retail sales and industrial productions. However, there is no general or unique procedure for correcting calendar effects in a pre-adjustment process of a time series. Therefore, this paper compares various regression models using alternative explanatory variables that take into account calendar effects and applied them to the time series of real retail trade turnover (RRT in Croatia (monthly data observed from January 2001 to December 2013. The paper seeks to define a new explanatory variable (a regressor with time varying ratio between the average number of working days and the average number of non-working days providing the most accurate correction of a RRT time series influenced by calendar effects. In addition, the assumption is that Saturdays and Sundays are working days of the week.

  3. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.


    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.734-1 Optional... the basis of partnership property as the result of a distribution of property to a partner, unless the... and a distribution of partnership property is made, whether or not in liquidation of the...

  4. Does exposure prediction bias health-effect estimation?: The relationship between confounding adjustment and exposure prediction.

    Cefalu, Matthew; Dominici, Francesca


    In environmental epidemiology, we are often faced with 2 challenges. First, an exposure prediction model is needed to estimate the exposure to an agent of interest, ideally at the individual level. Second, when estimating the health effect associated with the exposure, confounding adjustment is needed in the health-effects regression model. The current literature addresses these 2 challenges separately. That is, methods that account for measurement error in the predicted exposure often fail to acknowledge the possibility of confounding, whereas methods designed to control confounding often fail to acknowledge that the exposure has been predicted. In this article, we consider exposure prediction and confounding adjustment in a health-effects regression model simultaneously. Using theoretical arguments and simulation studies, we show that the bias of a health-effect estimate is influenced by the exposure prediction model, the type of confounding adjustment used in the health-effects regression model, and the relationship between these 2. Moreover, we argue that even with a health-effects regression model that properly adjusts for confounding, the use of a predicted exposure can bias the health-effect estimate unless all confounders included in the health-effects regression model are also included in the exposure prediction model. While these results of this article were motivated by studies of environmental contaminants, they apply more broadly to any context where an exposure needs to be predicted.


    Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Highsmith, M Jason


    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation.


    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason


    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation. PMID:28066526

  7. Effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments to perturbations in visually cued walking.

    Mazaheri, Masood; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Potocanac, Zrinka; Verschueren, Sabine; Roerdink, Melvyn; Beek, Peter J; Peper, C E; Duysens, Jacques


    Making step adjustments is an essential component of walking. However, the ability to make step adjustments may be compromised when the walker's attentional capacity is limited. This study compared the effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments in response to stepping-target perturbations during visually cued treadmill walking. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 5.0 years; mean ± SD) and fifteen young adults (25.4 ± 3.0 years) walked at a speed of 3 km/h on a treadmill. Both groups performed visually cued step adjustments in response to unpredictable shifts of projected stepping targets in forward (FW), backward (BW) or sideward (SW) directions, at different levels of task difficulty [which increased as the available response distance (ARD) decreased], and with and without dual tasking (auditory Stroop task). In both groups, step adjustments were smaller than required. For FW and BW shifts, older adults undershot more under dual-task conditions. For these shifts, ARD affected the age groups differentially. For SW shifts, larger errors were found for older adults, dual tasking and the most difficult ARD. Stroop task performance did not differ between groups in all conditions. Older adults have more difficulty than young adults to make corrective step adjustments while walking, especially under dual-tasking conditions. Furthermore, they seemed to prioritize the cognitive task over the step adjustment task, a strategy that may pose aging populations at a greater fall risk. For comparable task difficulty, the older adults performed considerably worse than the young adults, indicating a decreased ability to adjust steps under time pressure.

  8. Phase Formation and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Nd-Fe-B Adjusted by Small Amount of Dy and Co

    T S Jang; T W Lim; H S Aum; D H Lee; M B Kim


    In order to improve and stabilize the magnetic properties of nanocomposite Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe magnetic alloys by a compositional adjustment, small amount of Dy and/or Co was added to Nd9Fe84B7 alloys. DTA analysis on the amorphous of the alloys took place as the soft magnetic phases were crystallized, and then the hard magnetic Nd2Fe14B was precipitated from them. While α-Fe and a metastable 1:7 (TbCu7-type) phase were formed simultaneously in Dy and Co-free alloys, they were crystallized separately at different temperatures after Dy or Co was added. This phase separation occurred more clearly in the Dy-treated alloys and the other soft magnetic phase Fe3B was also stabilized by Dy and/or Co. The 1: 7 phase that was stabilized by Dy and/or Co was not eliminated at 700 ℃, decreasing magnetic properties of the alloys. It was eventually disappeared above 725 ℃, but Fe3B was not eliminated even at 750 ℃ when Dy was added more than 0.5 at% or Co was added more than 2.0 at%. Amount of Nd2Fe14B in the alloys tended to increase as Dy addition increased,whereas Co addition did not lead to any appreciable change in the ratio of α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B. Moreover, Dy addition apparently increased coercivity of an alloy while Co addition had a beneficial effect on remanence. The grains in the Dytreated alloys were usually finer than those in the Co-treated alloys. The grain size of both α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B in the alloys exhibiting mr ≥ 0.72 was in the range of 20 ~ 40 nm or even larger 50 nm, which is larger than the theoretical optimum size ( ~ 10 nm). Typical magnetic properties obtained from a Nd7.5Dy1.5Fe82.5Co1.5B7 alloy annealed for 12 min at 725 ℃were iHc=4.85 kOe, Br= 11.32 kG, (BH)max = 15.73 MGOe, and mr=0.73.

  9. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L


    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  10. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Looze, M.P. de; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.


    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20–25 years) and middle-aged adults (48–62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red)

  11. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship: Their Effects on Subsequent Marital Adjustment.

    Watson, Roy E. L.


    Assessed the effects of cohabitation on subsequent marital adjustment. A comparison of couples (N=54) who had lived together before marriage with couples (N=30) who had not, showed significant differences. Unexpectedly, noncohabiters obtained higher marital satisfaction scores. Possible explanations in terms of test items are suggested.…

  12. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly


    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  13. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly


    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads.

  14. Effectiveness of psychodrama with pantomime on the social adjustment of deaf female students

    Salar Faramarzi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Deaf children face several compatibility issues because of their hearing impairment. The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of psychodrama using pantomime on the social adjustment of 12-15-year-old deaf female students in Isfahan.Methods: For this study, an experimental design was used with a pre-test and post-test and a control group. Thirty deaf subjects (12-15-year-olds in Isfahan were selected randomly and allocated to experimental and control groups. To gather information, Rao’s Social Maturity Scale was used. The data were analyzed by the multivariate analysis of covariance s tatistical method (SPSS version 21.Results: Our findings revealed that there was a significant difference between the performances of deaf students of both the groups in the post-test on social adjustment (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The use of psychodrama increased the rate of social adjustment in deaf students.

  15. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I;


    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... rehabilitation centre in Denmark. A total of 58 rehabilitation course weeks including 921 survivors of various cancers were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group by cluster randomisation. The intervention was a lecture on the use of the Internet for support and information followed...... by participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...

  16. Gaming in risk-adjusted mortality rates: effect of misclassification of risk factors in the benchmarking of cardiac surgery risk-adjusted mortality rates

    Siregar, S.; Groenwold, R.H.; Versteegh, M.I.; Noyez, L.; Burg, W.J.P.P. ter; Bots, M.L.; Graaf, Y. van der; Herwerden, L.A. van


    OBJECTIVE: Upcoding or undercoding of risk factors could affect the benchmarking of risk-adjusted mortality rates. The aim was to investigate the effect of misclassification of risk factors on the benchmarking of mortality rates after cardiac surgery. METHODS: A prospective cohort was used comprisin

  17. Variational assimilation of streamflow into operational distributed hydrologic models: effect of spatiotemporal adjustment scale

    H. Lee


    , interior flow assimilation at any adjustment scale produces streamflow predictions with a spatial correlation structure more consistent with that of streamflow observations. We also describe diagnosing the complexity of the assimilation problem using the spatial correlation information associated with the streamflow process, and discuss the effect of timing errors in a simulated hydrograph on the performance of the data assimilation procedure.

  18. Using nonlinearity and spatiotemporal property modulation to control effective structural properties: dynamic rods

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Blekhman, Iliya I.


    What are the effective properties of a generally nonlinear material or structure, whose local properties are modulated in both space and time? It has been suggested to use spatiotemporal modulation of structural properties to create materials and structures with adjustable effective properties......, and to call these dynamic materials or spatiotemporal composites. Also, according to theoretical predictions, structural nonlinearity enhances the possibilities of achieving specific effective properties. For example, with an elastic rod having cubical elastic nonlinearities, it seems possible to control...... the effective propagation speed of long waves by varying the amplitude of a superimposed high-frequency standing wave. It should be possible to change most properties related to structural stiffness, energy dissipation, and equilibrium states this way, by exploiting the general effects of stiffening, biasing...

  19. Development of a Fiber Laser with Independently Adjustable Properties for Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy

    Aytac-Kipergil, Esra; Demirkiran, Aytac; Uluc, Nasire; Yavas, Seydi; Kayikcioglu, Tunc; Salman, Sarper; Karamuk, Sohret Gorkem; Ilday, Fatih Omer; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin


    Photoacoustic imaging is based on the detection of generated acoustic waves through thermal expansion of tissue illuminated by short laser pulses. Fiber lasers as an excitation source for photoacoustic imaging have recently been preferred for their high repetition frequencies. Here, we report a unique fiber laser developed specifically for multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy system. The laser is custom-made for maximum flexibility in adjustment of its parameters; pulse duration (5–10 ns), pulse energy (up to 10 μJ) and repetition frequency (up to 1 MHz) independently from each other and covers a broad spectral region from 450 to 1100 nm and also can emit wavelengths of 532, 355, and 266 nm. The laser system consists of a master oscillator power amplifier, seeding two stages; supercontinuum and harmonic generation units. The laser is outstanding since the oscillator, amplifier and supercontinuum generation parts are all-fiber integrated with custom-developed electronics and software. To demonstrate the feasibility of the system, the images of several elements of standardized resolution test chart are acquired at multiple wavelengths. The lateral resolution of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy system is determined as 2.68 μm. The developed system may pave the way for spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy applications via widely tunable fiber laser technologies.

  20. Development of a Fiber Laser with Independently Adjustable Properties for Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy.

    Aytac-Kipergil, Esra; Demirkiran, Aytac; Uluc, Nasire; Yavas, Seydi; Kayikcioglu, Tunc; Salman, Sarper; Karamuk, Sohret Gorkem; Ilday, Fatih Omer; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin


    Photoacoustic imaging is based on the detection of generated acoustic waves through thermal expansion of tissue illuminated by short laser pulses. Fiber lasers as an excitation source for photoacoustic imaging have recently been preferred for their high repetition frequencies. Here, we report a unique fiber laser developed specifically for multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy system. The laser is custom-made for maximum flexibility in adjustment of its parameters; pulse duration (5-10 ns), pulse energy (up to 10 μJ) and repetition frequency (up to 1 MHz) independently from each other and covers a broad spectral region from 450 to 1100 nm and also can emit wavelengths of 532, 355, and 266 nm. The laser system consists of a master oscillator power amplifier, seeding two stages; supercontinuum and harmonic generation units. The laser is outstanding since the oscillator, amplifier and supercontinuum generation parts are all-fiber integrated with custom-developed electronics and software. To demonstrate the feasibility of the system, the images of several elements of standardized resolution test chart are acquired at multiple wavelengths. The lateral resolution of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy system is determined as 2.68 μm. The developed system may pave the way for spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy applications via widely tunable fiber laser technologies.

  1. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L


    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  2. Effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable-speed drives

    Soltani, Hamid; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zare, Firuz;


    speed drives with and/or without motor current imbalance. The investigation is done at different motor operating frequencies and load torque values. It shows that selecting the small filter components (ac choke, dc choke and dc-link capacitor) results in different performances in respect to those......Current and voltage source Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) exert distortion current into the grid, which may produce some interharmonic components other than the characteristic harmonic components. This paper studies the effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable...... interharmincs issued by motor current imbalance and other non-characteristic interharmonics. The results are helpful for engineers investigating the effects of drive filters on the input current interharmonic components....

  3. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.


    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session ...

  4. 3D printed auxetic forms on knitted fabrics for adjustable permeability and mechanical properties

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A.


    The 3D printing technology can be applied into manufacturing primary shaping diverse products, from models dealing as examples for future products that will be produced with another technique, to useful objects. Since 3D printing is nowadays significantly slower than other possibilities to manufacture items, such as die casting, it is often used for small parts that are produced in small numbers or for products that cannot be created in another way. Combinations of 3D printing with other objects, adding novel functionalities to them, are thus favourable to a complete primary shaping process. Textile fabrics belong to the objects whose mechanical and other properties can notably be modified by adding 3D printed forms. This article mainly reports on a new possibility to change the permeability of textile fabrics by 3D printing auxetic forms, e.g. for utilising them in textile filters. In addition, auxetic forms 3D printed on knitted fabrics can bring about mechanical properties that are conducive to tensile constructions.

  5. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.


    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  6. Salary adjustments

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  7. Salary adjustments

    HR Department


    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  8. The Study of Effectiveness of Reality Therapy on Adjustment of Female Adolescent with Anxiety

    Jadidi M


    Full Text Available 1.1.    Background and purpose: our country is one of the young and developing countries that a significant number of their populations are students, especially high school students who pass the critical period of adolescence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reality therapy on adjustment in adolescent girls with anxiety. 1.2.    Method: The research method was experimental with pre-test, post-test, and control group. The population of the research includes all female students of high school in Shirvan city in the academic year1394. Using purposive sampling or easy access, 20 students were selected who gained high anxiety scores in Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21, and randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (n = 10 in each group. The experimental group received eight sessions of 2 hours reality therapy. The used instrument in this study, was the Adjustment Inventory for School Students that filled in the pre-test and post-test by experimental and control groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and analysis of covariance. 1.3.    Results: The results indicated the effectiveness of reality therapy in increasing overall consistency, emotional, social and educational adjustment in the experimental group compared with the control group. (P <0.001 1.4.    Conclusion: Because adolescence is associated with inconsistencies, according to results from this study, the reality therapy can be used as an effective method to increase adjustment among adolescent girls.

  9. Effects of occlusal adjustment on clinical success of non carious cervical restoration’s

    Ghavam Nasiri M.


    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Parafunctional habits are the most important factor in the creation of non-carious cervical lesions and correcting of these habits may affect cervical lesions. Purpose: The goal of this study was to survey the effects of one-year occlusal adjustment on clinical success of non- carious cervical restorations. Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, sixty tooth-colored cervical restorations on canines and premolars in patients with parafunctional habits (bruxism and clenching were studied. The teeth, according to the type of restorative material, were randomly divided into two groups: One group with a composite resin (Tetric Flow; Group A: n=30 and the other group with a compomer (Compoglass Flow; Group B: n=30. After restoration, each group was divided into two subgroups: (A1, B1 with occlusal adjustment (case group, (A2, B2 without occlusal adjustment (control group. The evaluation was perfumed single blind at 6 and 12 months after restorative operations according to Us Public Health Service (USPHS classification. Assessment criteria included: marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, recurrent caries, postoperative sensitivity and loss of filling. Statistical analysis was completed using Fisher’s exact test. Results: In 12 month period between two groups of compoglass Flow restorations, group B1 showed superior results than group B2, however, no significant difference was found between both groups of tetric flow restorations (A1 and A2. There was also no difference in clinical conditions between A2 and B2 groups. Conclusion: Considering the results of this study, it can be concluded that occlusal adjustment puts a considerable effect on clinical success of compoglass non- carious cervical restorations. However, it should be mentioned that such and effect was not found among Tetric flow restoration.

  10. Anticipatory postural adjustments in reach-to-grasp: effect of object mass predictability.

    Aimola, Ettore; Santello, Marco; La Grua, Giovanni; Casabona, Antonino


    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are thought to compensate for upcoming and predictable perturbations before they occur, e.g., a backward shift of the body center of pressure (COP) before raising the arm. When the goal of arm movements is to reach, grasp, and manipulate an object, predicting the effect of raising the arm on body COP before reach onset could incorporate the properties of the object to be lifted, as both will affect postural control during reaching and object manipulation. Alternatively, the central nervous system (CNS) might use separate APAs to compensate for the effect of arm raising from raising the arm and object. To distinguish between these two scenarios, we asked subjects to reach, grasp, and lift an object whose mass (100g, 750g, or 1400g) was either constant across trials or variable from trial to trial ('predictable' and 'unpredictable' condition, respectively). We hypothesized that object mass would affect the magnitude of APAs in the predictable condition before the onset of object lift but not before the initial arm onset. We also expected COP variability following object lift to be reduced as a result of APAs. For the unpredictable condition, we expected 'default' APAs that would minimize postural perturbation following object lift. We found that both magnitude and timing of APAs were modulated as a function of predictable object mass prior to contact, rather than at the onset of the reaching movement. Specifically, COP position moved forward with increasing object load (p<0.05) and peak COP velocity related to object contact occurred significantly early for heavier loads (p<0.05). For the random condition, the COP position and timing at all loads resembled that associated with larger predictable loads. These findings suggest that modulating COP to a future event might be more accurate when timed to temporally close events, thus potentially reducing the computational load as well as risks of prediction errors. Additionally, our

  11. Assessing the effect of estimation error on risk-adjusted CUSUM chart performance.


    Mark A. Jones, Stefan H. Steiner. Assessing the effect of estimation error on risk-adjusted CUSUM chart performance. Int J Qual Health Care (2012) 24(2): 176–181 doi: 10.1093/intqhc/mzr082. The authors would like to correct an error identified in the above paper. Table 5 included incorrect information. The correct table has been reprinted below. Furthermore, in the discussion on p. 180 of this paper, one of the incorrect numbers in Table 5 was quoted. This section is reproduced below with the correct numbers. In the case of homogeneous patients where adverse event risk was assumed to be constant at 6.6% the estimated level of estimation error: SD (ARL0) = 85.9 was less than the equivalent risk-adjusted scenario where SD (ARL0) = 89.2 but only by around 4%.

  12. Cyclostrophic adjustment in swirling gas flows and the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect

    Kalashnik, M. V.; Visheratin, K. N.


    A theoretical analysis of cyclostrophic adjustment is presented; i.e., adjustment to balance between pressure gradient and centrifugal force in axisymmetric flow of an inviscid gas is examined. The solution to the problem is represented as the sum of a time-independent (balanced) and time-dependent (wave) components. It is shown that the wave component of the flow in an unbounded domain decays with time, and the corresponding solution reduces to the balanced component. In a bounded domain, the balanced flow component exists against the background of undamped acoustic waves. It is found that the balanced flow is thermally stratified at Mach numbers close to unity, with a substantial decrease in gas temperature (to between -50 and -100°C) in the axial region. This finding, combined with the results of special experiments, is used to explain the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect.

  13. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.


    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  14. Effectiveness of sound therapy in patients with tinnitus resistant to previous treatments: importance of adjustments

    Flavia Alencar de Barros Suzuki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The difficulty in choosing the appropriate therapy for chronic tinnitus relates to the variable impact on the quality of life of affected patients and, thus, requires individualization of treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of using sound generators with individual adjustments to relieve tinnitus in patients unresponsive to previous treatments. METHODS: A prospective study of 10 patients with chronic tinnitus who were unresponsive to previous drug treatments, five males and five females, with ages ranging from 41 to 78 years. Bilateral sound generators (Reach 62 or Mind 9 models were used daily for at least 6 h during 18 months. The patients were evaluated at the beginning, after 1 month and at each 3 months until 18 months through acuphenometry, minimum masking level, the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, visual analog scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The sound generators were adjusted at each visit. RESULTS: There was a reduction of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in nine patients using a protocol with a customized approach, independent of psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus. The best response to treatment occurred in those with whistle-type tinnitus. A correlation among the adjustments and tinnitus loudness and minimum masking level was found. Only one patient, who had indication of depression by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, did not respond to sound therapy. CONCLUSION: There was improvement in quality of life (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, with good response to sound therapy using customized settings in patients who did not respond to previous treatments for tinnitus.

  15. Academic self-concept in high school: predictors and effects on adjustment in higher education.

    Wouters, Sofie; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine


    Academic self-concept is considered a relevant psychological construct influencing many educational outcomes directly or indirectly. Therefore, the major focus of the current study is on the predictors and effects of academic self-concept in late adolescence. First, we studied the simultaneous effects of individual, class-average and school-average achievement (i.e., assessed by school grades) on academic self-concept in the final year of high school, thereby replicating and extending previous research on the big-fish-little-pond effect model. Second, the predictive value of high school academic self-concept for academic adjustment and success in the first year of higher education was examined. The sample comprised 536 twelfth grade students (44% boys) recruited from 24 schools (67 classes) that were representative with regard to geographical region and educational network in Flanders. Structural equation modeling showed that, when examining the joint contribution of school- and class-average achievement, only class-average achievement was significantly and negatively associated with academic self-concept. Furthermore, a significant effect of academic self-concept in high school on academic adjustment and success in higher education (in addition to any effects of high school academic achievement) was found. These results highlight the importance of considering academic self-concept in educational research and policy.

  16. The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment process?

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K; Klein, Olivier


    People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective.

  17. Adolescent adjustment and well-being: effects of parental divorce and distress.

    Størksen, Ingunn; Røysamb, Espen; Holmen, Turid L; Tambs, Kristian


    This study investigates the long-term effects of parental divorce on adolescent psychological adjustment and well-being, and to what extent the effects are accounted for by parental psychological distress. Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents. Outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and three areas of school problems. Parental divorce was found to be associated with both higher mean levels and larger variances in adolescent problems. Divorce and parental distress contributed independently to adolescent distress, supporting the notion of "double exposure" effects. The prevalence of adolescents with substantial distress symptoms was 14% among those with non-distressed non-divorced parents and 30% among those with divorced and distressed parents. In general effects remained when controlling for demographic factors. Long-term effects of divorce on symptoms of anxiety and depression were stronger among girls than among boys.


    Tao Benzao


    In this paper, adjustment factors J and R put forward by professor Zhou Jiangwen are introduced and the nature of the adjustment factors and their role in evaluating adjustment structure is discussed and proved.

  19. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Somayeh Hozouri


    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The proposed study of this paper has used principle component analysis and it has detected four factors environment issues, marketing organization, market development and relationship oriented.

  20. Estimating the average treatment effects of nutritional label use using subclassification with regression adjustment.

    Lopez, Michael J; Gutman, Roee


    Propensity score methods are common for estimating a binary treatment effect when treatment assignment is not randomized. When exposure is measured on an ordinal scale (i.e. low-medium-high), however, propensity score inference requires extensions which have received limited attention. Estimands of possible interest with an ordinal exposure are the average treatment effects between each pair of exposure levels. Using these estimands, it is possible to determine an optimal exposure level. Traditional methods, including dichotomization of the exposure or a series of binary propensity score comparisons across exposure pairs, are generally inadequate for identification of optimal levels. We combine subclassification with regression adjustment to estimate transitive, unbiased average causal effects across an ordered exposure, and apply our method on the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the effects of nutritional label use on body mass index.

  1. Changes in social adjustment with cognitive processing therapy: effects of treatment and association with PTSD symptom change.

    Monson, Candice M; Macdonald, Alexandra; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Shnaider, Philippe; Goldstein, Elizabeth S R; Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Mocciola, Katharine E


    The current study sought to determine if different spheres of social adjustment, social and leisure, family, and work and income improved immediately following a course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) when compared with those on a waiting list in a sample of 46 U.S. veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also sought to determine whether changes in different PTSD symptom clusters were associated with changes in these spheres of social adjustment. Overall social adjustment, extended family relationships, and housework completion significantly improved in the CPT versus waiting-list condition, η(2) = .08 to .11. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that improvements in total clinician-rated PTSD symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social and housework adjustment. When changes in reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal were all in the model accounting for changes in total social adjustment, improvements in emotional numbing symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social, extended family, and housework adjustment (β = .38 to .55). In addition, improvements in avoidance symptoms were associated with improvements in housework adjustment (β = .30), but associated with declines in extended family adjustment (β = -.34). Results suggest that it is important to consider the extent to which PTSD treatments effectively reduce specific types of symptoms, particularly emotional numbing and avoidance, to generally improve social adjustment.

  2. Investigating the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investor's decisions in short and long term

    Parvaneh Khaleghi Kasbi


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on investors’ decisions in short and long term. The primary objective of this study is to find the effect of adjusted DuPont ratio and its components on herding behavior of investors in one and several year period. Hence, 85 corporations as the member of Tehran stock exchange over the period 2006-2011 are selected. In order to recognize the herding, by market index consideration, the herded β and in order to hypothesis validity SPSS software and multivariable linear regression have been used. As the results of this study indicate, the adjusted DuPont ratio and its components have more effect on investors’ decisions in short term but in long the period, the effect of this ratio on herding investors’ behavior are reduced. Furthermore, from the two components of adjusted DuPont ratio, profit margin has more effect on investor's decisions.

  3. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;


    and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect.......BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation...

  4. Age affects the adjustment of cognitive control after a conflict: evidence from the bivalency effect.

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat


    Age affects cognitive control. When facing a conflict, older adults are less able to activate goal-relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information. However, cognitive control also affects the events after a conflict. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict. To this end, we investigated the bivalency effect, that is, the performance slowing occurring after the conflict induced by bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two tasks). In two experiments, we tested young adults (aged 20-30) and older adults (aged 65-85) in a paradigm requiring alternations between three tasks, with bivalent stimuli occasionally occurring on one task. The young adults showed a slowing for all trials following bivalent stimuli. This indicates a widespread and long-lasting bivalency effect, replicating previous findings. In contrast, the older adults showed a more specific and shorter-lived slowing. Thus, age affects the adjustment of cognitive control following a conflict.

  5. On the Effectiveness of the Dynamic Force Adjustment for Reducing the Scatter of Instrumented Charpy Results

    Lucon, E.


    One of the key factors for obtaining reliable instrumented Charpy results is the calibration of the instrumented striker. An interesting alternative to the conventional static calibration recommended by the standards is the Dynamic Force Adjustment (DFA), in which forces and displacements are iteratively adjusted until equality is achieved between absorbed energies calculated under the test record (Wt) and measured by the machine encoder (KV). In this study, this procedure has been applied to the instrumented data obtained by 10 international laboratories using notched and precracked Charpy specimens, in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP8) of IAEA. DFA is extremely effective in reducing the between-laboratory scatter for both general yield and maximum forces. The effect is less significant for dynamic reference temperatures measured from precracked Charpy specimens using the Master Curve procedure, but a moderate reduction of the standard deviation is anyway observed. It is shown that striker calibration is a prominent contribution to the interlaboratory variability of instrumented impact forces, particularly in the case of maximum forces.

  6. Crystal growth and electronic properties of a 3D Rashba material, BiTeI, with adjusted carrier concentrations.

    Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao


    3D Rashba materials can be a leading player in spin-related novel phenomena, ranging from the metallic extreme (unconventional superconductivity) to the transport intermediate (spin Hall effects) to the novel insulating variant (3D topological insulating states). As the essential backbone for both fundamental and applied research of such a 3D Rashba material, this study established the growth of sizeable single crystals of a candidate compound BiTeI with adjusted carrier concentrations. Three techniques (standard vertical Bridgman, modified horizontal Bridgman, and vapour transport) were employed, and BiTeI crystals (>1 × 1 × 0.2 mm(3)) with fundamentally different electronic states from metallic to insulating were successfully grown by the chosen technique. The 3D Rashba electronic states, including the Fermi surface topology, for the corresponding carrier concentrations of the obtained BiTeI crystals were revealed by relativistic first-principles calculations.

  7. 论宏观经济调控中的税收效应%Taxation effects of macroeconomic adjustment



    Based on equilibrium theory, this paper discussed relationships among taxation and other main macroeconomic indicators. The effects of taxation on economic growth, industrial adjustment and income distribution were analyzed.

  8. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G


    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting.

  9. Relative age effects in athletic sprinting and corrective adjustments as a solution for their removal.

    Michael Romann

    Full Text Available Relative Age Effects (RAEs refer to the selection and performance differentials between children and youth who are categorized in annual-age groups. In the context of Swiss 60m athletic sprinting, 7761 male athletes aged 8 - 15 years were analysed, with this study examining whether: (i RAE prevalence changed across annual age groups and according to performance level (i.e., all athletes, Top 50%, 25% & 10%; (ii whether the relationship between relative age and performance could be quantified, and corrective adjustments applied to test if RAEs could be removed. Part one identified that when all athletes were included, typical RAEs were evident, with smaller comparative effect sizes, and progressively reduced with older age groups. However, RAE effect sizes increased linearly according to performance level (i.e., all athletes - Top 10% regardless of age group. In part two, all athletes born in each quartile, and within each annual age group, were entered into linear regression analyses. Results identified that an almost one year relative age difference resulted in mean expected performance differences of 10.1% at age 8, 8.4% at 9, 6.8% at 10, 6.4% at 11, 6.0% at 12, 6.3% at 13, 6.7% at 14, and 5.3% at 15. Correction adjustments were then calculated according to day, month, quarter, and year, and used to demonstrate that RAEs can be effectively removed from all performance levels, and from Swiss junior sprinting more broadly. Such procedures could hold significant implications for sport participation as well as for performance assessment, evaluation, and selection during athlete development.

  10. Conformity expectations: Differential effects on IVF twins and singletons' parent-child relationships and adjustment.

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Chen, Muzi; Damario, Mark


    Increased utilization of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birthrate. Despite early childhood risks, twins have fewer psychosocial problems in middle childhood than singleton children. This study proposes that parents' conformity expectations for children have differential effects on parent-child relationships for twin and singleton children, which indirectly explains twins' more optimum psychosocial adjustment. Parental conformity expectations, parent-child relationship satisfaction, and children's emotional, behavioral, and attention problems were assessed in a sample of 288 6- to 12-year-old IVF-conceived twins and singletons. Overall, parents of twins had higher expectations for child conformity to parent rules than singleton parents. Path models demonstrate that twin status and parental expectations for child conformity interact to influence parent-child relationships, and this interaction indirectly accounted for differences in twins' and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. Findings suggest parenting constructs have differential influences on the association between twin status and parent-child relationships. Parenting research, predominantly conducted with singletons, should be reexamined before applying existing research to twin children and their families.

  11. Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence.

    Wentzel, Kathryn R


    This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on student adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom behavior, and academic performance. Based on information from 452 sixth graders from two suburban middle schools, results of multiple regressions indicated that the five teaching dimensions explained significant amounts of variance in student motivation, social behavior, and achievement. High expectations (maturity demands) was a consistent positive predictor of students' goals and interests, and negative feedback (lack of nurturance) was the most consistent negative predictor of academic performance and social behavior. The role of motivation in mediating relations between teaching dimensions and social behavior and academic achievement also was examined; evidence for mediation was not found. Relations of teaching dimensions to student outcomes were the same for African American and European American students, and for boys and girls. The implications of parent socialization models for understanding effective teaching are discussed.

  12. Convexity Adjustments

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha


    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  13. Maximizing cost-effectiveness by adjusting treatment strategy according to glaucoma severity

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta; Gomes, Carlos Eduardo de Mello; Chaoubah, Alfredo


    Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. Methods: Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Results: In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. Conclusion: All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a

  14. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian


    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied.

  15. Hydrothermal-hydrolysis synthesis and photocatalytic properties of nano-TiO2 with an adjustable crystalline structure.

    Zhang, Jinghuan; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin


    Tri-phase (anatase, rutile, and brookite), bi-phase (anatase and rutile), and mono-phase (rutile) TiO(2) nanomaterials with different morphologies were successively synthesized using a hydrothermal-hydrolysis method and adjusting the Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratio in a precursor solution. The properties of the fabricated nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photocatalytic reaction, and other techniques. It has been shown that TiO(2) nanorods can be obtained by increasing the Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratio in a precursor solution from 1:0 to 0.3:0.7. TiO(2) nanoparticles are formed if the Ti(3+) fraction in the solution is further increased. The selective synthesis of TiO(2) nanomaterials is explained by a decrease in the reaction rate and by changes in acidity with increasing Ti(3+) content. The tri-phase nanorods and bi-phase nanoparticles synthesized with Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratios from 1:0 to 0.8:0.2 and 0.2:0.8 to 0:1, respectively, have a higher degradation ability with respect to methylene blue aqueous solutions under UV irradiation at ambient temperature compared to purely rutile TiO(2) nanorods synthesized with Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratios from 0.7:0.3 to 0.3:0.7. The high photocatalytic activity of the multi-phase TiO(2) samples is primarily attributed to their larger band gap and suppressed recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs.

  16. Adjustment approach to boundary effect on aggregation index and its application

    AN Huijun; ZHANG Tao; MENG Qingwei; L(U) Hongjuan


    Calculating aggregation index by the sampie-plot data used to lead to computing error due to the existence of a boundary effect.Here,we suggest a method for adjusting boundary effect in the analysis of spatial patterns at different stages of development of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest.This method is good for the reasonable management and biological control of the forests.The total station was used to sample the relative coordinates data at four corners of the temporary sample plot and of each tree in the field.Based on the sampling data,a correct approach to the boundary effect on aggregation index was put forward to the spatial pattern analysis of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest in its different stages of development.The results showed that the forest trees grew in a clumped pattern in the stage dominated by the pioneer trees,and that the trees were distributed in a random pattern in the stage dominated by the companion trees or in the mature stage.zThe spatial pattern of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest changing from clumped to random distribution is influenced by biological characteristic,the adaptive strategy of tree species and the natural disturbance in its entire development.

  17. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session.

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S


    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and lower limb muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need.

  18. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti


    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce.

  19. The effect of Parkinson's disease and levodopa on adaptation of anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Hall, L M; Brauer, S G; Horak, F; Hodges, P W


    Postural support alters anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Efficient adaptation to changes in postural support in reactive and centrally initiated postural synergies is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined whether APAs are affected differently by familiar and novel supports in people with PD, ON and OFF levodopa. The effect of PD and levodopa on the ability to immediately adapt APAs to changes in support and refine with practice was also investigated. Fourteen people with PD and 14 healthy control participants performed 20 single rapid leg lift tasks in four support conditions: unsupported, bilateral handgrip (familiar), bite plate (novel) and a combined handgrip+bite plate condition. APAs, identified from force plate data, were characterized by an increase in the vertical ground reaction force under the lifted leg as a result of a shift of weight toward the stance limb. Results showed the ability to incorporate familiar and novel external supports into the postural strategy was preserved in PD. Controls and PD patients in the OFF state further refined the postural strategy with practice as evidenced by changes in amplitude of vertical ground reaction forces and forces applied to support apparatus within conditions between the initial and final trials. In the ON state, people with PD failed to refine the use of postural supports in any condition. The results suggest that immediate postural adaptation is intact in people with PD and unaffected by levodopa administration but the ability to refine postural adaptations with task experience is compromised by dopamine therapy.

  20. Adjustments to financial benefits and contributions with effect from 1 January 2012


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee and decisions taken by Council in December 2010, June and December 2011, certain financial benefits and contributions impacting salaries and stipends have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2012. 1)  Five-yearly review 2010 (decisions taken by Council in December 2010) In line with the second phase of Council decisions, increases of 1% and 2% have been applied to basic salaries in Career Path D and Career Paths E to G respectively1); In addition, Health Insurance Scheme contribution rates have been modified (from 4.27%) to 4.41% for the member and (from 6.59%) to 6.86% for the Organization. 2)  Package of measures towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund (decisions taken by Council in June 2011) In accordance with Council decisions, the Organization’s contribution rate for new members of the Fund as of 1.1.2012 is 17%.  The provisions for current members remain unchanged. 3)&nb...

  1. Social support and adjustment in patients with sarcoma: the moderator effect of the disease phase.

    Paredes, Tiago F; Canavarro, Maria C; Simões, Mário R


    This study examined the association between different types of perceived social support and adjustment of patients with sarcoma, and if these relationships would differ depending on the outcome measure and phase of disease. Forty-nine patients in the diagnostic phase, 43 in the treatment phase, and 59 in the follow-up phase were recruited. Participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment. Positive social interaction, emotional/informational, affectionate, and tangible supports were significantly associated with depression scores, but not with anxiety. Except for affectionate support, all the associations with overall quality of life were significant. A moderating effect of the phase of the disease was also found in the association between tangible support and anxiety, and between affectionate support, depression, and overall quality of life. In clinical practice it is important to implement phase-specific psychosocial interventions and to take into consideration other factors beyond perceived social support while handling patients with sarcoma.

  2. Long-term effects of goal disturbance and adjustment on well-being in cancer patients

    Janse, Moniek; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Fleer, Joke


    Purpose To investigate the impact of personal goal disturbance after cancer diagnosis on well-being over time, and a possible moderating role of goal adjustment tendencies and actual goal adjustment strategies. Methods Participants (n = 186) were interviewed three times: within a month, 7 months (treatment period), and 18 months (follow-up period) after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Participants were asked to freely mention three to ten personal goals. Goal disturbance was assessed ...

  3. The effects of hysterectomy on body image, self-esteem, and marital adjustment in Turkish women with gynecologic cancer.

    Pinar, Gul; Okdem, Seyda; Dogan, Nevin; Buyukgonenc, Lale; Ayhan, Ali


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences in the effect of hysterectomy on body image, self-esteem, and marital adjustment in Turkish women with gynecologic cancer based on specific independent variables, including age, education, employment, having or not having children, and income. This cross-sectional study compared a group of women who underwent a hysterectomy (n = 100) with a healthy control group (n = 100). The study findings indicate that women who had a hysterectomy were found in worse conditions in terms of body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment compared to healthy women. In terms of dyadic adjustment and body image among women who had undergone a hysterectomy, those with lower levels of income and education were found in poorer conditions. The study's findings show that hysterectomies have negative effects on body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment in women affected by gynecologic cancer. Nursing assessment of self-esteem and marital adjustment indicators and implementation of strategies to increase self-confidence and self-esteem are needed for high-risk women.

  4. The Effects of Occupational Work Adjustment on Factors Leading to High School Drop Out in Rural Northwest Ohio.

    Dietrich, Angela

    The effect of four Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs on risk factors leading to students dropping out of high school was assessed. Data were gathered from four OWA teachers in high schools in Northwest Ohio; information was provided for 27 individual students and 2 groups of 28 students each for the 1992-93 school year. The following…

  5. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey


    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  6. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.


    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  7. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang


    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  8. The Moderating Effect of Machiavellianism on the Relationships between Bullying, Peer Acceptance, and School Adjustment in Adolescents

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang


    This study examined the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the relationships between bullying, peer acceptance, and school adjustment (rule-following behavior and academic performance) among 216 middle school 7th-graders in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were divided into two groups according to their Machiavellianism. Multi-group path…

  9. Chiropractic Adjustment

    ... syndrome) A certain type of stroke (vertebral artery dissection) after neck manipulation Don't seek chiropractic adjustment ... Chiropractic treatment. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Shekelle P, et al. Spinal ...

  10. Effects of sodium on nitrate uptake and osmotic adjustment of Suaeda physophora


    Na+ ions play an important role in the growth of halophyte. The effect of Na+ ions on nitrate uptake and osmotic adjustment in the euhalophyte Suaeda physophora was investigated under glasshouse conditions. Seedlings were exposed to 1 mmol/L NaCl (control),300 mmol/L NaCl,150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl or 300 mmol/L KCl treatments for 24 d. Dry weight was not affected greatly by different salt treatments,but water content and succulence in leaves of S. physophora were significantly increased at 300 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl treatments. The concentrations of Na+ and NO3’ in leaves of S. physophora were the highest at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl,but lowest at 300 mmol/L KCl treatment. Moreover,the increase of NO3’ concentration did not result in the decrease of Cl-concentration at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl treatments. The estimated contribution of NO3’ to osmotic potential (CNO3) in leaves of S. physophora was 9.8% at 150 mmol/L NaCl plus 150 mmol/L KCl,and CNa and CCl were 31.0% and 23.3%,respectively. However,CNO3,CNa and CCl were respectively 1.6%,7.9% and 11.9% at 300 mmol/L KCl treatment. It is concluded that Na+ stimulates NO3’ absorption and the stimulation is independent on the internal or the external Cl-concentration in the euhalophyte S. physo-phora. These characteristics may explain the high levels of N in leaves of saline desert plants in arid ecosystem.

  11. Effectiveness of psychological interventions intended to promote adjustment of children with cancer and their parents: an overview

    Amanda Muglia-Wechsler


    Full Text Available This article aims at providing a general overview of psychological interventions intended to promote psychological adjustment of children with cancer and their parents. To achieve this goal, we reviewed published articles between 1998-2010, using a combination of the following key words: psychosocial intervention, psychotherapy, trial, treatment, adjustment, wellbeing, adaptation, cancer, childhood cancer, pediatric cancer, anxiety and depression in the electronic databases: Psycinfo, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Psicodoc and Psyarticles. Fourteen articles were found and analyses show that most interventions had some efficacy in the psychological adjustment of children and their parents; nevertheless, there is a limited number of treatments that can in fact be considered effective. The convenience of psychological interventions is discussed and how they must comprehend strengths and the promotion of psychological health and should not be based solely on deficits and psychopathological models. Possibly, this reorientation will help fostering significant clinic changes regarding the stress associated to cancer and its treatment.

  12. Effect of flow adjustment dialysate (Qd hemodialysis on effectiveness of underweight patients

    Daniel Ducuara


    Full Text Available KDOQI guidelines in 2006 using standard dialysis adequacy Kt/V, where V is volume of distributionof urea, underweight patients have lower total body water, lower V, which couldreduce the requirement without affecting Qd the efficiency of dialysis. Objective: to evaluatethe effect on the adequacy of dialysis Qd reduction occurs in patients weighing less than orequal to 60 kg who are on hemodialysis. Methodology: patients with chronic kidney diseaseon hemodialysis regularly with weight less than or equal to 60 kg of a renal clinic to evaluatetwo periods I and II, were continued therapy parameters with decrease of Qd for the secondperiod. The variables were collected directly by the researchers of the history. The values thusobtained would be compared using t test or paired variables, and statistical significance of thetest below 0,05. Results: we included 61 patients, 60.7% female, mean age 57,3 years (SD 14,8.Average age of men 60.1 (SD 13,9 and women was 55,9 (SD 15,4. There were no statisticallysignificant differences for the variables Kt/V, Hemoglobin and there was a significant reductionin the phosphorus levels. Conclusions: this study demonstrates that adequate therapy is achievedwith less than Qd traditional standards, with 400 ml/min in patients with low weight as long asyou keep the other parameters of renal substitution.

  13. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz


    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  14. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.


    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  15. Effects of Social Capital in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children

    Wu, Qiaobing


    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…

  16. Periventricular leucomalacia and preterm birth have different detrimental effects on postural adjustments

    Hadders-Algra, M; Brogren, E; Katz-Salamon, M; Forssberg, H


    Postural adjustments during sitting on a moveable platform were assessed by means of multiple surface EMGs of neck, trunk and leg muscles and kinematics in three groups of children, aged 1 1/2-4 1/2 years. The first group consisted of 13 preterm children (born at a gestational age of 25-34 weeks), w

  17. Post-Retirement Adjustment: Effective Coping with the Stresses of Aging.

    Holahan, Carole K.

    A study was conducted to examine the role of positive and negative life circumstances and individual coping factors in the psychological adjustment of older individuals. Interviews were conducted with 32 men and 32 women between the ages of 65 and 75 who were retired from mid-level or managerial jobs at the University of Texas. Most of the…

  18. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed


    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  19. Effects of Self-Adjusting File, Mtwo, and ProTaper on the root canal wall

    Hin, E.S.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; Shemesh, H.


    Introduction The purpose of this ex vivo study was to observe the incidence of cracks in root dentin after root canal preparation with hand files, self-adjusting file (SAF), ProTaper, and Mtwo. Methods One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly selected. Two angulate

  20. 26 CFR 1.737-3 - Basis adjustments; Recovery rules.


    ... depreciation (or other cost recovery) method (including first-year conventions) available to the partnership... distribution subject to section 737. (3) Method of adjustment. For the purpose of allocating the basis increase... effect under section 754. Any adjustments to the bases of partnership property (including...

  1. Adjoint Methods for Adjusting Three-Dimensional Atmosphere and Surface Properties to Fit Multi-Angle Multi-Pixel Polarimetric Measurements

    Martin, William G.; Cairns, Brian; Bal, Guillaume


    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth?s atmosphere.

  2. Commutation effect of Adjustable Speed Drives due to installation of active harmonic filters

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Kalaschnikow, Sergej; Hansen, Steffan;


    The success of designing an industrial installation with Active Filters depends on how precise the load profile of the application is known, because this determines the amount of harmonic currents to be compensated. However, once the Active Filter is added to the installation, the harmonic curren...... and sizing industrial Active Filter applications together with Adjustable Speed Drives. Examples of using the developed toolbox are given in the paper, supported with practical measurements....... the commutation behavior of Adjustable Speed Drives when their harmonic currents are compensated by a Shunt Active Filter. The method is formulated as an analytical computation algorithm verified by simulations. Further on the method is implemented in a Harmonic Calculation Toolbox which facilitates calculation...

  3. Effective 3D protein structure prediction with local adjustment genetic-annealing algorithm.

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Lin, Xiao-Li


    The protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing the energy function. The protein folding structure prediction is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP-hard problem when the 3D off-lattice AB model is employed. In this paper, the local adjustment genetic-annealing (LAGA) algorithm was used to search the ground state of 3D offlattice AB model for protein folding structure. The algorithm included an improved crossover strategy and an improved mutation strategy, where a local adjustment strategy was also used to enhance the searching ability. The experiments were carried out with the Fibonacci sequences. The experimental results demonstrate that the LAGA algorithm appears to have better performance and accuracy compared to the previous methods.

  4. Business cycle effects on portfolio credit risk: A simple FX Adjustment for a factor model

    Sokolov, Yuri


    The recent economic crisis on the demand side of the economy affects the trends and volatilities of the exchange rates as well as the operating conditions of borrowers in emerging market economies. But the exchange rate depreciation creates both winners and losers. With a weaker exchange rate, exporters and net holders of foreign assets will benefit, and vice verse, those relying on import and net debtors in foreign currency will be hurt. This paper presents a simple FX adjustment framewor...

  5. Study on Some Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables and Communication Effect on The Marital Adjustment


    This research, which was conducted in theprovince of Ankara carried out to determine andcompare the various subjects in the economic,managerial and psychosocial activation areas and themarital adjustment of the man and woman in the viewpoint of demographic and socioeconomic variablessuch as their education levels, marriage ages,marriage duration and monthly income amount. 413married personnel and their spouses whom werechosen in accordance with the “Random SamplingMethod” by the personnel who...

  6. Exploring the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices and identifying hot spots in Berlin’s residential property market

    Meulen, Philipp an de; Mitze, Timo Friedel


    proximity to the city centre compared to similar properties in Berlin’s periphery once we control for the properties’ physical characteristics. The observed temporal evolution of the rental price distribution between 2008 and 2013 thereby hints at an ongoing gentrification process in Germany’s capital...... find that districts’ net in-migration balances are positively correlated with quality-adjusted rental price levels for higher quantiles of the distribution, thereby potentially proxying the price dynamics of underlying gentrification processes. Using statistical tests from the explanatory spatial data...

  7. Adjustment to the Curve Number Nrcs-Cn to Account for the Vegetation Effect on the Hydrological Processes

    Gonzalez, A.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.


    The objective of this work is to develop an approach that makes use of remotely sensed Greenness Fraction (GF) as a proxy for the vegetation density to automatically adjust the Curve Number model (NRCS-CN) to account for the effect of the changes in vegetation growth on hydrological processes. Daily gauged precipitation-runoff pairs (1948 to 2003) from the MOdel Parameter Estimation EXperiment dataset (MOPEX) over 26 watersheds across the U.S. were used to estimate monthly averaged CNs (CNsim) and then compared to the monthly GF. An adjustment factor was then proposed for the typical static CN inputs which do not account for the vegetation growth over time; the result was a vegetation-adjusted CN (CNveg adj). The improvement in the performance of the NRCS-CN methodology was assessed. The results evidence how the CNveg adj compensates the underestimation of the standard CN (CNstd). The ratio of the estimated runoff using the CNstd (Qstd) to the observed runoff (Qobs) was 0.36; while with the CNveg adj (Qveg adj) was 0.98. The correlation coefficient of simulated and observed runoff when using CNstd and CNveg adj, was 0.42 and 0.92, respectively. Likewise, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Qstd was -0.92 and 0.85 for Qveg adj. This implies that the adjustment to the CN is crucial for improved hydrological modeling and, therefore, for flood and flash flood monitoring and forecasting.

  8. The effectiveness of social work services on the social adjustment of parents of children with hearing impairment

    Abas Mahvash Wernoosfaderani


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing impairment is one of the most stressful disabilities. The mental health of parents caring for children with hearing impairment is at risk. Therefore, technical support and intervention are very valuable for these families. These services are also useful for children’s development. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of social work services on the social adjustment of parents of children with hearing impairment.Methods: In this study, 37 parents of children with hearing impairment were selected as the sample population. Interviews and case studies were conducted to determine whether the parents were receiving social work services. The social adjustment scale was used to assess parents’ social adjustment. Analysis of variance (F was used to analyze the data and information obtained from parents.Results: Data analysis showed that there is a significant difference between parents who had received social work services and parents who had not received social work services (p<0.001.Conclusion: According to the obtained results, parents who had received social work services experienced higher social adjustment. It can be said that providing assistance to parents of children with hearing impairment can improve their social integration.

  9. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey


    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36–39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful ...

  10. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on Social Adjustment and Mental Disorders in Foster Kids and Adolescents

    Hassan Toozandehjani; Zahra Kiafar


    This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of life skills training on social adjustment and mental disorders of foster kids and adolescents in Nishabur and Mashhad. A sample population of 60 participants (30 subjects through accessible sampling from fosterages in Nishabur and Mashhad and 30 subjects through multistage cluster sampling from fosterages is Mashhad) was selected and randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group received life skills trai...

  11. Studying the effects of dietary body weight-adjusted acute tryptophan depletion on punishment-related behavioral inhibition

    Tilman J. Gaber


    Full Text Available Background: Alterations in serotonergic (5-HT neurotransmission are thought to play a decisive role in affective disorders and impulse control. Objective: This study aims to reproduce and extend previous findings on the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD and subsequently diminished central 5-HT synthesis in a reinforced categorization task using a refined body weight–adjusted depletion protocol. Design: Twenty-four young healthy adults (12 females, mean age [SD]=25.3 [2.1] years were subjected to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Each subject was administered both an ATD challenge and a balanced amino acid load (BAL in two separate sessions in randomized order. Punishment-related behavioral inhibition was assessed using a forced choice go/no-go task that incorporated a variable payoff schedule. Results: Administration of ATD resulted in significant reductions in TRP measured in peripheral blood samples, indicating reductions of TRP influx across the blood–brain barrier and related brain 5-HT synthesis. Overall accuracy and response time performance were improved after ATD administration. The ability to adjust behavioral responses to aversive outcome magnitudes and behavioral adjustments following error contingent punishment remained intact after decreased brain 5-HT synthesis. A previously observed dissociation effect of ATD on punishment-induced inhibition was not observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neurodietary challenges with ATD Moja–De have no detrimental effects on task performance and punishment-related inhibition in healthy adults.

  12. A new daily dividend-adjusted index for the Danish stock market, 1985-2002: Construction, statistical properties, and return predictability

    Belter, Klaus; Engsted, Tom; Tanggaard, Carsten


    is given. In the second part of the paper we analyze the time-series properties of daily, weekly, and monthly returns, and we present evidence on predictability of multi-period returns. We also compare stock returns with the returns on long-term bonds and short-term money market instruments (that is......We present a new dividend-adjusted blue chip index for the Danish stock market covering the period 1985-2002. In contrast to other indices on the Danish stock market, the index is calculated on a daily basis. In the first part of the paper a detailed description of the construction of the index......, the equity risk premium), and we compute the Hansen-Jagannathan bound to infer the properties of the underlying stochastic discount factor generating Danish asset returns....

  13. The Effect of adjusting PH on Stretchability and Meltability to White Brined Nabulsi Cheese

    Ayman S. Mazahreh


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boiled white brined (Nabulsi cheese is the mostly consumed in Jordan; this cheese should show meltability and high stretchability in order to fit in the production of high quality Kunafa and other popular local sweets and pastries.The most outstanding characteristic of Nabulsi cheese is the long keeping ability (more than one year without cooling, since it is preserved in concentrated brine (up to 25%. Approach: This work was based on the hypothesis that it would be possible to imply meltability and stretchability to the cheese by adjusting pH to the original brine that may specifically act on cross linking bonds of casein. A new apparatus for measuring the actual stretchability was designed and constructed; measurements on different cheeses proved its validity and reliability to measurement stretchability up to 80cm. Detailed treatments revealed the success of the proposed assumption in inducing meltability and stretchability to cheese processed and preserved according to the traditional methods. Results: The following results were obtained: It is possible to imply a low but acceptable level of stretchability and meltability through adjustment of the pH in the range of 5.4-5.8 by adding calculated amount of citric acid considering the buffering capacity of the cheese and storing it for few weeks to reach equilibrium. Conclusion: Conformational experiments proved the applicability of the new method on commercial Nabulsi cheese samples. Sensory evaluation revealed the superiority of pH adjusting treatment specifically at pH 5.4 and 5.8 as well as commercial Mashmouleh cheese that has high meltability and stretchability when used in Kunafa making.

  14. Effects of lateral perturbations and changing stance conditions on anticipatory postural adjustment.

    Santos, Marcio J; Aruin, Alexander S


    The study investigates the role of lateral muscles and changing stance conditions in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Subjects stood laterally to an aluminum pendulum released by an experimenter and were required to stop it with their right or left hand. Stance conditions were manipulated by having the subjects stand in the following positions: on a single limb (SS), with feet together (narrow base of support, NB), and with feet shoulder width apart (regular base of support, RB). Bilateral EMG activity of dorsal, ventral, and lateral trunk and leg muscles and ground reaction forces were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Anticipatory postural adjustments were seen in all experimental conditions, and their magnitudes depended on the stance and the side of perturbation. Accordingly, APAs in lateral muscles increased on the side of perturbation in SS condition, while simultaneous activation of dorsal muscles occurred on the contralateral side. Smaller APAs were seen in lateral muscles in conditions with a wider base of support (NB, RB) and APAs in dorsal muscles were smaller in NB - in comparison to RB - stance. The results of the present study provide new data on the role of lateral, ventral, and dorsal muscles in anticipatory postural control when dealing with lateral perturbations in conditions of postural instability.

  15. The Effects of Open Heart Surgery (Coronary Bypass on Depression and Social Adjustment of Hospitalized Heart Patients

    Farah Naderi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Post treatment preparation is critical period, as patients may have difficulties with psychosocial adjustment, especially related to dissatisfaction with side effects of medicine taking therapy and a lack of socialization skills/social competence. Different psychological issues arise for patients depending upon where they are in the medical treatment process. Approach: The current research was processed with the intention of examining and presenting the effects of open heart surgery (coronary bypass on male and female hospitalized heart patients' depression and social adjustment in Tehran Shahid Modarress Hospital; regarding age, sex, employment and marital status The research sample particularized 118 patients (42 female and 76 male whom were selected by simple random sampling procedure. To obtain data, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report (SAS-SR were implemented a couple weeks before and after surgery procedure as pretest and post test with one group. The research design was quasi-experimental. Results: Results were considered significant at p value less than to equal to 0.0001 (p≤0.0001 and revealed that: Heart surgery decreased social adjustment but had no significant impact on heart inpatients' depression. Conclusion: After treatment, it was common for patients to exhibit behavior problems, depression, poor social adaptation and/or noncompliance with the medical regimen. The psychosocial adaptation of surgery procedure can be promoted through support and counseling by one or all members of the surgery team caring for the patients and their families. This process must start during the first visit to the treatment center.

  16. Finite element model for arch bridge vibration dynamics considering effect of suspender length adjustment on geometry stiffness matrix

    ZHONG Yi-feng; WANG Rui; YING Xue-gang; CHEN Huai


    In this paper, we established a finite element (FEM) model to analyze the dynamic characteristics of arch bridges. In this model, the effects of adjustment to the length of a suspender on its geometry stiffness matrix are stressed. The FEM equations of mechanics characteristics, natural frequency and main mode are set up based on the first order matrix perturbation theory. Applicantion of the proposed model to analyze a real arch bridge proved the improvement in the simulation precision of dynamical characteristics of the arch bridge by considering the effects of suspender length variation.

  17. The effects of backward adjustable thoracic support in wheelchair on spinal curvature and back muscle activation for elderly people.

    Chun-Ting Li

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting.Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9 were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (-0.32±4.80° when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27° and lumbar support (-8.97±3.31° sitting postures (P<0.001, and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (-23.38±6.50° when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°, normal (0.44±7.47°, and lumbar support (-16.76±4.77° sitting postures (P<0.05. It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05.The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain.

  18. Effect of Nanofiller Characteristics on Nanocomposite Properties

    Working, Dennis C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wise, Kristopher E.; Park, Cheol


    This report surveys the effect of nanofiller characteristics on nanocomposites fabricated with two polyimide matrices. Mechanical and electrical properties were determined. Microscopy results showed that matrix chemistry, nanofiller characteristics and processing conditions had significant impact on nanocomposite quality.

  19. Essays in applied macroeconomics: Asymmetric price adjustment, exchange rate and treatment effect

    Gu, Jingping

    This dissertation consists of three essays. Chapter II examines the possible asymmetric response of gasoline prices to crude oil price changes using an error correction model with GARCH errors. Recent papers have looked at this issue. Some of these papers estimate a form of error correction model, but none of them accounts for autoregressive heteroskedasticity in estimation and testing for asymmetry and none of them takes the response of crude oil price into consideration. We find that time-varying volatility of gasoline price disturbances is an important feature of the data, and when we allow for asymmetric GARCH errors and investigate the system wide impulse response function, we find evidence of asymmetric adjustment to crude oil price changes in weekly retail gasoline prices. Chapter III discusses the relationship between fiscal deficit and exchange rate. Economic theory predicts that fiscal deficits can significantly affect real exchange rate movements, but existing empirical evidence reports only a weak impact of fiscal deficits on exchange rates. Based on US dollar-based real exchange rates in G5 countries and a flexible varying coefficient model, we show that the previously documented weak relationship between fiscal deficits and exchange rates may be the result of additive specifications, and that the relationship is stronger if we allow fiscal deficits to impact real exchange rates non-additively as well as nonlinearly. We find that the speed of exchange rate adjustment toward equilibrium depends on the state of the fiscal deficit; a fiscal contraction in the US can lead to less persistence in the deviation of exchange rates from fundamentals, and faster mean reversion to the equilibrium. Chapter IV proposes a kernel method to deal with the nonparametric regression model with only discrete covariates as regressors. This new approach is based on recently developed least squares cross-validation kernel smoothing method. It can not only automatically smooth

  20. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon


    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  1. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    Sjöberg, L. E.


    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  2. Effects of chemical ecological adjustment and control experiment on phytoplankton community in the Aoshan Bay

    陈碧鹃; 赵俊; 辛福言; 崔毅; 过锋


    There is a low nutrient level in the Aoshan Bay. In June 1999, the chemical adjustment and control experiment was made in the Aoshan Bay. Following tracts investigation was carried out before the experiment and on the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 45th day/after the experiment. While the variance of amount of phytoplankton, the replacement of superior species and the species composition of phytoplankton were researched. The results show that the amount of phytoplankton in the Aoshan Bay rises gradually after the experiment. Ceratium macroceros Cleve of pyrophyta was the dominant species before the experiment, its dominant index was 37.7%. Six days after the experiment, its dominant index dropped to 17.6%. Meanwhile the dominant index of Asterionella japonics Cleve rose from 7.1% to 39.2%, it became the first dominant species. Forty-five days after the experiment, the amount of phytoplankton in the Aoshan Bay was 5.15 to 137.32 times more than that in 1997.

  3. Effect of Experimentally-Induced Trunk Muscular Tensions on the Sit-to-Stand Task Performance and Associated Postural Adjustments

    Hamaoui, Alain; Alamini-Rodrigues, Caroline


    It has been shown that increased muscular activity along the trunk is likely to impair body balance, but there is little knowledge about its consequences on more dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral and bilateral increases of muscular tension along the trunk on the sit-to-stand task (STS) performance and associated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Twelve healthy females (23 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0.06 cm, 56 ± 9 kg), free of any neurological or...

  4. Development of adjustment functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments on rural two-lane roadways.

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed


    Numerous studies have attempted to evaluate the safety effectiveness of specific single treatment on roadways by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs). However, there is a need to also assess safety effects of multiple treatments since multiple treatments are usually simultaneously applied to roadways. Due to the lack of sufficient CMFs of multiple treatments, the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides combining method for multiple CMFs. However, it is cautioned in the HSM and related sources that combined safety effect of multiple CMFs may be over or under estimated. Moreover, the literature did not evaluate the accuracy of the combining method using CMFs obtained from the same study area. Thus, the main objectives of this research are: (1) to estimate CMFs and crash modification functions (CM Functions) for two single treatments (shoulder rumble strips, widening (1-9ft) shoulder width) and combination (installing shoulder rumble strips+widening shoulder width) using the observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) method and (2) to develop adjustment factors and functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments based on the accuracy of the combined CMFs for multiple treatments estimated by the existing combining method. Data was collected for rural two-lane roadways in Florida and Florida-specific safety performance functions (SPFs) were estimated for different crash types and severities. The CM Functions and adjustment functions were developed using linear and nonlinear regression models. The results of before-after with EB method show that the two single treatments and combination are effective in reducing total and SVROR (single vehicle run-off roadway) crashes. The results indicate that the treatments were more safety effective for the roadway segments with narrower original shoulder width in the before period. It was found that although the CMFs for multiple treatments (i.e., combination of two single treatments) were generally

  5. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.


    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  6. Monte Carlo Investigation on the Effect of Heterogeneities on Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) Dosimetry

    Koontz, Craig

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer for women with more than 225,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2012 (ACS, 2012). With the high prevalence, comes an increased emphasis on researching new techniques to treat this disease. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in order to treat occult disease after lumpectomy. Similar recurrence rates have been found using ABPI after lumpectomy as with mastectomy alone, but with the added benefit of improved cosmetic and psychological results. Intracavitary brachytherapy devices have been used to deliver the APBI prescription. However, inability to produce asymmetric dose distributions in order to avoid overdosing skin and chest wall has been an issue with these devices. Multi-lumen devices were introduced to overcome this problem. Of these, the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) has demonstrated the greatest ability to produce an asymmetric dose distribution, which would have greater ability to avoid skin and chest wall dose, and thus allow more women to receive this type of treatment. However, SAVI treatments come with inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to the proximity to the tissue-air and tissue-lung interfaces and variable contents within the cavity created by the SAVI. The dose calculation protocol based on TG-43 does not account for heterogeneities and thus will not produce accurate dosimetry; however Acuros, a model-based dose calculation algorithm manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, claims to accurately account for heterogeneities. Monte Carlo simulation can calculate the dosimetry with high accuracy. In this thesis, a model of the SAVI will be created for Monte Carlo, specifically using MCNP code, in order to explore the affects of heterogeneities on the dose distribution. This data will be compared to TG-43 and Acuros calculated dosimetry to explore their accuracy.

  7. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Asem Hussein


    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  8. Prior event rate ratio adjustment for hidden confounding in observational studies of treatment effectiveness: a pairwise Cox likelihood approach.

    Lin, Nan Xuan; Henley, William Edward


    Observational studies provide a rich source of information for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions in many situations where it is not ethical or practical to perform randomized controlled trials. However, such studies are prone to bias from hidden (unmeasured) confounding. A promising approach to identifying and reducing the impact of unmeasured confounding is prior event rate ratio (PERR) adjustment, a quasi-experimental analytic method proposed in the context of electronic medical record database studies. In this paper, we present a statistical framework for using a pairwise approach to PERR adjustment that removes bias inherent in the original PERR method. A flexible pairwise Cox likelihood function is derived and used to demonstrate the consistency of the simple and convenient alternative PERR (PERR-ALT) estimator. We show how to estimate standard errors and confidence intervals for treatment effect estimates based on the observed information and provide R code to illustrate how to implement the method. Assumptions required for the pairwise approach (as well as PERR) are clarified, and the consequences of model misspecification are explored. Our results confirm the need for researchers to consider carefully the suitability of the method in the context of each problem. Extensions of the pairwise likelihood to more complex designs involving time-varying covariates or more than two periods are considered. We illustrate the application of the method using data from a longitudinal cohort study of enzyme replacement therapy for lysosomal storage disorders. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina


    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than glog (M∗/M⊙) processing, reflected in the significant changes in the physical properties of the host galaxies.

  10. Examining the Effects of Residence and Gender on College Student Adjustment in Iran: Implications for Psychotherapists

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Nunnery, John


    This study examined the effects of on-campus residence, in comparison with commuter status, on academic performance, vocational commitment, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the college environment among female and male Iranian students at Shiraz University, Iran. The study sought to extend previous work investigating the effects of college…

  11. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y


    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  12. Providing stability of properties of filled polymers under the joint effect of exploitation factors

    Minakova, N. N.; Ushakov, V. Ya.


    The present work is devoted to a search for the structural parameter that can be used to adjust the structure of a resistive polymer composite material stable against the action of exploitation factors. The objects of research are polymers filled with technical carbon. Various approaches have been developed for them to control the stability of their properties: application of polymers of different chemical compositions and electroconductive filler with different concentrations, grades, and surface modifications. The following main problems have been formulated: based on an analysis of physical structurization processes, to reveal geometrical parameters determining the stability of properties under the joint effect of the exploitation factors; to adjust the structural parameter that responds to these factors; to check its efficiency; to estimate the importance of factors that influence the stability of the properties; and to propose an approach to the adjustment of the main material components to provide the stability of properties under the effect of the exploitation factors. The structural parameter was adjusted based on the physical principles developed earlier by the authors of the present report and other authors, whose publications are given in the References. It has been established that the stability of properties to the joint influence of the exploitation factors can be determined by the structural parameter that responds to branching of the electroconductive grid in a comparative analysis of the known material and the material being synthesized. Its application allows the problem of adjusting the material components to be also solved in the case in which identical values of the specific volume electrical resistances are formed for different elemental compositions.

  13. Mixed Former Effect: A Kind of Composition Adjusting Method of Er-Dotped Glass for Broadband Amplification

    杨建虎; 戴世勋; 温磊; 柳祝平; 胡丽丽; 姜中宏


    A compositional adjusting method called the mixed former effect is proposed to improve effectively opticalproperties such as the emission cross section, the fluorescence full width at half maximum (FWHM) and thelifetime of the 4I13/2 level of Er-doped glass. A kind of Er-doped bismuth-based glass illustrated high emissioncross section (σep = 0.66 - 0.90pm2), large fluorescence FWHM (68-85nm), and relatively long lifetime of the4 I1s/2 level (Tm = 1.6-4.3 ms) using this method. A comparison of spectroscopic parameters shows that bismuth-based glass is much better for broadband amplifiers than other glass hosts.

  14. Combined effects of low light and water stress on Jatropha curcas L. promotes shoot growth and morphological adjustment

    Isabella Christina Silveira Carneiro


    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (physic nut is a plant with economic and pharmaceutical uses. Basic studies on the influence of environmental factors on the early development of J. curcas are important for improving farming techniques and increasing productivity. This study investigated the adjustments of J. curcas to the environmental factors of drought and light stress in order to determine which factors most strongly affect the allocation of biomass during early growth. Leaves, stems, and roots of young plants were sampled and leaf area was measured during January and June in 2011. Plants of J. curcas that were grown in shade and subjected to water stress showed higher biomass allocation to aerial parts (mainly stems, which can be explained as a strategy for maximizing carbon assimilation. The pattern of biomass allocation between aerial components and the root system changed in plants grown in shade. During June 2011, biomass in shade-grown J. curcas was preferentially allocated to stems, indicating long-term adjustment. The lower biomass allocation to the root system suggests reduced exploitation of soil water even when this resource is scarce. Thus, over the long term, growth of J. curcas may be compromised by the combined effects of light stress and water deficit.

  15. [Effects of exogenous melatonin on nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances of melon seedlings under sub-low temperature].

    Gao, Qing-hai; Jia, Shuang-shuang; Miao, Yong-mei; Lu, Xiao-min; Li, Hui-min


    The melon cultivar 'Yangjiaosu' was subjected to the treatment of 18 °C/12 °C (day/night) in an artificial climate chamber for 6 days, and the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes [nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) ] , the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and NH4+-N as well as the osmotic adjustment substances of melon leaf were then determined. The results showed that, compared with the control, sub-low temperature treatment reduced the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and the NR activity, but increased the content of NH4(+)-N, thereby leading to the growth inhibition of melon. Exogenous MT treatment significantly improved the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes, especially the activities of GS and GOGAT, effectively reducing the content of NH4+-N. Moreover, MT treatment increased the contents of proline, soluble protein and soluble sugar, and alleviated the damage of sub-low temperature on the cell membrane by reducing the relative electrical conductivity and MDA content of melon leaves. In short, this work suggested that exogenous MT would enhance the sub-low temperature adaptability of melon by decreasing the leaf content of NH4-N, increasing the contents of osmotic adjustment substances and reducing the membrane lipid peroxidation levels.

  16. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo


    Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of road traffic noise with adjustment for air pollution

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Jong, P.E. de


    This study investigates cardiovascular effects of road traffic noise, accounting for air pollution. Noise and particulate matter (PM10) exposure was assessed for the City of Groningen sample (N = 40 856), and a selection of subjects that next visited the outpatient clinic (PREVEND cohort; N = 8 592)

  18. Romantic Relationships and Adjustment Problems in China: The Moderating Effect of Classroom Romantic Context

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan


    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…

  19. Effects of Multiple Context and Cumulative Stress on Urban Children's Adjustment in Elementary School

    Morales, Julie R.; Guerra, Nancy G.


    Using longitudinal data collected over 2 years on a sample of 2,745 urban elementary school children (1st-6th graders, ages 6-11 years) from economically disadvantaged communities, effects of stressful experiences within 3 contexts (school, family, neighborhood), cumulative stress, and multiple context stress on 3 indices of children's adjustment…

  20. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    Venkataramani, K.


    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  1. Real exchange-rate adjustment and the welfare effects of oil-price decontrol. [Monograph

    Krugman, P.


    Conventional analysis of the welfare effects of US oil price regulation in the 1970s focuses on the deadweight losses in the oil market. This paper argues that such analysis substantially underrates the benefits from decontrolling prices because decontrol will lead to an improvement in the US terms of trade with respect to other oil-importing countries. A simple model of the relationship between oil decontrol and the terms of trade is developed, and the impact is calculated for plausible parameter values. The results suggest that the terms of trade benefits are several times larger than the benefits as conventionally measured. 4 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  2. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune


    agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described...

  3. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang


    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  4. How gluten properties are effected by pentosans

    Wang, M.; Vliet, van T.; Hamer, R.J.


    During the wet separation of starch and gluten, both water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable solids (WUS) have a negative effect on gluten yield. Gluten properties are also affected: the gluten becomes less extensible. In comparison to the control, addition of WUS or WEP resulted i

  5. Comparative effects of chiropractic adjustment versus chiropractic adjustment combined with static magnetic field therapy on acupuncture points for the treatment of mechanical neck pain


    M.Tech. Purpose: This study was undertaken in order to demonstrate the effects of static magnetic field therapy on acupuncture points in the treatment of those suffering from mechanical neck pain. Isolated spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine was compared to spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine in conjunction with magnetic field therapy on acupuncture points using both objective and subjective measurements. Before the execution of this study, it was hypothesised t...

  6. Comparative effects of chiropractic adjustment versus chiropractic adjustment combined with static magnetic field therapy on acupuncture points for the treatment of mechanical neck pain


    M.Tech. (Chiropractic) Purpose: This study was undertaken in order to demonstrate the effects of static magnetic field therapy on acupuncture points in the treatment of those suffering from mechanical neck pain. Isolated spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine was compared to spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine in conjunction with magnetic field therapy on acupuncture points using both objective and subjective measurements. Before the execution of this study, it was...

  7. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects

    Fritz, C; Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe


    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's vocal tract. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' tracts using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' "muscle memory" is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this 'normal' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for "special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, a...

  8. The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products.

    More, S J; Clegg, T A; Lynch, P J; O'Grady, L


    Somatic cell count (SCC) limits are a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality. As yet, very limited work has been published on SCC regulatory standards, including on the effect of different approaches to SCC data adjustment and interpretation. This study examines the effect of SCC data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in current European Union (EU) legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products for human consumption, using Irish data for illustration. The study used Irish milk-recording data as a proxy for bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) data, to calculate an unadjusted monthly SCC value for each herd during each month of participation. Subsequently, 4 data adjustments were applied, as outlined in EU and national legislation: seasonal adjustment; 3-mo rolling geometric average, without accounting for a break in the supply; 3-mo rolling geometric average, after accounting for a break in the supply; and seasonal adjustment and 3-mo rolling geometric average combined, after accounting for a break in the supply. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect, during the period from 2004 to 2010, of data adjustment on the percentage of herds with herd SCC >400,000 cells/mL. In all, 4 interpretation scenarios, incorporating different data adjustment combinations, were used to estimate herd eligibility (compliant, under warning, or suspended, as defined by legislation) to supply raw milk for processing. The 4 methods of data adjustment each led to a sizable reduction (6.7, 5.0, 5.3, and 11.1 percentage points, respectively, compared with the unadjusted data) in the percentage of herds exceeding a herd SCC of 400,000 cells/mL. Herd eligibility varied by interpretation scenarios, in particular those incorporating seasonal adjustment. The study provides new perspectives on the effect of data adjustment on herd SCC and of interpretation scenarios on herd eligibility. The results provide an illustrative




    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  10. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin; Chang, Jiaxing


    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H2 system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  11. Effective Rheological Properties in Semidilute Bacterial Suspensions

    Potomkin, Mykhailo; Berlyand, Leonid


    Interactions between swimming bacteria have led to remarkable experimentally observable macroscopic properties such as the reduction of the effective viscosity, enhanced mixing, and diffusion. In this work, we study an individual based model for a suspension of interacting point dipoles representing bacteria in order to gain greater insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the drastic reduction in the effective viscosity. In particular, asymptotic analysis is carried out on the corresponding kinetic equation governing the distribution of bacteria orientations. This allows one to derive an explicit asymptotic formula for the effective viscosity of the bacterial suspension in the limit of bacterium non-sphericity. The results show good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and previous experimental observations. Finally, we justify our approach by proving existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties for this kinetic PDE model.

  12. Effective Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanocomposites

    Christoph Etrich


    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanocomposites find many applications, such as nanometric coatings in emerging fields, such as optotronics, photovoltaics or integrated optics. To make use of their ability to affect light propagation in an unprecedented manner, plasmonic nanocomposites should consist of densely packed metallic nanoparticles. This causes a major challenge for their theoretical description, since the reliable assignment of effective optical properties with established effective medium theories is no longer possible. Established theories, e.g., the Maxwell-Garnett formalism, are only applicable for strongly diluted nanocomposites. This effective description, however, is a prerequisite to consider plasmonic nanocomposites in the design of optical devices. Here, we mitigate this problem and use full wave optical simulations to assign effective properties to plasmonic nanocomposites with filling fractions close to the percolation threshold. We show that these effective properties can be used to properly predict the optical action of functional devices that contain nanocomposites in their design. With this contribution we pave the way to consider plasmonic nanocomposites comparably to ordinary materials in the design of optical elements.

  13. The Effect of Alkaline Material Particle Size on Adjustment Ability of Buffer Capacity

    Girts Bumanis


    Full Text Available The pH control in biotechnological processes like anaerobic digestion is one of the key factors to ensure high efficiency in the biogas production process. The decrease of pH level in the digestion process occurs due to the rapid acid formation during metabolic processes of bacteria which leads to the inhibition of the methane producing bacteria; therefore further digestion process is limited. The efficiency of anaerobic digestion reactor decreases dramatically if the pH level falls under pH 6.6. This problem is common for single-stage continuous digesters with a high organic solid content; therefore the active pH controlling method is commonly used. By creating inorganic alkaline material, the passive pH controlling system could be created. Soluble alkalis are enclosed in the matrix of material during the activation process thus providing slow leaching of free alkalis from the material structure in water medium and ensuring pH increase. In this research a porous alkaline composite material was developed as a pH controlling agent for the biogas production. Two mixture compositions with a different Si/Al and Si/Na ratio were created. The effect of particle size of the material was investigated in order to provide different leaching rates for the described material. Granular material with particle fractions 1/2 mm, 2/4 mm and 4/8 mm and a cubical specimen with dimensions 20×20×20 mm were tested. The pH level of water medium increased up to pH 11.6 during the first day and final pH value decreased to 7.8 after 20-day leaching. Alkali leaching can be increased by 19-32% changing the mixture composition by adding glass powder to the alkaline material. The particle size factor was negligible for leaching rate of alkaline material due to the high porosity of material. Research results show that this composite material has a potential to be applied in pH control for biotechnological purposes.DOI:

  14. Thermodynamic properties of wadsleyite with anharmonic effect

    Zhongqing Wu


    The thermodynamic properties of crystals can be routinely calculated by density functional theory calculations combining with quasi-harmonic approximation.Based on the method developed recently by Wu and Wentzcovitch (Phys Rev B 79:104304,2009) and Wu (Phys Rev B 81:172301,2010),we are able to further ab initio include anharmonic effect on thermodynamic properties of crystals by one additional canonical ensemble with numbers of particle,volume and temperature fixed (NVT) molecular dynamic simulations.Our study indicates that phonon-phonon interaction causes the renormalized phonon frequencies of wadsleyite decrease with temperature.This is consistent with the Raman experimental observation.The anharmonic free energy of wadsleyite is negative and its heat capacity at constant pressure can exceed the Dulong-Petit limit at high temperature.The anharmonicity still significantly affects thermodynamic properties of wadsleyite at pressure and temperature conditions correspond to the transition zone.

  15. The effects of intracranial volume adjustment approaches on multiple regional MRI volumes in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease

    Olga eVoevodskaya


    Full Text Available In neurodegeneration research, normalization of regional volumes by intracranial volume (ICV is important to estimate the extent of disease-driven atrophy. There is little agreement as to whether raw volumes, volume-to-ICV fractions or regional volumes from which the ICV factor has been regressed out should be used for volumetric brain imaging studies. Using multiple regional cortical and subcortical volumetric measures generated by Freesurfer (51 in total, the main aim of this study was to elucidate the implications of these adjustment approaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data were analyzed from two large cohorts, the population-based PIVUS cohort (N=406, all subjects age 75 and the Alzheimer disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI cohort (N=724. Further, we studied whether the chosen ICV normalization approach influenced the relationship between hippocampus and cognition in the three diagnostic groups of the ADNI cohort (Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy individuals. The ability of raw vs adjusted hippocampal volumes to predict diagnostic status was also assessed. In both cohorts raw volumes correlate positively with ICV, but do not scale directly proportionally with it. The correlation direction is reversed for all volume-to-ICV fractions, except the lateral and third ventricles. Most grey matter fractions are larger in females, while lateral ventricle fractions are greater in males. Residual correction effectively eliminated the correlation between the regional volumes and ICV and removed gender differences. The association between hippocampal volumes and cognition was not altered by ICV normalization. Comparing prediction of diagnostic status using the different approaches, small but significant differences were found. The choice of normalization approach should be carefully considered when designing a volumetric brain imaging study.

  16. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung


    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  17. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.


    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  18. Hydrogen effect on the properties of sapphire

    Mogilevsky, Radion N.; Sharafutdinova, Liudmila G.; Nedilko, Sergiy; Gavrilov, Valeriy; Verbilo, Dmitriy; Mittl, Scott D.


    Sapphire is a widely used material for optical, electronic and semiconductor applications due to its excellent optical properties and very high durability. Optical and mechanical properties of sapphire depend on many factors such as the starting materials that are used to grow crystals, methods to grow sapphire crystals, etc. Demand for highest purity and quality of sapphire crystals increased ten fold for the last several years due to new applications for this material. In this work we studied the effect of starting materials and crystal growth methods on the optical and mechanical properties of sapphire, especially concentrating on the effect of hydrogen on the properties of sapphire. It was found that the infrared (IR) absorption which is traditionally used to measure the hydrogen content in sapphire crystals cannot be reliably used and the data obtained by this method provides a much lower hydrogen concentration than actual. We have shown for the first time that Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques can be successfully used to determine hydrogen concentration in sapphire crystals. We have shown that hydrogen concentration in sapphire can reach thousands of ppm if these crystals are grown from Verneuil starting material or aluminum oxide powder. Alternatively, the hydrogen concentration is very low if sapphire crystals are grown from High Purity Densified Alumina (HPDA®) as a starting material. HPDA® is produced by EMT, Inc through their proprietary patented technology. It was found that optical and mechanical properties of sapphire crystals grown using EMT HPDA® starting material are much better than those sapphire crystals grown using a starting material of Verneuil crystals or aluminum oxide powder.

  19. Effect of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding on Metabolic Syndrome and Its Risk Factors in Morbidly Obese Adolescents

    Rushika Conroy


    Full Text Available We examined the effect of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB on weight loss, inflammatory markers, and components of the Metabolic Syndrome (MeS in morbidly obese adolescents and determined if those with MeS lose less weight post-LAGB than those without. Data from 14–18 yr adolescents were obtained at baseline, 6 and 12 months following LAGB. Significant weight loss and improvements in MeS components were observed 6 months and one year following LAGB. The incidence of MeS declined 56.8% after 6 months and 69.6% after 12 months. There was no significant difference in amount of weight lost post-LAGB between those with and without MeS at either timepoint. Correlations between change in weight parameters and components of MeS in those with and without MeS at baseline were examined and found to vary by diagnostic category. LAGB is effective for short-term improvement in weight, inflammatory markers, and components of MeS in morbidly obese adolescents.

  20. Supplementing claims data with outpatient laboratory test results to improve confounding adjustment in effectiveness studies of lipid-lowering treatments

    Schneeweiss Sebastian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjusting for laboratory test results may result in better confounding control when added to administrative claims data in the study of treatment effects. However, missing values can arise through several mechanisms. Methods We studied the relationship between availability of outpatient lab test results, lab values, and patient and system characteristics in a large healthcare database using LDL, HDL, and HbA1c in a cohort of initiators of statins or Vytorin (ezetimibe & simvastatin as examples. Results Among 703,484 patients 68% had at least one lab test performed in the 6 months before treatment. Performing an LDL test was negatively associated with several patient characteristics, including recent hospitalization (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.29-0.34, MI (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.69-0.85, or carotid revascularization (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.25-0.53. Patient demographics, diagnoses, and procedures predicted well who would have a lab test performed (AUC = 0.89 to 0.93. Among those with test results available claims data explained only 14% of variation. Conclusions In a claims database linked with outpatient lab test results, we found that lab tests are performed selectively corresponding to current treatment guidelines. Poor ability to predict lab values and the high proportion of missingness reduces the added value of lab tests for effectiveness research in this setting.

  1. Unexperienced mechanical effects of muscular fatigue can be predicted by the Central Nervous System as revealed by anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas


    Muscular fatigue effects have been shown to be compensated by the implementation of adaptive compensatory neuromuscular strategies, resulting in modifications of the initial motion coordination. However, no studies have focused on the efficiency of the feedforward motor commands when muscular fatigue occurs for the first time during a particular movement. This study included 18 healthy subjects who had to perform arm-raising movements in a standing posture at a maximal velocity before and after a fatiguing procedure involving focal muscles. The arm-raising task implies the generation of predictive processes of control, namely Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs), whose temporal and quantitative features have been shown to be dependent on the kinematics of the upcoming arm-raising movement. By altering significantly the kinematic profile of the focal movement with a fatiguing procedure, we sought to find out whether APAs scaled to the lower mechanical disturbance. APAs were measured using surface electromyography. Following the fatiguing procedure, acceleration peaks of the arm movement decreased by ~27%. APAs scaled to this lower fatigue-related disturbance during the very first trial post-fatigue, suggesting that the Central Nervous System can predict unexperienced mechanical effects of muscle fatigue. It is suggested that these results are accounted for by prediction processes in which the central integration of the groups III and IV afferents leads to an update of the internal model by remapping the relationship between focal motor command magnitude and the actual mechanical output.

  2. Shape Memory Effect and Properties Memory Effect of Polyurethane

    FARZANEH, Sedigeh; Fitoussi, Joseph; LUCAS, Albert; Bocquet, Michel; Tcharkhtchi, Abbas


    International audience; The relationship between shape and properties memory effect, especially viscoelastic properties of polyurethane under study is the main aim of this research work. Tensile tests have been performed in order to introduce 100% of deformation in the polyurethane samples. Under this deformation, stress-relaxation experiments have been performed in order to eliminate the residual stresses. This deformation of the samples has been fixed by cooling. Recovery tests, then, were ...

  3. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    Farley, Gary L.


    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  4. Cluster Properties via Sunyaev-Zel Effect

    Cooray, Asantha

    We will discuss the role played by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in uderstanding the physical properties of the intracluster medium. While the SZ effect has been considered widely for its cosmological purposes when combined with multiwavelength observations the SZ effect data can also be used to understand the nature and evolution of the ICM including its thermal structure and the presence of nonthermal plasma. We also discuss future opportunities on this aspect involving observations from the planned South Pole Telescope Planck mission and various other attempts to image the SZ effect in galaxy clusters using wide-field bolometer arrays and other techniques. We will also explore the connection between gas in clusters and the general intergalactic medium and how one can use detailed wide-field SZ maps beyond those towards individual clusters to study such possibilities.

  5. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  6. A complete generalized adjustment criterion

    Perković, Emilija; Textor, Johannes; Kalisch, Markus; Maathuis, Marloes H.


    Covariate adjustment is a widely used approach to estimate total causal effects from observational data. Several graphical criteria have been developed in recent years to identify valid covariates for adjustment from graphical causal models. These criteria can handle multiple causes, latent confound

  7. Effect of Rare Earths on Properties of BNbRE Rail Steel

    李春龙; 智建国; 王荣


    The development and properties of BNbRE rail steel and the effect of RE on rail steel were studied. The results show that the properties of rail steel (σb≥980 MPa, δ5≥8%) can be improved by adding RE and niobium and adjusting the content of C, Si and Mn in steel. At the same time, the abrasion resistance, contact fatigue and fatigue property of BNbRE rail steel are excellent. It also shows that RE in rail steel has the functions of purifying steel, modifying inclusion and micro-alloy action effect. The improved steel-making process enhances the quality of molten steel. Although the content of RE is low, excellent properties of BNbRE rail steel are achieved.

  8. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A


    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits.

  9. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan


    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse.

  10. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan


    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  11. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Osmotic Adjustment and Photosynthetic Physiology of Maize Seedlings in Black Soils Region of Northeast China

    Hongwen Xu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on maize growth, osmoregulation substances and photosynthetic physiology, a popular maize variety ZD 958 was measured under potted condition. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM symbiosis promoted plant growth, and enhanced plant height, leaf length, mean leaf width and dry weight. Higher soluble sugar and protein, but lower proline concentrations were detected in AM seedlings than corresponding non-AM seedlings. Quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and potential photochemical efficiency increased by arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, meanwhile, AM plants had lower primary fluorescence but higher maximal fluorescence and variable fluorescence than non-AM plants. AM enhanced apparent quantum efficiency, maximum net photosynthetic rate, dark respiration rate and light saturation point, but reduced light compensation point. The conclusion was that, after the seedling inoculated with Glomus. tortuosum, AM symbioses could protect cell from being hurt through regulating substances related to osmotic adjustment, besides, the efficiency of light utilization, the capacity of using low light and the capacity of fitting and using high light were all increased by AM symbiosis.

  12. Treating Urge Incontinence in Older Women: A Cost-Effective Investment in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALY

    Victoria L. Phillips


    Full Text Available Objectives. To conduct cost-effectiveness analyses of urge incontinence treatments for older women. Methods. Decision-analytic models assessed three treatment pathways: (1 limited behavioral therapy (LBT; (2 full behavioral therapy (FBT with biofeedback; and (3 drug (DRUG, with allowances for crossover options following initial treatments. Model inputs were gathered from published data. Cost data were based on third party payer reimbursement. Outcomes were measured as the number of incontinence episodes avoided and quality-adjusted life years gained (QALYs. Results. At baseline values costs per QALY gained ranged from US$3696 to $10609. LBT was the least costly with the lowest benefit. Switching from LBT to FBT, with the greatest gain, was $415 per additional QALY. DRUG was the most expensive option. Sensitivity analyses showed that only small changes in key inputs were required for DRUG to generate greater gains than FBT. Medication costs had to fall substantially for DRUG to be cost competitive. Conclusion. All treatment strategies provide QALYs gains at a bargain price, compared to the standard of US$50,000 per QALY gained. No single treatment strategy dominated under all conditions. Clinicians should offer multiple treatment options to older women with urge incontinence.

  13. Signal Amplification in Field Effect-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosensing by Tuned Buffer Concentration with Ionic Strength Adjuster.

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Narendra; Panda, Siddhartha


    Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl.

  14. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Lord, Jadienne H.; Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.


    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collabora...

  15. Parallax adjustment for visual comfort enhancement using the effect of parallax distribution and cross talk in parallax-barrier autostereoscopic three-dimensional display

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon


    Visual discomfort is a common problem in three-dimensional (3D) videos, and this issue is the subject of many current studies. Among the methods to overcome visual discomfort presented in current research, parallax adjustment methods provide little guidance in determining the condition for parallax control. We propose a parallax adjustment based on the effects of parallax distribution and cross talk on visual comfort, where the visual comfort level is used as the adjustment parameter, in parallax-barrier-type autostereoscopic 3D displays. We use the horizontal image shift method for parallax adjustment to enhance visual comfort. The speeded-up robust feature is used to estimate the parallax distribution of 3D sequences, and the required amount for parallax control is chosen based on the predefined effect of parallax distribution and cross talk on visual comfort. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we used commercial 3D equipment with various intrinsic cross-talk levels. Subjective tests were conducted at the fixed optimal viewing distance for each piece of equipment. The results show that comfortable videos were generated based on the proposed parallax adjustment method.


    Pavia, Sara; WALKER, ROSANNE


    PUBLISHED University College Cork Pozzolans were used by ancient civilizations to enhance the properties of mortars and concrete and are now regaining popularity as sustainable, environmentally-friendly alternatives to cement. This paper studies the relationships amongst some properties of nine pozzolans and their impact on compressive strength and setting time of the resultant composites. Its objective is to assist in making informed choices in the selection of pozzolans...

  17. Constraining the surface properties of effective Skyrme interactions

    Jodon, R.; Bender, M.; Bennaceur, K.; Meyer, J.


    Background: Deformation energy surfaces map how the total binding energy of a nuclear system depends on the geometrical properties of intrinsic configurations, thereby providing a powerful tool to interpret nuclear spectroscopy and large-amplitude collective-motion phenomena such as fission. The global behavior of the deformation energy is known to be directly connected to the surface properties of the effective interaction used for its calculation. Purpose: The precise control of surface properties during the parameter adjustment of an effective interaction is key to obtain a reliable and predictive description of nuclear properties. The most relevant indicator is the surface-energy coefficient asurf. There are several possibilities for its definition and estimation, which are not fully equivalent and require a computational effort that can differ by orders of magnitude. The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to identify a scheme for the determination of asurf that offers the best compromise between robustness, precision, and numerical efficiency; second, to analyze the correlation between values for asurf and the characteristic energies of the fission barrier of 240Pu; and third, to lay out an efficient and robust procedure for how the deformation properties of the Skyrme energy density functional (EDF) can be constrained during the parameter fit. Methods: There are several frequently used possibilities to define and calculate the surface energy coefficient asurf of effective interactions built for the purpose of self-consistent mean-field calculations. The most direct access is provided by the model system of semi-infinite nuclear matter, but asurf can also be extracted from the systematics of binding energies of finite nuclei. Calculations can be carried out either self-consistently [Hartree-Fock (HF)], which incorporates quantal shell effects, or in one of the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) or modified Thomas-Fermi (MTF) approximations. The

  18. Effects of nanoparticle and matrix interface on nanocomposite properties

    Miller, Sandi G.

    The objectives of this work were to functionalize two nanoparticles, layered silicate clay and expanded graphite, and evaluate the effects of surface modification on polymer nanocomposite properties. Two thermosetting resin systems were evaluated, a polyimide for high temperature applications, and a general use epoxy. The chemistry of the modifier or the particle surface was tailored in each case to optimize nanocomposite properties such as: particle dispersion, thermal oxidative stability (TOS), electrical conductivity, strength, and toughness. Dispersion of layered silicate clay into the two separate matrices demonstrated an apparent affinity between the silicate surface and aromatic compounds. Steps were taken in each case to disrupt that attraction; resulting in improved material properties. The dispersion of layered silicate clays into a thermosetting polyimide demonstrated that improved thermal oxidative stability was achieved only when the clay was modified with a combination of an aromatic diamine and an alkyl ammonium ion. When such a system was employed, the nanocomposite TOS improved by 25% over that of the base polyimide. Attention to the interactions between clay and aromatic containing compounds was also necessary for silicate modification and dispersion in an epoxy blend. Here, preferential contact between the clay and the aromatic containing sections of the blend was observed; resulting in nanocomposites exhibiting little enhancement to epoxy properties. By forcing the clay into the non-aromatic component, the material yield stress increased by up to 65%, Young's modulus increased by up to 80%, and increases in Tg of up to 11°C were observed relative to the base resin. Within nano-graphite containing materials, trade-offs in functionalization, dispersion, and properties were evaluated. Functionalization of graphite proved beneficial in terms of dispersion. For example, an epoxy functionalized graphite nanoparticle resulted in acceptable dispersion

  19. Pairing properties of realistic effective interactions

    Gargano A.


    Full Text Available We investigate the pairing properties of an effective shell-model interaction defined within a model space outside 132Sn and derived by means of perturbation theory from the CD-Bonn free nucleon-nucleon potential. It turns out that the neutron pairing component of the effective interaction is significantly weaker than the proton one, which accounts for the large pairing gap difference observed in the two-valence identical particle nuclei 134Sn and 134Te. The role of the contribution arising from one particle-one hole excitations in determining the pairing force is discussed and its microscopic structure is also analyzed in terms of the multipole decomposition.

  20. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  1. Adjusted effects of domestic violence, tobacco use, and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuel on child mortality.

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan


    Studies that have separately examined the consequences of gender based violence upon women, use of solid fuel for cooking, and mother and father's use of tobacco on child health have concluded that they serve as risk factors for maternal and child health. Some authors have implied that these studies may have run the risk of overestimating the burden of disease of one factor over another. In this paper, we included all four factors in the same model to estimate their adjusted effects on child mortality, controlling for the demographic factors. The data come from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey of India that interviewed a nationally representative sample of 39,257 couples. Of the four factors, mothers' use of tobacco presented the highest risk for child mortality (OR = 1.42; CI = 1.27-1.60) followed by fathers' use of tobacco (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.12-1.36), households' use of solid fuel for cooking (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.06-1.43), and physical abuse upon mothers (OR = 1.20; CI = 1.10-1.32). Among the households that used solid fuel for cooking, improved cookstoves users experienced 28 % lower odds of child mortality (OR = 0.72; CI = 0.61-0.86) compared to nonusers of improved cookstoves. Additionally, increase in age of mothers at birth of first child, parents' education, and household wealth served as protective factors for child mortality. To prevent child death, programs should focus on reducing couple's use of tobacco, protecting women from physical abuse, and helping households switch from solid to liquid fuel. Moreover, a significant reduction in child death could be attained by improving girls' education, and delaying their age at marriage and first birth.

  2. Effect of Experimentally-Induced Trunk Muscular Tensions on the Sit-to-Stand Task Performance and Associated Postural Adjustments.

    Hamaoui, Alain; Alamini-Rodrigues, Caroline


    It has been shown that increased muscular activity along the trunk is likely to impair body balance, but there is little knowledge about its consequences on more dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral and bilateral increases of muscular tension along the trunk on the sit-to-stand task (STS) performance and associated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Twelve healthy females (23 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0.06 cm, 56 ± 9 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the STS at maximum speed, in seven experimental conditions varying the muscular tension along each side of the trunk, using a specific bimanual compressive load paradigm. A six-channel force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of pressure (CP) along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes, and the kinematics of the head, spine and pelvis, were estimated using three pairs of uni-axial accelerometers. The postural and focal components of the task were assessed using three biomechanical parameters calculated from CP signals: the duration and magnitude of APAs, and the duration of focal movement (dFM). Results showed that beyond a given level, higher muscular tension along the trunk results in longer APAs, but with a stable duration of the focal movement. In addition, no significant variation of APAs and FM parameters was found between bilateral and unilateral increases of muscular tension. It was suggested that restricted mobility due to higher muscular tension along the trunk requires an adaptation of the programming of APAs to keep the same level of performance in the STS task. These findings may have implications in treatment strategies aimed at preserving functional autonomy in pathologies including a rise of muscular tension.

  3. Pre-Post Tornado Effects on Aggressive Children's Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment Through One-Year Postdisaster.

    Lochman, John E; Vernberg, Eric; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jarrett, Matthew; McDonald, Kristina; Qu, Lixin; Hendrickson, Michelle; Kassing, Francesca


    Using a risk-resilience framework, this study examined how varying levels of exposure to a natural disaster (EF-4 tornado) and children's characteristics (sex; anxiety) influenced the behavioral and psychological adjustment of children who shared a common risk factor predisaster (elevated aggression) prior to exposure through 1-year postdisaster. Participants included 360 children in Grades 4-6 (65% male; 78% African American) and their parents from predominantly low-income households who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Fourth-grade children who were screened for overt aggressive behavior were recruited in 3 annual cohorts (120 per year, beginning in 2009). Parent-rated aggression and internalizing problems were assessed prior to the tornado (Wave 1), within a half-year after the tornado (Wave 2), and at a 1-year follow-up (Wave 3). Children and parents rated their exposure to aspects of tornado-related traumatic experiences at Wave 3. Children displayed less reduction on aggression and internalizing problems if the children had experienced distress after the tornado or fears for their life, in combination with their pre-tornado level of anxiety. Higher levels of children's and parents' exposure to the tornado interacted with children's lower baseline child anxiety to predict less reduction in aggression and internalizing problems 1 year after the tornado. Higher levels of disaster exposure negatively affected at-risk children's level of improvement in aggression and internalizing problems, when life threat (parent- and child-reported) and child-reported distress after the tornado were moderated by baseline anxiety.

  4. Effect of Experimentally-Induced Trunk Muscular Tensions on the Sit-to-Stand Task Performance and Associated Postural Adjustments

    Hamaoui, Alain; Alamini-Rodrigues, Caroline


    It has been shown that increased muscular activity along the trunk is likely to impair body balance, but there is little knowledge about its consequences on more dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral and bilateral increases of muscular tension along the trunk on the sit-to-stand task (STS) performance and associated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Twelve healthy females (23 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0.06 cm, 56 ± 9 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the STS at maximum speed, in seven experimental conditions varying the muscular tension along each side of the trunk, using a specific bimanual compressive load paradigm. A six-channel force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of pressure (CP) along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes, and the kinematics of the head, spine and pelvis, were estimated using three pairs of uni-axial accelerometers. The postural and focal components of the task were assessed using three biomechanical parameters calculated from CP signals: the duration and magnitude of APAs, and the duration of focal movement (dFM). Results showed that beyond a given level, higher muscular tension along the trunk results in longer APAs, but with a stable duration of the focal movement. In addition, no significant variation of APAs and FM parameters was found between bilateral and unilateral increases of muscular tension. It was suggested that restricted mobility due to higher muscular tension along the trunk requires an adaptation of the programming of APAs to keep the same level of performance in the STS task. These findings may have implications in treatment strategies aimed at preserving functional autonomy in pathologies including a rise of muscular tension.

  5. Yuan Exchange Rate 'Properly Adjusted'


      The currency exchange rate was "properly adjusted" this year and takes into account effects on the country's neighbors and the world, Premier Wen Jiabao said at a regional meeting in Malaysia.……

  6. Effects of knots on protein folding properties.

    Miguel A Soler

    Full Text Available This work explores the impact of knots, knot depth and motif of the threading terminus in protein folding properties (kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism via extensive Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models. A knotted backbone has no effect on protein thermodynamic stability but it may affect key aspects of folding kinetics. In this regard, we found clear evidence for a functional advantage of knots: knots enhance kinetic stability because a knotted protein unfolds at a distinctively slower rate than its unknotted counterpart. However, an increase in knot deepness does not necessarily lead to more effective changes in folding properties. In this regard, a terminus with a non-trivial conformation (e.g. hairpin can have a more dramatic effect in enhancing kinetic stability than knot depth. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the probability of the denatured ensemble to keep knotted is higher for proteins with deeper knots, indicating that knot depth plays a role in determining the topology of the denatured state. Refolding simulations starting from denatured knotted conformations show that not every knot is able to nucleate folding and further indicate that the formation of the knotting loop is a key event in the folding of knotted trefoils. They also show that there are specific native contacts within the knotted core that are crucial to keep a native knotting loop in denatured conformations which otherwise have no detectable structure. The study of the knotting mechanism reveals that the threading of the knotting loop generally occurs towards late folding in conformations that exhibit a significant degree of structural consolidation.

  7. Effect of bicellar systems on skin properties.

    Barbosa-Barros, L; Barba, C; Cócera, M; Coderch, L; López-Iglesias, C; de la Maza, A; López, O


    Bicelles are discoidal aggregates formed by a flat dimyristoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer, stabilized by a rim of dihexanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC) in water. Given the structure, composition and the dimensions of these aggregates around 10-50 nm diameter, their use for topical applications is a promising strategy. This work evaluates the effect of DMPC/DHPC bicelles with molar ratio (2/1) on intact skin. Biophysical properties of the skin, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity, skin capacitance and irritation were measured in healthy skin in vivo. To study the effect of the bicellar systems on the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro, pieces of native tissue were treated with the aforementioned bicellar system and evaluated by freeze substitution applied to transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM). Our results show that bicelles increase the TEWL, the skin elastic parameters and, decrease skin hydration without promoting local signs of irritation and without affecting the SC lipid microstructure. Thus, a permeabilizing effect of bicelles on the skin takes place possibly due to the changes in the phase behaviour of the SC lipids by effect of phospholipids from bicelles.

  8. Effect of microparticulated whey proteins on milk coagulation properties.

    Sturaro, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; Varotto, A; De Marchi, M


    The enhancement of milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the reuse of whey produced by the dairy industry are of great interest to improve the efficiency of the cheese-making process. Native whey proteins (WP) can be aggregated and denatured to obtain colloidal microparticulated WP (MWP). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MWP on MCP; namely, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition. Six concentrations of MWP (vol/vol; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0%) were added to 3 bulk milk samples (collected and analyzed during 3 d), and a sample without MWP was used as control. Within each day of analysis, 6 replicates of MCP for each treatment were obtained, changing the position of the treatment in the rack. For control samples, 2 replicates per day were performed. In addition to MCP, WP fractions were measured on each treatment during the 3 d of analysis. Milk coagulation properties were measured on 144 samples by using a Formagraph (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). Increasing the amount of MWP added to milk led to a longer RCT. In particular, significant differences were found between RCT of the control samples (13.5 min) and RCT of samples with 3.0% (14.6 min) or more MWP. A similar trend was observed for curd-firming time, which was shortest in the control samples and longest in samples with 9.0% MWP (21.4 min). No significant differences were detected for curd firmness at 30 min across concentrations of MWP. Adjustments in cheese processing should be made when recycling MWP, in particular during the coagulation process, by prolonging the time of rennet activity before cutting the curd.

  9. Effect of cryogel on soil properties

    Altunina, L. K.; Fufaeva, M. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Rozhdestvenskii, E. A.; Gan-Erdene, T.


    Samples from the A1 and A1A2 horizons of sandy loamy gray forest soil containing 3.1% organic matter have been mixed with a 5% solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a ratio of 7 : 1 under laboratory conditions. The samples were frozen at -20°C in a refrigerator; after a freezing-thawing cycle, the evaporation of water from their surface, their thermal conductivity coefficient, their elasticity modulus, and other properties were studied. It has been experimentally found that the thermal conductivity coefficient of cryostructured soil is lower than that of common soil by 25%. It has been shown that the cryostructured soil retains water for a longer time and that the water evaporation rate from its surface is significantly lower compared to the control soil. Cryogel has no negative effect on the catalase activity of soil; it changes the physical properties of soils and positively affects the population of indigenous soil microflora and the growth of the sown plants.

  10. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina


    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  11. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen


    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  12. Exploring the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices and identifying hot spots in Berlin’s residential property market

    Meulen, Philipp an de; Mitze, Timo Friedel


    find that districts’ net in-migration balances are positively correlated with quality-adjusted rental price levels for higher quantiles of the distribution, thereby potentially proxying the price dynamics of underlying gentrification processes. Using statistical tests from the explanatory spatial data...

  13. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Min; Yu, Jian-Can; Qian, Guo-Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua


    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272237, 51272231, and 51010002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2012M520063, 2013T60587, and Bsh1201016).

  14. Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity

    Han, Buhm; Diogo, Dorothée; Eyre, Steve; Kallberg, Henrik; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Padyukov, Leonid; Okada, Yukinori; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K.; Klareskog, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya


    Despite progress in defining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for anti-citrullinated-protein-autoantibody-positive (ACPA+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying HLA alleles for ACPA-negative (ACPA−) RA has been challenging because of clinical heterogeneity within clinical cohorts. We imputed 8,961 classical HLA alleles, amino acids, and SNPs from Immunochip data in a discovery set of 2,406 ACPA− RA case and 13,930 control individuals. We developed a statistical approach to identify and adjust for clinical heterogeneity within ACPA− RA and observed independent associations for serine and leucine at position 11 in HLA-DRβ1 (p = 1.4 × 10−13, odds ratio [OR] = 1.30) and for aspartate at position 9 in HLA-B (p = 2.7 × 10−12, OR = 1.39) within the peptide binding grooves. These amino acid positions induced associations at HLA-DRB1∗03 (encoding serine at 11) and HLA-B∗08 (encoding aspartate at 9). We validated these findings in an independent set of 427 ACPA− case subjects, carefully phenotyped with a highly sensitive ACPA assay, and 1,691 control subjects (HLA-DRβ1 Ser11+Leu11: p = 5.8 × 10−4, OR = 1.28; HLA-B Asp9: p = 2.6 × 10−3, OR = 1.34). Although both amino acid sites drove risk of ACPA+ and ACPA− disease, the effects of individual residues at HLA-DRβ1 position 11 were distinct (p < 2.9 × 10−107). We also identified an association with ACPA+ RA at HLA-A position 77 (p = 2.7 × 10−8, OR = 0.85) in 7,279 ACPA+ RA case and 15,870 control subjects. These results contribute to mounting evidence that ACPA+ and ACPA− RA are genetically distinct and potentially have separate autoantigens contributing to pathogenesis. We expect that our approach might have broad applications in analyzing clinical conditions with heterogeneity at both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC regions. PMID:24656864

  15. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J


    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  16. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Müller, D


    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  17. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah


    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers.

  18. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  19. The effectiveness of cervical adjustment therapy, dry needling of the levator scapulae muscle and the combination of the two in the treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain


    M.Tech. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cervical adjustment therapy, dry needling of the levator scapulae muscle and a combination of the two in the treatment of chronic mechanical neck pain. Forty-five patients were recruited via posters and advertisements from in and around the University of Johannesburg. The participants had to present with bilateral neck pain, decreased range of motion and an active levator scapulae muscles trigger point, which was diagnosed u...

  20. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Sruthi Ravindranathan


    Full Text Available Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA, viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs. Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (<0.01 EU/mg ranging from 20 to 600 cP and 80% to 97% DDA is essentially inert. This study emphasizes the need for more complete characterization and purification of chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application.


    WANG Ya-qin; WANG Ji-hong


    Electric fertilizer, I. E. Exerting electric field on plants during growing season instead of chemical fertilizer, is a kind of physical fertilizer, and the third kind of fertilizer with developmental prospect after inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer. For the purpose of studying the changes of physical and chemical properties of soil after exerting electric field, five treatments with different applications of chemical fertilizer were arranged on the black soil in Yushu City of Jilin Province by randomized block method, and electric field was exerted on plants every ten days during the growing season. Through sample analysis the paper arrives at following conclusions: 1) Exerting electric field can make soil's granular structure increase, bulk density decrease, moisture capacity increase,thus improving the perviousness of soil. 2) Exerting electric field can make microorganism's number increase and activity strengthen, thus activating nutrient and increasing organic matter content. 3) Exerting electric field with 0.1A medium has the best effect. So the chemical fertilizer can be saved. Therefore, we can say that the application of electric fertilizer is favorable for decreasing chemical poison, improving soil, relaxing the contradiction between the supply and demand of chemical fertilizer, and decreasing production cost of agriculture and forestry.

  2. Ultrasonic atomization: effect of liquid phase properties.

    Avvaru, Balasubrahmanyam; Patil, Mohan N; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B


    Experiments have been conducted to understand the mechanism by which the ultrasonic vibration at the gas liquid interface causes the atomization of liquid. For this purpose, aqueous solutions having different viscosities and liquids showing Newtonian (aqueous solution of glycerin) and non-Newtonian behavior (aqueous solution of sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose) were employed. It has been found that the average droplet size produced by the pseudo-plastic liquid is less than that produced by the viscous Newtonian liquid having viscosity equal to zero-shear rate viscosity of the shear thinning liquid. The droplet size was found to increase initially with an increase in the viscosity up to a certain threshold viscosity after which the droplet size was found to decrease again. Also droplet size distribution is found to be more compact (uniform sizes) with an increasing viscosity of the atomizing liquid. The presence of the cavitation and its effect on the atomization has been semi quantitatively confirmed using energy balance and by the measurement of the droplet ejection velocities and validated on the basis of the decomposition of the aqueous KI solution. A correlation has been proposed for the prediction of droplet size for aqueous Newtonian fluids and fluids showing non-Newtonian behavior based on the dimensionless numbers incorporating the operating parameters of the ultrasonic atomizer and the liquid phase physico-chemical properties.

  3. 试论生物对环境的调节作用%Adjusting Effect of the Organism on Environment

    李堃宝; 童耕雷; 郑雪松


    The natural biological community not disturbed by human is the only means to maintain the local and global environment adaptable for living activities.The stability of the global climate is just based on the adjusting function of the natural biological community which is determined by genome of the composite species.Developing and transforming the community by man may lead to the chromosome distortion and gene deficiency.Once the disturbance toward the community ceases,the biological community will restore the environment to a state adaptable for its existence.


    Andrzej Skrzat


    Full Text Available The determination of effective mechanical properties of multi-layer composite is presented in this paper. Computations based on finite element method predicting properties of inhomogeneous materials require solving huge tasks. More effective is Mori-Tanaka approach, typical for micromechanics problems. For regularly distributed fibers closed-forms for effective composite material properties are possible to derive. The results of homogenization are used in strength analysis of the composite pressure vessel.

  5. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    Flor-Serra Ferran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit, dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs, co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others, referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants. The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50. The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights and synthetic (by centre and physician indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000 will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression

  6. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia


    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  7. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron


    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  8. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan


    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  9. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.


    ... changeover date by the taxpayer or a predecessor and shall, with respect to both the asset and reserve... amount which bears the same ratio to the adjustment as the unadjusted basis of the property so held bears... 1956 adjustment date. (c) Adjustment for part of terms-letter reserve applicable to property...

  10. Explorations of Crystalline Effects on 4-(Benzyloxy)Benzaldehyde Properties

    Harismah, Kun; Ozkendir, O. Murat; Mirzaei, Mahmoud


    The properties of 4-(benzyloxy)benzaldehyde (BBA), as a pharmaceutically important compound, have been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of original crystalline and optimised gaseous structures have been evaluated to recognise the crystalline effects. In addition to the structural properties, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have also been evaluated for both investigated systems to better detect the effects in atomic levels. The results indicated that the structural shape of BBA is significantly changed in the optimised gaseous system, showing significant crystalline effects on the geometrical positions. Moreover, the magnitudes for energies and dipole moments indicate notable effects on the electronic properties. The evaluated NMR properties also show that the atoms of aromatic systems detect significant changes more than the atoms of aliphatic systems in the investigated BBA. And finally, the oxygen bridge atom plays a dominant role in combining two benzene rings of BBA.

  11. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia


    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  12. Adjusting to the Emergent

    Revsbæk, Line

    In her doctoral thesis Line Revsbaek explores newcomer innovation related to organizational entry processes in a changing organization. She introduces process philosophy and complexity theory to research on organizational socialization and newcomer innovation. The study challenges assumptions...... in standardized induction programs where newcomers are cast in roles as insecure novices needing to be “taught the ropes” of the organizational culture. Linked with this, it is suggested that the prevailing dichotomy of ‘newcomer assimilation’ versus ‘organizational accommodation’ is replaced with a notion...... of ‘adjusting to the emergent’. Newcomer innovation is portrayed as carrying a variety of possible significations, such as unintentional innovation effects of newcomer’s proactive self-socializing behavior; an inspirational basis for designing innovation-generating employee induction; ‘resonant instances...

  13. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends.

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi


    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers.

  14. Frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of porous materials

    Peijun Wei; Zhuping Huang


    The frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties (phase velocity, attenuation and elastic modulus) of porous materials are studied numerically. The coherent plane longitudinal and shear wave equations, which are obtained by averaging on the multiple scattering fields, are used to evaluate the frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of a porous material. It is found that the prediction of the dynamic effective properties includes the size effects of voids which are not included in most prediction of the traditional static effective properties. The prediction of the dynamic effective elastic modulus at a relatively low frequency range is compared with that of the traditional static effective elastic modulus, and the dynamic effective elastic modulus is found to be very close to the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound.

  15. The effect of demagnetization on the magnetocaloric properties of gadolinium

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein


    Gadolinium displays a strong magnetocaloric effect at temperatures close to room temperature making it useful in the field of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. We discuss the importance of including the effects of the demagnetization field when considering the magnetocaloric properties...

  16. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    Rosfjord, T. J.


    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  17. Piezo-phototronic effect on electroluminescence properties of p-type GaN thin films.

    Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Long; Ding, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Zhong Lin


    We present that the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Mg-doped p-type GaN thin films can be tuned by the piezo-phototronic effect via adjusting the minority carrier injection efficiency at the metal-semiconductor (M-S) interface by strain induced polarization charges. The device is a metal-semiconductor-metal structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)-GaN-ITO. Under different straining conditions, the changing trend of the transport properties of GaN films can be divided into two types, corresponding to the different c-axis orientations of the films. An extreme value was observed for the integral EL intensity under certain applied strain due to the adjusted minority carrier injection efficiency by piezoelectric charges introduced at the M-S interface. The external quantum efficiency of the blue EL at 430 nm was changed by 5.84% under different straining conditions, which is 1 order of magnitude larger than the change of the green peak at 540 nm. The results indicate that the piezo-phototronic effect has a larger impact on the shallow acceptor states related EL process than on the one related to the deep acceptor states in p-type GaN films. This study has great significance on the practical applications of GaN in optoelectronic devices under a working environment where mechanical deformation is unavoidable such as for flexible/printable light emitting diodes.

  18. The effect of milkfat melting properties on chemical and physical properties of 20% reformulated cream

    Scott, Lisa Lenore


    The Effect of Milkfat Melting Properties on Chemical and Physical Properties of 20% Reformulated Cream Lisa L. Scott (ABSTRACT) Skim, sweet buttermilk, and butter derived aqueous phase components were used to re-emulsify low-melt and medium-melt fraction butteroils to yield 20% milkfat creams. The implications of separation temperature in obtaining components, melting point characteristics, and formulation on the chemical and physical properties of reformulated and natural crea...

  19. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation

    Sophia Haussener


    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium.

  20. Effects of Sports on College Students’ Mental Adjustment%体育运动项目对大学生的心理调节作用



      联合采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)对我国大学生心理健康状况进行调查,通过分析不同心理问题大学生对不同体育项目调节作用的认知状况,探索新时期大学生心理健康教育工作中与体育锻炼融合的心理干预途径和方法,研究结果表明:不同心理问题的大学生对运动项目的心理健康调节作用认知状况不同,进行心理干预时应结合运动项目自身独特的心理调节作用给予区别对待。%  This paper, by using the symptom checklist, 90 (SCL-90), based on the survey of college students’ mental health in China and the analysis of the cognition of college students with different mental problems about the effects of sports on their mental adjustment, explores the approaches and ways of mental intervention which integrate physical exercise with mental health education. Results show that college students with different mental problems have different cognition of the effects of sports on their mental adjustment; therefore, different measures should be taken in mental intervention according to the unique effects of sports items on students’ mental adjustment.

  1. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G


    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  2. Benchmarking judgmentally adjusted forecasts

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); L.P. de Bruijn (Bert)


    markdownabstractMany publicly available macroeconomic forecasts are judgmentally-adjusted model-based forecasts. In practice usually only a single final forecast is available, and not the underlying econometric model, nor are the size and reason for adjustment known. Hence, the relative weights give



    An adjustable microchip holder for holding a microchip is provided having a plurality of displaceable interconnection pads for connecting the connection holes of a microchip with one or more external devices or equipment. The adjustable microchip holder can fit different sizes of microchips...

  4. The effects of yttrium on the hydrogenation performance and surface properties of a ruthenium-supported catalyst



    Full Text Available The effects of yttrium on the hydrogenation performance and surface properties of a Ru/sepiolite catalyst were studied. With CO2 methanation and CS2 poisoning as the testing reactons, TPR, TPD, XRD and CO chemisorption as the characterizations, the results showed that the presence of yttrium can increase the hydrogenation activity and anti-poisoning capacity of the Ru/sepiolite catalyst, which is due to a change of surface properties of the Ru/sepiolite. In the process of the catalytic reaction, the adjusting behavior of yttrium for the Ru/sepiolite catalyst aids in increasing the catalytic activity and anti-poisoning capacity of the catalyst.

  5. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa


    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  6. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari


    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls.

  7. Analytical properties of the effective refractive index

    Puzko, R. S.; Merzlikin, A. M.


    The propagation of a plane wave through a periodic layered system is considered in terms of the effective parameters. The problem of introduction of effective parameters is discussed. It was demonstrated that although the effective admittance cannot be introduced, it is possible to introduce the effective refractive index, which tends toward the Rytov value when the system size increases. It was shown that the effective wave vector derivative is an analytical function of frequency. In particular, the Kramers-Kronig-like relations for real and imaginary parts of the effective wave vector derivative were obtained. The Kramers-Kronig-like relations for the effective refractive index were also considered. The results obtained numerically were proved by exact solution of Maxwell's equations in the specific case of an "equi-impedance" system.

  8. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    D. Morgan Tench


    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  9. Effects of Ultrasonic Treatment on Residue Properties

    Sun Yudong; Zhang Qiang; Shi Honghong; Wang Xue; Liu Bo


    The changes in properties and structural parameters of four vacuum residue samples before and after ultrasonic treatment were analyzed. Ultrasonic treatment could increase the carbon residue value, decrease the average molecular weight and viscosity, which can barely inlfuence the density of vacuum residue. Meanwhile the constitution of residue can be varied including the decrease in the content of saturates, aromatics and asphaltenes, while the increase in the content of resins can lead to an increase in the total content of asphaltenes and resins. Among the four kinds of residue samples, there is a common trend that the more the content of asphaltenes in feedstock is, the more the increase in the content of resins, the more signiifcant decrease in the aromatic content and the less decrease in the saturates content after ultrasonic treatment of residue would be. Changes in the structure and content of asphaltenes caused by ultrasonic treatment have a signiifcant impact on the changes in residue properties. Ultrasonic treatment has changed the structural parameters of residue such as decrease in the total carbon number of average molecule (CTotal), the total number of rings (RT), the aromatic carbon number (CA),the aromatic rings number (RA) and the naphthenic rings number (RN) , and increase of characterization factor (KH). The study has indicated that ultrasonic treatment of vacuum residue can change the average structure of residue, and the changes in the content and structure of asphaltenes are the main cause leading to property changes. The results of residue hydrotreat-ing revealed that coke yield decreased, whereas the gas and light oil yield and conversion increased after ultrasonic treat-ment of vacuum residue.

  10. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG


    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  11. 种植结构调整对区域水循环的影响分析%Effect of planting structure adjustment on water cycle

    张金萍; 裴源生; 郭兵托; 赵勇


    process: the strength of water cycle is weakened; the groundwater table is declined, the water - drawing and drainage consumption is also decreased. In the plain area of Ningxia municipality, the Yellow River is the main water source for agriculture irrigation, the Yellow River water consumption is occupied by above 75% in the whole water use. The planting structure adjustment will cause the reduce of the Yellow River water consumption for nature ecosystem; (2) the different planting structure adjustment has a different effect on water consumption: when the paddy planting area decreases, the soil evaporation and the crop transpiration separately reduce by 0. 19 × 108 m3 and 0.82 × 108 m3, while the intercrop area decreases, the decrements of evaporation and transpiration are 1.18 × l08 m3 and 0. 16 × 108 m3; (3) the planting structure adjustment has an important effect on water consumption of ecosystem: when the paddy area decreased by 0.6 million mu, low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption separately reduce 0.2 × 108 m3 and 0.03 × 108 m3, while the intercrop area decreased by 0.6 million mu, low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption separately reduce 0.21 × 108 m3 and 0.05 × 108 m3; (4) low efficient water consumption and high efficient water consumption of the whole region are all reduced, but low efficient water consumption also plays the important role. From the mentioned above, regardless of the regional water cycle process and the water consumption change, the planting structure adjustment also has a great effect on them. Meanwhile, compared with other engineering measures, the planting structure adjustment has the characteristics of time-saving and labour-saving, which make it become an important development aspect to iraprove the water use efficiency.

  12. The hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cation current (In ) adjusts the membrane properties, excitability, and activity pattern of the giant cells in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Rusznák, Zoltán; Pál, Balázs; Kőszeghy, Aron; Fu, Yuhong; Szücs, Géza; Paxinos, George


    Giant cells of the cochlear nucleus are thought to integrate multimodal sensory inputs and participate in monaural sound source localization. Our aim was to explore the significance of a hyperpolarization-activated current in determining the activity of giant neurones in slices prepared from 10 to 14-day-old rats. When subjected to hyperpolarizing stimuli, giant cells produced a 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride (ZD7288)-sensitive inward current with a reversal potential and half-activation voltage of -36 and -88 mV, respectively. Consequently, the current was identified as the hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cationic current (Ih ). At the resting membrane potential, 3.5% of the maximum Ih conductance was available. Immunohistochemistry experiments suggested that hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, cation non-selective (HCN)1, HCN2, and HCN4 subunits contribute to the assembly of the functional channels. Inhibition of Ih hyperpolarized the membrane by 6 mV and impeded spontaneous firing. The frequencies of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents reaching the giant cell bodies were reduced but no significant change was observed when evoked postsynaptic currents were recorded. Giant cells are affected by biphasic postsynaptic currents consisting of an excitatory and a subsequent inhibitory component. Inhibition of Ih reduced the frequency of these biphasic events by 65% and increased the decay time constants of the inhibitory component. We conclude that Ih adjusts the resting membrane potential, contributes to spontaneous action potential firing, and may participate in the dendritic integration of the synaptic inputs of the giant neurones. Because its amplitude was higher in young than in adult rats, Ih of the giant cells may be especially important during the postnatal maturation of the auditory system.

  13. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.


    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  14. Detecting effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Ho, Shirley; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freeman, Peter E.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wasserman, Larry


    We study the effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 using filaments from the 'Cosmic Web Reconstruction' catalogue, a publicly available filament catalogue for SDSS. Since filaments are tracers of medium- to high-density regions, we expect that galaxy properties associated with the environment are dependent on the distance to the nearest filament. Our analysis demonstrates that a red galaxy or a high-mass galaxy tends to reside closer to filaments than a blue or low-mass galaxy. After adjusting the effect from stellar mass, on average, early-forming galaxies or large galaxies have a shorter distance to filaments than late-forming galaxies or small galaxies. For the main galaxy sample, all signals are very significant (>6σ). For the LOWZ and CMASS sample, the stellar mass and size are significant (>2σ). The filament effects we observe persist until z = 0.7 (the edge of the CMASS sample). Comparing our results to those using the galaxy distances from redMaPPer galaxy clusters as a reference, we find a similar result between filaments and clusters. Moreover, we find that the effect of clusters on the stellar mass of nearby galaxies depends on the galaxy's filamentary environment. Our findings illustrate the strong correlation of galaxy properties with proximity to density ridges, strongly supporting the claim that density ridges are good tracers of filaments.

  15. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  16. Relative contribution of effects included in contemporary groups for adjusted and actual 120-day and 210-day weights in Nelore cattle in Brazil

    Lillian Pascoa


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to estimate the relative magnitude of effects included in contemporary groups (CG and their interactions with adjusted and actual 120 d and 210 d weights in 72, 731 male and female Nelore calves born from 1985 to 2005 in 40 herds from PMGRN (Genetic Improvement Program of Nelore. Ten models with different CG structures were compared. The analyses were done using the general linear models (GLM procedure run in SAS software. All of the effects included in the CG for each model were significant (p < 0.001 for the four traits analyzed. Inclusion of semester or trimester of birth as part of a CG was more appropriate than its use as an independent effect in the model because it accounted for interactions with the other effects in the CG. Calf sex (CS and dam age at calving (DAC had similar effects across the models, which suggested independence from other effects in these models. The corresponding age deviation effect had a larger impact on actual weight at 120 d than any other effect in all of the models tested. The use of actual weights in models with no CS effect in CG provides an alternative that would allow better genetic connectedness among CGs and greater accuracy in genetic evaluations.

  17. A Profile of Border Protection in Egypt : An Effective Rate of Protection Approach Adjusting for Energy Subsidies

    Valdes, Alberto; Foster, William


    This study examines recent effective rates of protection across the Egyptian economy, using an ad valorem price wedge introduced by nontariff barriers and energy subsidies, and compares today's effective rates of protection with those of a decade ago. The study uses 23 aggregated sectors from input-output matrix information. Although trade liberalization since the late-1990s has had a cons...

  18. Effect of Tocopherol on Antioxygenic Properties of Green Lubricating Oil

    XIAO Zhixin; SHI Chen; MAO Daheng


    Based on the needs of green motor oil, and in order to improve the antioxidation properties of green lubricating oil, the effect of tocopherol antioxidation properties of rapeseed oil was studied. Experiments of high temperature oxidation, antiwear and infra-red spectrum analysis were accomplished, the results show that the rapeseed oil including tocopherol can still keeps steady structure after high temperature oxidation, with a small variety of acid number, whose antioxygenic properties are improved evidently. Meanwhile, both thiocarbamate and vitamin C play an assistant role in tocopherol, which can make rapeseed oil to have better oxidation stability and keep excellent antiwear properties after high temperature oxidation.

  19. Couple-Focused Prevention at the Transition to Parenthood, a Randomized Trial: Effects on Coparenting, Parenting, Family Violence, and Parent and Child Adjustment.

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B


    The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk.

  20. Effects of vacation properties on local education budgets

    Jason Giersch


    Full Text Available Residents of school districts with large percentages of vacation properties have the opportunity to export a portion of their school taxes onto the owners of those vacation properties. Those property owners are unlikely to consume educational services or have the opportunity to vote against local school taxes. Previous studies address exportation of taxes onto vacation property owners and the effects on local government budgets generally but not on education finances specifically. This study connects research on rates of vacation properties with that on local education finances by using data from the state of Georgia in 2010 and weighted least squares regression analysis to show that high percentages of vacation properties do indeed result in larger local school expenditures.

  1. Family Adjustment to Aphasia

    ... Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Family Adjustment to Aphasia Richard S. was a senior manager ... It also presents a great challenge to the family. There may be tension among family members and ...

  2. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.


    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  3. 可调压分流管在脑积水治疗中的应用效果%Effectiveness of adjustable shunt valve in treatment of hydrocephalus

    韩志桐; 苏宁; 张瑞剑


    Objective To explore the clinical effect of adjustable shunt valve for hydrocephalus. Methods 40 patients with hydrocephalus and performed ventricle-peritoneal shunt (VPS) in our hospital from April 2009 to April 2014 were selected,20 cases were given with adjustable shunt valve (experiment group),20 cases were performed with dinary shunt valves (control group).The treatment effect of two groups was analyzed and compared. Results The effective rate of ex-periment group was 90% (18/20),higher than 75% (15/20) of the control group,the difference was significant (P<0.05). The incidence of complications of experiment group was 10%(2/20),lower than 30%(6/20) of the control group,the dif-ference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion the effect of the pressure adjustable valve is better than the ordinary valve’s.%目的:探讨可调压分流管在脑积水治疗中的应用效果。方法对本院2009年4月~2014年4月收治的40例脑积水患者行脑室-腹腔分流术,其中20例患者采用可调压分流管(实验组),20例患者采用固定压力分流管(对照组),观察并比较两组的疗效。结果实验组患者术后有效率为90%(18/20),高于对照组的75%(15/20),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组患者的并发症发生率为10%,低于对照组的30%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用可调压分流管行脑室-腹腔分流术的分流效果优于传统定压式分流管。

  4. 塞曼效应实验仪器快速调试原则%The Speedy Adjustment Principle of Zeeman Effect Experiment



    提出在塞曼效应实验仪器快速调试中,要掌握在一定的仪器顺序不变,光学元件紧靠在一起并且相对位置不变的条件下,将摄像头三个旋钮从有连线的一端观看逆时针旋到底的粗调原则,才能快速调试实验所需干涉圆环.%As is mentioned in the paper, it needs to master a certain order of instruments in the process of adjusting devices of Zeeman Effect at a high speed. Only when the components of optics are closely related to each other and keep in a constantly relative position, can the principle of rough adjustment test the needed intervening ring by watching through the camera with three line -linked buttons anticlockwise.

  5. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    Anderson, Walter L.


    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  6. Phonemic Analysis: Effects of Word Properties.

    Schreuder, Robert; van Bon, Wim H. J.

    The phonemic effects of word length, consonant-vowel structure, syllable structure, and meaning on word segmentation were investigated in two experiments with young children. The decentration hypothesis, which predicts that children who habitually direct their attention to word meaning would concentrate better at analyzing a spoken form without…

  7. Effects of Salt Stress on Proline Accumulation in Relation to Osmotic Adjustment in the Seedling of Elymus Dahuricus Turcz



    We investigated the effects of salt stress on proline accumulation in the seedling of Elymus dahuricus Turcz. from two different geographic regions in order to explicit various adaptability in response to salt stress condition. Plants were dealt with in five salt treatments (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%). Significant differences were obvious at the highest salinity treatments for almost each considered parameters. Given that proline concentration is closely related to salt tolerance, we found that G2 seemed to be more tolerant. Furthermore, the proline concentration might be exploited as a dependable measure for evaluating the effect of considering regional factors on salt tolerance.

  8. Developmental Model Using Gestalt-Play versus Cognitive-Verbal Group with Chinese Adolescents: Effects on Strengths and Adjustment Enhancement

    Shen, Yih-Jiun


    This study compared the effectiveness of short-term developmental group counseling applying Gestalt-play versus cognitive-verbal approaches with Taiwanese adolescents. On a measure of behavioral and emotional strengths, teachers reported significant changes in students' overall behavioral and emotional strengths measured via total scores. Specific…

  9. Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Adjustment Moderated by Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Activity: Within- and between-Family Risk

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David


    Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA…

  10. Red emission of additional Pr³⁺ and adjusting effect of additional Mg²⁺ in Ca₃Sc₂Si₃O₁₂:Ce³⁺, Mn²⁺ phosphor.

    Qiao, Jun; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhang, Xia; Hao, Zhendong; Liu, Yongfu; Pan, Guohui


    In this Letter, we report the addition of Pr3+ and Mg2+ in CSS:Ce3+, Mn2+ phosphor for improving the performances of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The additional trivalent Pr3+ will occupy the Ca2+ site in this host like the situation of Ce3+, its concentration can be enhanced by the addition of Mg2+ in Sc3+ site due to the substitution of Mg2+ for Sc3+ can compensate the charge mismatch between Pr3+ and Ca2+. Based on the efficient Ce3+→Pr3+ and Mn2+→Pr3+ energy transfers (ETs) and the compensation effect of Mg2+, the additional Pr3+ in our present phosphors exhibits an intense red-emission around 610 nm, which is significant for enhancing the color rendering property. In addition, we also find that the additional Mg2+ in Sc3+ site can markedly adjust the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shape of our phosphor by controlling the distribution of Mn2+ at Ca2+ and Sc3+ sites. A new tunable full-color emission is obtained via the ETs (Ce3+→Mn2+, Ce3+→Pr3+ and Mn2+→Pr3+) and the adjusting effect of Mg2+ in our present phosphors. Finally, a white LED with higher color rendering index of 90, lower correlated color temperature of 4980 K, and chromaticity coordinates of (0.34, 0.31) was obtained by combining the single CSS:0.08Ce3+, 0.01Pr3+, 0.3Mn2+, 0.2Mg2+ phosphor with a blue-emitting InGaN LED chip.

  11. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan


    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature.

  12. Use of Computational Matrix Adjustment to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Common Influenza Vaccines against the Emergence of Drift Variants

    Jennifer Tram


    Full Text Available Every year the FDA issues a recommendation for the composition of the year’s common influenza vaccine for influenzas A and B. The FDA can consistently predict the dominance of a particular strand of influenza virus by taking into account previous years’ antigenic characterization percentages. However, the sudden disappearance of dominant antigens and the sudden emergence of drift variants can disrupt this pattern, which questions the effectiveness of that year’s vaccine. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool was used to compare the protein sequences for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase between the strands in the vaccine and the dominant viral strands. This study examined the effectiveness of vaccines from 2000 to 2012, focusing on the transitions between the B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineages and A/New Caledonia and A/California lineages (H1N1. Between the years 2005 and 2006, dominance of the B/Yamagata lineage, represented by B/Shanghai/361/2002, disappeared almost entirely. For the 2005-2006 flu season, the CDC recommended a B/Shanghai/361/2002 vaccine which expressed a 98% identity to the dominant influenza B hemagglutinin sequence and a 97% identity to the dominant neuraminidase sequence. From 2007 to 2008, the A/New Caledonia virus declined to 34% of cases while the A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 virus increased to 66%. The A/New Caledonia/20/99 vaccine effectively expressed a 97% identity to the hemagglutinin sequence of A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 strand and a 98% identity to the neuraminidase sequence. This study demonstrates that from 2000 to 2012, despite drift variants in influenza viruses, the CDC-recommended vaccine effectively matches the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase protein sequences of the dominant viruses.

  13. Self-adjusted elastic action and its CBM pool-forming effect of the high rank coal reservoir

    QIN Yong; FU Xuehai; WU Caifang; FU Guoyou; BU Yingying


    The coal reservoir is a kind of geologic body with considerable elasticity, and its response to stress is more sensitive than the routine ones. In the pool-forming process of the coalbed methane, (CBM) the action of many external geodynamic factors in the coal reservoir is represented by the ability of CBM's diffusion and migration in the coal reservoir.Therefore, the occurrence of the natural fissures in the coal reservoir becomes a key that determines whether the CBM pool can be formed or not. Based on the principle, the authors have designed a comprehensive method of physical modeling to study the elasticity of the coal matrix block with different coal ranks in the light of the solid to fluid coupling,have established the model of the volume deformation (selfadjusted elastic effect) of the coal reservoir under the condition of the effective stress-adsorption/desorption, and have obtained a correct understanding of the law of the elastic deformation. Afterwards, a new viewpoint, named as the self-closing elastic effect for forming the CBM pool in the high rank reservoir, is put forward, providing an initial point and a scientific basis for a further investigation into its dynamic factors, possible mechanism and role in the CBM energy-balancing system.

  14. The Effect of Overconfidence and Experience on Belief Adjustment Model in Investment Judgement (P.39-47

    Luciana Spica Almilia


    Full Text Available This study examines the effect overconfidence and experience on increasing or reducing the information order effect in investment decision making. Subject criteria in this research are: professional investor (who having knowledge and experience in the field of investment and stock market and nonprofessional investor (who having knowledge in the field of investment and stock market. Based on the subject criteria, then subjects in this research include: accounting students, capital market and investor. This research is using experimental method of 2 x 2 (between subjects. The researcher in conducting this experimental research is using web based. The characteristic of individual (high confidence and low confidence is measured by calibration test. Independent variable used in this research consist of 2 active independent variables (manipulated which are as the followings: (1 Pattern of information presentation (step by step and end of sequence; and (2 Presentation order (good news – bad news or bad news – good news. Dependent variable in this research is a revision of investment decision done by research subject. Participants in this study were 78 nonprofessional investor and 48 professional investors. The research result is consistent with that predicted that individuals who have a high level of confidence that will tend to ignore the information available, the impact on individuals with a high level of confidence will be spared from the effects of the information sequence. Keywords: step by step, end of sequence, investment judgement, overconfidence, experimental method

  15. Adjustment of the Internal Tax Scale


    In application of Article R V 2.03 of the Staff Regulations, the internal tax scale has been adjusted with effect on 1 January 2012. The new scale may be consulted via the CERN Admin e-guide.  The notification of internal annual tax certificate for the financial year 2012 takes into account this adjustment. HR Department (Tel. 73907)

  16. Switching the direction of spin accumulation in the spin Hall effect of light by adjusting the optical axis of an uniaxial crystal

    Tang Ming; Zhou Xin-Xing; Xiao Zhi-Cheng; Luo Hai-Lu; Wen Shuang-Chun


    We theoretically and experimentally investigate a switchable spin Hall effect (SHE) of light in reflection near the Brewster angle at an air-uniaxial crystal interface.We find a large transverse spin splitting near the Brewster angle,whose sign can be altered by rotating the optical axis.As an analogy of the SHE in an electronic system,a switchable spin accumulation in the SHE of light is detected.We are able to switch the direction of the spin accumulation by adjusting the optical axis angle of the uniaxial crystal.These findings may give opportunities for photon spin manipulating and developing a new generation of nano-photonic devices.

  17. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students.

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Lumley, Mark A


    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions-expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)-had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women's physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students.

  18. Properties of Strange Matter in a Model with Effective Lagrangian

    WANG Ping; SU Ru-Keng; SONG Hong-Qiu; ZHANG Li-Liang


    The strange hadronic matter with nucleons, A-hyperons and E-hyperons is studied by using an effective nuclear model in a mean-field approximation. The density and strangeness fraction dependence of the effective baryon masses as well as the saturation properties and stabilities of the strange hadronic matter are discussed.``

  19. Effects of titanium coating on property of diamond


    The titanium film was coated on the surface of diamond crystal in order to improve the chemical properties of diamond and the effect of titanium coating on the property of diamond was discussed. The anti-impacting strength, the oxidization process and the soakage property between vitrified bond and diamond were investigated. It is found that, when the titanium film is coated on the surface of diamond crystal, the soakage angle between vitrified bond and diamond decreases from 39.5° to 34.5° at 993 K, and the oxidization degree on the surface of diamonds is lowered greatly.


    Liying Qian; Xiangmin Wang; Beihai He; Guanglei Zhao


    In this paper, modal colloidal substances (MCS)were employed to study the effects of in-process colloid on the properties of newsprint. The adsorption of MCS on fibers and optical and physical properties of newsprint were both investigated with and without retention systems including agglomerating agent and flocculent. Results showed that MCS could be absorbed on the fibers without retention system, and retention systems could promote the MCS retention efficiency while the physical properties of sheets was affected by blocking the formation of hydrogen bonding between fibers and the surface tension of water and density of paper decreased


    LiyingQian; XiangminWang; BeihaiHe; GuangleiZhao


    In this paper, modal colloidal substances (MCS)were employed to study the effects of in-process colloid on the properties of newsprint. The adsorption ofMCS on fibers and optical and physical properties ofnewsprint were both investigated with and withoutretention systems including agglomerating agent andflocculent. Results showed that MCS could be absorbed on the fibers without retention system, and retention systems could promote the MCS retention efficiency while the physical properties of sheets wasaffected by blocking the formation of hydrogen bonding between fibers and the surface tension ofwater and density of paper decreased

  2. Studying laser radiation effect on steel structure and properties

    А. М. Gazaliyev


    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of laser radiation on the structure and properties of annealed and tempered steel with different content of carbon. For surface hardening there was used a laser complex equipped with Nd: YAG pulse laser with power density up to 30 kW/сm2. As a result of the carried-out studies there were calculated characteristics of laser, steel microstructure and properties.

  3. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury

    Ashraf S. Gorgey, MPT, PhD, FACSM


    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively] on oxygen uptake, cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI. A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative oxygen uptake or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 than in P200 (p = 0.07, whereas recovery oxygen uptake was 23% greater in P350 than in P200 (p = 0.03. There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001 and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001 FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative oxygen uptake or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery oxygen updake and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling.

  4. Effects of deposition parameters on the properties of VO2 thin films

    WANG Lixia; LI Jianping; GAO Xiaoguang; HE Xiuli


    The vanadium oxide thin films are deposited for microbolometers by radio frequency reactive sputtering method at room temperature. The effects of the oxygen partial pressure on the deposition rate, electrical properties and compositions of the films are discussed. The as-deposited VOx thin films with x value of nearly 2 are deposited by adjusting the oxygen partial pressure. After oxidation annealing of these films in air, the VO2 films with high temperature coefficients of resistivity (about - 49%/℃ ) and low resistivity can be obtained. The square resistances of the films are in the range of 100 kΩ/squ-300 kΩ/squ. All films are deposited at room temperature and annealed at 400℃, in which the compatibility between VOx deposition process and MEMS (micro electromechanical systems) is greatly improved.

  5. Effective electromechanical properties of cellular piezoelectret: A review

    Yong-Ping Wan; Zheng Zhong


    Due to the large quasi-piezoelectric d33 coefficient in the film thickness direction,cellular piezoelectret has emerged as a new kind of compliant electromechanical transducer materials.The macroscopic piezoelectric effect of cellular piezoelectret is closely related to the void microstructures as well as the material constants of host polymer.Complex void microstructures are usually encountered in the optimum design of cellular piezoelectret polymer film with advanced piezoelectric properties.Analysis of the effective electromechanical properties is generally needed.This article presents an overview of the recent progress on theoretical models and numerical simulation for the effective electromechanical properties of cellular piezoelectret.Emphasis is placed on our own works of cellular piezoelectret published in past several years.

  6. Auto Adjusting Astronomical Telescope

    Rohit R. Ghalsasi


    Full Text Available Astronomical telescope is powerful and basic tool for star or celestial observation. Here we proposed integrated system using Raspberry Pi for auto adjusting astronomical telescope. This integrated circuit helps to control stellar monitoring, stellar targeting, and tracking functions of telescope. Astro compass gives the direction of the celestial objects.

  7. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  8. Sustainable urban regime adjustments

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Jensen, Jens Stissing; Elle, Morten;


    The endogenous agency that urban governments increasingly portray by making conscious and planned efforts to adjust the regimes they operate within is currently not well captured in transition studies. There is a need to acknowledge the ambiguity of regime enactment at the urban scale. This direc...

  9. Detecting Effects of Filaments on Galaxy Properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A; Brownstein, Joel R; Freeman, Peter E; Genovese, Christopher R; Schneider, Donald P; Wasserman, Larry


    We study the effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 using filaments from the `Cosmic Web Reconstruction' catalogue (Chen et al. 2015a), a publicly available filament catalogue for SDSS. Since filaments are tracers of medium-to-high density regions, we expect that galaxy properties associated with the environment are dependent on the distance to the nearest filament. Our analysis demonstrates a red galaxy or a high-mass galaxy tend to reside closer to filaments than a blue or low-mass galaxy. After adjusting the effect from stellar mass, on average, late-forming galaxies or large galaxies have a shorter distance to filaments than early-forming galaxies or small galaxies. For the Main galaxy sample, all signals are very significant ($> 5\\sigma$). For the LOWZ and CMASS samples, most of the signals are significant (with $> 3\\sigma$). The filament effects we observe persist until z = 0.7 (the edge of the CMASS sample). Comparing our results to those using ...

  10. Cardiovascular effects of statins, beyond lipid-lowering properties.

    Mihos, Christos G; Pineda, Andres M; Santana, Orlando


    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, better known as 'statins', are amongst the most widely used medications in the world. They have become a pivotal component in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery and vascular disease. However, a growing amount of evidence has suggested that statins also possess strong pleiotropic effects irrespective of their lipid-lowering properties, which include enhancement of endothelial function, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherothrombotic properties, and immunomodulation. The following provides a comprehensive and updated review of the clinical evidence regarding the pleiotropic effects of statins in cardiovascular disorders and their potential therapeutic benefits.

  11. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecast over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Tang, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.; Lin, C. Y.; Xin, J. Y.; Song, T.; Hu, B.


    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been validated as an efficient approach for improving ozone forecasts. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over Beijing and surrounding regions during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed during the application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecast over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs was noticed during the night and the morning vs. significant deterioration of the forecasts during daytime with 190 % increase of the RMSEs, suggesting the negative DA impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method, as a further investigation, confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. An improvement of the NOx emission estimation was obtained from the cross-variable assimilation under relatively small errors in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime, while deterioration of the NOx emission estimation was found under large biases in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime. However, the cross-variable assimilation improved the NOx emission estimations during the night and the morning even with large biases in the prior estimations. The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable assimilation, i.e., positive DA impacts on NO2 forecast over some urban sites, negative DA impacts over the other urban sites and weak DA

  12. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, ZiFa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, JinYuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo


    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed through application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in the real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecasts over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts (with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs) was noticed at night and in the morning versus significant deterioration during daytime (with 190 % increase of the RMSEs), suggesting that the negative data assimilation impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal-data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. In the same way, NOx emission estimation was improved at night and in the morning even under large biases in the prior emission, while it deteriorated during daytime (except for the case of minor errors in the prior emission). The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable data assimilation, i.e., positive data assimilation impacts on NO2 forecasts over some urban sites, negative data assimilation impacts over the other urban sites, and weak data assimilation impacts over suburban sites, highlighted the limitations of the EnKF under strong nonlinear relationships between chemical variables. Under strong nonlinearity between daytime ozone concentrations and NOx emissions

  13. The Effectiveness of Training in Communicative Skills Training with A Cognitive – Behaviorist Approach on Spouses ’Marital Adjustment and the Prevention of Addicts from Relapsing in Male Addicts in Isfahan


    Findings: The result showed that training in communicative skills with a cognitive-behaviorist approach influences positively general adjustment. No positive effect was noticed in marital satisfaction and mutual correlation factors. There is positive effect of training skills on mutual agreement and love expression factors. Furthermore, the prevention of addicts from relapsing in male addicts, the number of relapse in control group is more than experimental group but this different was not significant. Results: In general, communicative skills training with a cognitive – behaviorist approach effects spouses adjustment of male addicts.

  14. Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin stimulating effect on pathogenic properties of pneumococcus

    A. S. Kvetnaya


    Full Text Available The authors have studied the effect of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin - a derivative of choline - on the biological properties of streptococus pneumonia. The concentration of lecithin 0.01 g/l in a simple nutrient broth has a stimulating effect on proliferation, on in vitro stabilization of the population, and on pathogenic properties of the pneumococcus. Four - five times passaging of the strains on this medium (as opposed to the commonly used 20 % serum broth retained the species and the typical properties of pneumococcus, but led to increased capsule formation, increased virulence and expressed β-hemolytic activity. These results suggest that phosphatidylcholine (lecithin, as the main supplier of pneumococcus growth stimulant - choline, has an expressing impact on the capsule formation - the main pathogenic factor, and on the substance of P-teichoic acid in the cell wall of pneumococcus that specifically interacts with the C-reactive protein.

  15. The Effect of Physical Exercise on Postural Stability in Sighted Individuals and Those Who Are Visually Impaired: An Analysis Adjusted for Physical Activity and Body Mass Index.

    Sadowska, Dorota; Stemplewski, Rafał; Szeklicki, Robert


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on postural stability in sighted participants and individuals who are visually impaired, adjusted for potential modulatory effects of physical activity level and body mass index (BMI). The study included 23 participants who were severely visually impaired and 23 sighted participants. Postural stability measurements were taken with open eyes (session I) and with closed eyes (session II). During each session, the mean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) displacements was determined using a force plate both before and after physical exercise. During testing with open eyes, the 2 groups did not differ significantly in terms of their postural response to physical exercise. When examined with closed eyes, the individuals who were visually impaired showed markedly greater postexercise increase in mean velocity of the COP displacement in the mediolateral direction. This intergroup difference was likely a consequence of significantly higher preexercise values of posturographic parameters observed in the sighted participants. More pronounced postexercise changes in the postural stability of sighted participants were associated with lower levels of physical activity and higher values of BMI. Further research is needed to explain the character of the abovementioned relationships in individuals who are visually impaired.

  16. Scenario analysis of carbon emissions' anti-driving effect on Qingdao's energy structure adjustment with an optimization model, Part II: Energy system planning and management.

    Wu, C B; Huang, G H; Liu, Z P; Zhen, J L; Yin, J G


    In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained. The results can help local decision makers generate cost-effective energy system management schemes and gain a comprehensive tradeoff between economic objectives and environmental requirements. Moreover, taking the CO2 emissions scenarios mentioned in Part I into consideration, the anti-driving effect of carbon emissions on energy structure adjustment was studied based on the developed model and scenario analysis. Several suggestions can be concluded from the results: (a) to ensure the smooth realization of low-carbon and sustainable development, appropriate price control and fiscal subsidy on high-cost energy resources should be considered by the decision-makers; (b) compared with coal, natural gas utilization should be strongly encouraged in order to insure that Qingdao could reach the carbon discharges peak value in 2020; (c) to guarantee Qingdao's power supply security in the future, the construction of new power plants should be emphasised instead of enhancing the transmission capacity of grid infrastructure.

  17. Absolute gravity observations in Norway (1993-2014) for glacial isostatic adjustment studies: The influence of gravitational loading effects on secular gravity trends

    Ophaug, Vegard; Breili, Kristian; Gerlach, Christian; Omholt Gjevestad, Jon Glenn; Lysaker, Dagny Iren; Dahl Omang, Ove Christian; Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald


    We have compiled and analyzed FG5 absolute gravity observations between 1993 and 2014 at 21 gravity sites in Norway, and explore to what extent these observations are applicable for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) studies. Where available, raw gravity observations are consistently reprocessed. Furthermore, refined gravitational corrections due to ocean tide loading and non-tidal ocean loading, as well as atmospheric and global hydrological mass variations are computed. Secular gravity trends are computed using both standard and refined corrections and subsequently compared with modeled gravity rates based on a GIA model. We find that the refined gravitational corrections mainly improve rates where GIA, according to model results, is not the dominating signal. Consequently, these rates may still be considered unreliable for constraining GIA models, which we trace to continued lack of a correction for the effect of local hydrology, shortcomings in our refined modeling of gravitational effects, and scarcity of observations. Finally, a subset of standard and refined gravity rates mainly reflecting GIA is used to estimate ratios between gravity and height rates of change by ordinary and weighted linear regression. Relations based on both standard and refined gravity rates are within the uncertainty of a recent modeled result.

  18. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong


    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties.

  19. Effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of -titanium alloys

    H-J Christ; A Senemmar; M Decker; K Prüßner


    Conflicting opinions exist in the literature on the manner in which hydrogen influences the mechanical properties of -titanium alloys. This can be attributed to the -stabilizing effect of hydrogen in these materials leading to major changes in the microstructure as a result of hydrogen charging. The resulting (extrinsic) effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties can possibly cover up the direct (intrinsic) influences. On the basis of experimentally determined thermodynamic and kinetic data regarding the interaction of hydrogen with -titanium alloys, hydrogen concentrations of up to 8 at.% were established in three commercial alloys by means of hydrogen charging from the gas phase. In order to separate intrinsic and extrinsic effects the charging was carried out during one step of the two-step heat treatment typical of metastable -titanium alloys, while the other step was performed in vacuum. The results on the single-phase condition represent the intrinsic hydrogen effect. Monotonic and cyclic strength increase at the expense of ductility with increasing hydrogen concentration. The brittle to ductile transition temperature shifts to higher values and the fatigue crack propagation threshold value decreases. The microstructure of the metastable, usually two-phase -titanium alloys is strongly affected by hydrogen, although the extent of this effect depends not only on the hydrogen concentration but also on the temperature of charging. This microstructural influence (extrinsic effect) changes the mechanical properties in the opposite direction as compared to the intrinsic hydrogen effect.

  20. 45 CFR 74.83 - Effect on intangible property.



  1. Effect of oxygen on the hydrogenation properties of magnesium films

    Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Chorkendorff, Ib


    The effect of magnesium oxide on the magnesium and hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium films have been investigated. We find that by capping metallic magnesium films with oxide overlayers the apparent desorption energy of magnesium is increased from 146 kJ/mol to 314 kJ/mol. The results...

  2. Metric adjusted skew information

    Hansen, Frank


    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  3. Fiscal adjustment in Brazil

    Fabiana Rocha


    Full Text Available Two questions are addressed in this paper. The first one is the determination of periods of fiscal consolidation and fiscal stimulus. The second one is the importance of the composition of fiscal adjustments for their success, defined as a declining debt to GDP ratio. We, characterize 1994 and 1999 as points of fiscal consolidation. The 1994 consolidation can not be considered successful since after that period the debt to GDP ratio has grown continuously. The adjustment can be characterized as a type 2 adjustment (Alesina and Perotti (1997 in the sense that cuts were made mainly in public investment, while government wages and transfers remained almost unchanged. This type of adjustment usually has a low likelihood of being a success.Duas questões são tratadas neste artigo. A primeira é a determinação dos períodos de consolidação fiscal e estímulo fiscal. A segunda questão é a importância da composição dos ajustamentos fiscais para o seu sucesso, definido como um declínio na razo dívida/PIB. Nós, caracterizamos 1994 e 1999 como pontos de consolidação fiscal. A consolidação de 1994 não pode ser considerada um sucesso pois nos anos seguintes a razão dívida/PIB cresceu continuamente. O ajustamento pode ser considerado como um ajustamento do tipo 2 (Alesina and Perotti, 1997 no sentido de que foram feitos cortes principalmente no investimento público, enquanto os salários e transferências permaneceram praticamente inalterados. Este tipo de ajustamento geralmente tem uma baixa probabilidade de sucesso.

  4. Effect of occupational polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on quality-adjusted life years over time at the HELPcB surveillance program.

    Esser, A; Gaum, P M; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Gube, M; Lang, J


    HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls [PCB]) is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a capacitor recycling company and other concerned individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to determine the HRQL. After three cross-sectional examinations at intervals of 1 yr, the longitudinal development of QALY was compared by repeated-measurement analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The cohort was split at the 95th percentile of the comparison group for each PCB congener; known confounders such as age were taken into account. A significant difference in height and development of QALY over time was shown for the higher chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB (hcPCB) congeners. A significant between-groups effect was found on PCB 153, PCB 180, and the sum of hcPCB. It was found that QALY decreased in the high-burden group and QALY stabilized after yr 2 in the normal-burden group. Taking the dimensions of the EQ-5D into account, the between-groups effect seems to be based predominantly on the dimension anxiety. The development of the within-group effect, however, seems to be based on the dimension mobility. This study detected a significant influence of hcPCB on the development of HRQL and QALYs over time according to the level of internal PCB burden.

  5. The effect of composition on mechanical properties of brushite cements.

    Engstrand, Johanna; Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan


    Due to a fast setting reaction, good biological properties, and easily available starting materials, there has been extensive research within the field of brushite cements as bone replacing material. However, the fast setting of brushite cement gives them intrinsically low mechanical properties due to the poor crystal compaction during setting. To improve this, many additives such as citric acid, pyrophosphates, and glycolic acid have been added to the cement paste to retard the crystal growth. Furthermore, the incorporation of a filler material could improve the mechanical properties when used in the correct amounts. In this study, the effect of the addition of the two retardants, disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate and citric acid, together with the addition of β-TCP filler particles, on the mechanical properties of a brushite cement was investigated. The results showed that the addition of low amounts of a filler (up to 10%) can have large effects on the mechanical properties. Furthermore, the addition of citric acid to the liquid phase makes it possible to use lower liquid-to-powder ratios (L/P), which strongly affects the strength of the cements. The maximal compressive strength (41.8MPa) was found for a composition with a molar ratio of 45:55 between monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and beta-tricalcium phosphate, an L/P of 0.25ml/g and a citric acid concentration of 0.5M in the liquid phase.

  6. Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Haracz, S. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hilgendorff, M. [Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rybka, J.D. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Giersig, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89B, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Physik, Arnimalle 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany)


    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of magnetic nanoparticles. • Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles. • Effect of surfactant for magnetic properties. - Abstract: For different medical applications nanoparticles (NPs) with well-defined magnetic properties have to be used. Coating ligand can change the magnetic moment on the surface of nanostructures and therefore the magnetic behavior of the system. Here we investigated magnetic NPs in a size of 13 nm conjugated with four different kinds of surfactants. The surface anisotropy and the magnetic moment of the system were changed due to the presence of the surfactant on the surface of iron oxide NPs.

  7. Effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay

    Purohit, A.; Hameed, A.; Chander, S.; Nehra, S. P.; Singh, P.; Dhaka, M. S.


    In this paper, the effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay is undertaken. The wet grinding treatment was performed employing ball and vibro mills for different time spells of 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours. The structural properties were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of ground samples is found to be simple cubic. The crystallographic parameters are calculated and slight change in lattice constant, inter planner spacing and particle size is observed with grinding treatment. The results are in agreement with the available literature.

  8. Adjustment Criterion and Algorithm in Adjustment Model with Uncertain

    SONG Yingchun


    Full Text Available Uncertainty often exists in the process of obtaining measurement data, which affects the reliability of parameter estimation. This paper establishes a new adjustment model in which uncertainty is incorporated into the function model as a parameter. A new adjustment criterion and its iterative algorithm are given based on uncertainty propagation law in the residual error, in which the maximum possible uncertainty is minimized. This paper also analyzes, with examples, the different adjustment criteria and features of optimal solutions about the least-squares adjustment, the uncertainty adjustment and total least-squares adjustment. Existing error theory is extended with new observational data processing method about uncertainty.

  9. Effects of thermal barrier coating on gas emissions and performance of a LHR engine with different injection timings and valve adjustments

    Bueyuekkaya, Ekrem [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Engin, Tahsin [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Cerit, Muhammet [Sakarya University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey)


    Tests were performed on a six cylinder, direct injection, turbocharged Diesel engine whose pistons were coated with a 350 {mu}m thickness of MgZrO{sub 3} over a 150 {mu}m thickness of NiCrAl bond coat. CaZrO{sub 3} was employed as the coating material for the cylinder head and valves. The working conditions for the standard engine (uncovered) and low heat rejection (LHR) engine were kept exactly the same to ensure a realistic comparison between the two configurations of the engine. Comparisons between the standard engine and its LHR version were made based on engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, injection timing and valve adjustment. The results showed that 1-8% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption could be achieved by the combined effect of the thermal barrier coating (TBC) and injection timing. On the other hand, NO {sub x} emissions were obtained below those of the base engine by 11% for 18{sup o} BTDC injection timing.

  10. Reciprocal Influences Between Maternal Parenting and Child Adjustment in a High-risk Population: A Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis of Bidirectional Effects

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.


    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs...

  11. Effect of transglutaminase treatment on skimmed yogurt properties

    Iuliana BANU


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of microbial transglutaminase on the stability and rheological properties of skimmed yogurt. The fermentation was carried out with Streptococus theromophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus after incubating the milk with various enzyme concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.04%, at different setting temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C, for 60, 90 and 120 min. The postacidification process and the stability of the yogurt samples were influenced by the degree of polymerization of the milk proteins which depended on the conditions of the milk treated with microbial transglutaminase. The best results in terms of whey separation and rheological properties were obtained when preincubating the milk with 0.04% transglutaminase for 120 min setting at 40°C. The results indicate that transglutaminase may be successfully used for enhancing the functional properties of yogurt with low fat content.

  12. Properties of effective noise for systems with quenched randomness

    Majaniemi, Sami


    The fluid-fluid phase boundary wandering in a disordered medium such as a Hele-Shaw cell filled with porous material experiences exotic correlations which are quite different from the static correlations characterizing the material properties of the medium. The equation of motion for the phase boundary is obtained by projecting out the bulk degrees of freedom. It is used to determine the noise properties of the nonlinear Langevin equation describing the dynamics of lower dimensional collective coordinates like interfaces and contact lines. Effect of local conservation law at the level of bulk dynamics changes the universal properties of the fluctuation of collective coordinates in a non-trivial way. As a particular example we use the refinements of the spontaneous imbibition model originally introduced for wetting of random medium [1]. [1] M. Dubé, M. Rost, K.R. Elder, M. Alava, S. Majaniemi, T. Ala-Nissila, Eur. Phys. J. B 15, 701 (2000).

  13. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on elastic properties of ZDTP tribofilms

    Demmou, Karim; Loubet, Jean-Luc


    Previous studies have shown that the elastic properties of Zinc Dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDTP) tribofilms measured by nanoindentation increase versus applied pressure (Anvil effect) [1, 2]. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, up to 8 GPa, this increase is a reversible phenomenon. A ZDTP tribofilm has been produced on "AISI 52100" steel substrate using a Cameron-Plint tribometer. After its formation, a hydrostatic pressure of about 8 GPa was applied during one minute on the tribofilm using a large radius steel ball ("Brinell-like" test). Nanoindentation tests were performed with a Berkovich tip on pads in order to measure and compare the mechanical properties of the tribofilm inside and outside the macroscopic plastically deformed area. Careful AFM observations have been carried out on each indent in order to take into account actual contact area. No difference in elastic properties was observed between the two areas: tribofilm modulus and pressure sensitivity are the same inside and outside the resi...

  14. Effect of graphene on mechanical properties of cement mortars

    曹明莉; 张会霞; 张聪


    Functionalized graphene nano-sheets (FGN) of 0.01%−0.05% (mass fraction) were added to produce FGN-cement composites in the form of mortars. Flow properties, mechanical properties and microstructure of the cementitious material were then investigated. The results indicate that the addition of FGN decreases the fluidity slightly and improves mechanical properties of cement-based composites significantly. The highest strength is obtained with FGN content of 0.02% where the flexural strength and compressive strength at 28 days are 12.917 MPa and 52.42 MPa, respectively. Besides, scanning electron micrographs show that FGN can regulate formation of massive compact cross-linking structures and thermo gravimetric analysis indicates that FGN can accelerate the hydration reaction to increase the function of the composite effectively.

  15. Effects of carbon nanoparticles on properties of thermoset polymer systems

    Movva, Siva Subramanyam

    Polymer nanocomposites are novel materials in which at least one of the dimensions of the reinforcing material is on the order of 100 nm or less. While thermoplastic nanocomposites have been studied very widely, there are fewer studies concerning the effect of nanoparticles on thermoset systems. Low temperature cure thermoset systems are very important for many important applications. In this study, the processing, mechanical and thermal properties and reaction kinetics of carbon nanofiber (CNF) and/or carbon nanotubes (CNT) reinforced low temperature vinyl ester and epoxy nanocomposites were studied. In the first part, the processing challenge of incorporating CNFs into conventional fiber reinforced composites made by Vacuum infusion resin transfer molding (VARTM) was addressed by a new technique. The CNFs are pre-bound on the long fiber mats, instead of mixing them in the polymer resin, thereby eliminating several processing drawbacks. The resulting hybrid nanocomposites showed significant improvements in tensile, flexural and thermal properties. The effect of CNFs on the mold filling in VARTM was also studied and shown to follow the Darcy's law. In the second part, the effect of CNFs on the low temperature cure kinetics of vinyl ester and epoxy resins is studied using a thermal analysis technique, namely Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effect of CNFs on the free radical polymerization of vinyl esters was found to be very complex as the CNFs interact with the various curing ingredients in the formulation. Specifically, the interaction effects of CNFs and the inhibitor were studied and a reaction mechanism was proposed to explain the observed phenomenon. The effect of surface modification of the carbon nanoparticles on the cure kinetics of wind-blade epoxy was studied. The surface functionalization reduced the activation energy of the epoxy reaction and was found to have an acceleration effect on the cure kinetics of epoxy resin at room temperature

  16. Jordan Adjusted Human Development

    Ababsa, Myriam


    Jordan Human Development Index (HDI) and Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme designed a Human Development Index composed of life expectancy at birth, level of education and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In 2011, the UNDP ranked Jordan 95th out of 187 countries with a human development index of 0.698, up from 0.591 in 1990, making it the leading medium-range country for human development (fig. VIII.1). In 2010, the inequality adj...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6339-1 - Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property.


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property. 301.6339-1 Section 301.6339-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Seizure of Property for Collection of...

  18. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman


    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries.

  19. Effect of Natural Fillers on Mechanical Properties of GFRP Composites

    Vikas Dhawan


    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs have replaced conventional engineering materials in many areas, especially in the field of automobiles and household applications. With the increasing demand, various modifications are being incorporated in the conventional FRPs for specific applications in order to reduce costs and achieve the quality standards. The present research endeavor is an attempt to study the effect of natural fillers on the mechanical characteristics of FRPs. Rice husk, wheat husk, and coconut coir have been used as natural fillers in glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs. In order to study the effect of matrix on the properties of GFRPs, polyester and epoxy resins have been used. It has been found that natural fillers provide better results in polyester-based composites. Amongst the natural fillers, in general, the composites with coconut coir have better mechanical properties as compared to the other fillers in glass/epoxy composites.

  20. Effective thermoelastic properties of composites with periodicity in cylindrical coordinates

    Chatzigeorgiou, George


    The aim of this work is to study composites that present cylindrical periodicity in the microstructure. The effective thermomechanical properties of these composites are identified using a modified version of the asymptotic expansion homogenization method, which accounts for unit cells with shell shape. The microscale response is also shown. Several numerical examples demonstrate the use of the proposed approach, which is validated by other micromechanics methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of heat on the adsorption properties of silica gel

    Christy, Alfred A.


    Adsorption properties of silica gel have been attributed to the surface hydroxyl groups of silica gel. Some hydroxyl groups are free standing and called free silanol groups. Some are hydrogen bonded to neighbouring silanol groups. Christy has shown that a high silanol number and a balanced concentration proportionality between these two different types of hydroxyl groups is necessary for effective adsorption of water molecules. Thermal treatment of silica gel samples alters the proportions...

  2. Effects of Coal—Water Mixture Properties in Atomization

    DavidJ.Wildman; JamesM.Ekmann


    Recent suggested CWM applications include using filter cake material and mill tailings as coal sources.Neither coal type nor particle size distribution are necessarily well suited for coal-water mixture production.Slurries were prepared with and without additives and attempts were made to characterize their rheological properties and atomize these materials,Limits of operation and the value of existing rheological instrumentation and methods were investigated.Effects of changes in particle size distribution are discussed.

  3. Exotic properties of neutrinos using effective Lagrangians and specific models

    Aparici, Alberto


    This doctoral dissertation presents several works on nonstandard properties of neutrinos exploiting the synergies between effective field theory and models. The phenomena are first analysed by means of effective operators, which allow to discuss their phenomenological consequences and to derive estimations about the mass scale of the heavy particles needed to induce the new interactions. In a second phase we propose models that realise the effective operators, allowing us to check the conclusions of effective field theory as well as to extract new phenomenological features of the scenarios considered. The text is divided into two parts: in the first one we apply these ideas to an effective interaction that generates magnetic dipole moments for right-handed neutrinos, and in the second one we discuss a family of operators that violate lepton number without quarks, and which can allow for large rates of neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay and small neutrino masses. The right-handed neutrino magnetic moments have ...

  4. Annealing temperature effect on microstructure, magnetic and microwave properties of Fe-based amorphous alloy powders

    He Jinghua; Wang Wei; Wang Aimin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Guan Jianguo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    Fe{sub 74}Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 13}Cr{sub 6}W{sub 4} amorphous alloy powders were annealed at different temperature (T) for 1.5 h to fabricate the corresponding amorphous and nanocrystalline powders. The influences of T on the crystalline structure, morphology, magnetic and microwave electromagnetic properties of the resultant samples were investigated via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer. The results show that the powder samples obtained at T of 650 Degree-Sign C or more are composed of lots of ultra-fine {alpha}-Fe(Si) grains embedded in an amorphous matrix. When T increases from 350 to 750 Degree-Sign C, the saturated magnetization and coercivity of the as-annealed powder samples both increase monotonously whereas the relative real permittivity shows a minimal value and the relative real permeability shows a maximal value at T of 650 Degree-Sign C. Thus the powder samples annealed at 650 Degree-Sign C show optimal reflection loss under -10 dB in the whole C-band. These results here suggest that the annealing heat treatment of Fe-based amorphous alloy is an effective approach to fabricate high performance microwave absorber with reasonable permittivity and large permeability simultaneously via adjusting T. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annealing temperature effect of Fe-based amorphous alloy was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe-based amorphous and nanocrystalline alloy has a good absorbing property in C-band. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists a correspondence between microwave properties and microstructure.

  5. Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on properties of supercapacitor


    Effect of activated carbon and electrolyte on electrochemical properties of organic supercapacitor was investigated. The results show that specific surface area and mesoporosity of activated carbon influence specific capacitance. If specific surface area is larger and mesoporosity is higher, the specific capacitance will become bigger. Specific surface area influences resistance of carbon electrode and consequently influences power property and pore size distribution. If specific surface area is smaller and mesoporosity is higher, the power property will become better. Ash influences leakage current and electrochemical cycling stability. If ash content is lower, the performance will become better. The properties of supercapacitor highly depend on the electrolyte. The compatibility of electrolyte and activated carbon is a determining factor of supercapacitor's working voltage. LiPF6/(EC+EMC+DMC) is inappropriate for double layer capacitor. MeEt3NPF4/PC has higher specific capacitance than EtnNPFn/PC because methyl's electronegativity value is lower than ethyl and MeEt3N+ has more positive charges and stronger polarizability than Et4N+ when an ethyl is substituted by methyl.

  6. Effects of model layer simplification using composite hydraulic properties

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Kuniansky, Eve L.


    The effects of simplifying hydraulic property layering within an unconfined aquifer and the underlying confining unit were assessed. The hydraulic properties of lithologic units within the unconfined aquifer and confining unit were computed by analyzing the aquifer-test data using radial, axisymmetric two-dimensional (2D) flow. Time-varying recharge to the unconfined aquifer and pumping from the confined Upper Floridan aquifer (USA) were simulated using 3D flow. Conceptual flow models were developed by gradually reducing the number of lithologic units in the unconfined aquifer and confining unit by calculating composite hydraulic properties for the simplified lithologic units. Composite hydraulic properties were calculated using either thickness-weighted averages or inverse modeling using regression-based parameter estimation. No significant residuals were simulated when all lithologic units comprising the unconfined aquifer were simulated as one layer. The largest residuals occurred when the unconfined aquifer and confining unit were aggregated into a single layer (quasi-3D), with residuals over 100% for the leakage rates to the confined aquifer and the heads in the confining unit. Residuals increased with contrasts in vertical hydraulic conductivity between the unconfined aquifer and confining unit. Residuals increased when the constant-head boundary at the bottom of the Upper Floridan aquifer was replaced with a no-flow boundary.

  7. Jump Testing and the Speed of Market Adjustment

    Rasmussen, Torben B.

    for high-frequency transaction data. To capture these microstructure effects, this paper suggests a model in which market prices adjust gradually to jumps in the underlying effcient price. A case study illustrates the empirical relevance of the model, and the performance of different jump tests...... is investigated here and in a simulation study. Evidence indicates that tests based on the largest of scaled price increments perform better than tests comparing measures of variability. Resolving the matter by testing at lower frequencies turns out to be less straightforward.......Asymptotic properties of jump tests rely on the property that any jump occurs within a single time interval no matter what the observation frequency is. Market microstructure effects in relation to news-induced revaluation of the underlying variable is likely to make this an unrealistic assumption...

  8. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others


    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  9. Effects of fluid thermophysical properties on cavitating flows

    Chen, Tairan; Huang, Biao; Wang, Guoyu; Wang, Kun [Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing (China)


    We studied the thermo-fluid cavitating flows and evaluated the effects of physical properties on cavitation behaviors. The thermo-fluid (including liquid nitrogen, liquid hydrogen and hot water) cavitating flows around a 2D hydrofoil were numerically investigated. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the enthalpy-based energy equation, transport equation-based cavitation model, and the k- ω SST turbulence model were applied. The thermodynamic parameter ∑, defined as ∑=(P{sub v}{sup 2}L{sup 2})/(P{sub l}{sup 2}C{sub v}T{sub ∞} √ε{sub I}) was used to assess the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The results manifest that the thermal energy solution case yields a substantially shorter and mushier cavity attached on the hydrofoil due to the thermodynamic effects, which shows better agreement with the experimental data. The temperature drop inside the cavity decreases the local saturated vapor pressure and hence increases the local cavitation number; it could delay or suppress the occurrence and development of the cavitation behavior. The thermodynamic effects can be evaluated by thermophysical properties under the same free-stream conditions; the thermodynamic parameter ∑ is shown to be critical in accurately predicting the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The surrogate-based global sensitivity analysis of liquid nitrogen cavitating flow suggests that ρ{sub v}, C{sub l} and L could significantly influence temperature drop and cavity structure in the existing numerical framework, while ρv plays the dominant role on temperature drop when properties vary with changing temperature. The liquid viscosity ml slightly affects the flow structure but hardly affects the temperature distribution.

  10. The pH effect of solvent in silanization on fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing fluoride-releasing filler.

    Nakornchai, Natha; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Takahashi, Hidekazu


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization on the amount of fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing a silanized fluoride-releasing filler. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; non-silanized, acidic-adjusted pH, non-adjusted pH, and no filler as control. For fluoride measurement, each specimen was placed in deionized water which was changed every day for 7 days, every week for 7 weeks and measured. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were evaluated after aging for 48 h, 1, and 2 months. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among groups, storage times, and its interaction in fluoride measurement and flexural modulus. For flexural strength, there was significant difference only among groups. Acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization enhanced the amount of fluoride released from acrylic resin, while non-adjusted pH of solvent exhibited better flexural strength of acrylic resin.

  11. Cluster properties via Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect

    Cooray, Asantha


    We will discuss the role played by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in uderstanding the physical properties of the intracluster medium. While the SZ effect has been considered widely for its cosmological purposes when combined with multiwavelength observations the SZ effect data can also be used to understand the nature and evolution of the ICM including its thermal structure and the presence of nonthermal plasma. We also discuss future opportunities on this aspect involving observations from the planned South Pole Telescope Planck mission and various other attempts to image the SZ effect in galaxy clusters using wide-field bolometer arrays and other techniques. We will also explore the connection between gas in clusters and the general intergalactic medium and how one can use detailed wide-field SZ maps beyond those towards individual clusters to study such possibilities.

  12. Effects of electrolyte components on properties of Al alloy anode

    MA Zheng-qing; ZUO Lie; PANG Xu; ZENG Su-min


    The effects of Na2SnO3, In(OH)3 and Na2SnO3+In(OH)3 on the properties of Al alloy anode were studied in alkaline medium at 25 ℃. The self-corrosion rate of Al alloy anode was studied by method of H2 immersed in aqueous medium, and the electrochemical properties of Al alloy anode were tested via galvanostatic discharge and dynamic potential methods. The results show that the self-corrosion rate of Al alloy anode in 4 mol/L NaOH+3 mol/L NaAlO2 medium can be minimized by adding Na2SnO3, In(OH)3 and Na2SnO3+ In(OH)3. Na2SnO3, In(OH)3 and Na2SnO3+In(OH)3 make Al anodic potential shift positively in galvanostatic discharging. The most effective additive of Al alloy anode in 4 mol/L NaOH+3 mol/L NaAlO2 medium is 0.075 mol/L Na2SnO3+0.005 mol/L In(OH)3, integrating self-corrosion rate and electrochemical properties.

  13. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    Bashar Issa


    Full Text Available Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm, viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm. The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Effective Properties of 3D Piezoelectric Composites

    Ri-Song Qin


    Full Text Available The prediction of the overall effective properties of fibre-reinforced piezocomposites has drawn much interest from investigators recently. In this work, an algorithm used in two-dimensional (2D analysis for calculating transversely isotropic material properties is developed. Since the finite element (FE meshing patterns on the opposite areas are the same, constraint equations can be applied directly to generate appropriate load. The numerical results derived using this model have found a good agreement with those in the literature. The 2D algorithm is then modified and improved in such a way that it is valid for three-dimensional (3D analysis in the case of random distributed shorts and inclusions. Linear interpolation of displacement field is employed to establish constraint equations of nodal displacements between two adjacent elements.

  15. Effect of Exposure to Electrical Discharge on Transformer Oil Properties

    J. S. N'Cho; I. Fofana; T. Aka-Ngnui; A. Beroual


    Petroleum based oils, the so-called mineral oils, are used for impregnating solid insulations or filling products of very large number of electric materials: transformers, reactors, cables, bushings, circuit breakers, tap changers, etc. In these equipments, oil is exposed to electrical stress and may experience electrical discharges under certain circumstances. Since the electrical stress is unavoidable in power equipments, the ability of oil to resist decomposition under electrical stress is of great importance for the safety of these devices. Electrical stress together with heat and moisture, in the presence of oxygen, oxidises the oil producing free radicals, acids and sludge that are deleterious to the transformer. In this paper, the effect of electrical discharges on oil properties is reported. The results indicate that quality of oil is considerably affected with increasing voltage stress. Comparing oil properties before and after voltage application allows assessing the outcome of random secondary chemical reactions between large oil born free radicals.

  16. Magnetic properties of a nanoribbon: An effective-field theory

    Wang, Jiu-Ming; Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Chen-Long; Shi, Zuo; Wu, Chuang


    An effective-field theory is proposed to study magnetic properties of a nanoribbon. The model consists of a core spin-3/2 and shell spin-2 with a ferrimagnetic exchange coupling, which is described by transverse Ising model with the anisotropy. Based on the differential operator technique, the magnetization and the susceptibility formulas of the nanoribbon are given. Numerical results of the magnetization, the susceptibility, the hysteresis loop of the system are discussed for specific values of the parameters. Magnetization plateaus exhibits on the magnetization curves at low temperature. The exchange coupling, the anisotropy and the transverse field have important roles in the magnetic properties for the nanoribbon. Results may provide some guidance to design in the nanoribbons.

  17. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.


    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  18. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  19. Effect of ageing on fatigue properties of asphalt

    王佶; 庞凌; 吴少鹏; 刘全涛; 陈筝


    The fatigue properties of asphalts were investigated after various laboratory simulation ageing tests and outdoor natural exposure ultraviolet radiation ageing,by dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) time sweep fatigue test in constant strain model and a new type of specimen which was introduced to avoid the problem of adhesion failure between rotor and asphalt binder.The results show that outdoor natural exposure ageing(NEA) causes the decrease of retained fatigue life distinctly,and photodegradation caused by outdoor NEA of 1 250 μm thin films asphalt for three months,is found to be severer than pressure ageing vessel(PAV) with respects to retained fatigue life.The effect of photodegradation increases as the time of outdoor NEA increases.DSR time sweep fatigue test in constant strain indicates that the aged styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified asphalt still displays better fatigue properties than the corresponding base asphalt after ageing.

  20. Effects of priming exercise on the speed of adjustment of muscle oxidative metabolism at the onset of moderate-intensity step transitions in older adults.

    De Roia, Gabriela; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Adami, Alessandra; Papadopoulou, Christina; Capelli, Carlo


    Aging is associated with a functional decline of the oxidative metabolism due to progressive limitations of both O(2) delivery and utilization. Priming exercise (PE) increases the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism during successive moderate-intensity transitions. We tested the hypothesis that such improvement is due to a better matching of O(2) delivery to utilization within the working muscles. In 21 healthy older adults (65.7 ± 5 yr), we measured contemporaneously noninvasive indexes of the overall speed of adjustment of the oxidative metabolism (i.e., pulmonary Vo(2) kinetics), of the bulk O(2) delivery (i.e., cardiac output), and of the rate of muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxygenated hemoglobin, HHb) during moderate-intensity step transitions, either with (ModB) or without (ModA) prior PE. The local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization was evaluated by the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio index. The overall speed of adjustment of the Vo(2) kinetics was significantly increased in ModB compared with ModA (P ModA (P < 0.05), suggesting an improved O(2) delivery. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that, in older adults, PE, prior to moderate-intensity exercise, beneficially affects the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism due to an acute improvement of the local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization.

  1. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S


    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications.

  2. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family, Friends, and School Experiences on the Psychological Adjustment of Ethnic Minority, Low-SES Adolescents.

    Way, Niobe; Robinson, Melissa G.


    Examined the influence over time of demographic variables and perceived family and friend support and school climate on changes in psychological adjustment among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Found a greater increase in self-esteem in students reporting more positive perceptions of school climate and,…

  3. The impact of pain on psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis : the mediating effects of self-esteem and adjustment to disease

    Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E.; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.


    The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were emp

  4. The impact of pain on psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis: the mediating effects of self-esteem and adjustment to disease

    Nagyova, I.; Stewart, R.E; Macejova, Z.; van Dijk, J.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.


    The aim of this study was to determine whether self-esteem and adjustment to disease can mediate the association between pain and psychological well-being in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Coefficients of correlation, multiple linear regressions and Structural Equation Model (SEM) were emp

  5. Effects of Corporal Punishment, Perceived Caretaker Warmth, and Cultural Beliefs on the Psychological Adjustment of Children in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others


    Structural equation modeling analysis of 349 youths, aged 9-16, in St. Kitts, West Indies, showed that physical punishment by itself does make a modest, but significant, direct and negative contribution to youths' psychological adjustment. Children tended to experience themselves to be rejected in direct proportion to the frequency and severity of…

  6. The quest for effective pain control during suture adjustment after strabismus surgery: a study evaluating supplementation of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine

    Palte HD


    Full Text Available Howard D Palte, Kara M Cavuoto, Lalitha Sundararaman, Steven Gayer, Joyce Schiffman, Hilda CapoBascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To determine whether the addition of 0.4% ropivacaine to the standard 2% lidocaine peribulbar anesthetic block improves pain scores during suture adjustment in patients undergoing strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures.Methods: Prospective, double-blind study of 30 adult patients aged 21–84 years scheduled for elective strabismus surgery with adjustable sutures. Patients were divided into two groups of 15 patients each based on the local anesthetic. Group A received 2% lidocaine and Group B received 2% lidocaine/0.4% ropivacaine. Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS preoperatively and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postoperatively. The Lancaster red-green test was used to measure ocular motility at the same time points.Results: The pain scores in the two groups were low and similar at all measurement intervals. The VAS for Group A versus Group B at 2 hours (1.7 versus 2.4, P=0.5 and 4 hours (3.5 versus 3.7, P=0.8 showed no benefit from the addition of ropivacaine. At 6 hours, the VAS (3.7 versus 2.7 was not statistically significant, but the 95% confidence interval indicated that ropivacaine may provide some benefit. A repeated measures ANOVA did not find a statistically significant difference in VAS scores over time (P=0.9. In addition, the duration of akinesia was comparable in both groups (P=0.7.Conclusion: We conclude that the 50:50 mixture of 2% lidocaine with 0.4% ropivacaine as compared to 2% lidocaine in peribulbar anesthetic blocks in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery does not produce significant improvements in pain control during the postoperative and adjustment phases. In addition, ropivacaine did not impair return of full ocular motility at 6 hours, which is advantageous in adjustable-suture strabismus surgery.Keywords: adjustable-suture strabismus surgery, postoperative

  7. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.


    ... accordance with the method of accounting regularly used, for additions, retirements, and other dispositions of property. For an illustration of adjustments required in accordance with the method of accounting... (e) of the Act shall be made in lieu of the adjustments for depreciation otherwise required...

  8. Effects of nasalance on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and the head voice

    Perna, Nicholas Kevin

    This study aims to measure the effect that nasality has on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and head voice. Not to be confused with forward resonance, nasality here will be defined as nasalance, the reading of a Nasometer, or the percentage of nasal and oral airflow during phonation. A previous study by Peer Birch et al. has shown that professional tenors used higher percentages of nasalance through their passaggio. They hypothesized that tenors used nasalance to make slight timbral adjustments as they ascended through passaggio. Other well respected authors including Richard Miller and William McIver have claimed that teaching registration issues is the most important component of training young tenors. It seemed logical to measure the acoustic effects of nasalance on the tenor passaggio and head voice. Eight professional operatic tenors participated as subjects performing numerous vocal exercises that demonstrated various registration events. These examples were recorded and analyzed using a Nasometer and Voce Vista Pro Software. Tenors did generally show an increase of nasalance during an ascending B-flat major scale on the vowels [i] and [u]. Perhaps the most revealing result was that six of seven tenors showed at least a 5-10% increase in nasalance on the note after their primary register transition on the vowel of [a]. It is suggested that this phenomenon receive further empirical scrutiny, because, if true, pedagogues could use nasalance as a tool for helping a young tenor ascend through his passaggio.

  9. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    Xia Re [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qin Qinghua [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu Jianlin, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Mechanics, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555 (China)


    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  10. Microstructural and dielectric susceptibility effects on predictions of dielectric properties

    Ferris, K.F.; Exarhos, G.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Risser, S.M. [Texas A& M Univ., Commerce, TX (United States)


    In modeling the dielectric properties of inhomogeneous materials, the treatment of the electric field interactions differentiate the usual modeling formalisms (such as the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman effective medium methods) and their accuracy. In this paper, we show that the performance of effective medium methods is dependent upon a number of variables - defect concentration, alignment, and the dielectric constant of the material itself. Using our previously developed finite element model of an inhomogeneous dielectric, we have developed models for a number of dielectric films of varying dielectric constant and microstructures. Alignment of defects parallel to the applied field and the larger defect aspect ratios increase the overall dielectric constant. The extent of these effects is dependent on the dielectric constant of the bulk component.

  11. Habitat structure mediates biodiversity effects on ecosystem properties.

    Godbold, J A; Bulling, M T; Solan, M


    Much of what we know about the role of biodiversity in mediating ecosystem processes and function stems from manipulative experiments, which have largely been performed in isolated, homogeneous environments that do not incorporate habitat structure or allow natural community dynamics to develop. Here, we use a range of habitat configurations in a model marine benthic system to investigate the effects of species composition, resource heterogeneity and patch connectivity on ecosystem properties at both the patch (bioturbation intensity) and multi-patch (nutrient concentration) scale. We show that allowing fauna to move and preferentially select patches alters local species composition and density distributions, which has negative effects on ecosystem processes (bioturbation intensity) at the patch scale, but overall positive effects on ecosystem functioning (nutrient concentration) at the multi-patch scale. Our findings provide important evidence that community dynamics alter in response to localized resource heterogeneity and that these small-scale variations in habitat structure influence species contributions to ecosystem properties at larger scales. We conclude that habitat complexity forms an important buffer against disturbance and that contemporary estimates of the level of biodiversity required for maintaining future multi-functional systems may need to be revised.

  12. Greywater reuse for irrigation: effect on soil properties.

    Travis, Micheal J; Wiel-Shafran, Alit; Weisbrod, Noam; Adar, Eilon; Gross, Amit


    A controlled study of the effect of greywater (GW) irrigation on soil properties was conducted. Containers of sand, loam and loess soils were planted with lettuce, and irrigated with fresh water, raw artificial GW or treated artificial GW. Greywater was treated using a recirculating vertical-flow constructed wetland. Soil samples were collected every 10 days for the 40-day duration of the study, and plant growth was measured. Soils were analysed for physicochemical and biological parameters to determine changes caused by the different treatments. It was demonstrated that raw artificial GW significantly increased the development of hydrophobicity in the sand and loam soils, as determined by water droplet penetration time. No significant changes were observed for the loess soil under all treatments. Observed hydrophobicity was correlated with increased oil and grease and surfactant concentrations in the soil. Zeta (zeta) potential of the soils was measured to determine changes in the soil particle surface properties as a result of GW irrigation. A significant change in zeta-potential (less negative) was observed in the raw artificial GW-irrigated sand, whereas no difference was observed in the loam or loess. Soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW exhibited no increase in hydrophobicity. Fecal coliform bacteria were absent or <10 CFU g(-1) in soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW, but at least 1 order of magnitude higher in raw artificial GW irrigated soils. Only in the last sampling event and only for the loess soil was plant growth significantly higher for fresh water irrigated vs. raw or treated GW irrigated soils. This study demonstrates that treated GW can be effectively irrigated without detrimental effects on soil or plant growth; however, raw GW may significantly change soil properties that can impact the movement of water in soil and the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone.

  13. Effects of Sintering Technology on PMZN Piezoceramics Properties


    Pb(Mn1/3Sb2/3)x(Zn1/3Nb2/3)y(Zr0.535Ti0.465)1-x-yO3 (PMZN)piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated.The effects of sintering temperature and heat-treatment time on properties were discussed,the optimum preparation technology parameters were obtained.In this case,the ceramics have the highest electromechanical coupling coefficients and mechanical quality factor and the least dielectric loss.It is revealed that the PMZN piezoceramics material can be utilized for high-power ultrasound transducers.

  14. The effects of biodegradation and photodegradation on DOM optical properties

    Hansen, A.; Moll, L.; Kraus, T. E.


    In aquatic environments, dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in ecosystem biogeochemistry and is important because it affects light penetration, food web dynamics, and pollutant transport. While knowing DOM concentration is important, it is also critical to characterize DOM composition because its chemical make-up determines how it reacts in the environment. Furthermore, the ability to determine the origin of DOM can help inform watershed management and predict future trends. The main factors affecting DOM composition include (1) original source material, (2) biodegradation, and (3) photodegradation. Many studies use optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) to infer DOM composition and source, however there are few controlled laboratory studies using endmember sources. Here DOM optical properties of eight endmember sources-including soil, plant and algal leachates-from San Francisco Bay Delta wetlands were investigated following biological and photochemical degradation during a three month incubation period. The effects of photoexposure were examined at various points along the biodegradation curve to simulate photodegradation occurring as microorganisms consumed and transformed the bioavailable DOM. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, absorbance, and fluorescence. While our results showed little change in DOC concentration in the soil leachate over the 3 month study period, DOC concentrations in plant and algal leachates decrease by over 70% within the first three days of biodegradation. As expected, biodegradation led to an increase in fluorescence index (FI), humic index (HIX), and specific absorbance (SUVA) values. Carbon-normalized fluorescence values increased for humic-like components associated with Peaks C and A, but decreased for more labile material, which is associated with Peak T. While the initial FI for plant and algal leachates was similar to soil, the FI for both of these sources increased

  15. Effects of torrefaction on energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood

    Thiago Oliveira Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal treatment that promotes homogenization and improvement of energy properties of biomass. This study aims to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood. Wood was torrefied at three distinct temperatures (220°C, 250°C and 280°C and analyzed for gravimetric yield (ratio of dry wood mass to torrefied wood mass, bulk density (ratio of dry torrefied mass to dry torrefied volume, heating value (higher – HHV, lower – LHV and useful – UHV, energy density (ratio of heating value to bulk density and energy yield (product of gravimetric yield and ratio of HHV of torrefied wood to HHV of feedstock. The obtained results revealed significant differences for all properties being analyzed except for bulk density, which showed no statistical difference between the control and the treatment at 220°C. Temperature 250°C generated the best energy density as a function of the increase in heating value and the slight decrease in bulk density.

  16. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    James G Heys


    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB. To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed towards identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in entorhinal cortex that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in entorhinal cortex that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in entorhinal cortex that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in entorhinal cortex. Finally, the local circuits of entorhinal cortex demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of entorhinal cortex to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory.

  17. Effect of temperature on thermal properties of Graphene

    Neetu Sorot


    Full Text Available Home About Us » Editorial Board Indexed in Current Issue Coming Issue Archives Submission » Contact Us Effect of temperature on thermal properties of Graphene Volume 31, Number 3 Neetu Sorot and B. R. K.Gupta* Department of physics GLA University, Mathura-U.P. (India . Correspondence Author Email : DOI : ABSTRACT: Many potential applications of graphene in nanotechnology depend on its thermo-mechanical stability. We have calculated the temperature dependent properties such as the volume thermal expansion, and thermal expansion coefficient of the graphene using the equation of state (EOS based on thermodynamic variables. A simple theoretical method is applied to determine the thermal expansion and thermal expansion properties of graphene. The model employed in the present study consists of only two input parameters and independent of potential. The results achieved as reported in this paper are found in good agreement with those obtained from QHA-GGA ab- initio study [25].

  18. Effect of glucosylceramide on the biophysical properties of fluid membranes.

    Varela, Ana R P; Gonçalves da Silva, Amélia M P S; Fedorov, Alexander; Futerman, Anthony H; Prieto, Manuel; Silva, Liana C


    Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a relevant intermediate in the pathways of glycosphingolipid metabolism, plays key roles in the regulation of cell physiology. The molecular mechanisms by which GlcCer regulates cellular processes are unknown, but might involve changes in membrane biophysical properties and formation of lipid domains. In the present study, fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal microscopy and surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements were used to characterize the effect of GlcCer on the biophysical properties of model membranes. We show that C16:0-GlcCer has a high tendency to segregate into highly ordered gel domains and to increase the order of the fluid phase. Monolayer studies support the aggregation propensity of C16:0-GlcCer. π-A isotherms of single C16:0-GlcCer indicate that bilayer domains, or crystal-like structures, coexist within monolayer domains at the air-water interface. Mixtures with POPC exhibit partial miscibility with expansion of the mean molecular areas relative to the additive behavior of the components. Moreover, C16:0-GlcCer promotes morphological alterations in lipid vesicles leading to formation of flexible tubule-like structures that protrude from the fluid region of the bilayer. These results support the hypothesis that alterations in membrane biophysical properties induced by GlcCer might be involved in its mechanism of action.

  19. Effect of leavening microflora on pizza dough properties.

    Coppola, S; Pepe, O; Mauriello, G


    Fourteen different starter cultures containing one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without individual or combinations of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lact. sanfrancisco, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were employed to investigate the role of leavening microflora on the properties of pizza doughs. Microbiological, chemical and physical characteristics of doughs prepared with the same flour and under the same processing conditions were determined. Leavening times and acidification properties depended on the microbial association used. The proportions of lactic and acetic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria were consistent with the metabolic properties of the strains employed. The bacteria/yeast ratios arising from microbial counts at the end of the leavening process were always lower in comparison to sour- or bread-doughs. The size of the yeast population did not change much, while bacteria showed from one to four duplications. Rheologically, the fermented doughs could only be significantly distinguished from the control dough with regard to the elastic modulus. Principal Component Analysis was applied to the acidimetric data. The scattergram of the two principal components effectively discriminated 13 of the 14 pizza dough types.

  20. Comparative effectiveness and safety of gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and adjustable gastric banding in a population-based bariatric program: prospective cohort study

    Gill, Richdeep S.; Majumdar, Sumit R.; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F.; Apte, Sameer; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; Sharma, Arya M.; Klarenbach, Scott; Padwal, Raj S.


    Background Bariatric surgery in Canada is primarily delivered within publicly funded specialty clinics. Previous studies have demonstrated that bariatric surgery is superior to intensive medical management for reduction of weight and obesity-related comorbidities. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) in a publicly funded, population-based bariatric treatment program. Methods We followed consecutive bariatric surgery patients for 2 years. The primary outcome was weight change (in kilograms). Between-group changes were analyzed using multivariable regression. Last-observation-carried-forward imputation was used for missing data. Results We included 150 consecutive patients (51 RYGB; 51 LSG; 48 LAGB) in our study. At baseline, mean age was 43.5 ± 9.5 years, 87.3% of patients were women, and preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.2 ± 7.4. Absolute and relative (% of baseline) weight loss at 2 years were 36.6 ± 19.5 kg (26.1 ± 12.2%) for RYGB, 21.4 ± 16.0 kg (16.4 ± 11.6%) for LSG and 7.0 ± 9.7 kg (5.8 ± 7.9%) for LAGB (p < 0.001). Change in BMI was greater for the RYGB (−13.0 ± 6.6) than both the LSG (−7.6 ± 5.7) and the LAGB (−2.6 ± 3.5) groups (p < 0.001). The reduction in diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia was greater after RYGB than after LAGB (all p < 0.05). There were no deaths. The anastomotic and staple leakage rate was 1.3%. Conclusion In a publicly funded, population-based bariatric surgery program, RYGB and LSG demonstrated greater weight loss than the LAGB procedure. Bypass resulted in the greatest reduction in obesity-related comorbidities. All procedures were safe. PMID:27240132

  1. Thermal properties of soils: effect of biochar application

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy


    Thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) have a significant effect on the soil surface energy partitioning and resulting in the temperature distribution. Thermal properties of soil depend on water content, bulk density and organic matter content. An important source of organic matter is biochar. Biochar as a material is defined as: "charcoal for application as a soil conditioner". Biochar is generally associated with co-produced end products of pyrolysis. Many different materials are used as biomass feedstock for biochar, including wood, crop residues and manures. Additional predictions were done for terra preta soil (also known as "Amazonian dark earth"), high in charcoal content, due to adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure for thousands of years i.e. approximately 10-1,000 times longer than residence times of most soil organic matter. The effect of biochar obtained from the wood biomass and other organic amendments (peat, compost) on soil thermal properties is presented in this paper. The results were compared with wetland soils of different organic matter content. The measurements of the thermal properties at various water contents were performed after incubation, under laboratory conditions using KD2Pro, Decagon Devices. The measured data were compared with predictions made using Usowicz statistical-physical model (Usowicz et al., 2006) for biochar, mineral soil and soil with addition of biochar at various water contents and bulk densities. The model operates statistically by probability of occurrence of contacts between particular fractional compounds. It combines physical properties, specific to particular compounds, into one apparent conductance specific to the mixture. The results revealed that addition of the biochar and other organic amendments into the soil caused considerable reduction of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The mineral soil showed the highest thermal conductivity and diffusivity

  2. A Filled Function with Adjustable Parameters for Unconstrained Global Optimization

    SHANGYou-lin; LIXiao-yan


    A filled function with adjustable parameters is suggested in this paper for finding a global minimum point of a general class of nonlinear programming problems with a bounded and closed domain. This function has two adjustable parameters. We will discuss the properties of the proposed filled function. Conditions on this function and on the values of parameters are given so that the constructed function has the desired properties of traditional filled function.

  3. Fatigue effect of elastocaloric properties in natural rubber.

    Sebald, Gael; Xie, Zhongjian; Guyomar, Daniel


    In the framework of elastocaloric (eC) refrigeration, the fatigue effect on the eC effect of natural rubber (NR) is investigated. Repetitive deformation cycles at engineering strain regime from 1 to 6 results in a rapid rupture (approx. 800 cycles). Degradation of properties and fatigue life are then investigated at three different strain regimes with the same strain amplitude: before onset strain of strain-induced crystallization (SIC) (strain regime of 0-3), onset strain of melting (strain regime of 2-5) and high strain of SIC (strain regime of 4-7). Strain of 0-3 leads to a low eC effect and cracking after 2000 cycles. Strain of 2-5 and 4-7 results in an excellent crack growth resistance and much higher eC effect with adiabatic temperature changes of 3.5 K and 4.2 K, respectively, thanks to the effect of SIC. The eC stress coefficient index γ (ratio between eC temperature change and applied stress) for strains of 2-5 and 4-7 are γ2-5=4.4 K MPa(-1) and γ4-7=1.6 K MPa(-1), respectively, demonstrating the advantage of the strain regime 2-5. Finally, a high-cycle test up to 1.7×10(5) cycles is successfully applied to the NR sample with very little degradation of eC properties, constituting an important step towards cooling applications.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  4. A review on in situ stiffness adjustment methods in MEMS

    de Laat, M. L. C.; Pérez Garza, H. H.; Herder, J. L.; Ghatkesar, M. K.


    In situ stiffness adjustment in microelectromechanical systems is used in a variety of applications such as radio-frequency mechanical filters, energy harvesters, atomic force microscopy, vibration detection sensors. In this review we provide designers with an overview of existing stiffness adjustment methods, their working principle, and possible adjustment range. The concepts are categorized according to their physical working principle. It is concluded that the electrostatic adjustment principle is the most applied method, and narrow to wide ranges in stiffness can be achieved. But in order to obtain a wide range in stiffness change, large, complex devices were designed. Mechanical stiffness adjustment is found to be a space-effective way of obtaining wide changes in stiffness, but these methods are often discrete and require large tuning voltages. Stiffness adjustment through stressing effects or change in Young’s modulus was used only for narrow ranges. The change in second moment of inertia was used for stiffness adjustment in the intermediate range.

  5. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey


    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment.

  6. Effect of Superfine Slag Powder on HPC Properties


    A superfine slag powder (SP) made from granulated blast furnace slag incorporating activators by using special millingtechnique, was used as supplementary cementitious material in high performance concrete (HPC), replacing part ofthe mass of normal Portland cement. The effects of the SP on the workability, mechanical and crack self-healingproperties of HPC were studied. The hydration process and microstructure characteristics were investigated by X-raydiffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. The crack self-healing capacitywas evaluated by Brazilian test. The test results indicate that the SP has especially supplementary effect on waterreducing and excellent property of better control of slump loss. The concrete flowability increases remarkably withthe increase of SP replacement level in the range of 20% to 50%. The compressive and splitting tensile strengthsof HPC containing SP are higher than the corresponding strength of the control concrete at all ages. The crackself-healing ability is highly dependent on SP content of HPC.

  7. Scale effects on thermal buckling properties of carbon nanotube

    Wang Yize, E-mail: [P.O. Box 137, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Li Fengming, E-mail: [P.O. Box 137, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Kishimoto, Kikuo [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)


    In this Letter, the thermal buckling properties of carbon nanotube with small scale effects are studied. Based on the nonlocal continuum theory and the Timoshenko beam model, the governing equation is derived and the nondimensional critical buckling temperature is presented. The influences of the scale coefficients, the ratio of the length to the diameter, the transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are discussed. It can be observed that the small scale effects are significant and should be considered for thermal analysis of carbon nanotube. The nondimensional critical buckling temperature becomes higher with the ratio of length to diameter increasing. Furthermore, for smaller ratios of the length to the diameter and higher mode numbers, the transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia have remarkable influences on the thermal buckling behaviors.

  8. Effect of Ground Waste Concrete Powder on Cement Properties

    Xianwei Ma


    Full Text Available The paste/mortar attached to the recycled aggregate decreases the quality of the aggregate and needs to be stripped. The stripped paste/mortar is roughly 20% to 50% in waste concrete, but relevant research is very limited. In this paper, the effects of ground waste concrete (GWC powder, coming from the attached paste/mortar, on water demand for normal consistency, setting time, fluidity, and compressive strength of cement were analyzed. The results show that the 20% of GWC powder (by the mass of binder has little effect on the above properties and can prepare C20 concrete; when the sand made by waste red clay brick (WRB replaces 20% of river sand, the strength of the concrete is increased by 17% compared with that without WRB sand.

  9. Geometry effect on the magnetic properties of manganese zinc ferrite

    Landgraf, F.J.G.; Lazaro-Colan, V. [Polytechnic School - EPUSP, Av.Prof. Luciano Gualberto 380, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Leicht, J. [Institute for Technological Research of Sao Paulo, Almeida Prado 532, Sao Paulo 05508-901 (Brazil)], E-mail:; Janasi, S.R. [Institute for Technological Research of Sao Paulo, Almeida Prado 532, Sao Paulo 05508-901 (Brazil); Lopes, M.F. [IMAG Industria e Comercio de Componentes Eletronicos Ltda, Embaixador 74, Ribeirao Pires 09410-650 (Brazil)


    The geometry effect on the bulk magnetic properties of MnZn ferrite toroidal cores produced by the ceramic method was investigated. The MnZn ferrite powder was pressed at two different toroidal sizes and sintered, under controlled atmosphere at different temperatures. The MnZn ferrites cores were characterized according to their magnetic losses, electrical resistivity, initial permeability and Curie temperature. The total loss (200 mT, 100 kHz) in the small cores S (aspect ratio (AR)=2.84) is lower compared with the total loss in the large cores L (AR=0.79). These results show an agreement with the geometry effect observed on electrical steels.

  10. Effect of cryogenic treatment on thermal conductivity properties of copper

    Nadig, D. S.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Sampathkumaran, P.; Prashanth, C. S.


    Copper exhibits high thermal conductivity properties and hence it is extensively used in cryogenic applications like cold fingers, heat exchangers, etc. During the realization of such components, copper undergoes various machining operations from the raw material stage to the final component. During these machining processes, stresses are induced within the metal resulting in internal stresses, strains and dislocations. These effects build up resistance paths for the heat carriers which transfer heat from one location to the other. This in turn, results in reduction of thermal conductivity of the conducting metal and as a result the developed component will not perform as per expectations. In the process of cryogenic treatment, the metal samples are exposed to cryogenic temperature for extended duration of time for 24 hours and later tempered. During this process, the internal stresses and strains are reduced with refinement of the atomic structure. These effects are expected to favourably improve thermal conductivity properties of the metal. In this experimental work, OFHC copper samples were cryotreated for 24 hours at 98 K and part of them were tempered at 423K for one hour. Significant enhancement of thermal conductivity values were observed after cryotreating and tempering the copper samples.

  11. Effect of Afforestation on Soil Properties and Mycorrhizal Formation



    A study was conducted on Cambisols in Northern Germany to analyze the effect of fast growing trees (Salix and Populus spp.) used in agroforestry on soil chemical and physical properties and also on endo- and ectomycorrhizal colonization measure the topsoil inventories at the very beginning and after six (GUL), seven (VIP) and ten (ROS) years of afforestation with fast growing trees. The effect on soil organic carbon, plant available nutrients, reaction, bulk density, porosity and water conditions was analyzed. Arable soils without tree coppice were used as controls. Additionally, the endoand ectomycorrhizal colonization of two Salix and two Populus clones were investigated at one site (GUL) in 2002. The amounts of organic carbon in the topsoil increased significantly (P<0.01) presumably induced by leaf and root litter and also by the lack of tillage. The soil bulk density significantly decreased and the porosity of the soil increased significantly (both P<0.01). The proportion of medium pores in the soil also rose significantly (P<0.05 and 0.01). Generally,afforestation of arable soils improved soil water retention. Ectomycorrhizas dominated the mycorrhizal formation of the Salix and Populus clones, with the accumulation of organic matter in the topsoil suspected of supporting the ectomycorrhizal formation. Thus, agroforestry with Salix and Populus spp. conspicuously affected chemical and additionally physical properties of the top layer of Cambisols within a period of six years.

  12. Structural properties of effective potential model by liquid state theories

    Xiang Yuan-Tao; Andrej Jamnik; Yang Kai-Wei


    This paper investigates the structural properties of a model fluid dictated by an effective inter-particle oscillatory potential by grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo (GCEMC) simulation and classical liquid state theories. The chosen oscillatory potential incorporates basic interaction terms used in modeling of various complex fluids which is composed of mesoscopic particles dispersed in a solvent bath, the studied structural properties include radial distribution function in bulk and inhomogeneous density distribution profile due to influence of several external fields. The GCEMC results are employed to test the validity of two recently proposed theoretical approaches in the field of atomic fluids. One is an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory approach; the other is a third order + second order perturbation density functional theory. Satisfactory agreement between the GCEMC simulation and the pure theories fully indicates the ready adaptability of the atomic fluid theories to effective model potentials in complex fluids, and classifies the proposed theoretical approaches as convenient tools for the investigation of complex fluids under the single component macro-fluid approximation.

  13. The Effect of Visual Display Properties and Gain Presentation Mode on the Perceived Naturalness of Virtual Walking Speeds

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf


    Individuals tend to find realistic walking speeds too slow when relying on treadmill walking or Walking-In-Place (WIP) techniques for virtual travel. This paper details three studies investigating the effects of visual display properties and gain presentation mode on the perceived naturalness...... of virtual walking speeds: The first study compared three different degrees of peripheral occlusion; the second study compared three different degrees of perceptual distortion produced by varying the geometric field of view (GFOV); and the third study compared three different ways of presenting visual gains...... of the visual speed. The third study found a significant main effect of gain presentation mode. Allowing participants to interactively adjust the gain led to a smaller range of perceptually natural gains and this approach was significantly faster. However, the efficiency may come at the expense of confidence...

  14. Effect of Thermal Treatment on Fracture Properties and Adsorption Properties of Spruce Wood

    Takato Nakano


    Full Text Available The effect of thermal treatment on spruce is examined by analyzing the fracture and hygroscopic properties. Specimens were heated at temperatures within the range 120–200 °C for 1 h. Fracture energy was measured using a single-edge notched bending test and the strain-softening index was estimated by dividing the fracture energy by the maximum load. Adsorption properties were estimated using adsorption isotherms. Fiber saturation points (FSPs were estimated by extrapolating the moisture adsorption isotherm curve. Langmuir’s adsorption coefficient and number of adsorption sites were obtained using Langmuir’s theory and the Hailwood-Horrobin theory, respectively. The fracture energy, FSPs, and specimen weights decreased at temperatures higher than 150 °C, but the critical point for the strain-softening index and the number of adsorption sites was shown to be 180 °C. We hypothesize that the fracture energy and FSP depend on the chemical structure of the cell wall, whereas the strain-softening behavior may be influenced by the number of adsorption sites, and in turn the number of hydrogen bonds in hemicellulose.

  15. Metric-adjusted skew information

    Liang, Cai; Hansen, Frank


    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states...... on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 information is a special case...... of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information....

  16. Convexity Adjustments for ATS Models

    Murgoci, Agatha; Gaspar, Raquel M.

    Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes. As a re......Practitioners are used to value a broad class of exotic interest rate derivatives simply by preforming for what is known as convexity adjustments (or convexity corrections). We start by exploiting the relations between various interest rate models and their connections to measure changes....... As a result we classify convexity adjustments into forward adjustments and swaps adjustments. We, then, focus on affine term structure (ATS) models and, in this context, conjecture convexity adjustments should be related of affine functionals. In the case of forward adjustments, we show how to obtain exact...... formulas. Concretely for LIBOR in arrears (LIA) contracts, we derive the system of Riccatti ODE-s one needs to compute to obtain the exact adjustment. Based upon the ideas of Schrager and Pelsser (2006) we are also able to derive general swap adjustments useful, in particular, when dealing with constant...

  17. Adjustment computations spatial data analysis

    Ghilani, Charles D


    the complete guide to adjusting for measurement error-expanded and updated no measurement is ever exact. Adjustment Computations updates a classic, definitive text on surveying with the latest methodologies and tools for analyzing and adjusting errors with a focus on least squares adjustments, the most rigorous methodology available and the one on which accuracy standards for surveys are based. This extensively updated Fifth Edition shares new information on advances in modern software and GNSS-acquired data. Expanded sections offer a greater amount of computable problems and their worked solu

  18. 75 FR 30060 - China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation Policies on the U...


    ... COMMISSION China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation Policies on the U.S... investigation No. 332-519, China: Effects of Intellectual Property Infringement and Indigenous Innovation...: Intellectual Property Infringement, Indigenous Innovation Policies, and Frameworks for Measuring the Effects...

  19. 可调式颈椎牵引器复位颈椎脱位的效果%Effects of the adjustive tractor in treatment of cervical dislocation

    陈仲; 陈科; 靳安民; 周初松; 陈银海; 张积利; 宋德勇


    Objective To observe the clinical effects of the adjustive tractor for cervical dislocation.Methods Forty-seven patients were included between September 2007 and November 2011.There were 36 males and 11 females with age ranged from 7 to 62 (mean,35 years).The mean interval from injury to admission was 8.6 h (range,0.5-72 h).There were atlanto-occipital dislocation in 2 cases,C1.2 in 2 cases,C2.3 dislocation in 5 cases,C3.4 dislocation in 2,C4.5 in 9,C5.6 in 13,C6.7 in 14.Thirty cases were complicated by fracture.No facet locking occurred in sixteen cases.Facet locking was found in ten cases and bilateral facet locking was in 21 cases.After reduction,brace or internal fixation followed.According to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) spinal function impairment scale standard,there were 4 cases in level A,10 cases in level B,18 in C,10 in D,and 5 in E.According to Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) spinal function rating standard,the mean JOA score was 9 (range,2-14).Results All 47 cases were reduced successfully without neuronal function aggravation.Traction power ranged from 7 to 60 kg (mean,25.6 kg),the mean time of traction was 8 min (range,3-10 min).The mean follow-up was 38 (range,6-48) months.All the patients achieved normal alignment and intervertebral height.The intervertebral body fusion was observed in all of cases,the mean fusion time was 3.3 months (range,3-6 months).One patient who experienced nonunion of vertebral arch fracture didn't receive further treatment because of absence of symptoms.At last follow-up,there were 3 cases in level A,1 in level B,4 in C,8 in D,and 31 in E according to ASIA scale.The mean JOA score was 12 (range,2-17).Conclusion The adjustive tractor is simple and safe for prompt reduction.%目的 观察可调式颈椎牵引器复位颈椎骨折脱位的临床效果.方法 回顾性分析2007年9月至2011年11月治疗47例颈椎骨折脱位患者资料,男36例,女11例;年龄7~62岁,平均35岁.伤后到就诊时间0

  20. Combined effect of strontium and pyrophosphate on the properties of brushite cements.

    Alkhraisat, M Hamdan; Mariño, F Tamimi; Rodríguez, C Rueda; Jerez, L Blanco; Cabarcos, E López


    In this study we report the synthesis of strontium-containing brushite cement with good cohesion and a diametral tensile strength (DTS) of 5 MPa. The cement powder, composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and monocalcium phosphate, was adjusted by different concentrations of strontium and pyrophosphate ions. The cement liquid phase was 2M phosphoric acid solution. The cement cohesion and mechanical properties were measured after being aged in water for 24h at 37 degrees C. It was found that at low concentration both strontium and pyrophosphate ions inhibit the cement setting reaction. However, the final setting time was significantly reduced when SrCl2 increased from 5 to 10 wt.% at pyrophosphate concentrations equal to or higher than 2.16 wt.%. The incorporation of strontium ions did not increase the DTS of brushite cements significantly. In contrast, the addition of pyrophosphate ions did increase the DTS of brushite cements significantly. When both ions were added simultaneously, the brushite cement with a Sr2+ content of 5 wt.% had the highest DTS value. Nevertheless, the DTS values of Sr-containing cements were significantly reduced if the pyrophosphate concentration was higher than 2.16 wt.%. The Sr2+ ions had a negative effect on brushite cement cohesion, although the solid weight loss started to decrease at Sr2+ concentrations higher than 5 wt.%.

  1. The Effect of Cold Work on Properties of Alloy 617

    Wright, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Alloy 617 is approved for non-nuclear construction in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and Section VIII, but is not currently qualified for nuclear use in ASME Code Section III. A draft Code Case was submitted in 1992 to qualify the alloy for nuclear service but efforts were stopped before the approval process was completed.1 Renewed interest in high temperature nuclear reactors has resulted in a new effort to qualify Alloy 617 for use in nuclear pressure vessels. The mechanical and physical properties of Alloy 617 were extensively characterized for the VHTR programs in the 1980’s and incorporated into the 1992 draft Code Case. Recently, the properties of modern heats of the alloy that incorporate an additional processing step, electro-slag re-melting, have been characterized both to confirm that the properties of contemporary material are consistent with those in the historical record and to increase the available database. A number of potential issues that were identified as requiring further consideration prior to the withdrawal of the 1992 Code Case are also being re-examined in the current R&D program. Code Cases are again being developed to allow use of Alloy 617 for nuclear design within the rules of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In general the Code defines two temperature ranges for nuclear design with austenitic and nickel based alloys. Below 427°C (800°F) time dependent behavior is not considered, while above this temperature creep and creep-fatigue are considered to be the dominant life-limiting deformation modes. There is a corresponding differentiation in the treatment of the potential for effects associated with cold work. Below 427°C the principal issue is the relationship between the level of cold work and the propensity for stress corrosion cracking and above that temperature the primary concern is the impact of cold work on creep-rupture behavior.


    Iuliana Aprodu


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the rheological characteristics of yogurts obtained from milk treated with transglutaminase prior to fermentation with Streptococus theromophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus. A set of 36 experiments were carried out to test the influence of various enzyme concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.04%, different setting temperatures (35, 40 and 45 oC, and setting time (60, 90 and 120 min. The cross-linking of milk proteins influenced the post-acidification process as well as the stability of the yogurt samples. The enzymatic treatment of milk allowed avoiding the syneresis phenomena during yogurt storage at 4 oC; the water holding capacity during centrifugation was also improved. Concerning the rheological properties, the apparent viscosity of yogurt increased by increasing the enzyme concentration and the setting time for the entire tested domain of shear rates. The results indicate that transglutaminase catalyzed cross-linking is an effective tool for improving functional properties of yogurt.

  3. Effect of Precuring Warming on Mechanical Properties of Restorative Composites

    Kareem Nada


    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of prepolymerization warming on composites' mechanical properties, three composites were evaluated: Clearfil Majesty (CM (Kuraray, Z-100 (3M/ESPE, and Light-Core (LC (Bisco. Specimens were prepared from each composite at room temperature as control and 2 higher temperatures (37∘C and 54∘C to test surface hardness (SH, compressive strength (CS, and diametral tensile strength (DTS. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD tests. Results revealed that prewarming CM and Z100 specimens significantly improved their SH mean values (P<0.05. Prewarming also improved mean CS values of Z100 specimens (P<0.05. Furthermore, DTS mean value of CM prepared at 52∘ was significantly higher than that of room temperature specimens (P<0.05. KHN, CS, and DTS mean values varied significantly among the three composites. In conclusion, Prewarming significantly enhanced surface hardness of 2 composites. Prewarming also improved bulk properties of the composites; however, this improvement was significant in only some of the tested materials.

  4. Effect of fiber types on relevant properties of porous asphalt

    WU Shao-peng; LIU Gang; MO Lian-tong; CHEN Zheng; YE Qun-shan


    The research was conducted to evaluate the effects of cellulose and polyester fibers on the properties of porous asphalt mixes,using the tests of draindown,abrasion,volumetric properties,rutting,and moisture damage. Images of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray computerized tomography were adopted to identify the microstructure of the fiber and inner stone skeleton of porous asphalt. The influence of rutting parameter (G*/sinδ) of asphalt modified by different fibers on the rutting resistance of the mixes was investigated. Based upon Mohr-Coulomb theory,the cohesion and the angle of internal friction of the mixes were derived from both indirect tension and unconfined compression strength. The experimental results indicate that fibers mainly stabilize asphalt binder and thicken asphalt film around aggregates. Furthermore,they result in the improved mechanical strength of porous asphalt mixes at high temperature slightly. From comparison analysis,cellulose fibers appear to perform better than polyester fibers in porous asphalt mixes.

  5. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

    Emine; Kalkan; Akcay; Fatih; Canan; Huseyin; Simavli; Derya; Dal; Hacer; Yalniz; Nagihan; Ugurlu; Omer; Gecici; Nurullah; Cagil


    AIM: To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger’s psychobiological model of personality.METHODS: Using the Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors(17 with myopia,12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants.Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness,cooperativeness, and self-transcendence.RESULTS: Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness,cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion(P <0.05, P <0.01, P <0.05, P <0.05, and P <0.01,respectively).CONCLUSION: Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy.

  6. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen


    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  7. Generation-X mirror technology development plan and the development of adjustable x-ray optics

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William; O'Dell, Stephen; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Tolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William


    Generation-X is being studied as an extremely high resolution, very large area grazing incidence x-ray telescope. Under a NASA Advanced Mission Concepts Study, we have developed a technology plan designed to lead to the 0.1 arcsec (HPD) resolution adjustable optics with 50 square meters of effective area necessary to meet Generation-X requirements. We describe our plan in detail. In addition, we report on our development activities of adjustable grazing incidence optics via the fabrication of bimorph mirrors. We have successfully deposited thin-film piezo-electric material on the back surface of thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors. We also report on initial finite element modeling of adjustable grazing incidence mirrors; in particular, we examine the impact of how the mirrors are supported - the boundary conditions - on the deformations which can be achieved.

  8. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    Knobloch, Silvia


    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  9. Study on the Nature of Property Rights, Equity Incentive and the Dynamic Adjustment of Capital Structure%关于产权性质、股权激励与资本结构的动态调整研究

    翟胜宝; 曹学勤


    On the basis of the researches made by scholars both at home and abroad , this study , in allusion to the dynamic change of the capital structure of listed companies , deduces the relationship between the company's equity incentive plan and the dynamic change of capital structure through taking equity incentive as breakthrough point , taking principal-agent theory and property rights theory as theoretical basis , and combining with China's system background ( different nature of company's property rights ) .It is indicated that equity incentive will play a different role in the enterprises with different nature of the property rights , and will produce different effects on the dynamic change of capital structure .%在充分借鉴国内外学者研究的基础上,针对上市公司的资本结构动态变化,以股权激励为切入点,并以委托代理理论和产权理论为基础,结合中国的制度背景---公司的产权性质差异,从理论上推导出公司的股权激励计划与资本结构动态变化之间的关系,并得出在不同产权性质的企业中,股权激励会发挥不同的作用,从而对资本结构的动态变化会产生不同的影响。

  10. Effects of biodrying process on municipal solid waste properties.

    Tambone, F; Scaglia, B; Scotti, S; Adani, F


    In this paper, the effect of biodrying process on municipal solid waste (MSW) properties was studied. The results obtained indicated that after 14d, biodrying reduced the water content of waste, allowing the production of biodried waste with a net heating value (NHV) of 16,779±2,074kJ kg(-1) wet weight, i.e. 41% higher than that of untreated waste. The low moisture content of the biodried material reduced, also, the potential impacts of the waste, i.e. potential self-ignition and potential odors production. Low waste impacts suggest to landfill the biodried material obtaining energy via biogas production by waste re-moistening, i.e. bioreactor. Nevertheless, results of this work indicate that biodrying process because of the partial degradation of the organic fraction contained in the waste (losses of 290g kg(-1) VS), reduced of about 28% the total producible biogas.

  11. Effect of pressurization on antibacterial properties of Lactobacillus strains

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Grześkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold


    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of high pressures on antibacterial properties of selected strains of the Lactobacillus species. Cultures of 22 strains were subjected to high-pressure treatment at 30, 60, 90, and 300 MPa/1 min/18 °C. The susceptibility of the bacteria pressurized at 30-90 MPa was diversified and depended on the strain and not on its species affiliation. When compared with pressures of 30-90 MPa, the pressure treatment at 300 MPa caused the inhibition of the acidifying activity of the strains analyzed. In turn, the pressures applied had no impact on the quantity of hydrogen peroxide synthesized. An increase in pressure was accompanied by a diminishing antibacterial activity of the investigated Lactobacillus strains.

  12. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca


    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties.

  13. Effects of cell size on compressive properties of aluminum foam

    CAO Xiao-qing; WANG Zhi-hua; MA Hong-wei; ZHAO Long-mao; YANG Gui-tong


    The effects of cell size on the quasi-static and dynamic compressive properties of open cell aluminum foams produced by infiltrating process were studied experimentally. The quasi-static and dynamic compressive tests were carried out on MTS 810 system and SHPB(split Hopkinson pressure bar) respectively. It is found that the elastic moduli and compressive strengths of the studied aluminum foam are not only dependent on the relative density but also dependent on the cell size of the foam under both quasi-static loading and dynamic loading. The foams studied show a significant strain rate sensitivity, the flow strength can be improved as much as 112%, and the cell size also has a sound influence on the strain rate sensitivity of the foams. The foams of middle cell size exhibit the highest elastic modulus, the highest flow strength and the most significant strain rate sensitivity.

  14. Effect of corylus clusters on the physicochemical properties of soil


    Soil sample plots were specified and the soil in layer A0, A1 and AB were collected in MaoershanForest Experiment Farm of Northeast Forestry University for study of the effect of corylus clusters on soil in 1999. The result shows that the pH value, contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-discomposed nitrogen and total phosphorus under the corylus clusters are higher than that under the non-corylus clusters, except the available phosphorus content. The number of soil granular aggregates or the water stable aggregates under corylus clusters is more than that under the non-corylus clusters. The corylus clusters play an important role in improving the physicochemical properties of the soil, which should be conserved and developed in the forestry production.

  15. Effects of Factors on Open-End Rotor Yarn Properties

    Gözde BUHARALI


    Full Text Available Open-end rotor spinning system, which was begun to be used commercially during late 1960s, is now used as successfully as the conventional ring spinning system. Thanks to open-end rotor yarn spinning machines are very suitable to automation and have high production speeds, use of these machines have increased permanently and today open-end rotor yarn spinning in the world has a share of about 30%. In open-end rotor spinning system yarn properties and production are effected from three main parameters. They are material, sliver preparing process and machine parameters. In this system which manufacture with very high-speed and uses a high-tech, parameters must be selected carefully to ensure best yarn quality with high performance in yarn production

  16. Effect of temperature on tribological properties of palm biodiesel

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Sia, S.Y.; Fazal, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel is steadily gaining attention to replace petroleum diesel partially or completely. The tribological performance of biodiesel is crucial for its application in automobiles. In the present study, effect of temperature on the tribological performance of palm biodiesel was investigated by using four ball wear machine. Tests were conducted at temperatures 30, 45, 60 and 75 C, under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at speed 1200 rpm. For each temperature, the tribological properties of petroleum diesel (B0) and three biodiesel blends like B10, B20, B50 were investigated and compared. During the wear test, frictional torque was recorded on line. Wear scars in tested ball were investigated by optical microscopy. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature. (author)

  17. Effect of pressure on the phonon properties of europium chalcogenides

    U K Sakalle; P K Jha; S P Sanyal


    Lattice vibrational properties of europium chalcogenides have been investigated at high pressure by using a simple lattice dynamical model theory viz. the three-body force rigid ion model (TRIM) which includes long range three-body interaction arising due to charge transfer effects. The dispersion curves for the four Eu-chalcogenides agree reasonably well with the available experimental data. Variation of LO, TO, LA and TA phonons with pressure have also been studied at the symmetry points of the brillouin zone (BZ) for Euchalcogenides for the first time by using a lattice dynamical model theory. We have also calculated the one phonon density of states and compared them with the first order Raman scattering results. The calculation of one phonon density of states for Eu-chalcogenides has also been extended up to the phase transition pressure. We observed a pronounced shift in phonon spectrum as pressure is increased.

  18. Trust with Private and Common Property: Effects of Stronger Property Right Entitlements

    James C. Cox


    Full Text Available Is mutually beneficial cooperation in trust games more prevalent with private property or common property? Does the strength of property right entitlement affect the answer? Cox, Ostrom, Walker, et al. [1] report little difference between cooperation in private and common property trust games. We assign stronger property right entitlements by requiring subjects to meet a performance quota in a real effort task to earn their endowments. We report experiment treatments with sequential choice and strategy responses. We find that cooperation is lower in common property trust games than in private property trust games, which is an idiosyncratic prediction of revealed altruism theory [2]. Demonstrable differences and similarities between our strategy response and sequential choice data provide insight into the how these protocols can yield different results from hypothesis tests even when they are eliciting the same behavioral patterns across treatments.

  19. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz;


    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...

  20. 手法调整治疗骶髂关节半脱位%Study on the curative effect of adjusting manipulation in the treatment of semiluxation of sacroiliac joint

    王正琴; 杜建明


    目的:比较针灸加手法松解和手法调整两种方法治疗骶髂关节半脱位的疗效.方法:67例骶髂关节半脱位患者,随机分为两组,治疗组36例,对照组31例,分别进行手法调整和针灸加手法松解治疗.结果:治疗3个疗程后对疗效进行评价,手法调整的临床疗效忱于针灸加手法松解疗法,差异有统计学意义(Z=-3.399,P=0.001).结论:手法调整治疗骶髂关节半脱位效果满意,值得在临床推广.%Objective :To compare the curative effects between the method of acupuncture combiner] with relaxation manipulation and the method of adjusting manipulation in the treatment of semiluxation of sacroiliac joint. Method$:5ixty-seven patients with semiluxation of sacroiliac joint were randomly divided into 2 groups. Thirty-six cases in the treatment group were administrated with adjusting manipulation, while the others in the control group were administrated with acupuncture combined with relaxation manipulation. Results; The curative effects of the patients were evaluated after 3 courses of the treatment. The clinical curative effect of adjusting manipulation was better than that of acupuncture combined with relaxation manipulation,and there was statistical difference between the 2 groups{Z - -3. 399 , /* = 0.001 ). Conclusion;The method of adjusting manipulation performs well in the treatment of semiluxstion of sacroiliac is worth popularizing in the clinic.

  1. Substituent Effects on the Absorption and Fluorescence Properties of Anthracene.

    Abou-Hatab, Salsabil; Spata, Vincent A; Matsika, Spiridoula


    Substitution can be used to efficiently tune the photophysical properties of chromophores. In this study, we examine the effect of substituents on the absorption and fluorescence properties of anthracene. The effects of mono-, di-, and tetrasubstitution of electron-donating and -withdrawing functional groups were explored. In addition, the influence of a donor-acceptor substituent pair and the position of substitution were investigated. Eleven functional groups were varied on positions 1, 2, and 9 of anthracene, and on position 6 of 2-methoxyanthracene and 2-carboxyanthracene. Moreover, the donor-acceptor pair NH2/CO2H was added on different positions of anthracene for additional studies of doubly substituted anthracenes. Finally, we looked into quadruple substitutions on positions 1,4,5,8 and 2,3,6,7. Vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths were computed using density functional theory with the hybrid CAM-B3LYP functional and 6-311G(d) basis set. Correlations between the excitation energies or oscillator strengths of the low-lying bright La state and the Hammett sigma parameter, σp(+), of the substituents were examined. The energy is red-shifted for all cases of substitution. Oscillator strengths increase when substituents are placed along the direction of the transition dipole moment of the bright La excited state. Substitution of long chain conjugated groups significantly increases the oscillator strength in comparison to the cases for other substituents. In addition, the results of quadruply substituted geometries reveal symmetric substitution at the 1,4,5,8 positions significantly increases the oscillator strength and can lower the band gap compared to that of the unsubstituted anthracene molecule by up to 0.5 eV.

  2. Effects of surfactant on properties of MIM feedstock

    LI Yi-min; LIU Xiang-quan; LUO Feng-hua; YUE Jian-ling


    Effects of the surfactant for improving the properties of MIM feedstock were investigated. Feedstocks were prepared by 17-4PH stainless steel(SS) powder and paraffin wax-based binder containing different contents of stearic acid(SA) as the surfactant. The viscosity of the feedstock decreases significantly when the SA is added. Besides, the wetting angle of the binder against the 17-4PH SS powder decreases greatly and the critical solid loading increases with the adding of the SA. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy(FTIR) analysis was used to prove the interaction between the SA and the 17-4PH SS powder. Chemical bonding is found on the surface of 17-4PH SS powder after mixing and it helps a lot to enhance the interacting force between the binder and the powder. Then an adsorbing model was adopted to estimate the least content of the surfactant that formed a monolayer adsorption on the mono-sized spherical powder (with smooth surface). The least content of the surfactant is calculated to be 0.19%. Whereas, the experiments indicate that about 5% is the optimal value to improve the properties of the feedstock. The reason may come from two aspects: firstly, the powders used in current experiment are not all mono-sized spheres and the coarse surface of the powder has a great effect on the adsorptive capacity of the powder; secondly, multilayer adsorption is likely to occur on the powder surface, which will also increase the adsorptive capacity.

  3. Bayes linear covariance matrix adjustment

    Wilkinson, Darren J


    In this thesis, a Bayes linear methodology for the adjustment of covariance matrices is presented and discussed. A geometric framework for quantifying uncertainties about covariance matrices is set up, and an inner-product for spaces of random matrices is motivated and constructed. The inner-product on this space captures aspects of our beliefs about the relationship between covariance matrices of interest to us, providing a structure rich enough for us to adjust beliefs about unknown matrices in the light of data such as sample covariance matrices, exploiting second-order exchangeability and related specifications to obtain representations allowing analysis. Adjustment is associated with orthogonal projection, and illustrated with examples of adjustments for some common problems. The problem of adjusting the covariance matrices underlying exchangeable random vectors is tackled and discussed. Learning about the covariance matrices associated with multivariate time series dynamic linear models is shown to be a...

  4. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Lansford, Jennifer E


    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  5. Nuclear Quantum Effects on Aqueous Electron Attachment and Redox Properties.

    Rybkin, Vladimir V; VandeVondele, Joost


    Nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) on the reduction and oxidation properties of small aqueous species (CO2, HO2, and O2) are quantified and rationalized by first-principles molecular dynamics and thermodynamic integration. Vertical electron attachment, or electron affinity, and detachment energies (VEA and VDE) are strongly affected by NQEs, decreasing in absolute value by 0.3 eV going from a classical to a quantum description of the nuclei. The effect is attributed to NQEs that lessen the solvent response upon oxidation/reduction. The reduction of solvent reorganization energy is expected to be general for small solutes in water. In the thermodynamic integral that yields the free energy of oxidation/reduction, these large changes enter with opposite sign, and only a small net effect (0.1 eV) remains. This is not obvious for CO2, where the integrand is strongly influenced by NQEs due to the onset of interaction of the reduced orbital with the conduction band of the liquid during thermodynamic integration. We conclude that NQEs might not have to be included in the computation of redox potentials, unless high accuracy is needed, but are important for VEA and VDE calculations.

  6. Effect of solids on pulp and froth properties in flotation



    Froth flotation is a widely used process of particle separation exploiting differences in surface properties. It is important to point out that overall flotation performance (grade and recovery) is a consequence of the quality and quantity of the solid particles collected from the pulp phase, transported into the froth phase, and surviving as bubble-particle aggregates into the overflow. This work will focus on studying these phenomena and will incorporate the effects of particle hydrophobicities in the 3-phase system. Solids are classed as either hydrophilic non-sulphide gangue (e.g. silica, talc), hydrophilic sulphide (e.g. pyrite), or hydrophobic sulphide (e.g. sphalerite). Talc is a surface-active species of gangue that has been shown to behave differently from silica (frother adsorbs on the surface of talc particles). Both are common components of ores and will be studied in detail. The focus of this work is to investigate the role of solids on pulp hydrodynamics, froth bubble coalescence intensity, water overflow rate with solids present, and in particular, the interactions between solids, frother and gas on the gas dispersion parameters. The results show that in the pulp zone there is no effect of solids on bubble size and gas holdup;in the froth zone, although hydrophilic particles solely do not effect on the water overflow rate, hydrophobic particles produce higher intensity of rates on water overflow and bubble coalescence, and many be attributed to the water reattachment.

  7. Effects of historic charcoal burning on soil properties

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas; Buras, Allan; van der Maaten, Ernst; Takla, Melanie; Räbiger, Christin; Cruz Garcia, Roberto; Wilmking, Martin


    In Northeastern Germany the production of ironware between the 16th and 19th century left behind a remarkable amount of charcoal kiln remains. At the study site in the forests north of Cottbus, Rubic Brunic Arenosols are developed on Weichselian glaciofluvial deposits. Remote sensing surveys, underpinned by archaeological studies, show that charcoal was gained from several thousand kilns. The round charcoal kiln remains with inner diameters up to 20 m are smooth platforms elevated a few decimeters higher than the surrounding area. The remaining mounds consist of an about 40 cm thick sheet containing residuals of the charcoal production process such as charcoal fragments, ash but also organic material covering the Rubic Brunic Arenosols. The charcoal kiln remains are distanced only up to 100 m from each other. For the 32 square kilometers large study site, the ground area covered by such charcoal production residuals is about 0.5 square kilometer, i.e. 1.5% of the study area. The charcoal kiln sites are a remarkable carbon accumulator on the sandy parent material. Against this background, we aim to characterize the effects of pyrolysis and the enrichment of carbon, induced by the charcoal production, on soil properties. Field work was done during archaeological rescue excavations on three charcoal kiln relicts having diameters of about 15 m. We applied 150 l of Brilliant Blue solution on six 1 square meter plots (three inside, three outside of the charcoal kiln mound) and afterwards trenched horizontal and vertical profiles for recording the staining patterns. Undisturbed soil samples to study soil micromorphology and further undisturbed samples for characterizing soil physical and hydraulic properties were taken. Outside of the charcoal kiln remain the Brilliant Blue solution drained within less than 10 minutes, whereas on the charcoal kiln remains the draining took between 20 and 40 minutes. Preliminary laboratory analyses underline the findings from the field and

  8. Adjustments to financial and social benefits

    HR Department


    In accordance with recommendations made by the Finance Committee in November 2009 and decisions taken by the Council in December 2009, certain financial benefits have been adjusted with effect from 1 January 2010. An increase of 1.6% has been applied to the scale of basic salaries and to stipends paid to Fellows (Annexes R A 5 and R A 6 of the Staff Rules and Regulations, respectively). The adjusted amounts are available from the HR Department intranet site or from departmental secretariats. As a result of the evolution of the Geneva consumer price index, no adjustments have been made to the subsistence allowances of Paid Associates and Students (Annex R A 7 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). The following social benefits also remain unchanged: Family, child and infant allowances (Annex R A 3 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Payment ceilings of education fees (Annex R A 4 of the Staff Rules and Regulations). Tel. 70674 (Classification and Remuneration Service)

  9. Towards Adjustable Autonomy for the Real World

    Pynadath, D V; Tambe, M; 10.1613/jair.1037


    Adjustable autonomy refers to entities dynamically varying their own autonomy, transferring decision-making control to other entities (typically agents transferring control to human users) in key situations. Determining whether and when such transfers-of-control should occur is arguably the fundamental research problem in adjustable autonomy. Previous work has investigated various approaches to addressing this problem but has often focused on individual agent-human interactions. Unfortunately, domains requiring collaboration between teams of agents and humans reveal two key shortcomings of these previous approaches. First, these approaches use rigid one-shot transfers of control that can result in unacceptable coordination failures in multiagent settings. Second, they ignore costs (e.g., in terms of time delays or effects on actions) to an agent's team due to such transfers-of-control. To remedy these problems, this article presents a novel approach to adjustable autonomy, based on the notion of a transfer-of...

  10. N3LO NN interaction adjusted to light nuclei in ab exitu approach

    Shirokov, A. M.; Shin, I. J.; Kim, Y.; Sosonkina, M.; Maris, P.; Vary, J. P.


    We use phase-equivalent transformations to adjust off-shell properties of similarity renormalization group evolved chiral effective field theory NN interaction (Idaho N3LO) to fit selected binding energies and spectra of light nuclei in an ab exitu approach. We then test the transformed interaction on a set of additional observables in light nuclei to verify that it provides reasonable descriptions of these observables with an apparent reduced need for three- and many-nucleon interactions.

  11. The effect of emulsifying wax on the physical properties of CTAB-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    Siddiqui, Akhtar; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Nazzal, Sami


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cetyl alcohol (CA) and Tween® 60 (polysorbate), the primary components of emulsifying wax, on the size, zeta potential and stability of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by D-optimal mixture design. A binary CTAB/polysorbate surfactant blend did not offer an advantage over a simple CTAB-stabilized SLN. This led to the conclusion that emulsifying wax could be readily substituted with CA in simple SLNs based on binary CTAB/CA blends. Polysorbate, however, may be added as a co-emulsifier to adjust the physical properties of the nanoparticles, as dictated by the formulator.


    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Hay, M.


    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is pursuing alternative reductants/flowsheets to increase attainment to meet closure commitment dates. In fiscal year 2009, SRNL evaluated several options and recommended the further assessment of the nitric/formic/glycolic acid flowsheet. SRNL is currently performing testing with this flowsheet to support the DWPF down-select of alternate reductants. As part of the evaluation, SRNL was requested to determine the physical properties of formic and glycolic acid blends. Blends of formic acid in glycolic acid were prepared and their physical properties tested. Increasing amounts of glycolic acid led to increases in blend density, viscosity and surface tension as compared to the 90 wt% formic acid that is currently used at DWPF. These increases are small, however, and are not expected to present any difficulties in terms of processing. The effect of sulfur impurities in technical grade glycolic acid was studied for its impact on DWPF glass quality. While the glycolic acid specification allows for more sulfate than the current formic acid specification, the ultimate impact is expected to be on the order of 0.03 wt% sulfur in glass. Note that lower sulfur content glycolic acid could likely be procured at some increased cost if deemed necessary. A paper study on the effects of radiation on glycolic acid was performed. The analysis indicates that substitution of glycolic acid for formic acid would not increase the radiolytic production rate of H{sub 2} and cause an adverse effect in the SRAT or SME process. It has been cited that glycolic acid solutions that are depleted of O{sub 2} when subjected to large radiation doses produced considerable quantities of a non-diffusive polymeric material. Considering a constant air purge is maintained in the SRAT and the solution is continuously mixed, oxygen depletion seems unlikely, however, if this polymer is formed in the SRAT solution, the rheology of the solution may be affected and

  13. Effects of Polymer Impregnation on Properties of Bamboo



    Full Text Available This research is targeted to investigate the effects of polymer impregnation on the properties of bamboo. Polymer impregnation can improve adhesion of flattened bamboo and also improve the resistance of polymer-impregnated bamboo to fungi. During the flattening bamboo process, linseed oil was used as a processing aid. Two different kinds of solvents, methanol and ethanol, were used to extract linseed oil. Weights of samples before and after extraction were compared. Ethanol is a better solvent than methanol to extract linseed oil since weight loss is higher. The flattened bamboo samples were adhered together by phenol-formaldehyde (PF adhesive or polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI adhesive. The adhesion test was performed in shear mode. Sample extracted with ethanol and adhered by MDI gave a maximum shear stress of 5.84 MPa while samples extracted with methanol and adhered by PF gave only 2.45 MPa. A higher percentage of wood failure was observed in samples with higher adhesion strength. In durability to fungi, a polymer-wood composite was made by impregnation of methyl methacrylate in the wood under vacuum. The composite showed better resistance to fungi, especially, in nodes. Nodes have a lower densities and less effective packing of fibers than internodes. Therefore monomers can diffuse into node and then polymerize. More polymer loading gives better durability to fungi.

  14. Megasonic cleaning: effect of dissolved gas properties on cleaning

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter


    Current and future lithography techniques require complex imaging improvement strategies. These imaging improvement strategies require printing of sub-resolution assist-features (SRAF) on photomasks. The size of SRAF's has proven to be the main limiting factor in using high power Megasonic cleaning process on photomasks. These features, due to high aspect ratio are more prone to damage at low Megasonic frequencies and at high Megasonic powers. Additionally the non-uniformity of energy dissipated during Megasonic cleaning is a concern for exceeding the damage threshold of the SRAFs. If the cavitation events during Megasonic cleaning are controlled in way to dissipate uniform energy, better process control can be achieved to clean without damage. The amount and type of gas dissolved in the cleaning liquid defines the cavitation behavior. Some of the gases possess favourable solubility and adiabatic properties for stable and controlled cavitation behaviour. This paper particularly discusses the effects of dissolved Ar gas on Megasonic characteristics. The effect of Ar Gas is characterized by measuring acoustic energy and Sonoluminscense. The phenomenon is further verified with pattern damage studies.

  15. Constraining the surface properties of effective Skyrme interactions

    Jodon, R; Bennaceur, K; Meyer, J


    The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to identify a scheme for the determination of the surface energy coefficient a_surf that offers the best compromise between robustness, precision, and numerical efficiency; second, to analyze the correlation between values for a_surf and the characteristic energies of the fission barrier of Pu240; and third, to lay out a procedure how the deformation properties of the Skyrme energy density functional (EDF) can be constrained during the parameter fit. There are several frequently used possibilities to define and calculate the surface energy coefficient a_surf of effective interactions. The most direct access is provided by the model system of semi-infinite nuclear matter, but a_surf can also be extracted from the systematics of binding energies of finite nuclei. Calculations can be carried out either self-consistently (HF), which incorporates quantal shell effects, or in one of the semi-classical Extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) or Modified Thomas-Fermi (MTF) approxima...

  16. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron


    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  17. The Effect of Fiber Geometry and Interfacial Properties on the Elastic Properties of Cementitious Nanocomposite Material

    Ala G. Abu Taqa


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the elastic (Young’s modulus of carbon Nanotube- (CNT- reinforced cement paste using 3D and axisymmetric models using Abaqus software. The behavior of the CNT and the cement matrix was assumed to be fully elastic while the cohesive surface framework was used to model the interface. To investigate the effect of fiber waviness on the value of the elastic modulus, 3D models were developed assuming different distributions of fibers. The results obtained using the 3D model were compared to those obtained using the simplified three-phase axisymmetric model which consists of one single CNT aligned in the center of composite unit cell, an interface, and cement matrix. A parametric study was then carried out using the axisymmetric model to study the role of the interface in the composite elastic modulus without accounting for the presence of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ or interphase. The results showed that the CNTs waviness significantly reduced their reinforcing capability in the cement paste. On the other hand, the results obtained using the axisymmetric model were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using the 3D model. Moreover, the results of the parametric study showed that the interface properties significantly affect the composite elastic modulus and alter its behavior.

  18. Cover Crops Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Onion Yield

    Rodolfo Assis de Oliveira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops contribute to nutrient cycling and may improve soil chemical properties and, consequently, increase crop yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate cover crop residue decomposition and nutrient release, and the effects of these plants on soil chemical properties and on onion (Allium cepa L. yield in a no-tillage system. The experiment was carried out in an Inceptisol in southern Brazil, where cover crops were sown in April 2012 and 2013. In July 2013, shoots of weeds (WD, black oats (BO, rye (RY, oilseed radish (RD, oilseed radish + black oats (RD + BO, and oilseed radish + rye (RD + RY were cut at ground level and part of these material from each treatment was placed in litter bags. The litter bags were distributed on the soil surface and were collected at 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days after distribution (DAD. The residues in the litter bags were dried, weighed, and ground, and then analyzed to quantify lignin, cellulose, non-structural biomass, total organic carbon (TOC, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. In November 2012 and 2013, onion crops were harvested to quantify yield, and bulbs were classified according to diameter, and the number of rotted and flowering bulbs was determined. Soil in the 0.00-0.10 m layer was collected for chemical analysis before transplanting and after harvesting onion in December 2012 and 2013. The rye plant residues presented the highest half-life and they released less nutrients until 90 DAD. The great permanence of rye residue was considered a protection to soil surface, the opposite was observed with spontaneous vegetation. The cultivation and addition of dry residue of cover crops increased the onion yield at 2.5 Mg ha-1.


    Vanessa Martins


    Full Text Available The current high price of potassium chloride and the dependence of Brazil on imported materials to supply the domestic demand call for studies evaluating the efficiency of alternative sources of nutrients. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of silicate rock powder and a manganese mining by-product, and secondary materials originated from these two materials, on soil chemical properties and on brachiaria production. This greenhouse experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico - Oxisol. The alternative nutrient sources were: verdete, verdete treated with NH4OH, phonolite, ultramafic rock, mining waste and the proportion of 75 % of these K fertilizers and 25 % lime. Mixtures containing 25 % of lime were heated at 800 ºC for 1 h. These sources were applied at rates of 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg ha-1 K2O, and incubated for 45 days. The mixtures of heated silicate rocks with lime promoted higher increases in soil pH in decreasing order: ultramafic rock>verdete>phonolite>mining waste. Applying the mining waste-lime mixture increased soil exchangeable K, and available P when ultramafic rock was incorporated. When ultramafic rock was applied, the release of Ca2+ increased significantly. Mining subproduct released the highest amount of Zn2+ and Mn2+ to the soil. The application of alternative sources of K, with variable chemical composition, altered the nutrient availability and soil chemical properties, improving mainly plant development and K plant uptake, and are important nutrient sources.

  20. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk


    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  1. Effects of fly ash fineness on the mechanical properties of concrete

    Şemsi Yazici; Hasan Şahan Arel


    The present study reviews the effects of fly ash fineness on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concretes. A fly ash of lignite origin with Blaine fineness of 2351 cm2/g was ground in a ball mill. As a consequence of the grinding process, fly ashes with fineness of 3849 cm2/g and 5239 cm2/g were obtained. Fly ashes with three different fineness were used instead of cement of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% and ten different types of concrete mixture were produced. In the concrete mixtures, the dosage of binder and water/cement ratio were fixed at 350 kg/m3 and 0.50, respectively. Slump values for the concretes were adjusted to be 100 ± 20 mm. Cubic samples were cast with edges of 100 mm. The specimens were cured in water at 20° C. At the end of curing process, compressive and splitting tensile strengths of the concrete samples were determined at 7, 28, 56, 90, 120 and 180 days. It was observed that compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concretes was affected by fineness of fly ash in short-and long-terms. It was found that compressive and tensile strength of the concretes increased as fly ash fineness increased. It was concluded that Blaine fineness value should be above 3849 cm2/g fineness of fly ash to have positive impact on mechanical properties of concrete. The effects of fly ash fineness on the compressive and splitting tensile strength of the concretes were remarkably seen in the fly ash with FAC code with fineness of 5235 cm2/g.

  2. The multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution and its application in forensic genetics to adjust for subpopulation effects using the θ-correction

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels


    -correction can be incorporated in Bayesian networks to make efficient computations by modifying the Markov structure of Cowell et al. (2015). By numerical examples, we show how the θ-correction incorporated in the multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution affects the weight of evidence....... probabilities due to remote ancestry in the population is often done using the so-called θ-correction. This correction increases the probability of observing multiple copies of rare alleles in a subpopulation and thereby reduces the weight of the evidence for rare genotypes. A recent publication by Cowell et al......In this paper, we discuss the construction of a multivariate generalisation of the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution. An example from forensic genetics in the statistical analysis of DNA mixtures motivates the study of this multivariate extension. In forensic genetics, adjustment of the match...

  3. Field Observations of the Effects of Explosives on Snow Properties

    Wooldridge, R.; Hendrikx, J.; Miller, D. A.; Birkeland, K.


    Explosives are a critically important component of avalanche control programs. They are used to both initiate avalanches and to test snowpack instability by ski areas, highway departments and other avalanche programs around the world. Current understanding of the effects of explosives on snow is mainly limited to shock wave behavior demonstrated through stress wave velocities, pressures and attenuation. This study seeks to enhance current knowledge of how explosives physically alter snow by providing practical, field-based observations and analyses that quantify the effect of explosives on snow density, snow hardness and snow stability test results. Density, hardness and stability test results were evaluated both before and after the application of 0.9 kg cast pentolite boosters as air blasts. Changes in these properties were evaluated at specified distances up to 4 meters (m) from the blast center using a density gauge, hand hardness, Compression Tests (CTs), and Extended Column Tests (ECTs). Statistically significant density increases occurred out to a distance of 1.5 m from the blast center and down to a depth of 60 centimeters (cm). Statistically significant density increases were also observed at the surface (down to 20 cm) out to a distance of 4 m. Hardness increased slightly at the surface and at the bottom of the snowpack (depths of 80-100 cm), while decreasing slightly in the middle of the snowpack (depths of 30-60 cm). Results from CTs showed a decrease in the number of taps needed for column failure in the post explosive tests, while a smaller data set of ECT results showed no overall change in ECT score. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of the physical changes in snow following explosives, which may lead to more effective and efficient avalanche risk mitigation.

  4. Psychological Adjustment in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Stanton, Annette L; Bower, Julienne E


    Women living with a diagnosis of breast cancer constitute more than 20 % of the cancer survivor population in the United States. Research on trajectories of psychological adjustment in women recently diagnosed with breast suggests that the largest proportion of women evidences relatively low psychological distress either from the point of diagnosis or after a period of recovery. Substantial heterogeneity exists, however, and some women are at risk for lingering depression, anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence and other long-term psychological effects. Most women diagnosed with breast cancer also report a number of benefits that arise from their experience of cancer. Longitudinal studies have illuminated risk and protective factors for psychological adjustment in breast cancer survivors, which we describe in this chapter. Effective psychosocial interventions, as evidenced in randomized controlled trials, also are available for bolstering breast cancer-related adjustment. We offer directions for research to deepen the understanding of biological, psychological, and social contributors to positive adjustment in the context of breast cancer, as well as suggestions for the development of optimally efficient evidence-based psychosocial interventions for women living with the disease.

  5. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul


    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  6. Inverse probability weighting for covariate adjustment in randomized studies.

    Shen, Changyu; Li, Xiaochun; Li, Lingling


    Covariate adjustment in randomized clinical trials has the potential benefit of precision gain. It also has the potential pitfall of reduced objectivity as it opens the possibility of selecting a 'favorable' model that yields strong treatment benefit estimate. Although there is a large volume of statistical literature targeting on the first aspect, realistic solutions to enforce objective inference and improve precision are rare. As a typical randomized trial needs to accommodate many implementation issues beyond statistical considerations, maintaining the objectivity is at least as important as precision gain if not more, particularly from the perspective of the regulatory agencies. In this article, we propose a two-stage estimation procedure based on inverse probability weighting to achieve better precision without compromising objectivity. The procedure is designed in a way such that the covariate adjustment is performed before seeing the outcome, effectively reducing the possibility of selecting a 'favorable' model that yields a strong intervention effect. Both theoretical and numerical properties of the estimation procedure are presented. Application of the proposed method to a real data example is presented.

  7. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I


    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  8. Rotational Baroclinic Adjustment

    Holtegård Nielsen, Steen Morten

    In stratified waters like those around Denmark there is a close correlation between the biology of the water masses and their structure and currents; this is known as dynamic biologicaloceanography. The currents are particularly strong near the fronts, which can be seen in several places throughout...... the reciprocal of the socalled Coriolis parameter, and the length scale, which is known as the Rossby radius. Also, because of their limited width currents influenced by rotation are quite persistent. The flow which results from the introduction of a surface level discontinuity across a wide channel is discussed...... of the numerical model a mechanism for the generation of along-frontal instabilities and eddies is suggested. Also, the effect of an irregular bathymetry is studied.Together with observations of wind and water levels some of the oceanographical observations from the old lightvessels are used to study...

  9. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

    Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus


    A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

  10. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.


    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  11. Effect of Chemical Structure on Molecular Properties of Hyperbranched Polycarbosilanes

    E.Tarabukina; A.Shpyrkov; A.Amirova; E.Tarasova; N.Shumilkina; A.Filippov; A.Muzafarov


    1 Results In spite of the increased interest to the synthesis of hyperbranched polymers,there is a lack of studies of conformational properties of their macromolecules.Structural features of hyperbranched polymers are responsible for new properties that distinguish them from linear compounds and open unique possibilities for their applications.The knowledge of the "structure-properties" relationships is of fundamental value,it also can be helpful when developing new technologies and new materials. The g...

  12. Prediction of formulation effects on dermal absorption of topically applied ectoparasiticides dosed in vitro on canine and porcine skin using a mixture-adjusted quantitative structure permeability relationship.

    Riviere, J E; Brooks, J D; Collard, W T; Deng, J; de Rose, G; Mahabir, S P; Merritt, D A; Marchiondo, A A


    Topical application of ectoparasiticides for flea and tick control is a major focus for product development in animal health. The objective of this work was to develop a quantitative structure permeability relationship (QSPeR) model sensitive to formulation effects for predicting absorption and skin deposition of five topically applied drugs administered in six vehicle combinations to porcine and canine skin in vitro. Saturated solutions (20 μL) of (14) C-labeled demiditraz, fipronil, permethrin, imidacloprid, or sisapronil were administered in single or binary (50:50 v/v) combinations of water, ethanol, and transcutol (6 formulations, n = 4-5 replicates per treatment) nonoccluded to 0.64 cm(2) disks of dermatomed pig or dog skin mounted in flow-through diffusion cells. Perfusate flux over 24 h and skin deposition at termination were determined. Permeability (logKp), absorption, and penetration endpoints were modeled using a four-term Abrahams and Martin (hydrogen-bond donor acidity and basicity, dipolarity/polarizability, and excess molar refractivity) linear free energy QSPeR equation with a mixture factor added to compensate for formulation ingredient interactions. Goodness of fit was judged by r(2) , cross-validation coefficient, coefficients (q(2) s), and Williams Plot to visualize the applicability domain. Formulation composition was the primary determinant of permeation. Compounds generally penetrated dog skin better than porcine skin. The vast majority of permeated penetrant was deposited within the dosed skin relative to transdermal flux, an attribute for ectoparasiticides. The best QSPeR logKp model for pig skin permeation (r(2) = 0.86, q(2) s = 0.85) included log octanol/water partition coefficient as the mixture factor, while for dogs (r(2) = 0.91, q(2) s = 0.90), it was log water solubility. These studies clearly showed that the permeation of topical ectoparasiticides could be well predicted using QSPeR models that account for both the physical

  13. Effects of temperature and Nickel content on magnetic properties of Ni-doped ZnO

    REN Lingling; JEUNG Won Young


    Magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), Ni-doped ZnO materials, prepared by sol-gel method were investigated by measuring magnetization as functions of magnetic field.The Ni content affects the magnetic properties at low sintered temperature but it has few effects on the magnetic properties at high sintered temperature.The sintered temperature has great effects on the magnetic properties of Ni/ZnO at high original mole ratio of Ni/Zn while it has slight effects on the magnetic properties of Ni/ZnO at low original mole ratio of Ni/Zn whatever low or high sintered temperature.

  14. Effect of vertical pressing and adjusting method on the joint disorder of thoracic vertebra%垂直按调法治疗胸椎小关节紊乱的疗效

    程豫; 汤春红; 诸光花; 李剑; 李宏宇


    Objective: To observe the effect of vertical pressing and adjusting method on chest stufifness caused by the joint disorder of the thoracic vertebra. Methods: Fifty patients with the chest stuffiness caused by joint disorder of the thoracic vertebra were treated with the vertical pressing and adjusting method and their changes and effects of the integration of the symptoms and signs before and after treatment were compared. Results:The score of the main symptoms and signs of the patients was 13.08±0.66 before treatment and 4.58±0.51 after treatment, and their difference had the statistic signiifcance (P<0.01). The effective rate was 88%. Conclusion:The effect of vertical pressing and adjusting method on the chest stufifness caused by joint disorders of thoracic vertebra is precise and stable.%目的:观察垂直按调法治疗胸椎小关节紊乱引起胸闷的疗效。方法:选择50例胸椎小关节紊乱引起的胸闷患者,采用垂直按调法治疗,比较治疗前后主要症状体征积分的变化及疗效。结果:治疗前患者主要症状体征积分为13.08±0.66,治疗后为4.58±0.51,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),有效率为88%。结论:垂直按调法治疗胸椎小关节紊乱所引起的胸闷疗效确切、稳定。

  15. Effects Of Crystallographic Properties On The Ice Nucleation Properties Of Volcanic Ash Particles

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Beranek, Josef; Madaan, Nitesh; Devaraj, Arun; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Varga, Tamas


    Specific chemical and physical properties of volcanic ash particles that could affect their ability to induce ice formation are poorly understood. In this study, the ice nucleating properties of size-selected volcanic ash and mineral dust particles in relation to their surface chemistry and crystalline structure at temperatures ranging from –30 to –38 °C were investigated in deposition mode. Ice nucleation efficiency of dust particles was higher compared to ash particles at all temperature and relative humidity conditions. Particle characterization analysis shows that surface elemental composition of ash and dust particles was similar; however, the structural properties of ash samples were different.

  16. Effects of crystallographic properties on the ice nucleation properties of volcanic ash particles

    Kulkarni, Gourihar; Nandasiri, Manjula; Zelenyuk, Alla; Beranek, Josef; Madaan, Nitesh; Devaraj, Arun; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Varga, Tamas


    Specific chemical and physical properties of volcanic ash particles that could affect their ability to induce ice formation are poorly understood. In this study, the ice nucleating properties of size-selected volcanic ash and mineral dust particles in relation to their surface chemistry and crystalline structure at temperatures ranging from -30 to -38°C were investigated in deposition mode. Ice nucleation efficiency of dust particles was higher compared to ash particles at all temperature and relative humidity conditions. Particle characterization analysis shows that surface elemental composition of ash and dust particles was similar; however, the structural properties of ash samples were different.

  17. Effects of cellulose whiskers on properties of soy protein thermoplastics.

    Wang, Yixiang; Cao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lina


    Environmentally-friendly SPI/cellulose whisker composites were successfully prepared using a colloidal suspension of cellulose whiskers, to reinforce soy protein isolate (SPI) plastics. The cellulose whiskers, having an average length of 1.2 microm and diameter of 90 nm, respectively, were prepared from cotton linter pulp by hydrolyzing with sulfuric acid aqueous solution. The effects of the whisker content on the morphology and properties of the glycerol-plasticized SPI composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, water-resistivity testing and tensile testing. The results indicated that, with the addition of 0 to 30 wt.-% of cellulose whiskers, strong interactions occurred both between the whiskers and between the filler and the SPI matrix, reinforcing the composites and preserving their biodegradability. Both the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the SPI/cellulose whisker composites increased from 5.8 to 8.1 MPa and from 44.7 to 133.2 MPa, respectively, at a relative humidity of 43%, following an increase of the whisker content from 0 to 30 wt.-%. Furthermore, the incorporation of the cellulose whiskers into the SPI matrix led to an improvement in the water resistance for the SPI-based composites.

  18. Meteorological and aerosol effects on marine cloud microphysical properties

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Corrigan, C. E.; Roberts, G. C.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Bertram, A. K.; Zhao, R.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Lin, J. J.; Nenes, A.; Wang, Z.; Wonaschütz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K. J.; Jonsson, H.; Toom, D.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Seinfeld, J. H.


    Meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation, cloud droplet distributions, and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets studies provided measurements in six case studies of cloud thermodynamic properties, initial particle number distribution and composition, and cloud drop distribution. In this study, we use simulations from a chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce observed cloud droplet distributions of the case studies. Four cases had subadiabatic lapse rates, resulting in fewer activated droplets, lower liquid water content, and higher cloud base height than an adiabatic lapse rate. A weighted ensemble of simulations that reflect measured variation in updraft velocity and cloud base height was used to reproduce observed droplet distributions. Simulations show that organic hygroscopicity in internally mixed cases causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (CR) (modal peak near 0.1 µm). Differences in simulated droplet spectral widths (k) caused larger differences in CR than organic hygroscopicity in cases with organic mass fractions of 60% or less for the cases shown. Finally, simulations from a numerical parameterization of cloud droplet activation suitable for general circulation models compared well with the ACP model, except under high organic mass fraction.

  19. Nanoconfinement: an effective way to enhance PVDF piezoelectric properties.

    Cauda, Valentina; Stassi, Stefano; Bejtka, Katarzyna; Canavese, Giancarlo


    The dimensional confinement and oriented crystallization are both key factors in determining the piezoelectric properties of a polymeric nanostructured material. Here we prepare arrays of one-dimensional polymeric nanowires showing piezoelectric features by template-wetting two distinct polymers into anodic porous alumina (APA) membranes. In particular, poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, and its copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), PVTF, are obtained in commercially available APA, showing a final diameter of about 200 nm and several micrometers in length, reflecting the templating matrix features. We show that the crystallization of both polymers into a ferroelectric phase is directed by the nanotemplate confinement. Interestingly, the PVDF nanowires mainly crystallize into the β-phase in the nanoporous matrix, whereas the reference thin film of PVDF crystallizes in the α nonpolar phase. In the case of the PVTF nanowires, needle-like crystals oriented perpendicularly to the APA channel walls are observed, giving insight on the molecular orientation of the polymer within the nanowire structure. A remarkable piezoelectric behavior of both 1-D polymeric nanowires is observed, upon recording ferroelectric polarization, hysteresis, and displacement loops. In particular, an outstanding piezoelectric effect is observed for the PVDF nanowires with respect to the polymeric thin film, considering that no poling was carried out. Current versus voltage (I-V) characteristics showed a consistent switching behavior of the ferroelectric polar domains, thus revealing the importance of the confined and oriented crystallization of the polymer in monodimensional nanoarchitectures.

  20. Heating Effects on Structural and Electrical Properties of Polyetherimide

    Nissaf Mzabi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Polyetherimide (PEI has several uses such as electrical insulation. It can undergo different constraints like heat or high voltage which influence its performances as insulator. In this study, the effects of heating on structural and electrical properties of polyetherimide (Ultem 1000 are studied. Approach: PEI samples were heated at different temperatures below the glass transition temperature (175, 190 and 205°C. Different complementary techniques were used to investigate structural alterations and dielectric relaxations. These are infrared (IR spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermally Stimulated Depolarisation Current (TSDC technique and Dielectric Spectroscopy (DS. Results: Physical ageing was revealed in heated samples by DSC analysis. DS and TSDC results have shown that dipolar relaxations are affected by heating. The amount of relaxing dipoles decreases when the material is heated at 190°C. Conclusion/Recommendations: The heating of polyetherimide at 190°C leads to a stabilisation of charges in deeper energetic levels which influences the insulating character of the material.

  1. Effect of pressure on the physical properties of magnetorheological fluids

    A. Spaggiari


    Full Text Available To date, several applications of magnetorheological (MR fluids are present in the industrial world, nonetheless system requirements often needs better material properties. In technical literature a previous work shows that MR fluids exhibit a pressure dependency called squeeze strengthen effect. Since a lot of MR fluid based devices are rotary devices, this paper investigates the behaviour of MR fluids under pressure when a rotation is applied to shear the fluid. The system is designed in order to apply both the magnetic field and the pressure and follows a Design of Experiment approach. The experimental apparatus comprises a cylinder in which a piston is used both to apply the pressure and to shear the fluid. The magnetic circuit is designed to provide a nearly constant induction field in the MR fluid. The experimental apparatus measures the torque as a function of the variables considered and the yield shear stress is computed. The analysis of the results shows that there is a positive interaction between magnetic field and pressure, which enhances the MR fluid performances more than twice.

  2. Effect of Concrete Waste Form Properties on Radionuclide Migration

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Skinner, De' Chauna J.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Wood, Marcus I.


    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation) the mechanism of contaminant release, the significance of contaminant release pathways, how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. Numerous sets of tests were initiated in fiscal years (FY) 2006-2009 to evaluate (1) diffusion of iodine (I) and technetium (Tc) from concrete into uncontaminated soil after 1 and 2 years, (2) I and rhenium (Re) diffusion from contaminated soil into fractured concrete, (3) I and Re (set 1) and Tc (set 2) diffusion from fractured concrete into uncontaminated soil, (4) evaluate the moisture distribution profile within the sediment half-cell, (5) the reactivity and speciation of uranium (VI) (U(VI)) compounds in concrete porewaters, (6) the rate of dissolution of concrete monoliths, and (7) the diffusion of simulated tank waste into concrete.

  3. Effect of Rubber Particle Modification on Properties of Rubberized Concrete

    ZHANG Haibo; GOU Mifeng; LIU Xiaoxing; GUAN Xuemao


    To improve the combination of cement matrix and waste tire rubber particles in concrete, the rubber particles were treated with acrylic acid (ACA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for grafting hydrophilic groups on their surfaces. The X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface contact angle were used to characterize the hydrophilicity and surface functional group of rubber particles. The effect of rubber particle modification on fresh/hardened properties of rubberized concrete was studied. The experimental results show that the contact angle between rubber particle surface and water decreases when rubber particle is modified. Compared with the unmodified rubberized concrete(RC), the unit weight of modified rubberized concrete(MRC) changes slightly. However, the slump, air-entrainment, compressive strength, flexural strength, and impact performance of MRC are obviously improved. Under good condition of slump, the water-cement ratio of the MRC can be reduced from 0.4 to 0.38. And the compressive strength and flexural strength of the MRC(10%rubber particle content) can be increased by 25.9%and 26.4%, respectively.

  4. Photoswitchable fluorescent diheteroarylethenes: substituent effects on photochromic and solvatochromic properties.

    Gillanders, Florencia; Giordano, Luciana; Díaz, Sebastián A; Jovin, Thomas M; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A


    Photoswitchable fluorescent diheteroarylethenes are promising candidates for applications in super-resolution molecular localization fluorescence microscopy thanks to their high quantum yields and fatigue-resistant photoswitching characteristics. We have studied the effect of varying substituents on the photophysical properties of six sulfone derivatives of diheteroarylethenes, which display fluorescence in one (closed form) of two thermally stable photochromic states. Electron-donating substituents displace the absorption and emission spectra towards the red without substantially affecting the fluorescence quantum yields. Furthermore, ethoxybromo, a very electron-donating substituent, stabilizes the excited state of the closed isomer to the extent of almost entirely inhibiting its cycloreversion. Multi-parameter Hammett correlations indicate a relationship between the emission maxima and electron-donating character, providing a useful tool in the design of future photochromic molecules. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibit small bathochromic shifts and shorter fluorescence lifetimes with an increase in solvent polarity. However, the ethoxybromo-substituted fluorescent photochrome is unique in its strong solvatochromic behaviour, constituting a photoactivatable (photochromic), fluorescent and highly solvatochromic small organic compound. The Catalán formalism identified solvent dipolarity as the principal basis of the solvatochromism, reflecting the highly polarized nature of this molecule.

  5. Effects of Surface Modification on the Dispersion Property of VGCF

    FU Yaqin; HAN Chunshao; NI Qingqing


    In view of the easy agglomeration issue of vapor grown carbon fiber (VGCF) and the poor interfacial adhesion between VGCF and matrix resin, two-step surface modification with hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid was performed on VGCF. The surface structure and dispersion of VGCF before and after modification were tested and analyzed by XRD, TGA, FTIR, UV-visible spectrum and SEM. Moreover, VGCF/SMPU composites were prepared via a solution mixing method taking shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) as matrix, and the mechanical properties of the composites were also tested. The graphite crystal structure of VGCF showed very little change af-ter modification, the concentration of oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of VGCF was visibly in-creased, and the dispersion and dispersion stability of VGCF in organic solvent were also clearly improved. In the cross section of the VGCF/SMPU composites, the dispersion of VGCF in matrix and the VGCF-matrix interfacial adhesion observed through SEM were both enhanced to a certain extent after surface modification. The two-step surface modified VGCF had more obvious mechanical reinforcement effects on the composites than that of the pris-tine VGCF.

  6. Effects of concentration and temperature on tribological properties of biodiesel

    De-Xing Peng


    Full Text Available For tribologists, continuing challenges in engine design include reduced emissions and increased operating temperatures. Regulating the sulfur content in diesel fuel is expected to reduce the lubricity of these fuels, which may result in increased wear and damage of fuel injection systems in diesel engines. However, the use of biodiesel improves lubricity and cetane number requirements, particularly in ultra-low sulfur petro-diesel. In this study, the effect of temperature on the tribological properties of palm biodiesel was investigated using a wear machine. Palm biodiesel was used as a lubricating additive to petro-diesel at six concentrations of 2%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50%, and 100%, and these biodiesel blends were named as B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, and B100, respectively. The tribological experiments were performed using the ball-on-ring method. Tests were conducted at 30°C, 60°C, 90°C, and 120°C, under a normal load of 50 N for 2 h and at a speed of 500 r/min. The wear scar diameter and the worn surface of tribopairs were studied and analyzed. According to the wear experimental results, the addition of a small amount of palm biodiesel to petroleum diesel can bring about a considerable reduction in the wear and friction under boundary lubrication. Results show that friction and wear increase with increasing temperature.

  7. The effect of sterilization on silk fibroin biomaterial properties.

    Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; DesRochers, Teresa M; Burke, Kelly A; Kaplan, David L


    The effects of common sterilization techniques on the physical and biological properties of lyophilized silk fibroin sponges are described. Sterile silk fibroin sponges were cast using a pre-sterilized silk fibroin solution under aseptic conditions or post-sterilized via autoclaving, γ radiation, dry heat, exposure to ethylene oxide, or hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. Low average molecular weight and low concentration silk fibroin solutions could be sterilized via autoclaving or filtration without significant loses of protein. However, autoclaving reduced the molecular weight distribution of the silk fibroin protein solution, and silk fibroin sponges cast from autoclaved silk fibroin were significantly stiffer compared to sponges cast from unsterilized or filtered silk fibroin. When silk fibroin sponges were sterilized post-casting, autoclaving increased scaffold stiffness, while decreasing scaffold degradation rate in vitro. In contrast, γ irradiation accelerated scaffold degradation rate. Exposure to ethylene oxide significantly decreased cell proliferation rate on silk fibroin sponges, which was rescued by leaching ethylene oxide into PBS prior to cell seeding.

  8. Metallicity Effects on Dust Properties in Starbursting Galaxies

    Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Smith, J -D T; Werner, M W; Moustakas, J; Willmer, C N A; Vanzi, L


    We present infrared observations of 66 starburst galaxies over a wide range of oxygen abundances, to measure how metallicity affects their dust properties. The data include imaging and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope, supplemented by groundbased near-infrared imaging. We confirm a strong correlation of aromatic emission with metallicity, with a threshold at a metallicity [12+log(O/H)]~8. The large scatter in both the metallicity and radiation hardness dependence of this behavior implies that it is not due to a single effect, but to some combination. We show that the far-infrared color temperature of the large dust grains increases towards lower metallicity, peaking at a metallicity of 8 before turning over. We compute dust masses and compare them to HI masses from the literature to derive the gas to dust ratio, which increases by nearly 3 orders of magnitude between solar metallicity and a metallicity of 8, below which it flattens out. The abrupt change in aromatic emission at mid-infrared wavel...

  9. Effect of Reduction Atmosphere on Properties of High Chrome Bricks

    YIN Hongji; WANG Jinxiang; SHI Pengkun


    The high chrome bricks specimens were prepared by firing at 1 350,1 450 and 1 550 ℃ in carbon embedded condition and at 1 700 ℃ in air,respectively.Effects of firing atmospheres(carbon embedded and air)on bulk density,apparent porosity,cold crushing strength,and slag penetration resistance of high chrome bricks were researched in order to improve physical properties and corrosion resistance of high chrome bricks and to prolong the service life in slagging coal gasifier.The results show that with temperature rising,the apparent porosity of specimens decreases and the bulk density increases; the cold crushing strength of the specimens carbon embedded fired at 1 450 ℃ is the highest,reaching214 MPa ; carbon embedded condition is beneficial to reducing the sintering temperature and improving the microstructure; the specimens carbon embedded fired at1 450 ℃ perform better slag penetration resistance than the specimens fired at 1 700 ℃ in air.

  10. Effects of chronic kidney disease on blood cells membrane properties.

    Kaderjakova, Z; Lajdova, I; Horvathova, M; Morvova, M; Sikurova, L


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive loss of renal function associated among others with increased intracellular calcium concentration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of CKD on cell membrane properties such as human red blood cell Ca(2+) ATPase activity, lymphocyte plasma membrane P2X(7) receptor expression and function. This could help us in elucidating the origin of increased calcium concentration in blood cells. We found out Ca(2+) ATPase activity is decreased in early stage CKD patients resulting in altered calcium removal from cytoplasm. By means of flow cytometry we assessed that P2X(7) receptor expression on lymphocyte membrane is 1.5 fold increased for CKD patients. Moreover, we detected an increased uptake of ethidium bromide through this receptor in CKD at basal conditions. It means CKD lymphocyte membranes contain more receptors which are more permeable thus allowing increased calcium influx from extracellular milieu. Finally, we can state alterations in blood cell membranes are closely linked to CKD and may be responsible for intracellular calcium accumulation.

  11. Effect of Graphene Oxide on the Properties of Porous Silicon

    Olenych, Igor B.; Aksimentyeva, Olena I.; Monastyrskii, Liubomyr S.; Horbenko, Yulia Yu.; Partyka, Maryan V.; Luchechko, Andriy P.; Yarytska, Lidia I.


    We studied an effect of the graphene oxide (GO) layer on the optical and electrical properties of porous silicon (PS) in hybrid PS-GO structure created by electrochemical etching of silicon wafer and deposition of GO from water dispersion on PS. With the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic-force microscopy (AFM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, it was established that GO formed a thin film on the PS surface and is partly embedded in the pores of PS. A comparative analysis of the FTIR spectra for the PS and PS-GO structures confirms the passivation of the PS surface by the GO film. This film has a sufficient transparency for excitation and emission of photoluminescence (PL). Moreover, GO modifies PL spectrum of PS, shifting the PL maximum by 25 nm towards lower energies. GO deposition on the surface of the porous silicon leads to the change in the electrical parameters of PS in AC and DC modes. By means of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) and impedance spectroscopy, it is shown that the impact of GO on electrical characteristics of PS manifests in reduced capacitance and lower internal resistance of hybrid structures.

  12. Meteorological and Aerosol effects on Marine Cloud Microphysical Properties

    Sanchez, K. J.; Russell, L. M.; Modini, R. L.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Roberts, G.; Hawkins, L. N.; Schroder, J. C.; Wang, Z.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.; Lin, J.; Nenes, A.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.; Noone, K.; Jonsson, H.; Albrecht, B. A.; Desiree, T. S.; Macdonald, A. M.; Seinfeld, J.; Zhao, R.


    Both meteorology and microphysics affect cloud formation and consequently their droplet distributions and shortwave reflectance. The Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (EPEACE) and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets (SOLEDAD) studies provide detailed measurements in 6 case studies of both cloud thermodynamic properties and initial particle number distribution and composition, as well as the resulting cloud drop distribution and composition. This study uses simulations of a detailed chemical and microphysical aerosol-cloud parcel (ACP) model with explicit kinetic drop activation to reproduce the observed cloud droplet distribution and composition. Four of the cases examined had a sub-adiabatic lapse rate, which was shown to have fewer droplets due to decreased maximum supersaturation, lower LWC and higher cloud base height, consistent with previous findings. These detailed case studies provided measured thermodynamics and microphysics that constrained the simulated droplet size distribution sufficiently to match the droplet number within 6% and the size within 19% for 4 of the 6 cases, demonstrating "closure" or consistency of the measured composition with the measured CCN spectra and the inferred and modeled supersaturation. The contribution of organic components to droplet formation shows small effects on the droplet number and size in the 4 marine cases that had background aerosol conditions with varying amounts of coastal, ship or other non-biogenic sources. In contrast, the organic fraction and hygroscopicity increased the droplet number and size in the cases with generated smoke and cargo ship plumes that were freshly emitted and not yet internally mixed with the background particles. The simulation results show organic hygroscopicity causes small effects on cloud reflectivity (smoke plume which increased absolute cloud reflectivity fraction by 0.02 and 0.20 respectively. In addition, the ACP model

  13. Effect of a booster vaccination against influenza and equine herpes virus on cardio-respiratory adjustments to strenuous exercise and training in thoroughbred horses.

    Art, T; Lekeux, P


    This study was conducted in order to assess whether exercise- and training-induced cardio-respiratory adjustments are modified during the 10-day period which follows a booster vaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and equine herpesvirus-1 (Equiffa). Nine healthy vaccinated thoroughbred horses were used. Six were revaccinated and three were kept as control. All the horses completed a standardised exercise test (SET) that was repeated 4 times, i.e. 10 (SET1) and 2 (SET2) days before revaccination, and 2 (SET3) and 10 (SET4) days after revaccination. During the whole experimental period the horses were trained 6 days per week according to an interval training schedule. Respiratory airflow, tidal volume, respiratory rate and expired minute volume (VE) were measured using a face mask and 2 ultra-sonic pneumotachographs. The oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained on a breath-by-breath basis, using a mass spectrometer. Heart rate (HR) was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analysed for biochemical determinations. Blood was also sampled before and 21 days after the booster vaccination for circulating antibody titration. The peak VO2, VCO2, ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) and oxygen pulse (VO2/HR) were significantly improved by the 3-week training period. The other cardio-respiratory parameters as well as most of the blood parameters remained unchanged throughout the 4 SETs. The revaccination did not impair any of the parameters measured before, during, or after the SETs. All revaccinated horses showed a rise in antibodies against influenza virus type A1 and A2 and EVH-1 compared to the control horses. It was concluded that, in our horses, revaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and EVH-1 did not impair their cardiorespiratory and metabolic adjustments to strenuous exercise and intense training, and that

  14. Effect of pentosans on gluten formation and properties.

    Wang, M.


    Keywords: pentosans, gluten yield, gluten properties, glutenin macropolymerThe gluten protein polymeric network plays a pivotal role in determining the end-use quality of wheat in many food products. The properties of this polymeric network are strongly affected by wheat flour comp

  15. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties

    Henkelman, Sandra; Lagerberg, Johan W. M.; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem


    BACKGROUND: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored

  16. Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide


    ARL-TR-7318 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties...Laboratory Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide by Amol B Rahane and Vijay Kumar Dr...SUBTITLE Effect of Carbon Doping on the Electronic Structure and Elastic Properties of Boron Suboxide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. Effect Analysis of Flood Pattern Optimization and Adjustment in Pingbei Oilfield%坪北油田注水系统优化调整效果分析



    坪北油田注水系统存在注水能力不足,污水处理不达标,水源分布不合理等问题。为解决这些问题,坪北油田对其注水系统进行了优化调整,主要措施为:新建、改造注水站,提高注水能力;优化污水处理工艺,提高注水水质;优化系统运行,提高注水系统效率;优化注水管网系统,合理调配水资源;更换注水管线,降低安全风险。%In order to solve the problems of poor water -injection capacity ,substandard sewage treatment and unrea‐sonable water source distribution in flood pattern in Pingbei Oilfield ,optimization and adjustment has been done . Major measures include constructing or renewing water -injection plants to improve waterflooding capacity ,optimi‐zing sewage treatment process to enhance water quality ,improving system operation to make flood pattern more effi‐cient ,perfecting pipe network system to rationally distribute water source and replacing water -injection line to low‐er safety risk .

  18. The multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution and its application in forensic genetics to adjust for subpopulation effects using the θ-correction.

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Morling, Niels


    In this paper, we discuss the construction of a multivariate generalisation of the Dirichlet-multinomial distribution. An example from forensic genetics in the statistical analysis of DNA mixtures motivates the study of this multivariate extension. In forensic genetics, adjustment of the match probabilities due to remote ancestry in the population is often done using the so-called θ-correction. This correction increases the probability of observing multiple copies of rare alleles in a subpopulation and thereby reduces the weight of the evidence for rare genotypes. A recent publication by Cowell et al. (2015) showed elegantly how to use Bayesian networks for efficient computations of likelihood ratios in a forensic genetic context. However, their underlying population genetic model assumed independence of alleles, which is not realistic in real populations. We demonstrate how the so-called θ-correction can be incorporated in Bayesian networks to make efficient computations by modifying the Markov structure of Cowell et al. (2015). By numerical examples, we show how the θ-correction incorporated in the multivariate Dirichlet-multinomial distribution affects the weight of evidence.

  19. Effectiveness of the self-adjusting file versus ProTaper systems to remove the smear layer in artificially induced internal root resorption cavities

    Senem Yigit Özer


    Full Text Available Aim: Smear layer removal from artificially prepared internal root resorption (IRR cavities using the self-adjusting file (SAF system with activated continuous irrigation or the ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland with conventional syringe/needle irrigation was compared. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight maxillary central incisors were selected, decoronated and 20 of them were randomizedly splited along the coronal plane into labial and lingual sections, and artificial IRR cavities were prepared in both walls. Tooth segments were rejoined and teeth were divided into two groups. Each group (n = 10 was prepared using the SAF or ProTaper system with 12-mL 5.25% NaOCl and 12-mL 17% EDTA. Root canals were prepared in six intact positive control teeth using the SAF or ProTaper system with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. As negative controls, two intact teeth were prepared using NaOCl only. Roots were than split longitudinally from the rejoined segments and samples were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy using a five-point scoring system. Results: Most SAF (87% and ProTaper (83% samples (P > 0.05, had scores of 1 and 2 indicating clean canal walls for the IRR cavities. Conclusions: SAF with activated continuous irrigation and ProTaper with conventional syringe/needle irrigation both successfully removed the smear layer from artificially prepared IRR cavities

  20. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    Eva M. Romera


    Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  1. 财政收入缓增背景下政府投资扩张与结构优化调整研究%The Effect of Government Investment Expansion and Structure Adjustment on Economy:A CGE Analysis

    叶文奇; 王韬; 林聪


    2012年全国财政收入增幅回落,政府收入增长放缓。在此背景下,本文构建了一个中国CGE模型,考察了政府投资扩张与结构优化调整对经济的影响。研究发现:政府投资扩张在短期内能有效刺激经济,但长期效果较差,还会损害居民福利;相反,政府投资的结构性优化调整则能在长期内有效促进经济增长和改善居民福利;无论是投资扩张还是结构性优化调整,用于农林牧渔业、公共管理和社会组织、教育的投资均为最优,而房地产业和废品废料业的投资效果最差。因此,若只是简单地扩大政府公共投资水平,原有的结构性失衡问题将会更加严重,如何科学合理地调整投资规模,并进行结构优化才是关键。%Against the background of lower growth rate of national fiscal revenue in 2012, we construct a CGE model of China to investigate the effects of government investment expansion and structure adjustment on macro -economy and resident welfare.The results indicate that expansionary government investment has a positive effect on macro -economy in the short term, but the effects are rather bad in the long run , even impairing resident welfare .On the contrary , structure adjustment of the government investment has a long-term positive effect on economy and resident welfare;either with government investment expansion or structure adjustment , investment in agriculture , public management , social organization , and education produces the best result while investment in real estate , scrap and waste industry generates the lowest return .Therefore , the original structural imbalance will be more serious if we simply expand the public investment .The key to the problem is scientific and rational adjustment of the scale of investment and optimization of the investment structure .

  2. Interracial Social Comfort and Its Relationship to Adjustment to College

    McDonald, Scott D.; Vrana, Scott R.


    The present study examined the effects of interracial social comfort on college adjustment for 45 Black and 82 White students at a predominantly-White university. Black students reporting more comfort with Whites, regardless of level of comfort with Blacks, experienced better college adjustment. Furthermore, more social comfort with Blacks…

  3. Facilitating Postdivorce Adjustment among Women: A Communication Skills Training Approach.

    Thiessen, Jake D.; And Others


    Examined the effects of communication skills training on adjustment to divorce and separation among women. Results indicated that the experimental group significantly increased in overall divorce adjustment and in empathy skills. No significant differences were found in perceived social support or self-disclosure skill. (Author)

  4. Individual and Marital Adjustment in Spouse Pairs Subsequent to Mastectomy.

    Carter, Ross E.; Carter, Charlene A.


    Explored effects of mastectomy for breast cancer on individual and marital adjustment among 20 spouse pairs in which wife had single mastectomy. Results indicated that both husbands and wives had adapted to mastectomy and were functioning well as individuals. Measures of marital adjustment, however, indicated serious problems with extremes of…

  5. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch


    The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized) were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dext...

  6. Cardiac MRI in children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis and effects of different manual adjustments

    Rompel, O.; Janka, R.; May, M.S.; Lell, M.M.; Uder, M.; Hammon, M. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gloeckler, M.; Dittrich, S. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology; Cesnjevar, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery


    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3.1y, 4-17y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95 %) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 39.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 16.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25.5 ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 28.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  7. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa


    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  8. Why pinning by surface irregularities can explain the peak effect in transport properties and neutron diffraction results in NbSe2 and Bi-2212 crystals?

    Charles Simon; Alain Pautrat; Christophe Goupil; Joseph Scola; Patrice Mathieu; Annie Brûlet; Antoine Ruyter; M J Higgins; Shobo Bhattacharya; D Plessis


    The existence of a peak effect in transport properties (a maximum of the critical current as function of magnetic field) is a well-known but still intriguing feature of Type II superconductors such as NbSe2 and Bi-2212. Using a model of pinning by surface irregularities in anisotropic superconductors, we have developed a calculation of the critical current which allows estimating quantitatively the critical current in both the high critical current phase and the low critical current phase. The only adjustable parameter of this model is the angle of the vortices at the surface. The agreement between the measurements and the model is really very impressive. In this framework, the anomalous dynamical properties close to the peak effect is due to coexistence of two different vortex states with different critical currents. Recent neutron diffraction data in NbSe2 crystals in the presence of transport current support this point of view.

  9. Multiple point scattering to determine the effective wavenumber and effective material properties of an inhomogeneous slab

    Parnell, William J.; Abrahams, I. David


    In this article we attempt to clarify various notions regarding multiple point scattering. We consider several predictions for the effective material properties of an inhomogeneous slab region which can be derived from classical multiple scattering theories. In particular we are interested in the point scattering limit when wavelengths λ0 ≫ l ∼ a where l is the characteristic length-scale of the distance between inclusions and a is the characteristic length-scale of inclusions. In this limit we are able to derive effective properties which are physically valid for any volume fraction φ, except in the sound-soft scatterer case where there is a condition on the size of φ. We shall confine attention to random distributions of inclusions and employ the Quasi-Crystalline Approximation to yield results. In particular we discuss the different scenarios of acoustics and antiplane elasticity and stress the reciprocity between these two problems which means that they can be solved simultaneously. We make various statements regarding the efficacy of the various multiple scattering theories in the prediction of effective material properties in the quasi-static limit.

  10. Effects of copolymer component on the properties of phosphorylcholine micelles

    Wu Z


    Full Text Available Zhengzhong Wu,1 Mengtan Cai,1 Jun Cao,2 Jiaxing Zhang,1 Xianglin Luo1,3 1College of Polymer Science and Engineering, 2National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, 3State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Zwitterionic polymers have unique features, such as good compatibility, and show promise in the application of drug delivery. In this study, the zwitterionic copolymers, poly(ε-caprolactone-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine with disulfide (PCL-ss-PMPC or poly(ε-caprolactone-b-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine or without disulfide (PCL-PMPC and with different block lengths in PCL-ss-PMPC, were designed. The designed copolymers were obtained by a combination of ring-opening polymerization and atom transferring radical polymerization. The crystallization properties of these polymers were investigated. The micelles were prepared based on the obtained copolymers with zwitterionic phosphorylcholine as the hydrophilic shell and PCL as the hydrophobic core. The size distributions of the blank micelles and the doxorubicin (DOX-loaded micelles were uniform, and the micelle diameters were <100 nm. In vitro drug release and intracellular drug release results showed that DOX-loaded PCL-ss-PMPC micelles could release drugs faster responding to the reduction condition and the intracellular microenvironment in contrast to PCL-PMPC micelles. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the designed copolymers possessed low cell toxicity, and the inhibiting effect of DOX-loaded phosphorylcholine micelles to tumor cells was related to the components of these copolymers. These results reveal that the reduction-responsive phosphorylcholine micelles with a suitable ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic units can serve as promising drug carriers. Keywords: zwitterionic, reduction-sensitive, disulfide, phosphorylcholine

  11. Effect of Gadolinium Substitution on Dielectric Properties of Bismuth Ferrite


    Multiferroic Bi1-xGdxFeO3(x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction was carried out to characterize the crystal structure and to detect any possible impurities existing in these ceramics. Frequency dependence of dielectric properties of Bi1-xGdxFeO3 samples at room temperature was measured in a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz using an HP4294A precision impedance analyzer. For all the samples studied, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increasing frequency in the range between 100 Hz and 1 MHz, as can be expected from a typical orientational dielectric relaxation process. There is no indication of any dips over the whole frequency range studied, which is in direct contrast with that reported previously. It is found that both dielectric constant and dielectric loss are strongly dependent on the Gd3+ content. The effect of introducing Gd3+ is to increase the dielectric constant and to decrease the dielectric loss for slightly doped sample Bi0.95Gd0.05FeO3: the dielectric constant of the sample at 1 kHz reaches 600, six times bigger than that for pure BiFeO3. Complicated dielectric behaviors are observed at higher doping levels. Furthermore, the substitution of rare earth Gd for Bi helps to eliminate the impurity phase in BiFeO3 ceramics. There is strong evidence that both lattice constants a and c of the unit cell become smaller as the Gd3+ content is increased. The dielectric constant and loss and their frequency responses can be varied dramatically by substitution of Gd.

  12. 可调压分流管置入治疗脑积水疗效评价%Evaluation of Curative Effect of Adjustable Shunt Tube Implantation in the Treatment of Hydrocephalus



    Objective To investigate the hydrocephalus with pressure adjustable shunt in the treatment of clinical effect. Methods 40 cases patients with hydrocephalus were selected, both the Department of neurosurgery in our hospital in 2013 April to 2015 April were randomly divided into the ifxed pressure, and the shunt tube implantation in the treatment (control group, n=20) and pressure adjustable shunt implantation treatment (observation group, n=20) effect comparison. Results In the observation group, the excellent and good rate was 95%,higher than 70% in the control group (P < 0.05) and complications in the observation groupthan in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The application of Department of Neurosurgery, adjustable pressure valve system, reduce the adverse event rate, to avoid the second operation.%目的 探讨脑积水采用可调压分流管置入治疗临床效果.方法 本次选取脑积水患者40例,均为我院神经外科2013年4月~2015年4月收治,随机分组,就固定压力分流管置入治疗(对照组,n=20)与可调压分流管置入治疗(观察组,n=20)效果展开对比.结果观察组优良率为95%,高于对照组70%(P<0.05),观察组并发症低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 神经外科可调压阀门系统的应用,降低了不良事件率,避免了再次手术.

  13. 收入税与社会保障对收入再分配的调节效应%The Effect of Income Tax and Social Security Adjusting Income Redistribution



    The national income redistribution has contributed to narrowing the social members’income gap af-ter the initial distribution came into being,and promoting the fair and reasonable income distribution.By using the relevant data,the paper analyzed the influence of personal income tax,social security expenditure and income on in-come distribution in China since 2000.The author found that the effect of income tax adjusting on income distribu-tion was weak,although the income tax was progressive obviously for different income levels.The strength of social security adjusting on income redistribution was far greater than the income tax,but the effect of adjusting was also limited.The paper analyzed the reasons for these problems,and put forward relevant policy suggestions.%国民收入再分配有助于缩小居民在初次分配后形成的收入差距,促进收入分配的公平与合理。利用相关数据分析2000年以来个人收入税、社会保障支出与收入对居民收入分配的影响,研究发现,收入税虽然对于不同收入等级具有明显的累进性,但对收入差距的调节效果较弱,社会保障对再分配的力度远大于收入税,但其调节效果也十分有限。通过分析这些问题形成的系列原因,可提出相应政策建议。

  14. Effects of Rare Earths on Properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni Base Brazing Filler Alloys

    Ma Tianjun; Kang Hui; Wu Yongqin; Qu Ping


    The effects of the addition of rare earths on the properties of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni base brazing filler alloys and the mechanical microstructure and properties were studied for the brazed-joints in the vacuum brazing of TC4 by comparing synthetical properties of two kinds of filler metals.The results indicate that the filler metals added with rare earths have lower melting point, better wettability and higher mechanical properties in the brazing joints.

  15. Assessing the effect of vegetation in the estimation of soil properties with field VNIR radiometry

    Melendez-Pastor, I.; Córdoba-Sola, P.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.; Gómez, I.; Koch, M.


    Spectroradiometric soil surveys (field radiometry) are a valuable technique for soil classification and properties estimation. Field radiometry combines -in a relatively easy-to-use procedure- a fast, accurate and non-destructive sampling method. A wide range of soil properties have been quantitatively estimated with field or laboratory radiometry. In addition, field radiometry is a basic stage in remote sensing studies. It allows the up-scaling process of soil, vegetation or water parameters from the ground level to the airborne or spaceborne sensors level. Field radiometry plays a crucial role in training and validation stages of quantitative remote sensing. A complex problem in remote sensing appears when several components are mixed within a pixel and the resulting pixel's spectrum is a combination of the individual components. This work assess the effect of vegetation in soil properties estimation with linear regression models. Field spectra were taken from soil-vegetation mixtures under natural illumination with a portable spectroradiometer in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Soil and vegetation samples for each radiometric sampling point were taken and analyzed in laboratory. Soil moisture content and soil organic carbon measured by the LOI (Loss-On-Ignition) method (Konen et al. 2002) were used in this approach. A derivative analysis of field spectra was used to determine the position and magnitude of absorption bands according to the method employed by Melendez-Pastor et al. (2008). Pearson correlations between soil parameters and each spectral band were computed and correlograms for the first and second derivate were obtained. Maximum (approximates to +1) and minimum (approximates to -1) Pearson correlations were used to normalize correlograms between 0 to 1. High relatively correlated bands (with values ranging from 0 to 0.1 or from 0-9 to 1 for the normalized correlograms) were identified and used as explicative variables in the

  16. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Parental Social Support on Social Adjustment of Juvenile Delinquents:The Direct Effect or the Stress-buffer Effect?%情绪智力和父母社会支持对犯罪青少年社会适应的影响:直接效应还是缓冲效应?

    金灿灿; 邹泓; 侯珂


    Previous research suggested that social adjustment had a close relationship with emotional intelligence and parental social support of adolescents;however,the situation of social adjustment,emotional intelligence and parental social support of delinquent juveniles and their relationships weren't clear.At the same time,previous research suggested there were the "direct effect" and the "stress-buffer" hypotheses of parental social support on social adjustment;nevertheless,the effect of social support on social adjustment of delinquent juveniles hasn't been well-confirmed.According to the above two points,we hypothesized that there were obvious differences of emotional intelligence,parental social support and social adjustment between juvenile delinquents and ordinary juveniles;we also hypothesized that there were both the direct effect and the stress-buffer effect of parental social support on social adjustment for delinquent juveniles. To test these hypotheses,questionnaires about the situation of social adjustment,emotional intelligence and parental social support were administered to 499 juvenile delinquents and 504 ordinary juveniles from Shanghai and Kunming.Firstly,we used analysis of variance to examine the differences of social adjustment,emotional intelligence and parental social support between juvenile delinquents and ordinary adolescents;Secondly,we used SEM to examine the effect of the prediction of emotional intelligence on social adjustment of juvenile delinquents to test the direct effect partially;Finally,SEM were used to examine the moderation of parental social support on the prediction of emotional intelligence on social adjustment of delinquent juveniles to test the stress-buffer effect and to test the direct effect partially. The findings suggested that(1) the scores of emotional intelligence,parental social support and social adjustment of ordinary adolescents were higher than those of juvenile delinquents;(2) In the

  17. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.


    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  18. Effect of Adjustable Acid Medium on the Appearance and Particles Size of Pendimethalin Microcapsules%调酸介质对二甲戊灵微胶囊囊形及粒径的影响

    罗湘仁; 徐妍; 冯建国; 马超; 严寒; 吴学民


    [目的]优选出原位聚合法制备二甲戊灵微胶囊的较佳调酸介质,为二甲戊灵的微胶囊化提供一定的理论指导.[方法]以脲醛树脂为壁材采用原位聚合法制备了二甲戊灵微胶囊,研究了不同调酸介质对二甲戊灵微胶囊囊形及粒径的影响.[结果]5%盐酸溶液作为调酸介质形成的微胶囊囊形粗糙,产生粘连,粒径分布较宽;5%硝酸铵溶液、5%硫酸氢铵溶液作为调酸介质形成的微胶囊囊形松散,容易破裂,产生粘连,粒径分布较窄;5%氯化铵溶液作为调酸介质形的微胶囊囊形光滑致密且坚固,粒径分布较窄.[结论]调酸介质对原位聚合法制备的微胶囊囊形及粒径影响很大,选择合适的调酸介质能获得囊形致密、粒径分布窄的微胶囊.%[Aims] In this paper we optimized the adjustable acid medium for microcapsules of pendimethalin by an in-situ condensation polymerization reaction in order to provide some theoretical guidance for pendimethalin microencapsulation. [Methods] Microcapsules of pendimethalin with a urea-formaldehyde resin wall were prepared by an in-situ condensation polymerization reaction, and the effect of different adjustable acid mediums on the appearance and particles size distribution of the microcapsules were investigated. [Results] When using 5% hydrogen chloride solution as adjustable acid medium, microcapsules could be formed with rough surface and wide-range particle size distribution. When using 5% ammonium nitrate solution or 5% ammonium bisulfate solution as adjustable acid medium, microcapsules which were easy to fall into fracture and conglutination could be formed with narrow-range size distribution, meanwhile, the surface of microcapsules were uncontinuous. When using 5% ammonia chloride solution as adjustable acid medium, microcapsules could be obtained with smooth and compact surface, and the particle size of microcapsules were uniform. [Conclusions] Adjustable acid

  19. Tax Adjusted for Imported Equipment


    @@ Ministry of Finance, Central Administration of Customs, and State Administration of Taxation of P.R. of China jointly issued a "Notice on the Lists Related to the Interim Provisions on the Adjustment of Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment" (the Notice) on April 13rd to adjust the list of equipment catalog and merchandise attached to the "Interim Provisions on the Import Tax Policy on Major Technical Equipment", as well as the preferential scope and extent of the import tax on a number of major technical equipment.

  20. Orthodontic post-adjustment pain control with acupuncture

    Daniela de Cassia Faglioni Boleta-Ceranto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of systemic acupuncture therapy on the pain caused after orthodontic adjustments. METHODS: An initial sample of 30 orthodontic patients with fixed appliances monthly adjusted was selected; however, only 11 participants completed the study. For this reason, final sample comprised these patients' data only. Initially, average pain levels were assessed at different periods by means of an analogue visual scale (VAS for three months without acupuncture. In the following three months, the volunteers were submitted to systemic acupuncture sessions on Hegu (LI4 and Jiache (St6 points,before orthodontic adjustments were carried out. RESULTS: Results revealed statistically significant reduction in pain level indexes both for men (P = 0.030 and women (P = 0.028 when acupuncture therapy was performed prior to orthodontic adjustment. Patients did not present any side effects. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture is a safe and effective method in reducing orthodontic post-adjustment pain.

  1. Aerosol properties and associated radiative effects over Cairo (Egypt)

    El-Metwally, M.; Alfaro, S. C.; Wahab, M. M. Abdel; Favez, O.; Mohamed, Z.; Chatenet, B.


    Cairo is one of the largest megacities in the World and the particle load of its atmosphere is known to be particularly important. In this work we aim at assessing the temporal variability of the aerosol's characteristics and the magnitude of its impacts on the transfer of solar radiation. For this we use the level 2 quality assured products obtained by inversion of the instantaneous AERONET sunphotometer measurements performed in Cairo during the Cairo Aerosol CHaracterization Experiment (CACHE), which lasted from the end of October 2004 to the end of March 2006. The analysis of the temporal variation of the aerosol's optical depth (AOD) and spectral dependence suggests that the aerosol is generally a mixture of at least 3 main components differing in composition and size. This is confirmed by the detailed analysis of the monthly-averaged size distributions and associated optical properties (single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter). The components of the aerosol are found to be 1) a highly absorbing background aerosol produced by daily activities (traffic, industry), 2) an additional, 'pollution' component produced by the burning of agricultural wastes in the Nile delta, and 3) a coarse desert dust component. In July, an enhancement of the accumulation mode is observed due to the atmospheric stability favoring its building up and possibly to secondary aerosols being produced by active photochemistry. More generally, the time variability of the aerosol's characteristics is due to the combined effects of meteorological factors and seasonal production processes. Because of the large values of the AOD achieved during the desert dust and biomass burning episodes, the instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing (RF) at both the top (TOA) and bottom (BOA) of the atmosphere is maximal during these events. For instance, during the desert dust storm of April 8, 2005 RF BOA, RF TOA, and the corresponding atmospheric heating rate peaked at - 161.7 W/m 2, - 65.8 W/m 2

  2. Adjusting to change: linking family structure transitions with parenting and boys' adjustment.

    Martinez, Charles R; Forgatch, Marion S


    This study examined links between family structure transitions and children's academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers and their sons in Grades 1-3. Multiple methods and agents were used in assessing family process variables and child outcomes. Findings suggest that greater accumulations of family transitions were associated with poorer academic functioning, greater acting-out behavior, and worse emotional adjustment for boys. However, in all three cases, these relationships were mediated by parenting practices: Parental academic skill encouragement mediated the relationship between transitions and academic functioning, and a factor of more general effective parenting practices mediated the relationships between transitions and acting out and emotional adjustment.

  3. Physical properties of the Saturn's rings with the opposition effect.

    Deau, E.


    We use the Cassini/ISS images from the early prime mission to build lit phase curves data from 0.01 degrees to 155 degrees at a solar elevation of 23-20 degrees. All the main rings exhibit on their phase curves a prominent surge at small phase angles. We use various opposition effect models to explain the opposition surge of the rings, including the coherent backscattering, the shadow hiding and a combination of the two (Kawata & Irvine 1974 In: Exploration of the planetary system Book p441; Shkuratov et al. 1999, Icarus, 141, p132; Poulet et al. 2002 Icarus, 158, p224 ; Hapke et al. 2002 Icarus, 157, p523). Our results show that either the coherent backscattering alone or a combination of the shadow hiding and the coherent backscattering can explain the observations providing physical properties (albedo, filling factor, grain size) consistent with previous other studies. However, they disagree with the most recent work of Degiorgio et al. 2011 (EPSC-DPS Abstract #732). We think that their attempt to use the shadow hiding alone lead to unrealistic values of the filling factor of the ring particles layer. For example they found 10^-3 in one of the thickest regions of the C ring (a plateau at R=88439km with an optical depth tau=0.22). We totally disagree with their conclusions stating that these values are consistent for the C ring plateaux and did not found any references that are consistent with theirs, as they claimed. We believe that their unrealistic values originated from the assumptions of the models they used (Kawata & Irvine and Hapke), which are basically an uniform size distribution. Any model using an uniform size distribution force the medium to be very diluted to reproduce the opposition surge. Our modeling that uses a power law size distribution provides realistic values. All these results have been already published previously ( and are summarized in a forthcoming manuscript submitted to publication so

  4. Effective modification of particle surface properties using ultrasonic water mist

    Genina, Natalja; Räikkönen, Heikki; Heinämäki, Jyrki


    The goal of the present study was to design a new technique to modify particle surface properties and, through that, to improve flowability of poorly flowing drug thiamine hydrochloride and pharmaceutical sugar lactose monohydrate of two different grades. The powdered particles were supplied...... properties. It was found that rapid exposition of pharmaceutical materials by water mist resulted in the improvement of powder technical properties. The evident changes in flowability of coarser lactose were obviously due to smoothing of particle surface and decreasing in the level of fines with very slight...... increment in particle size. The changes in thiamine powder flow were mainly due to narrowing in particle size distribution where the tendency for better flow of finer lactose was related to surface and size modifications. The aqueous mist application did not cause any alteration of the crystal structures...

  5. Effect of composition on physical properties of food powders

    Szulc, Karolina; Lenart, Andrzej


    The paper presents an influence of raw material composition and technological process applied on selected physical properties of food powders. Powdered multi-component nutrients were subjected to the process of mixing, agglomeration, coating, and drying. Wetting liquids ie water and a 15% water lactose solution, were used in agglomeration and coating. The analyzed food powders were characterized by differentiated physical properties, including especially: particle size, bulk density, wettability, and dispersibility. The raw material composition of the studied nutrients exerted a statistically significant influence on their physical properties. Agglomeration as well as coating of food powders caused a significant increase in particle size, decreased bulk density, increased apparent density and porosity, and deterioration in flowability in comparison with non-agglomerated nutrients.

  6. Effect of transition metal dopants on mechanical properties and biocompatibility of zirconia ceramics.

    Oh, Gye-Jeong; Park, Sang-Won; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Son, Hye-Ju; Koh, Jeong-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Ku; Lee, Doh-Jae; Lee, Kwang-Min; Fisher, John G


    In this study, the effect of transition metal dopants, originally added as colouring agents, on the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of sintered zirconia was investigated. This study confirmed that transition metal dopants could have a slight detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of zirconia. The addition of metal dopants did not affect the adhesion and proliferation of gingival fibroblasts.

  7. Effects of dietary fibers with different physiochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs

    Souza Da Silva, C.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.


    he satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to ass

  8. An adjustable contracted CI method

    王育彬; 甘正汀; 苏克和; 文振翼


    A new contracted CI scheme——adjustable contracted CI scheme——is presented and programed. The efficiency of this scheme is tested by some example calculations. The result shows that the application of the new scheme is flexible and the correlation energy loss is lower than that of the original externally contracted CI method.

  9. Adjustment or updating of models

    D J Ewins


    In this paper, first a review of the terminology used in the model adjustment or updating is presented. This is followed by an outline of the major updating algorithms cuurently available, together with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the current state-of-the-art of this important application and part of optimum design technology.

  10. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, cross-linking and barrier properties of starch barriers containing citric acid.

    Olsson, Erik; Menzel, Carolin; Johansson, Caisa; Andersson, Roger; Koch, Kristine; Järnström, Lars


    Citric acid cross-linking of starch for e.g. food packaging applications has been intensely studied during the last decade as a method of producing water-insensitive renewable barrier coatings. We managed to improve a starch formulation containing citric acid as cross-linking agent for industrial paper coating applications by adjusting the pH of the starch solution. The described starch formulations exhibited both cross-linking of starch by citric acid as well as satisfactory barrier properties, e.g. fairly low OTR values at 50% RH that are comparable with EVOH. Furthermore, it has been shown that barrier properties of coated papers with different solution pH were correlated to molecular changes in starch showing both hydrolysis and cross-linking of starch molecules in the presence of citric acid. Hydrolysis was shown to be almost completely hindered at solution pH≥4 at curing temperatures≤105 °C and at pH≥5 at curing temperatures≤150 °C, whereas cross-linking still occurred to some extent at pH≤6.5 and drying temperatures as low as 70 °C. Coated papers showed a minimum in water vapor transmission rate at pH 4 of the starch coating solution, corresponding to the point where hydrolysis was effectively hindered but where a significant degree of cross-linking still occurred.

  11. Effect of duty cycle on the electrical and optical properties of VOx film deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering

    Dong, Xiang; Wu, Zhiming; Xu, Xiangdong; Wei, Xiongbang; Jiang, Yadong


    Vanadium oxide (VOx) films were deposited onto well cleaned glass substrates by bipolar pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Dependence of the structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the films on the pulsed power's duty cycle has been investigated. The results from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis show that there was no remarkable change in the amorphous structure in the films with duty cycle can be observed. But chemical analysis of the surface evaluated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates that decrease the duty cycle favors to enhance the oxidation of the vanadium. The optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry and temperature dependent resistivity measurements, respectively. The evolution of the transmittance, optical band gap, optical constants, resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the deposited films with duty cycle was analyzed and discussed. In comparison with conventional DC sputtering, under the same discharge atmosphere and power level, these parameters of the VOx films can be modified over a broad range by duty cycle. Therefore adjusting the duty cycle during deposition, which is an effective way to control and optimize the performances of the VOx film for various optoelectronic devices applications.


    Xiao-hu Qiang; Li-bang Feng; Yan-ping Wang; Shun-hua Wang


    Waterborne polyurethane composites containing silica nanoparticles are synthesized successfully via the in situ polymerization.The structure,thermal stability,surface hardness,tensile strength,UV-Vis absorbance,dynamic mechanical properties and chemicals resistance of the resulting composites are investigated by FTIR,TEM,TGA,UV-Vis,DMA and chemicals soakage measurements.Results show that polyurethane molecules and silica nanoparticles are linked with covalent bonds.As a result,physical properties of polyurethane composites,such as thermal stability,surface hardness,weather and chemicals resistance are all improved when an appropriate concentration of silica nanoparticles are incorporated.

  13. The Effect Of Pozzolan Surface Properties On Physical And Mechanical Properties Of Cement Mortars



    This study aims to determine mutual influence on blast furnace slag, fly ash and cement with added trass with Portland cement. For this purpose, physical, chemical, XRD, FT-IR, zeta (electrokinetic) potential and standard cement tests were applied to materials. In this study, it is shown that physical characteristics of pozzolan mostly depend on their molecular structures. Properties of molecular structure, in addition to its chrystal and amorphous character, change based on the existence of ...

  14. Disposition and adjustment to chronic pain.

    Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen; Esteve, Rosa


    Several empirical studies have shown that personal characteristics act as differential variables, which determine how pain is experienced and how the chronic pain patient adjusts to pain. The main aim of the present research is to review the relationships between some dispositional characteristics and pain adjustment. Taking into account the empirical literature, 6 personality traits that are relevant to the pain experience have been selected: neuroticism, anxiety sensitivity, and experiential avoidance as risk factors that increase the probability of patients experiencing a disability; and extraversion, optimism, and resilience as personal resources that increase their capacity to manage pain effectively. The results suggest that it would be useful to include an assessment of normal personality structure during the multi-dimensional evaluation of a person with chronic pain. Understanding these individual personality characteristics will aid in designing pain intervention programs and help predict possible treatment outcomes.

  15. Couples' adjustment to breast disease during the first year following diagnosis.

    Northouse, L; Templin, T; Mood, D


    The objectives were to determine (a) the extent to which psychosocial, demographic, and medical variables predict women's and husbands' adjustment to breast disease during the first year following diagnosis; (b) the degree of autocorrelation among and intercorrelation between partners' adjustment scores; (c) the extent to which baseline levels of adjustment predict adjustment 1 year later; and (d) the extent to which one partner's adjustment affects the other partner's adjustment. A stress-coping framework guided this study. The sample consisted of 131 couples, 58 couples received a cancer diagnosis and 73 received a benign diagnosis. Couples were interviewed at 1 week, 2 months, and 1 year postdiagnosis. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The strongest predictors of adjustment for women were severity of the illness and hopelessness and for husbands, their own baseline level of adjustment. Husbands' and wives' levels of adjustment at 1 year had a significant direct effect on each other's adjustment.

  16. Radiative Effect of Clouds on Tropospheric Chemistry: Sensitivity to Cloud Vertical Distributions and Optical Properties

    Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Pierce, R. B.; Considine, D. B.; Logan, J. A.; Duncan, B. N.; Norris, P.; Platnick, S. E.; Chen, G.; Yantosca, R. M.; Evans, M. J.


    Representation of clouds in global models poses a significant challenge since most cloud processes occur on sub-grid scales and must be parameterized. Uncertainties in cloud distributions and optical properties are therefore a limiting factor in model assessments of the radiative effect of clouds on global tropospheric chemistry. We present an analysis of the sensitivity of the radiative effect of clouds to cloud vertical distributions and optical properties with the use of the GEOS-CHEM global 3-D chemistry transport model coupled with the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. GEOS-CHEM was driven with a series of meteorological archives (GEOS1-STRAT, GEOS-3, and GEOS-4) generated by the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system (GEOS DAS) at the NASA global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), which have significantly different cloud optical depths and vertical distributions. The column cloud optical depths in GEOS-3 generally agree with the satellite retrieval products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) within ±10%, while those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-4 are too low by factors of about 5 and 2, respectively. With respect to vertical distribution, clouds in GEOS-4 are optically much thinner in the tropical upper troposphere compared to those in GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3. Assuming linear scaling of cloud optical depth with cloud fraction in a grid-box, our model calculations indicate that the changes in global mean hydroxyl radical (OH) due to the radiative effect of clouds in June are about -1% (GEOS1-STRAT), 1% (GEOS-3), and 14% (GEOS-4), respectively. The effects on global mean OH are similar for GEOS1-STRAT and GEOS-3 due to similar vertical distributions of clouds, even though the column cloud optical depths in the two archives differ by a factor of about 5. Clouds in GEOS-4 have a much larger impact on global mean OH because more solar radiation is


    Danielly Vieira de Lucena


    Full Text Available The influence of carboxymethylcellulose, CMC (filtrate reducer and xanthan gum (viscosifier in plastic and apparent viscosity at yield strength and the volume of filtrate in the composition of drilling fluids based on water was investigated based on statistical design. Five formulations consist of a range of concentrations used commercially were utilized in the design of the experiment. The formulations were prepared in accordance with company standards Petrobras. Regression models were calculated and correlated with the properties of the compositions. The relevance and validation of the models were confirmed by statistical analysis. The design can be applied to statistically optimize the mud properties considering the addition of CMC and xanthan gum, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of additives on the properties of polymer-based fluid system water. From the study it was observed that the values of the rheological properties vary with the concentration of additives, increasing with increasing concentration of the same, and that the concentration of the additives caused a decline of parameter values filtration.

  18. Effect of polylactic acid crystallinity on its electret properties

    Guzhova, A. A.; Galikhanov, M. F.; Kuznetsova, N. V.; Petrov, V. A.; Khairullin, R. Z.


    Electret properties of the polylactic acid films with different degree of crystallinity due to different cooling and annealing conditions were studied. Samples with the higher degree of crystallinity showed more stable electret characteristics resulting from amorphous-crystalline interface boundary growth and capturing bigger amount of injected charge carriers by volume energy traps.

  19. Symmetry energy effects in the neutron star crust properties

    Porebska, J


    Different shapes of the nuclear symmetry energy leads to a different crust-core transition point in the neutron star. The basic properties of a crust, like thickness, mass and moment of inertia were investigated for various forms of the symmetry energy.

  20. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    Liu, L.; Liere, R. van


    Path steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to fixed path propertie